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Polish Protestants and Their Connections with England and Holland in the 17th and 18th Centuries Author(s):

Nicholas Hans Reviewed work(s): Source: The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 37, No. 88 (Dec., 1958), pp. 196-220 Published by: the Modern Humanities Research Association and University College London, School of Slavonic and East European Studies Stable URL: . Accessed: 22/09/2012 14:56
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Polish their Connections and the

Protestants with Holland and 18th in











has contributed

to Polish


more than the Catholic much development to In the 16th and 17th centuries admit. ready and vigorous had numerous communities, and close connections with other academies

Polish historians are the Polish Protestants and famous schools Protestant countries,

and Holland. In England with England they influenced especially for religious the movement of education and the reform directly of influence and the the tolerance. Komensky (Comenius) Although of the well known, the influence Moravian Brothers is comparatively studied and specially mention them. torians of English education hardly,ever had four independent The origin of the Polish reformation Socinians has not The Lutheran Church came Polish so far been the his?


and from adjacent Germany directly settlers in Polish towns. Comparatively was propagated by German the Lutheran few Polish squires and townsmen community joined a branch Lutheran of the German which all the time remained in both its schools and churches. Much Church and used German form of more influential the native Poles was the Calvinist among reformation which was accepted by many Polish squires and mem? In contrast to Lutheranism, which was bers of the titled aristocracy. of the Polish to the estates limited to urban centres, Calvinism spread nobles and influenced the rural communities language the anti-trinitarian of the Polish reformation, of Italian was known under and origin of Calvinist as well. population and their schools. Polish The was the third form

was mainly movement, names as Arian, many exiles Italian this move? started Socinian or unitarian. Although by com? from the Polish Calvinist ment was mostly fed by secessions was rationalist unitarianism to features its munities. adopted Owing almost exclusively very Although by Polish squires and intellectuals. ' the normal growth of the Soci? influential in Poland for a century, and total pro? nian heresy' was cut short by Catholic persecution in 1660. As a of their churches and schools hibition and closure matter Catholics of fact both Lutheran in the Seym for and this Calvinist legal voted with the deputies murder of one of the most

POLISH enlightened Socinians England






communities ceased to be and Holland

of Europe. Exiled and dispersed, and an organised community

the Polish influenced

members. The fourth through individual ' a branch of the grew as Polska Jednota', group of Polish protestants Brothers of the 'Unitas Fratrum'. Moravian churches of Poland understood The four Protestant the clearly only the dominant in order to withstand Roman of federation necessity Orthodox leaders under? Even the West Russian Church. Catholic The famous action by all 'dissidents'. of combined stood the necessity the governor of West Russian leader Prince Constantine Ostrozhsky, of Orthodox a conference convened and Kiev province, theologians of religious and political divines to discuss the possibility Calvinist efforts the theologians In spite of all Ostrozhsky's could agreement. that the of Rome one was the on Pope only point, namely agree to be insufficient for This common com? Antichrist. ground proved which was concluded did bined action and the political agreement of the four Protestant was a federation not last long. More promising communities. mutual and recognition the dominance of tolerance, against increasing neither the Lutherans not the Cal? Church. the Catholic However, heretics' as brother Christians and vinists could accept the 'Socinian in them. Thus the the Catholics persecuting possibility they joined communities: was limited to three Protestant of federation Lutherans, The federation was concluded and Moravians. at the Calvinists The Socinians and common action synod Torun in 1570 and was confirmed at Sandomierz of dissenters at of German of Polish Lutherans in 1595. The majority origin, with the German Lutheran connected Church, were unwilling federation Calvinists and soon dissociated and the Czecho-Polish them? Unitas advocated

closely of the Protestant members selves from the native Polish Fratrum.

and the Calvinists remained to form a Thus only the Moravians of Kozminek, the stable union. As early as 1555, at the conference and the Calvinists of Great Poland of Little Brothers Moravian of tra? Poland united into a single church with mutual recognition This union was preserved the differences. ditional throughout 17th the frontiers of Poland it transcended and was and 18th centuries; in Lithuania and Prussia. Yet for historical by Calvinists the to we have of mainly Moravian distinguish community purposes of Lithuania and deal with them separ? Poland from the Calvinists recognised ately.





I The Unitas Fratrum and their Academy at Leszna1 Lissa) lies

The Polish town Leszna (Latin, Lesna, German and English on the Polish-German frontier twelve miles from Wroclaw and ten miles from Poznan. Thus it was suitably and Germany, situated

(Breslau) for religious

who were persecuted Moravia, refugees from Bohemia, Catholic and after Years the War. The first by powers during Thirty of Czech in 1552 after arrived at Leszna Protestant group refugees their first expulsion from the empire in 1547. They were remnants of the Hussite movement the last Italian of the who, through bishop claimed the uninterrupted for their succession Waldenses, apostolic As the of owners mem? the Counts were Leszna, Leszczinski, bishops. bers of the Moravian all afforded facilities to the Brotherhood, they exiled Czechs. Three years after their arrival the exiles started a school at Leszna in 1555 for their own members. The Polish and citizens of Leszna began to join the Unitas Frat? German-speaking rum and send their boys to the school. In 1579 Count Rafael IV Leszczynski grandson endowed Rafael V the school transformed and set it on a firm foundation. His the school into a gymnasium the payment of salaries of all the

in 1624 and undertook (academy) from 1626. teachers At only

that time the school became international as not definitely the Czechs but the Poles and the Germans took an active Even the first rectors of the 16th part in its further development. confirm its trilingual character. David Knobloch was a century from German Andreas came Fabricius from Hungary, Silesia, Musonius was a Leszna-born a German, Johann Georg Manlig and Michael a Pole from Leszna. AschenAschenborner German, borner was the last rector of the unreformed school. In 1624 Rafael a team of from teachers all three nations to the Leszczynski appointed new academy. A Pole, Jan Rybinski, educated at Frankfort-on-Oder rector with Michael Henrici, a Silesian German, a David Leszna as coadjutor, and Ursinus, German, a Czech from educated at as cantor. Jan Dekan, Prague, Leyden, In 1628 a second numerous Brothers group of Moravian arrived, led by two bishops, Erastus and Cyril, and Jan Amos Komenwas at once acknowledged as Although sky (Comenius). Komensky he an educational was rector of the in leader, appointed academy only in 1629 a well-known Andreas W^gerski, historian, 1636. Meanwhile 1 Lukaszewicz, Von der Kirchender Bohmischen Briiderin ehemaligen J. Grosspolen, Gratz, a Szkol w Koronie etc., 2 vols, Poznan, 1849-51; F. J. Zoubek, 1877; J. Lukaszewicz, History 2 vols. Prague, 1902; Polski SlovnikBiograficzny ZivotJ. A. Komenskeho, (P.S.B), vols A to F. and Leyden, as co-rector, became







in place of Rybinski, and after his retirement in 1633 was appointed Henrici acted as rector for three years. Michael the co-rector the academy the most With the arrival of Komensky experienced New teachers of its history. were appointed: brilliant period Jan Martin Crusius, Jan Cyrill Adam Hartman, Stadius, Jan Laubman, Nikolas Gertich that in 1637 nis and Martin Gertich. reported vice-rector teachers were: rector Komensky, Dekan, J. pro-rector co-rector Sebastian Lutheran), Macer, (a German and Andreas Crusius, Cyrill, Laubman, Ursinus, Benjamin Thus the staff amounted to ten teachers. and Jan Borowski. Fabricius to his pedagogical the school according The famous rector organised ideas and wrote Leges illustres Gymnasii in 1635. The school was later into five classes, with a class into four classes (years), divided Daniel Wankius co-rector each rooms, year. There were two large lecture the three classes. Besides two mother Latin, accommodating tongues of the pupils, Czech, Polish and German, were taught and used as media teacher for each Greek, the three modern natural and mathematics, history, geography, languages, history, was Mathematics taught by J. Dekan, Polish by A. Uffan. theology. and the well-known were not neglected, Sciences physician John and part-time teacher of sciences. acted as school physician Johnstone and his academy of Leszna spread all over The fame of Komensky of to many foreign Komensky Europe and resulted in the pilgrimages lands including Many teachers from Leszna took part in these England. was absent from Leszna during and his travels. 1641-8 Komensky of instruction. The subjects included Latin, Macer acted as rector. After his return Komen? Sebastian but he again left Leszna rector in 1648-50, was officially to college at Saros Patak in Transylvania. organise a pansophic During acted as rector, and when his absence a Czech exile, Georg Vechner, in 1653 he relegated all administration returned of the Komensky co-rector sky to his friend Adam Samuel Hartman, all his time devoting academy In 1630 Wigand Funck and publishing. to writing from (Funcius) the chief printer and became in Leszna of Unitas settled Silesia the chief supervisor was appointed of printing. Fratrum. Komensky books Funck some works of 147 published including 1630-55 During war with the In Sweden, 1656 during Komensky. accompanied by and Protestants, the Polish Catholics Leszna was civil war between as a centre of Protestantism and Komensky burnt down by Catholics where he died in 1670. for the last time for Holland left his academy ended with its destruc? Thus the first period of the Leszna academy of the school needed tion and closure for six years. The rebuilding to Brothers Moravian and the and Holland. funds appealed England





II Links The first connection who came Johnstone with England2

of Leszna with England can be traced to John to Britain in 1624. His father, Simon Johnstone in Scotland, to Sambter in Poland where of Craigieborn emigrated In in after from Leszna, was born 1603. 1624 John, John graduating and matriculated at St Andrews to the country of his ancestors In 1629 he was at Cambridge to study medicine. studying botany and at Leyden In 1630 he matriculated and graduated medicine. M.D. to Cambridge in 1633 and was incorporated in 1632. He returned two students from Leszna with M.D. in 1634. This time he brought and Wladyslaw him. They were Count Boguslaw DoroLeszczynski of Lithuania, son of the Marshal both pupils of Komenhostajski, went at the Leszna in 1630 and went to academy sky. They graduated where they were supervised He took them to by Johnstone. Leyden, and from the Bodleian we know that Library Register Cambridge studied at Oxford in 1633. Johnstone returned to Leszna B. Leszczynski to his former pupil Count B. Leszczyn? in 1636 and acted as physician at the academy. In 1640 he married ski and as assistant of Komensky who acted as rector in 1650-3. Johnstone a cousin of Georg Vechner, at Leyden in 1640, but remained in was offered a chair of medicine in died was he and buried where at Leszna. Poland, 1675 Johnstone scientist and enjoyed a European was a distinguished reputation. from Leszna, Daniel Erastus and Samuel In 1632 two students were sent by the Moravian Brothers to study at and both Erastus received his B.A. in matriculated, They Cambridge. of the name while Benedictus received his B.A. Brestus), 1636 (under The next in 1634 and an M.A. in 1638 (under the name of Bennet). of Leszna who student came to was England Wictoryn distinguished his medical studies in Frankfort-on-Oder, After completing Bythner. in which he he came to Oxford in 1635 to study oriental languages, Benedictus (Blajei), the medical after abandoning He went to profession. specialised in and in lecturer in Hebrew 1643 1651 was appointed Cambridge the other Leszna We must also mention students who at Oxford. after in some years at Leyden studied England: Jan Lactus, spending in 1636, and the two Vechner came to England brothers, (1632-5), came to in 1640. Georg was later acting David and Georg, England rector his Thus of Leszna. was well academy when known arrived in London in 1641 Komensky in the English centres of learning. Leszna students with him as assistants.

two brought Komensky 2 R. F. Young, Comeniusin England, London, 1932; Dictionaryof National Biography; Stanislas Kot, Anglo-Polonica, P.S.B. (see 1); Alumni Oxonienses;Alumni Cantabrigienses; vol. 20, Nauka Polska, 1935.

POLISH Petrus Figulus, educated






a Czech, came to Leszna with Komensky in 1628 and In 1636 he continued his was by him in his academy. and accompanied in 1641. Later, in abroad education Komensky and played an important role daughter 1649, ne married Komensky's His son Daniel Brotherhood. Ernst (grandson of in the Moravian as Jablonski. of is better known The second assistant Komensky) in England was Olyrius, who afterwards went to Leyden Komensky at Leszna, in 1643. Another Michael Arnold, pupil of Komensky in 1641, and Leyden in 1643 and came to Cam? went to Franeker bridge in 1644 to study medicine. He went back to Franeker, was ap? of medicine was rector of and Franeker University professor pointed four times, in 1653, 1661, 1671 and 1676. The story of Komensky's and his intimate connections with the circles of visit to England Samuel Hartlib and Robert Boyle here. and need not be repeated III The In New Foundation of the Leszna Academy3 (invisible college) are well known


of Leszna, acting rector of the destroyed academy and of one its the Hartman, teachers, Jan Cyrill, came to to of collect funds for brother-in-law Komensky, England Hartman of the academy. sent a memorandum to the reconstruction in 1657 on the persecution of Canterbury of the Unitas the archbiship 1657 the Samuel in Fratrum memorandum In 1659 they presented Poland. them and the latter authorised Cromwell with an ordinance by a of

the country. With the 2 May 1659 to raise subscriptions throughout the two Moravians collected help of English and Dutch sympathisers marks (about ?6,000) and Holland in England and thus 120,000 It was opened in 1662 and Hart? were able to rebuild the academy. which he held till 1673, when his rectorship, man resumed he He was succeeded Marcin Arnold, who by his son-in-law resigned. influence was rector until his death in 1685. Then through Hartman's Ernst Figulus, Daniel of Komensky, was appointed. the grandson the name of Jablonski, after the native vil? Daniel Ernst assumed we shall use lage of his father. As he is known in history as Jablonski, was born in 1661 and hardly knew his grand? this name. Jablonski father. he grew up under Komensky's shadow and influence. and activities were ideas transmitted to him by his Komensky's at the academy of Leszna. father and his teachers After graduat? Samuel Gulich, Jakob Makowski and ing he and his three classmates. and matriculated Simon Arnold, went to Frankfort-on-Oder there in and remained there till 1680. At that 1677 f?r tne study of theology, 1H. Dalton, Daniel ErnstJablonski,Berlin, 1903; see also 2. But

202 time Pawel two brothers





the Unitas Fratrum in 1683 and dis? it in all dioceses. tributed At the same time Jan Petroselin collected their funds for the Polish Protestants. connections the two Through in receiving a grant of ?200 from Charles II for brothers succeeded of two Leszna students at Oxford. the education Hartman selected and who had returned to Leszna from Gulich, Jablonski just in 1680 and resided Frankfort-on-Oder. at They came to Oxford Christ Church for three years as Royal stipendiaries. But they did not as they did not sign the articles of the Church of officially matriculate England. The residence Jablonski London far at Oxford more than and frequent the studies visits at to London influenced

permanently shire. His brother, retired rector in 1679 and was visited England their influence in 1680. Through on its own cost a memorandum

had strong connections in England. to Oxford, graduated M.A. in 1658 and settled as Anglican in England rector at Shillingford, Berk? went of Leszna, Adam Samuel Hartman, a degree of D.D. at Oxford awarded the Church of England at published


Frankfort-on-Oder. In he was in touch with puritan societies which included and Presbyterians, and which endeavoured both Anglicans to raise of the people lowered by the Stuart reaction. the moral standard He contact with the bishop of London, came into intimate Compton, later bishop of St Asaph, William and the German Beveridge, Horneck. These connections and his personal clergyman, friendship of Christ Church, with the chaplain Oxford, John Ernest Grabe (a Prussian by birth, D.D. of Oxford in 1706), helped Jablonski later in his appeals to England. After their return of to the Leszna in co-rector academy 1683, Samuel in 1683 and Gulich Jablonski was ap? rector

pointed in 1686.

The Leszna was slowly from its academy recovering closure in 1656. In 1663 there were only 13 pupils which grew to the first year of Jablonski's 71 in 1675 and 126 in 1723. During the three classes had rectorship upper only 21 pupils, but half of them were sons of the Polish nobility and one was the future King Stanislaw the father-in-law of Louis XV. Jablonski followed Leszczynski,

invited parents to take an active interest in the tradition, Komensky's amateur school and promoted theatricals. He married Barbara Ferof and Scottish alive in his origin, gushill, kept pro-British sympathies In he Leszna for left where he was Berlin, 1691 family. appointed Yet he kept close contacts court preacher. with the Moravian as their bishop and played an important was consecrated Brothers, for Protestant role in the movement unity. But that activity belongs to the 18th century. Jablonski's successor was Jan Serenius Chodoeducated at Frankfort-on-Order, son of J. S. Chodowiecki wiecki,







at Franeker in 1635 and was a student of senior, who matriculated Makowski. Rector Chodowiecki translated some of Komensky's Jan works into German and Bishop Edward Fowler's The Principles and Practices of the Latitudinarians into Latin. IV The Unitas Fratrum in the i8th Century4

was During the first half of the 18th century the Leszna academy under the constant threat of closure by the Catholic of government the pupil of Jablonski Poland. Count Stanislaw and later Leszczynski, to Catholicism and although was converted he con? king of Poland, tinued to protect and provide for his academy, he could not be so as his ancestors had been. the long favourably disposed During struggle of Charles XII of Sweden with Peter the Great, Leszna quite and the Protestant sided with King Stanislaw naturally Leszczynski Charles XII. Russian troops. in reconstructing It was burned down again in 1707, this time by the The rector, Samuel Arnold, son of Marcin, succeeded the academy but it was uphill work and the number of the Leszczynski family and the pupils were mostly Nevertheless Polish as the lan?

of pupils grew very slowly. The patronage and of many Polish nobles was withdrawn Leszna

of German merchants origin. even the annexation of survived of Leszna instruction guage by a became German and the Prussia, gymnasium academy only in the 19th century. at the Prussian court, could assert his now a preacher Jablonski, rulers for protection. influence and appeal to the Prussian He was of the old dream of Komensky active in the realisation and John in a religious federation. to unite all Protestants Dury in attempting were useful in this respect. He was with England at Oxford in 1706 and sent his son Pawel to study studied at Leyden and was in 1716. Later P. Jablonski in England In 1715 the Privy Council professor at Frankfort-on-Oder. appointed an order 'for the relief and for preserving the Episcopal issued in Great Poland and Polish Russia'. Churches Fratrum) (Unitas in 1709, when he visit to England That was the result of Jablonski's a meeting of the Privy Council under and attended met Marlborough his friend the arch? of Lord Sommers. the chairmanship Through of George I, Jablonski and with the approval bishop of Canterbury, His connections awarded the D.D. Brothers in all received the right to collect funds for the Moravian amounted to 237,000 The collection marks (about parts of England. the Polish and Hun? between which was divided equally ?12,000) of the Unitas Fratrum. garian communities 4 See 2 and also Deutsche Allgemeine 3, Biographie.

204 The Leszna




to England. In 1717 sent students Synod again of Unitas came to a minister the Fratrum, Sitowski, England Krystian came to study In 1718 Bogusaw funds. to collect Kopijewicki conditions for eight years. The financial in England and remained since the conversion more of were of the academy precarious Leszna to assume In the had the Stanislaw Synod 1717 Leszczynski. on condition that of salaries of four teachers of the academy payment lost interest in pay for the fifth. Leszczynski in 1738. to Prince Sulkowski and sold Leszna his Protestant heritage the Sulkowski proved to be a kind patron of the academy, Although the Polish nobles would old intimate stored. Protestants and the intimate with the Church of Jablonski a land to the of descendants the made England promised England Brothers to England of the Moravian exiles. The coming Moravian In 1722 a Czech Christian has an interesting history. carpenter, from Bohemia with a group of ten Moravians, David, emigrated and found asylum on the estate of Count Nikolas Ludovik Zinzendorff The relations precarious of the position Moravian bishop his settlement 'Herrnhut'. and named was Jablonski Saxony of Moravian Brothers and started a in the new community interested who joined with Zinzendorff, the community in correspondence Zinzendorff consecrated as In of the 1737 Jablonski 1729. bishop in friends in the 1720s and he had many was in England He came to England again and the English aristocracy. among in of Unitas Fratrum as an Parliament Act obtained 1749 recognising with the in Church church of England. an episcopalian community Zinzendorff sent a group of On the strength of this legal recognition for permanent to England Brothers settlement. Moravian Unitas. Zinzendorff of Polish connections with the Polish nobility could not be re?

who joined the Moravians in 1737 was One of the first Englishmen married was Zinzendorff in who Hutton, by 1740. At first James with John Wesley, who at that time considered Hutton was connected Unitas Fratrum of joining himself. But he disagreed the possibility and started his own methodist movement. Hutton Fratrum and became the Unitas the leader of the joined He was a very broad-minded man and an inti? English Moravians. Franklin and English deists and unitarians. mate friend of Benjamin their own academies founded Moravians The English where the were of the channel directly Komensky accepted through principles The English and Jablonski. Moravians sent their of Zinzendorff and established their communities to America missionaries not only North but in the Spanish-speaking South as in the English-speaking relations of the Unitas with England well. Thus the century-old with Zinzendorff officially resulted in an English-speaking branch of Komensky's church.







was closely connected with From 1716 to 1824 the Leszna academy came from Kaszkow in the family of Cassius. The family originally of the In the middle and their name was Kaszkowski. Pomerania 17th century a branch of the family settled in Leszna and assumed the and to Germany latinised name of Cassius. Another branch emigrated Christian was gradually Cassius, of the German branch, germanised. and in Paris he lived in the house in Paris and Leyden, was educated The first Cassius of the Leszna branch of Hugo Grotius in 1628-31. was David who was a teacher in 1660 in 1669. I know of of the academy at the Leszna academy twelve members of the family educated during with it. The first rector of this name was 150 years of their connection at Franeker in 1692, who on his return David Cassius, matriculated connected and was the academy co-rector appointed with He was a pupil of of Unitas Fratrum. and bishop in all his activities as a him with was associated later and Jablonski of Leszna the after the In Russians, by burning 1707, junior bishop. to collect funds, David Cassius was sent by the Unitas to Germany for the same purpose. He was and in 1714 he went to Holland his to Frankfort-onsent Polish and in rector 1716 pupils appointed became senior After his death the next rector was and England. Oder, Leyden senior Alexander David's Cassius, son of the Moravian brother. Jan at Frankfort-on-Oder and Leyden. Pawel, who was educated During of pupils in the of forty-eight his long rectorship years the number by his son grew to more than 200. He was succeeded academy at Frankfort-on-Oder who also was educated Theofil, on rector in 1788 and wrote textbooks He was appointed which used were in the and geography history, logics, antiquities, in favour of his form. In 1797 he resigned in manuscript academy cousin, Boguslaw David Cassius, who was pro-rector in 1797 and rector the use of He was the last Polish rector who defended in 1800-24. Christian and Leyden. as a medium Polish the Leszna academy gymnasia. V The The Polish Socinians5 of instruction. was germanised After his and became in 1824 resignation one of the German

within the Christian movement anti-trinitarian Churches, in history as the Arian heresy, was started by the Canon of Arius, in the 4th century and at one time had as many Alexandria, 6 E. M. Wilbur, A History of Unitarianism,Sodnianismand its Antecedents, Cambridge, Mass., 1946; E. M. Wilbur, Our UnitarianHeritage, Boston, 1925; S. Morawski, Arjanie Polscy, L'vov, 1905; St. Kot, Ideologia. . . Bract Polskich,zwanychArjanami,Warsaw, 1932; Geschichte Polens, Deutschlandsund H. Dalton, Johannes a Lasko, Beitrage zur Reformations etc., London, 1886; Englands,Gotha, 1881; H. Dalton, John a Lasko,his EarlierLife, Labours, P.S.B. (see 1) and DeutscheAllgemeine Biographic. known

206 adherents




as the orthodox trinitarian church which the accepted creed. Suppressed and persecuted the Roman Nicaean Church, by views became a secret creed of a few intellectuals, the anti-trinitarian in Spanish universities under Moslem kings when Moslem, especially and Christian mixed freely and shared the same Jewish professors After the reformation which 'deistic' split the unity of opinions. anti-trinitarian in the Western Christendom, opinions reappeared in a and with were denomination their organised separate open churches was and one Geneva and schools. of the first The famous Spanish physician, Miguel Servetus, anti-trinitarians and was burnt by Calvin in

for heresy. His follower, Cassiodorus de Reyna, fled to London a preacher to Spanish exiles. At the same time many Italian theologians adopted these heretical views and had to flee from to Switzerland, the inquisition and Poland. England Many of them and were members of the Strangers came to London Church at Austin Friars during the first period of the English reformation. The Church was a link between the English and continental Strangers became Protestants Poland. When Protestant of England, Church he invited the prayer Polish theologian, John A. Lasko (Jan Laski), to assist him in this work. Laski took an active part in Cranmer's reforms as a member of the of 1551, and when the archbishop commission had established a for continental church Protestants he appointed Laski as special of in Church Laski was not Strangers 1550. superintendent Although an anti-trinitarian he welcomed anti-trinitarian openly Spaniards, and others to his church. De Reyna was appointed Italians Spanish Giacomo and Laelius Socini were the Aconzio, preacher and Ochino, With the death of Edward VI in leaders of the Italian community. 1553 both Laski and Laelius Socini left for Poland. who was Peter Goniondz (Gonesius), the lectures of S. Chatillon and by (Castello) Curione at the University of Bale. As is well known the Italian who sympathised with Servetus, from Geneva Chatillon, escaped returned to Poland in 1555 and started to Bale. Goniondz pro? anti-trinitarian views among the Polish The Calvinists. pagating anti-trinitarians Italian Gentile and Laelius Biandrata, Alciati, all went to Poland Socini and furthered the movement. But the influence most important was exercised the of Laelius by nephew Faustus Socini?Faustus. after from the Socini, escaping Inquisi? was influenced tion settled of Florence, the scattered organised new denomination, in Poland near Cracow and permanently of Polish anti-trinitarians into a groups which became known as Socinians. The new The first Polish anti-trinitarian Archbishop book for the Cranmer formulated the catechism and the and incidentally connected the Church of England with

POLISH church the called

PROTESTANTS itself neither Arian



CONNECTIONS and officially Reformed

207 adopted Church'

nor Socinian or the 'Minor




the 'Major Reformed As the being Church'). Fratrum were of the Unitas (Moravian Brethren) also known as 'Polish Brothers' this has led to the confusion by many of the two communities. of individual members For in? historians in the stance Ch. G. Woide of the British Museum is wrongly identified a as when he was Moravian. National 'Socinian', Dictionary of Biography (the Calvinists Polish members of Poland, movement by the Polish Seym in 1573 as the law for about a century church and the protected In this the most growth important spread very rapidly. of Rakow. The township of Rakow, a part was played by the academy which lies between Cracow of the noble family Sieninski, property the recognised centre of the Socinians. In 1602 became and Warsaw, The Pax Dissidentium, enacted new the

Jan Sieninski and his son Jakub founded the famous school of Rakow. centre of learning known as It soon grew into a large academic and attracted Sarmaticae' 'Athenae pupils from all over Polandand from abroad. For instance two Frenchmen, Lithuania Cristophe studied at Rakow and matriculated and Pierre Statorius (Stoinski) in 1604. Even an Englishman, Thomas was a at Altdorf Segeth, at Altdorf in 1614 under the of Rakow and matriculated student The number of pupils soon increased to a thousand, name of Seghetus. to the Polish noble families, of whom about three hundred belonged and Calvinists. both Socinians Branickis, Tarlows, Leszczynskis, and other well-known Sieninskis Polish names can be Niezabitowskis, found The Socinians and the Moravians were and ideas were ac? Komensky's friendly pedagogical at Rakow. Moravian students attended the cepted wholeheartedly of Rakow and Socinian students attended Leszna. Komen? academy Socinians was often to himself by join their church. sky approached In 1640, when Rakow was closed, the leading Socinian writer and asked to his teacher Jan Schlichting personally Komensky accept on the whole son as a pupil at Leszna and handed to Komensky his works against the Trinity. and read his young accepted Komensky Schlichting father's works but did not join the Socinians. Whether he firmly be? lieved in the divinity of Jesus or did not wish to join an outlawed church with the Calvinists is uncertain, and to disrupt the working agreement influenced but he was undoubtedly by Schlichting's arguments. on the lines of Komensky's The Rakow academy ideas developed even before they were made known by publication. The Socinian of all true Christians views on the social equality led to the com? manual all of trade a aristo? by pulsory acquisition pupils, whether crats, merchants or craftsmen. Marcyn Ruar, a German Socinian, among the students relations between of Rakow. the

208 who



REVIEW of of

at Altdorf matriculated a wrote memorandum Rakow, Piotr who went

1611 and later became rector on education for the relatives

to complete his education. In Rzeczyski, that all young squires should study mathematics, it he recommended and law, Polish and general and geography, in? politics history and mathematics should in be studied Geometry cluding maps. to civil and military useful application sciences. was the author and poet Erasmus at the of Otwinowski age ninety. During the short the Rakow academy had a brilliant 1602-38, period of its existence, The second rector, Krzysztof team of rectors and teachers. Ostorod was a Socinian minister with another who, together (Osterodus), came to Leyden in 1598, had personal Socinian leader, Woidowski, and propagated contact with Arminius his views orally (Harmensch) converted and in writing. some students, They Leyden among them Ernest Soner, later rector of Altdorf. They were ordered to leave and their books were publicly Holland burnt; they then went to who died in 16io Rakow, another and Ostorod outstanding who was (Crellius), Poland to emigrated European was appointed rector of the academy. In 1616 Socinian was appointed Crell rector?Jan at Altdorf with Marcyn Ruar and together in 1612. His anti-trinitarian works acquired a The first rector of Rakow

to Leyden

were translated into English and read by many reputation, He intellectuals. his resigned post to his friend Marcyn Ruar English in 1621. Ruar was another German by birth, like Crell, who became Pole. He travelled a naturalised widely: in Paris he became a friend he met the English of Hugo Grotius, in England and latitudinarians, he had contacts in Holland have been mentioned cation writers and had Walenty Stoinski, Szmalc, Andreas with before. the Arminians. His views on edu? The teachers were also able views.

Jan Schlichting, his son Jan by birth), of Faustus three Wiszowaty (grandson Socini), two all not Liubienieckis, Stegmans?were teachers, outstanding only but of history, of theology and classical languages. mathematics, Rakow was the centre of Socinian learning and was well known for The printing activities. office was at work from 1575. its publishing and works of all the Soci? Here were printed the Rakow Catechism at Rakow, and thence nian leaders these publications penetrated into all Western in Latin) countries (being including England. the first Socinian MSS were already available in England Although at the end of the 16th century, a wider distribution of Socinian books In 1638 John Hales and later John took place in the 17th century. of Oxford, afterwards of Worcester, Prideaux read Crell's bishop books printed at Rakow in 1623. Polish Socinians, after the closure of Rakow and the dispersion of its teachers, started coming to England

progressive pedagogical Petrus Statorius (French

POLISH for the


AND views.


CONNECTIONS we deal with


their propagation we must finish the story of the Socinian contacts schools. English In 1638 the Polish Seym with the help of Calvinist and Lutheran the Socinian votes outlawed Church and ordered the closure of all its was shut at the peak of its churches and schools. The Rakow academy achievement and European the Russian (Ukrainian)


in Podolia However, reputation. among Orthodox the Socinian population, squire a secondary founded school in 1614 on his Jerzy Czaplic-Szpanowski and when Rakow was closed he invited its teachers estate of Kisielin, their work. Jan Schlichting, to Kisielin to continue LiubieKrzysztof and Krzysztof niecki Samuel Stoinski to Przypkowski migrated Kisielin and joined the local teachers Maciej Twardochleb and Jakub the Rakow thus continuing tradition. Yet the govern? Hryniewicz, closed this Podolian by the Catholic hierarchy, prompted in as well One not should that the Orthodox 1644. academy presume The troops of Bogdan Cossacks looked with favour on the Socinians. and looted burned down all Polish and churches Khmel'nitsky ment, Calvinist or Socinian. The higher Socinian Catholic, an for a time outside Poland, learning asylum just on the German side of the frontier at Luclawici, where the local landowners Blonski founded and Abraham an academy. Stanislaw Taszycki Jan the mathematician Adam Crell, Marcyn Ruar, Joachim Stegman, all from the Rakow academy, at continued Manlius, Frank, Wojciech The studies included Luclawici. theology, methaphysics, logic, estates, found physics and mathematics, works came besides to classical subjects, history and geography. The Socinian whether

manuscript, already in the 16th century; Budny were at the end of the 16th century. In 1618 a whole group also available Socinians came to London of well-known from Leyden. They in? Samuel cluded Sieninski, Sbignew Przypkowski, Krzysztof Przyp? kowski, Mikolai Jonasz Schlichting, Milanowski. Undoubtedly Krzysztof London and left traces of their visit. Lyszko, they had Jan some Morsztyn connections and in

in England, mostly the printed works of Simon

VI Socinians The first known in England6

was John Biddle, BA. Oxford English He was appointed headmaster of St Mary le 1634 and M.A. 1641. School (Gloucestershire) and apparently Crypt Grammar developed views independently In 1638 the Socinian Socinian through reading. 6 St. Kot, Anglo-Polonica, vol. 20; D.N.B.; M. Cranstone, John Locke,2 vols, London, 1957-






from Rakow was in Oxford for the propagation of Jan Cizchowski it is views and Socinian very likely that Biddle was influenced by Biddle confessed his errors publicly him. To escape imprisonment he was gaoled in 1647 and released in 1644 but nevertheless only He started the first in 1652 with the passing of the Act of Oblivion. in England and had contacts with the Polish Socinian congregation since he met Crell-Spinowski and corresponded with a Polish who was at educated Frank? Socinian, Feldbinger, Jeremiusz Biddle wrote a Socinian catechism fort and was rector of Wroclaw. into Latin by a member of his congregation, which was translated Socinian tracts by S. Przypkowski, Nathan Stukey, and he published others. Biddle was and and died in again imprisoned J. Stegman his were But views his friend 1662. Thomas in by propagated gaol Socinians, Firmin, Firmin behaviour In 1662 who by his prudent escaped persecution. in Tor the antiexiled collected churches, money, partly In 1681 he collected for of Poland'. the trinitarians ?680 persecuted The non-juring called Firmin 'a Polish Calvinists. Bishop Frampton a few lowsy sectaries to all Christendom besides in nonconformist A Brief History of Unitarians called In 1687 Firmin published Poland'. books. It appears that Firmin was also Socinians and other Socinian 'unitarians' term the which was later accepted in the first to use After the restoration of the Stuarts Fir? and Transylvania. England of latitudinarians at his house. Fowler, min used to hold gatherings later of Canter? of Worcester, later bishop Tillotson, archbishop and other unorthodox went regularly. Locke John and other Crell-Spinowski bury, In the attended these meetings, Anglicans From indirect evidence they met Polish Socinians. and there

son of Jan Crell, came to Crell-Spinowski, 1650s Krzysztof and due to his father's fame was accepted time first the for England He met Biddle and in English radical circles as one of their members. with Firmin. started his educa? formed a friendship Crell-Spinowski his teacher then followed Ruar to Danzig. tion at Rakow, Marcyn teacher at the academy of Luclawici and In 1646 he was appointed his education at Leyden with three in 1648 he completed together Polish Socinians: Alexander other well-known Maciej Przypkowski, famous Piarist the Stanislaw of and Jan Konarski Konarski) (uncle in to with went Crell. In who 1662 Crell England 1651 Arciszewski, in and secret Socinian circles at Oxford and came to England again, his views with success. He advised he the propagated Cambridge of Biddle and to abstain not to follow the example Socinians English In his opinion the latitudin? Socinian from forming congregations. Socinian would be to better views arian ideology leading propagated within the Church of England. In 1666 he officially by remaining but came back collect to to Mrs funds, went to Holland England.







and friend of Biddle, offered Crell suffi? mother of Nathan Stukey, cient money to educate his two sons, Samuel and Paul, at Cambridge. in England. Samuel a physician and practised Paul Crell became one of the most learned men in Europe of became Crell (Crellius) with Pierre Bay le and was a friend of his time; he collaborated and Shaftesbury, who shared his views whilst re? Newton, Locke, maining members of the Church a Socinian obviously published of Christianity, trini? as the orthodox it at once attacked such and was book, by his Socinianism, it was only in denied If Locke publicly tarians. himself Crell the advice of Crell-Spinowski. with accordance the to Socinian the name escape (Spinovius) Spinowski adopted where for a time he went to Luclawici fame of his father. Samuel and teacher. He made frequent visits to England, acted as preacher with Berlin and Russia. In 1725 he settled at Amsterdam Holland, under whose the Remonstrants professor, Philipp van (or Collegian ts) was an is he had studied earlier. As well known, Limborgh Limborgh, in 1747. Crell died in Amsterdam friend of Locke. Samuel intimate He had followed under an works of his father and had published his the example Mellierus?which was an assumed name?Lucas of England. was anonymously, Locke's Reasonableness

of Samuel Crellius. In London he knew Archbishop Tillotanagram as in of men. who Socinians son, publicly spoke high appreciation of Krzysztof was at educated The younger brother Crell, Jan, in 1657. He went to Leyden in 1653 and came to England Luclawici to be edu? He sent his son Daniel to Cambridge to study medicine. all three were not Socinians Crells with his two cousins cated (as to Locke by his cousin Samuel. Daniel was introduced matriculated). also came to England. Besides the Crell family other Polish Socinians His two classmates came to England. at In 1660 Andreas Wiszowaty and Krzysztof Alexander Arciszewski, Leyden, Czaplic-Szpanowski Sandius was at Oxford in also visited earlier. Christian England in 1630. was in England 1669. Adam Frank of Luclawici with the Polish Socinians their views As a result of these contacts were disseminated and embittered con? in England an quite widely, the Locke's started after of Reasonableness was troversy publication of in his heterodox was Christianity. prolific publications Especially an Anglican and successor of Newton William Whiston, as clergyman at Cambridge, who was expelled of mathematics from professor in his heretical The 1611 for Socinians were Cambridge opinions. and the the 'deists' 18th joined by controversy raged throughout In the orthodox Calvinists were more this intolerant century. polemic than Biddle the Anglicans. It was the puritan parliament Church which and it was the Scottish as late as 1797. In the 18th century, which burnt imprisoned a Scottish the English







advocated the themselves, Calvinists, minority being a persecuted of leaders their became and many 'uni? openly policy of toleration tarians'. The case of Joseph Priestley is well known. Here it should be of Polish Socinian in pro? academies that the practice mentioned and reasoned and tolerant studies was scientific argument moting adopted Academy academies by the dissenting was a famous example. of England, of which Warrington

VII The Lithuanian and Calvinists England7 with its growth Their Contacts

to two causes. First the ex? of Radziwill family joined princely it in all its and towns creed and estates. the Geneva promoted after 1615 the Scottish Calvinists, by James I, persecuted Secondly, in thousands and settled mostly in the two to Lithuania emigrated Lithuanian rich tremely owed Calvinism and influential near Kaunas Kiejdany family, the Lithuanian It was in these two towns that Sluck (Slutsk). the well-known founded Radziwill Calvinist at academies, Krzysztof at in 1626. His and Sluck son in Radziwill 1625 Janusz Kiejdany in 1650 and at Sluck in 1670, founded the printing office at Kiejdany all over Europe. books were distributed The from which Calvinist in these two centres of Calvinism settled and from Scottish refugees took an active part in their activities. The names of the very beginning towns of the Radziwill and the Belorussian Wat? Motteson, Paterson, Gordon, Middleton, Haliburton, Ramsay, in Hunter all the of Lithuanian Forbes, son, figure history Inglis, and a Scottish Calvinism. They kept in touch with their country, a fund at merchant established for Edinburgh University emigrant student from Lithuania. of a Calvinist One of them, the education received his B.D. at Edinburgh Ramsaeus Tomasz and (Ramsay), went where he studied medicine and gave 1678-82, Gabriel went ^fter Leyden Another, Bieniaszewski, private his and on return was in co-rector of to Edinburgh 1726 appointed two Polish-Lithuanian students were In awarded 1726 Kiejdany. at Edinburgh: and Chr. Henricus M.A. Jacobus Inglis degrees Later Inglis became rector of the Sluck academy. The two Karketell. to London lessons. academies older centres rectors at Kiejdany Polish foundations although they could not rival the and Rakow, grew into recognised had and scholars as of Calvinist learning many distinguished in the 17th century In Kiejdany we would and teachers. and Sluck, of Leszna in

7 J. Lukaszewicz, Geschichte derreformirten Kirchenin Lithauen,Leipzig, 1848; J. Lukaszewicz, Dzieje Kosciolow Wyznania elweckiegow dawnejMalej Polsce, Poznan, 1853; P.B.S.; Slovar';D.N.B.', St. Kot, Anglo-Polonica. RusskiyBiograficheskiy

POLISH mention Pawel


AND educated




in 1611; and Franeker; Leyden (1636) Jan mathematician M.D. Leyden and Adam Freytag, 1632, astronomer, in the 18th the two rector Stark, writer; Frydrich 1643-8; century at Frankfort-oneducated of Jan Borzymowski?Daniel, grandsons Demitrowicz, educated Borzymowski, at Sluck, Oder rector in 1700-1, and his brother Samuel, in 1695, rector of Kiejdany at Leyden in 1697, rector in in 1703; Jan Bythner, educated in educated at Kazimir Claudius Canot, Kazarin, Leyden 1717; 1720; and rector in 1732; and Samuel at Frankfort-on-Oder educated in 1728 and rector in 1733. His son at Marburg educated Bernacki,

at Frankfort-on-Oder

in 1770, was coat Frankfort-on-Oder educated Bernacki, Boguslaw mention till 1784. In Sluck we should equally rector at Kiejdany at Kiejdany under his father, educated junior, Jan Borzymowski educated rector of Sluck in 1670; his son Jan Borzymowski (tertius) in 1695 and Leyden in 1698, rector in 1700; at Frankfort-on-Oder in educated at Leyden in 1683 and co-rector Gabriel Dyjakiewicz, 1686; Sluck in 1694, co-rector at Leyden of his son, educated Martin, in 1719; Jacob Inglis, M.A. of in 1713 and rector of Kiejdany educated at Marburg, like Bernacki, 1726; and Michael Edinburgh his father the Samuel, in academies rector of as a and met both with was

in 1776. Rejnold the inspector Adam, known for his and 1642, publications of Sluck students a group at Leyden He supervised teacher. In Paris he and visited Paris and London. in 1631-3 Altdorf of the Poland-Lithuania in After Grotius 1636. partition Hugo under Russia. continued academies were not only intimately linked Calvinists The Lithuanian also had connections

with England. Samuel Scotland; Boguslaw they under at F. Stark and as a was sent educated was Kiejdany Chylinski scholar to Franeker in 1654. He arrived in London in 1657 and went of the Bible into Lithuan? to Oxford where he started the translation and in two years ian. Oxford dons helped him with funds and printing, Fifteen Oxford professors signed his translation. completed Chylinski that Chylinski was' a learned and polite scholar5. In 1659 a certificate in English An account of the translation of the Bible published Chylinski the Anglican catechism into the Lithuanian tongue. He also translated The subsequent and psalms into Lithuanian. story of the Lithuanian was not approved Bible is very involved. Chylinski by the Synod of of Vil'na in 1660 the Calvinists sent Jan and when Lithuania, of Boguslaw to collect funds in Eng? treasurer Radziwill, Krainski, Lithuanian for the destroyed Calvinist land and Scotland churches, to supervise the publication Minwid of the they also sent Mikolaj Patent of 27 August Charles new Bible. II, by his Letters 1661, the Lithuanian for Calvinist Church. allowed subscriptions public Chylinski, however, was obliged to return to Lithuania to defend





his translation. The Kiejdany convention Jan Borzymowappointed of Chylinski. The ski and Skrodzki to revise the whole translation latter went back to England to the Privy Council. and appealed in the translation Meanwhile Krainski found mistakes (from the Calvinist of the of orthodox and view) Secretary point persuaded the Privy Council, The Privy Council be taken over Robert Sir Richard decided that to stop printing the Bible. Browne, the expenses and printing should

Calvinist and although authorities, by Lithuanian Walis translation it and defended John Boyle Chylinski's a commis? in MS only. The Lithuanian remained Synod appointed Samuel sion of Jan Borzymowski Stanislaw Monkiewicz, junior, and to make Lithuanian translation Samuel the new Bythner Lipski of the Oxford dons. independently of Lithuanian were not with Oxford Calvinists to the story of the Lithuanian LudBible. Princess Karolina wika Radziwill of Brandenburg) financed (married to the Markgraf the education of several Calvinists at Oxford. One of Lithuanian of the Samuel became rector them, Lutomirski, Academy Kiejdany relations limited in 1681 students and were senior not of the church in Lithuania. As Calvinists these in and are not included matriculated officially The Lithuanian continued to come to Oxford students registers. in the 18th century aca? but they went to the dissenting England The most notable and not to Oxford. case is that of Siesdemies came to a at Kiejdany, who, after graduating trzencewicz-Bogusz Later he to complete London his education. dissenting academy of Belorussia and role in Russia as archbishop played an important as the president obshchestvo). of the Free Economic Society {Volnoye ekonomicheskqye The

VIII The Russian Protestants in Belorussia8

half the population of the Grand of LithuaniaAbout Duchy some Orthodox Belorussians. Russia were Russian-speaking Although and their Lithuanian of the Orthodox neighbours gentry followed or Calvinist the mass of the Belo? either Catholic churches, joined Orthodox and were not touched russians remained by steadfastly of the re? forms Western enough Christianity. Strangely European ideas came to them not from the West, but from the East, forming of Russia. In 1551 the abbot (Igumen) from the depth of Muscovite ArPoland the Troitsko-Sergiyev Monastery (Lavra), Artemy (in of anti-trinitarian views. He was started the propagation temius), the clerical convention condemned of by (Sobor) 1553 for heresy and 8 P.S.B-1 Russkiy Biograficheskiy Slovar', article 'Feodosy (Kosoy)'; J. Lukaszewicz (see 7).







in a monastery near Moscow. imprisoned of a Moscow boyar, Feodosy (Theodosius), a monk and was consecrated (raskol'niki) in Moscow Feodosy, in 1554 and also imprisoned and a third monk Foma (Thomas)

of his followers, a serf fled to the Volga dissenters He was caught (chernets). in a monastery. Artemy,

to escape from managed arrived at Vitebsk and started fled to Lithuania. They prison the their views among population. Russian-speaking propagating and began destroying ikons a considerable They gathered following the Orthodox and other symbols of the Orthodox faith. Persecuted by and into the depth of and by fanatical mobs, they dispersed clergy married a soon had died who meanwhile Lithuania. Jewess, Feodosy, found asylum on the estate of Prince at the age of eighty. Artemy a There he established Slutski and Foma went to Polotsk. George congregation Ivan Grozny ordered their In 1563 minister of a unitarian church. and became all the Jews in a frozen river and took Polotsk, drowned the drowning of Foma as a traitor and a heretic. Nevertheless

the Lithuanian Cal? them and joined survived congregations vinists or the Socinians. from Poland. One into Lithuania Socinian views penetrated Radziinvited was of the Italian Biandrata, anti-trinitarians, by and had to be a Socinian will as a Calvinist, but soon proved of One the Calvinist the Calvinists. considerable success among a fervent and in all his Socinian became landowners, Jan Kiszka, Simon churches to Socinians. estates the Calvinist transferred a Socinian and a Calvinist of Klecko, also became minister Budny, office. was invited by Kiszka to Losiek, where Kiszka had a printing into Polish in Here at Losiek Budny translated the New Testament a Socinian Belorussian and it. Budny Being printed interpretation with the three Russian knew Russian was connected and evidently to the New Testa? monks as he mentioned them in his introduction in the history of the ment. So far as I know it is a unique instance Christian Eastern congregation. IX Polish Students 17TH The Protestant at and Foreign i8th Universities Centuries9 in the Church rationalists when (Great Western Russian rationalists sectarians) met (Socinians) to form a combined

of Leszna, academies Rakow, Kiejdany leading in some subjects, and Sluck were in fact secondary schools, although the kind notably theology, they rose above that level and imparted 9 Nederlandsch Leyden University, Album Studiosum;FrankfortBiografischWordenboek; on-Oder University, Aeltere UniversitiesMatrikeln;Altdorf University, Matrikelnder Universitat.

2l6 of education which




Nevertheless they either in resources

of the universities. the preserve was usually universities Protestant could not rival Western or in scholars. Their students, to complete their in Western had to go to the established seats of learning education, It has been previously mentioned that fourteen Polish Europe. Polish Students at Leyden University i 601-1800 _

ijth Century

Theology Law 1601-1610 1611-1620 1621-1630 1631-1640 1641-1650 1651-1660 1661-1670 1671-1680 1681-1690 1691-1700 Total 17th century I 3 7 20 io 2 4 2 2 11 16 3 3 2 3 5 52


Faculty whom Mathe- Philonot Germatics sophy known mans 12 26 12 49 52 19 5 1 7 1 2 14 19 119 19 14 2 2 4 7 8 4 6

Total 20 45 46 210 117 43 18 7 18 18

o x cc

4 9 20 3 1 2 4








18th Century Of whom Ger? mans

The? ology 1701-1710 1711-1720 1721-1730 1731-1740 1741-1750 1751-1760 1761-1770 1771-1780 1781-1790 1791-1800 Total 18th 118 19 12 12 15 12 13 14 16 8 14 2 Law

Medi? cine

Mathe? matics

Faculty not known

Total 16

1 3 5 1 6 1 2 5 4 3

13 22 13 28 20 26 io 18 2 168

5 8 2 7





POLISH students studied





217 hos?

The pitals and dissenting most of them much as number was probably dissenters, larger: and were not officially and it is very did not matriculate registered, than the Far more important difficult to ascertain their names. British universities were the two Calvinist centres: Leyden in Holland in Prussia. The number of Polish students in and Frankfort-on-Oder these two universities Students amounted to 1,484 in 1601-1800. University 1601-1800 Ger? mans 16 6 11 9 11 40 23 18 8 9 151

ten at London ten at Cambridge, Scottish universities. and five at academies,


at Frankfort-on-Oder Ger? mans 8 7 io 5 40 28 13 5 11 8

Poles 1601-1610 1611-1620 1621-1630 1631-1640 1641-1650 1651-1660 1661-1670 1671-1680 1681-1690 1691-1700 Total 17th" century The table 27 17 52 6 45 45 12 l9 24 27 274

Total 35 24 62 11 85 73 25 24 35 35 409 1701-1710 1711-1720 1721-1730 1731-1740 1741-1750 1751-1760 1761-1770 1771-1780 1781-1790 1791-1800 Total 18th century

Poles 24 13 25 13 17 23 13 23 io 53 214

Total 40 19 36 22 28 63 36 41 18 62



of Polish


many peculiarities to distinguish necessary and German descent from German students Czech, Polish citizens, were mostly Lutheran and of German ture. After the selves


at Leyden and Frankfort-on-Oder has I to be explained. considered it First, the Polish and polonised students of Scottish, have who, although speech and cul? declared them?

of Poland partition they all openly no Germans and were longer classified asc Polonus \ Only those few Germans who came from Warsaw and other centres of Polish cul? ture continued to be classified as Poles. That fact explains the decrease in the number of Polish students of German descent after the parti? tion. The Prussian annexation of Polish lands also explains the fact that so many Poles went to Frankfort-on-Oder at the end of the cen? of to Leyden. we have to distinguish the tury instead Secondly, students of four Protestant of the Moravians majority both universities in almost few individual exceptions, plains the enormous influx The Socinians and the the Calvinists to Leyden, attended and the Lutherans, with a equal numbers, attended Frankfort-on-Oder. This fact ex? denominations. went of Polish students at Leyden in the 17th

2l8 century. Rakow Most and

THE of the Polish other Socinian

SLAVONIC students

REVIEW in 1611-60 Their were Socinians from

in large also explains the distribution faculties. numbers The Socinians did by and were matriculated not attend lectures on theology in philosophy or law and medicine. and mathematics, Many of them were not dis? attendance Most of the Calvinists, in the 18th by faculties. especially were trained in divinity. We must add in conclusion that century, of Kiejdany Lithuanian students and Sluck con? Polish-speaking tributed about ninety Calvinist students to Leyden University (thirty in the 17th century and sixty in the 18th century) and about sixty Calvinists to Frankfort-on-Oder and (fifteen in the 17th century in the 18th century). forty-five tributed of higher school Another German which attracted learning of Altdorf, transformed into a many Polish students was the academy in 1625. Already at the end of the 16th century Polish full university those with Socinian started to go to students, tendencies, especially In the period 1575-1601 no fewer than 114 Polish students at Altdorf. During the period 1601-31, 105 Polish from Socinians at In 1631 studied Altdorf. Rakow, students, mostly the Polish students ceased to go to Altdorf and went to Leyden. This was connected with the of of the Altdorf university change change Altdorf. were matriculated authorities academic towards Socinians. Altdorf Calvinist, Although officially circles were lenient to Socinian views and welcomed Polish of Fausto Socini. In who in some cases were open adherents


students, 1583 Prince

of Ostrorog Nicholas was even elected rector of Altdorf. In 1609 Adam Sieninski was elected rector after Ernest (of Rakow) had openly Son er, rector 1607-8, made Altdorf a Socinian centre. Most of the teachers of the Rakow academy were trained at Altdorf. the Socinian students formed secret societies with secure, Feeling initiation rites and a cypher; Socinian tracts were much in evidence, Ernest Soner openly propagated anti-trinitarian and Professor doc? were also infected trines. Besides the Poles many Germans these by authorities had to take notice. In 1616 they views, and the Calvinist and his Polish associates from the Przypkowski in went to and Leyden 1617) (they they prohibited the years 1617-19 societies. there were no Polish During at all; from 1620 to 1631 only eighteen students Calvinist officially Poles matriculated at Altdorf, and after 1631 Polish students do not expelled university Socinian appear in the registers any more. Samuel







Links The



of German were Protestant universities majority strictly and did not accept Polish Calvinists Frankfortor Socinians. on-Oder was half Calvinist, half Lutheran but would not matriculate members of Socinian churches. Dutch universities, on the contrary, Lutheran of all denominations, students Soci? Catholics, accepted including nians and Jews. Especially As liberal was the University of Leyden. we have seen, hundreds of Polish Protestants Other attended Leyden. Dutch universities also had individual Polish students, especially Franeker at which a strong Polish group studied theology under Jan Makowski. in Holland as Johannes Known Makowski Maccovius, was educated at Leszna and taught there. He tutored three boys of the and two Gorai Gorayskis. With Counts Zbigniew and he at matriculated Franeker in at the Jan Gorayski 1613, age of twenty-five. He graduated as D.D. and was appointed professor family Gorai of theology. His fame as a university students. Besides the two Gorayskis, later professor and rector Arnold, teacher attracted his students many Polish included Mikolaj Sieninski

of Franeker, ChoJan Serenius senior of the Unitas Fratrum and writer, Jan Andziewicz dowiecki, and Jan Borzymowski. B. S. Chylinski, the translator of the Bible, was also at Franeker in 1654. The rector of Leszna, David Cassius, was at Franeker in 1692. Yet ties with Holland were not limited to university students and The Moravian of Unitas Brothers Fratrum were inti? professors. with Dutch liberal Calvinists. was the mately connected Komensky most prominent of its members who found in his final asylum Holland. in others resided the Netherlands for Many long periods, and whenever the Leszna was short of funds community they to their Dutch friends a and always received regularly appealed favourable The on the other found friends Socinians, hand, response. and protectors in the community and often of Dutch Remonstrants attended their theological at Amsterdam. seminary

XI The Polish Socinians facts related here the lead us to several conclusions. and First, the the Polish

Calvinists, were in the educational movements thought of England.

Czecho-Polish centre and

Thus 10 See 9 and previous.

Moravians, of Western and European religious influenced the directly progressive the Slavonic contribution to European

220 reform was




not limited to a single genius, Jan Amos Komensky. in the history of English the role of the Polish Socinians is often neglected and the transformation of orthodox dis? into unitarian and scientific seats of learning in senting academies the 18th century is usually ascribed to purely English sources. We Secondly, education have seen that the English latitudinarians and unitarians were closely in? connected with the Polish The Polish Protestants Socinians. fluenced the reform in Holland as well as in England. were not They in Dutch universities, only passive recipients they were active con? as well. The Socinians for instance tributors influenced Harmensch and Hugo Grotius and particularly the community of Remonstrants.