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Chapter 15: Oscillatory Motion By: Jackie Olive AP Physics Period F Background/Summary: This unit explores simple harmonic

motion, more specifically periodic circular motion, the mass-spring system, the pendulum, and variables associated with these systems such as position, velocity, acceleration, forces, period, frequency, and energy. Key Terms: Equilibrium position: resting position (normally designated x=0) Restoring force (Fs): directed towards equilibrium position and opposite displacement Simple Harmonic Motion: acceleration is proportional to position and opposite direction of displacement Amplitude: maximum position in either direction Angular frequency (): how rapidly oscillations are occurring Period (T): time period for one full cycle Frequency (f): oscillations per unit time interval Dont Forget: A particle in SHM does not have a constant acceleration, so we cannot use kinematics. Pendulum does not exhibit SHM for any angle (less than 10, motion is modeled as simple harmonic). o Small angle approximation: when x=0 Fs = 0 Major Topics: 1. Hookes Law (springs): where Fs is the restoring force 2. SHM position is modeled by the equation + and the graph on the right a. Velocity is zero at maximum displacements and fastest at x=0 b. U is greatest at maximum displacements and K is greatest at x=0 3. Total mechanical energy of simple harmonic oscillator is modeled by 4. Simple pendulum has FT and Fg acting on bob 5. Physical pendulum analysis when hanging mass oscillates about a fixed axis that does not pass through center of mass and object is not point mass

Fs

x Fs

FT

Fg Equations from this Unit + + +

1. Andrew decides to be mischievous and hangs Jackies 0.75 kg lunchbox from a vertical spring attached to the ceiling of the physics room. It stretches 2.5 m. Jackies lunchbox is now replaced with Jackie who has a mass of 50 kg. What is the period of motion?

Equilibrium Position 1. Determine spring constant (k).

Jackie

2. Find period (T) using the obtained value fork.

2. Andrew and Jackie are playing air hockey yet quite unsuccessfully because although the surface
of the table is frictionless, the 0.050 kg puck is attached to a spring with k = 25.0 N/m on Jackies side of the table. At t=0, the puck is released from rest at x= -0.25 m (spring is compressed 0.25 m). What is a) the period of the puck, b) the maximum values of its speed and acceleration, and c) the position, velocity, and acceleration as functions of time?

a. First find to find T.

b. Use vmax and amax equations.

c. Use cosine and sine functions. Because x= -0.25 m at t=0, + + +

3. A mass undergoes simple harmonic motion with amplitude A and total energy E. What is a) the kinetic energy and b) the potential energy when the position is the amplitude? c) At what position does the kinetic energy equal one-half the potential energy? a. Energy is conserved by an isolated simple harmonic oscillator.

( ) [ ]

b. When x = A/4, ( )

c.

+ ( )+