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Glossary of Globalization Neoliberalism.

Late-twentieth century variant of theory that competition among b usinesses in market with limited state regulation best fosters growth; specifica lly, advocacy of free enterprise in competitive global markets and movement of g oods and capital unburdened by tariffs and regulations; commonly, term of opprob rium used by critics of capitalist ideology to denote emphasis on market expansi on as value in itself, held to cause destruction of "collective structures which may impede the pure market logic" (P. Bourdieu; cf. P. Treanor and Global Issue s) New International Division of Labor. Spread of different stages of manufacturing to locations in different countries, to exploit differences in factor costs and economies of scale; more generally, since late 1970s, process in which especial ly Asian countries assume key roles in certain industries (cf. commodity chains) NGO. Nongovernmental organization. Many domestic NGOs connected internationally. Cf. INGO. NWICO. New World Information and Communication Order (also New International Inf ormation Order), proposal by developing country and communist representatives in UNESCO in 1970s for balanced news coverage through multiple channels to counter Western dominance of news organizations and content. Subject of unresolved deba te into 1980s. O (back to the top) Orientalism. Historically, scholarship by Western experts on Asia; currently, di storted representation of non-Western culture by Western intellectuals, attribut ed to political bias and assumed superiority. Influentially used by E. Said in O rientalism to criticize Western treatment of Arab culture as reflective of histo rical domination. For details, click here. P (back to the top) Particularism. Values or practices valid only for specific group in own setting as basis for distinct identity, also view emphasizing importance thereof. Common ly contrasted with, or criticized on grounds of, universalism. Periphery. Poor, exploited regions, historically dominated by strong, wealthy co untries. World-system theory concept denoting militarily weak regions economical ly dominated by capitalist core, subject to unequal exchange, limited to raw mat erial exports, reliant on labor-intensive production. Protectionism. Effort to shield domestic producers against foreign competition v ia tariffs, quotas, etc. Widely reduced under global free trade agreements; popu lar among critics of trade for countering job loss and environmental harm; criti cized by economists for ignoring comparative advantage doctrine. Q (back to the top) R (back to the top) Realism. Theory asserting primacy of states and state interests in international affairs; claims that states act rationally in pursuit of power, international s ystem is "anarchy," and international politics is separate from domestic; influe ntial but disputed (cf. V. Ferraro) Rio Declaration. Statement of principles calling for worldwide environmental pro tection by 1992 UN "Earth Summit" conference in Rio de Janeiro. Click here for t ext. S (back to the top) Structural Adjustment. Policy of reducing government expenditures, lowering infl ation, limiting imports, devaluing currency, and increasing economic efficiency, required by IMF of countries in debt as condition for debt restructuring (acron ym: SAP). Criticized for inducing economic decline, decreased social protection. For IMF review of criticism, click here. Subaltern. Vantage point of historically subordinate peoples, recently revalued

in literature and scholarship, from which to reinterpret experience of oppressio n and assess global processes Sustainable Development. Policy of promoting growth consistent with protection o f environment, e.g., via shift to renewable resources and local community partic ipation in development projects. Compromise reached in international negotiation , recognizing interests of developed and developing countries. Normative princip le with mixed practical effect. T (back to the top) Time-Space Compression. Increased pace of life and overcoming of spatial barrier s, through communication and transportation technology, resulting in apparent sh rinking of time to the present and globe to a single space, altering everyday ex perience of social relations and awareness of global interdependence. Cf. D. Har vey, The Condition of Postmodernity, 1990, p. 240. Transparency. Evolving global standard for state institutions and international organizations, requiring open processes according to general rules subject to mo nitoring; regarded as basis of accountability, diminishing corruption (see Trans parency International; World Bank Institute) TSMO. Transnational Social Movement Organization. Formally organized effort by a ctivists from multiple countries focused on global issue. Examples: Service for Peace and Justice, EarthAction. See J. Smith et al., eds., Transnational Social Movements and Global Politics, 1997. U (back to the top) Universalism. Principles considered valid for all across globe, or doctrine emph asizing importance thereof. Example: universal human rights, or advocacy thereof . Commonly contrasted with, or criticized on grounds of, particularism. V (back to the top) W (back to the top) Westphalia, Peace of. Agreement among European powers, at end of Thirty Year War , dividing continent into independently governed territories with distinct relig ious identities. Considered origin of modern system of sovereign states. World polity theory. Holds that proliferation of models and principles for globa l action, including sovereign state and individual, shape globe through institut ional enactment, creating similarity across societal boundaries. World-system theory. Holds that sixteenth-century capitalist expansion from Euro pean core founded now fully global hierarchy of regions and geographic division of labor, enabling owners of capital, supported by strong states, to profit from control of cheap labor and unequal exchange. See I. Wallerstein, The Modern Wor ld-System, Vol. 1-3, 1974-; for papers by Wallerstein and colleagues, click here ; for relevant journal, click