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IMAM MAHDI

Among the major signs of Qiyamat is the advent of Imam Mahdi (alaihis salaam). Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam predicted the coming of Imam Mahdi towards the end of this worldly existence, i.e. just prior to The Day of Judgement. Hazrat Abu Hureira (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam said:

"If only one day is left for the end of the world, Allah will lengthen that day until a man from my family, whose name will be the same as mine, rules the world." (Tirmizhi Shareef)

This indicates the emphasis which The Holy Messenger of Allah sallallahu alaihi wasallam laid on the coming of Imam Mahdi. This booklet contains all the details about the life and advent of Imam Mahdi, and all these facts are derived from authentic Ahadeeth on this topic.

There is much speculation nowadays on whether Imam Malidi has already been born and if so, what would be his present age, and when the impending appearance. Some Ulema and Auliyaa of recent times have claimed that he is already born. Others mentioned a specific number of years within which he would emerge. However, all these observations and predictions are based on kashf or spiritual intuition, and it is a rule that kashf does not constitute concrete evidence or tenable proof upon which any firm and clear-cut ruling could be based. Hence, the best course of action is to believe that Imam Mahdi will appear before Qiyamat, but exactly when, only Allah knows. The date and time of his arrival we leave to The Knowledge of Allah. However, Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam did give certain signs which will herald the arrival of this great Imam. The Ahadeeth on this issue leave no room for rejecting or even doubting the coming of Imam Mahdi. Neither do the facts leave us in the dark as to recognising this great Imam when he eventually does arrive.

Some scholars of late have advanced theories suggesting the imminent appearance of Imam Mahdi during a specific year, such as 2004, etc. However, this is not supported by any Shar’ee evidence and nor is it in keeping with the Islamic concept conveyed to us by Hazrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu), when he said: "Keep ambiguous what Allah has kept ambiguous." (Ma’ariful-Quran) When Allah and His Rasool (sallallahu alaihis salaam) has chose to keep the exact advent of Imam Mahdi hidden, it behoves us to adopt the same policy in this regard.

DETAILS OF IMAM MAHDI

The following are facts taken from the Ahadeeth of Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam:

NAME AND TITLE His name will be the same as that of Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam, i.e. Muhammad. And his father's name will be Abdullah. His title is Al-Mahdi, meaning ‘the guided one’. The Holy Prophet sallallahu alaihi wasallam also called him Khaleefatullah, meaning "the Deputy of Allah". He will also possess the title of "Jaabir", meaning one who compensates a loss.

FAMILY LINEAGE Imam Mahdi will belong to the tribe of Quraish and the family of Hazrat Fatima (radhiyallahu anha), the offspring of Hazrat Imam Hasan (radhiyallahu anhu).

CHARACTER He will have the character and morals of Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam. In one night Allah will grant him unique qualifies of faith, piety, leadership and knowledge. Thus, overnight, through the guidance of Allah, Imam Mahdi will be transformed and cast into this role, hence the title ‘Mahdi’.

BIRTHPLACE He will be born in Madina Shareef.

PHYSICAL FEATURES He will have a broad forehead, with not much hair on the front of his head, and the bridge of his nose will be raised.

SIGNS BEFORE HIS APPEARANCE AS THE MAHDI

The world will be filled with a great amount of injustice and oppression. There will be widespread evil in which all people will become heavily involved. Muslim countries and their people will have become so weak that even animals would defeat them in battle. Muslims would be totally disunited, hence their state of weakness. On the other hand, the Kuffaar (Jews and Christians) of the whole world would be united under one leader. Their rule would spread over the entire world, and would reach as far as Khaibar, a mere hundred miles from Madina Shareef. Such would be the dominance of kuffaar during that era.

The Muslims would also be under severe persecution and oppression from the Khaleefa of that time and they will have no place to run. The Ahle Bait (family of Nabi Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasallam) will experience difficulties and persecution. Throughout the world earthquakes would occur frequently. Innocent people will be put to death.

A man by the name of Haarith bin Harrath will emerge from beyond the Euphrates river, and before him will be another by the name of Mansoor. The former (i.e. Haarith) will be preparing the minds of Muslims to accept Imam Mahdi when he comes. He will perform the same task for Imam Mahdi, which the Quraish performed for Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam in Madina before Hijrat. Mansoor will aid him in this direction. It is wajib upon every Muslim to help this Haarith, or to respond to his call.

The Abdaals and pious leaders will all be on the lookout for Imam Mahdi, knowing that only he could bring final succour to the failing Ummat. There will be a fight in Makka between three people, each one being the son of a khaleefa, over leadership of the Muslims. But none of them will gain the khilafat. This fight will take place in the month of Zhul-Qa’dah, and even in Mina during Hajj, there will be continuation of hostilities. All this will occur in the same year as Imam Mahdi’s election.

An army will come from the East towards Arabia. The East here refers to Khurasan, i.e. northeastern Iran, which includes the borders of Russia and Afghanistan. They will pave the way for the establishment of Imam Mahdi’s kingdom. This army will carry black banners.

Nothing shall halt their onward march, and eventually they will plant their flag on the soils of Baitul-Maqdis (Jerusalem). (This is a clear sign that Al-Quds will eventually be liberated and conquered by the forces of Islam.)

This army will seek the leadership of Arabia. The current leader will refuse to hand over the khilafat.

A tremendously fierce battle will ensue, the likes of which Muslims had never yet experienced. The army from Khurasan will be victorious and will eventually assume the leadership.

IMAM MAHDI'S EMERGENCE AS THE NEW KHALIFA

Having gained the right to appoint the new Khalifa, they will nominate a member of their army, a man from The Holy Prophet's family, for this position. This man will be The Mahdi, who had also joined the ranks of this army when they entered Arabia.

He will not accept this post and will flee from Madina Munowwara to Makka Mukarrama. (The purpose of him fleeing to Makka will be to evade the burden of Khilafat, but it may also be to perform Hajj since we have learnt that his election will coincide with the Hajj period.) However, his people will be convinced that this is the only man for the job. And so consequently, a group of people from Makka will look for him in The Holy City and find him making tawaaf. They will force him to accept the post of Khilafat. Imam Mahdi will reluctantly agree to this offer. They will actually lead him by the hand towards the Hajare Aswad, where people will then formally pledge their allegiance to him as the Khalifa. This pledge will take place in front of The Holy Ka'ba, between the Hajare Awad and the Maqaame Ibraheem, during or just after the days of Hajj.

At the time of this Bay 'at a voice will call out from the heavens:

"This is the appointed Khalifa of Allah, the Mahdi!"

Initially the number of people to take the bay 'at (pledge of allegiance) at his hands will be 313, which is the number of Sahaaba that took part in the battle of Badr.

He will be forty years old at the time of his appointment.

PROTECTION AND ACCEPTANCE BY ALLAH

Immediately upon his appointment as the new Khalifa, Imam Mahdi will witness the direct Help of Allah. A man from the heart of Damascus, known as Sufyaani (from the family of Abu Sufyaan) will begin a horrendous campaign of bloodshed and killing, during which no tribe or community will be left unscathed. Even women and children will be mercilessly butchered. His chief supporters and followers will be the tribe of Kalb.

When this Sufyaani hears of Imam Mahdi, he will immediately despatch an army towards Makka, where the Imam will be at this stage. This army will be easily defeated by the Imam and his handful of followers. Then this Sufyaani will himself lead a contingent from Syria towards Makka to fight against Imam Mahdi.

This army will be destroyed by an enormous earthquake at Baidaa, a place just after Zhul- Hulaifa, on the road to Makka. First the rear of the army will be devastated, and when those in front go back to see what had happened, they too will meet the same fate.

All but one member of this army will perish, and this sole survivor will take back the news of this disaster.

There will be many in this army who had been brought along by force, people who had no intention of opposing Imam Mahdi. Such people would also be destroyed along with the others, but on Qiyamat day they will be resurrected and dealt with according to their intentions.

When the story of Divine Help being granted to Imam Mahdi spreads through the Muslim world, the Abdaals of Syria and the pious people of Iraq will come to pledge allegiance to Imam Mahdi and join his ranks. Similarly, other Muslim armies from Madina and elsewhere will also come to Makka and offer their support and allegiance to Imam Mahdi. A man from the Quraish tribe will then emerge and oppose the Imam. This man also will have the backing of the tribe of Kalb. (It is possible that this incident and the one involving Sufyaani may be one and the same, since Abu Sufyaan was also from the Quraish clan and the tribe of Kalb features in both. We mentioned two seperate incidents here because this is how they appear in the Ahadith. And Allah Knows Best.) He too will send an army against Imam Mahdi, who will yet again, through The Grace of Allah, inflict a heavy defeat on his enemies.

The Prophet of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) actually condemned those who do not participate in this battle against the Kalb tribe.

The inhabitants of the heavens and the inhabitants of the earth will be pleased with him (Imam Mahdi).

It will be wajib upon all Muslims who hear of Imam Mahdi to pledge their allegiance and full support to him.

HIS LEADERSHIP, BATTLES AND ACHIEVEMENTS

With his army now bolstered by saintly and pious people Imam Mahdi will defeat his enemies, as we have seen in the initial battles mentioned above.

He will become the supreme leader and reformer of the Muslim Ummat. There will be a great Islamic revival, and this Deen will reign supreme. He will fill the world with justice after it had been plagued with zhulm (oppression, injustice).

He will practice and lead people according to the Sunnat of Nabi Muhammad sallallahu alaihi wasallam.

He will rule for seven to nine years, with complete justice and righteousness, and all this time Islam will be the dominant religion of the world.

During his rule the Muslims will experience great economic enrichment. There will be no droughts and lands will be exceptionally fertile. The earth will yield crops in abundance and of the best quality. This rich agricultural state will ensure a glut of money and food. So much so, that people who come to the Baitul-Maal for assistance will be given as much as they can take away.

In short, the Muslims will live a most luxurious and comfortable life, something they will never ever experience again in this world.

Imam Mahdi will distribute lands equally among people.

Muslims will live in great harmony with each other. Gone will be the days of in-fighting, strife and disunity.

The hearts of people will become so independent of wealth and so dependent on Allah that when an announcement is made for the needy to come forward, only one person will stand up. When this person will be given wealth in such abundance, he will feel ashamed and would want to return the wealth, but the answer will be: "We do not take back what has been given. it is all yours to keep.

Jerusalem will also be captured by Muslims (as stated earlier under ‘signs before his appearance’). Furthermore, he will return to Jerusalem all the treasures that were looted from it by the marauding Kings of the past. Whenever the Bani Israeel flouted the laws of their Shariah and disobeyed the Messengers, Allah would impose upon them Kings who ransacked and pillaged their wealth, slaughtering them, their women and children in the process. The last King to do this was the Caesar of Rome, who, after his orgy of massacre and plunder on land and sea, loaded the treasures of Al-Quds on 170,000 mounts. These were transported to a chapel in Rome known as the Golden Temple, where they remain to this very day. Imam Mahdi's vanquishing of the Christian forces and their lands will enable him to retrieve these treasures. He will transport this vast cache of wealth back to Baitul Maqdis by sea in 1,700 ships. (Tafseer of Qurtubi, vol. 10, p. 223)

During his time China, Iran, and other surrounding areas will fall to the Muslim armies of Imam Mahdi.

Imam Mahdi will conquer the city of Constantinople presently known as Istanbul.

The story behind this conquest is as follows.

After the earthquakes which destroyed his enemies, and the subsequent amassing of Muslim armies under his leadership, the Imam will leave Makka for Madina, where he will offer salaam at the Rauza-e-Mubarak (The Blessed Grave of Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam).

Having done this his next step would be to proceed to Damascus, Syria, where the bulk of the Nasaara (Christian) forces would be concentrated. In Damascus the Imam will set up his headquarters. From here he will conduct military operations against the enemies of Islam, and from here he will rule.

At a place known as either A’maaq or Daabiq, somewhere near Allepo, Syria, 960,000 Christian forces would be assembled under 80 banners, quite clearly to annihilate the Muslims.

Imam Mahdi will send a battalion of Muslim fighters, from among the best people on earth, to engage them. When the two groups encounter each other face to face, the Christians will request that the Muslims hand over to them those who had fought and captured their brethren. The Muslims will refuse, saying: "We will never hand over our Muslim brothers", thus triggering off a fierce battle. A third of the Muslim army will flee, and Allah will never ever grant them towba (repentance). A third will be slain, and they will be the noblest martyrs in The Sight Of Allah. The surviving third will be victorious, never to suffer defeat thereafter.

This battle will last four days. Each day the Muslim troops will resolve on oath that they will not return but as victors. For three days they will fail to crush the enemy, with many men becoming martyrs. On the fourth day the Christians will falter and succumb to a tremendous onslaught from the remaining Muslim troops. The ensuing slaughter will be unprecedented in history. This decimation will utterly shatter the morale of the Christians.

Thus Imam Mahdi will smash the might of the non-Muslim forces in that period, forces which had come together from all parts of the world.

Pressing forward, the next destination will be Turkey. From the Syrian coast Imam Mahdi will despatch seventy thousand soldiers of the Banu Ishaq tribe to conquer Constantinople. They will cross the Mediterranean Sea. bound for Turkey and will conquer Istanbul without the use of a single weapon. Parts of the city will collapse upon the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) and Tahleel (of these warriors). They will recite Laa ilaaha illallah Wallahu Akbar and simply walk over the city. The Muazh-zhins of the Muslims will then establish the five times daily azhaan throughout the city.

This will occur about six years after Imam Mahdi had come to power.

Imam Mahdi will also arrive at Constantinople and set up the structure for his rule, appoint people to govern there and most importantly, make arrangements for the implementation of Islamic law.

This conquest will deliver untold fortunes into the hands of the Muslims. As he and his men busy themselves capturing and rounding up this vast riches, a rumour will break out that "Dajjal has broken loose in Syria and is wreaking havoc among your families". This news will be very disturbing to the Imam, and so he will hurriedly leave for Syria. In the meantime ten men will be sent ahead to ascertain the truth. About these ten The Holy Prophet sallallahu alaihi wasallam said: "I know their names and the names of their fathers. They will be among the best warriors of their time." Nabi-e-Kareem sallallahu alaihi wasallam even knew the colour of their horses.

One of them will report back that the whole story is false and Dajjaal has not yet emerged. This would be a lie fabricated by Shaytaan to try and disrupt the progress of the Muslims. Imam Mahdi will resume his return journey to Syria with greater ease and comfort once he learns that Dajjaal has not yet emerged.

He will stop over in all the towns and cities along the route to survey the situation and make necessary arrangements for government. Meanwhile the conquerors of Istanbul will march on and invade parts of Western Europe (Greece, Italy, etc.) in the same manner, with the Takbeer and Kalimah. All this area will fall under the rule of Imam Mahdi.

A few weeks after Imam Mahdi reaches Damascus the great imposter, Dajjaal will now truly emerge and begin his campaign of mischief and corruption.

Since the Dajjaal will have a large following of mainly Jews and illegitimate people (those born out of marriage), the Muslims under Imam Mahdi will resume preparations for war. They will be busy arranging the formation of their troops during the time of Fajr. The jamaat salah will be almost about to start when suddenly Sayyiduna Eesa (alaihis salaam) will descend from the heavens and join the ranks of Muslims for salah. Imam Mahdi would step back and ask him to lead the salah. However, Nabi Eesa alaihis salam would refuse, saying that your Imam can only be from among your own. Eventually Imam Mahdi will have the distinction of leading the salah, while Nabi Eesa follows him.

Hazrat Eesa alaihis salaam was lifted up alive by Allah during his former years on earth, and would now return to slay Dajjaal.

After the slaying of Dajjaal by Nabi Eesa, Imam Mahdi will not live for very long. A few months will elapse and this great Imam, a man who provided the perfect sequel to Allah's Supreme Religion – ISLAM -- will pass on to the realms of the hereafter.

The Muslims will perform his janaaza salah and bury him. According to indications in the hadith, Imam Mahdi will become ill and die of natural causes in Jerusalem. He will be buried there too.

The Holy Prophet sallallahu alaihi wasallam warned that there will be no more good in life after Imam Mahdi.

All the above happenings are taken from the authentic Ahadith of Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam. Therefore, the fulfilment of these prophecies will leave absolutely no doubt in the minds of even the most ardent critics or sceptics, as to the veracity and truthfulness of Our Rasool sallallahu alaihi wasallam.

THE FALSE BELIEFS OF THE SHIAS

The facts mentioned thus far totally refute the false beliefs of the Shia sect regarding Imam Mahdi. In the book Tuhfaa Ithnaa Ashariyya written by Hazrat Shah Abdul Azeez Dahiwi (rahmatullahi alaihi) the Shia beliefs concerning Imam Mahdi are recorded as follows:

· The Shias believe in twelve Imams, the first being Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) and the last being Imam Mahdi. These Imams have divine qualities, according to the Shias, and can perform special miracles. They believe that these Imams are even superior to the Prophets, upon whom be peace.

· They believe that when Imam Mahdi was five years old, he fled from his enemies and went to

hide in a cave in the city of Samarra, Iraq. He is still hiding in that cave till this very day.

· He will emerge from that cave a thousand years after entering it, with a sword in his hand to

slay his enemies. This will be before Qiyamat. This means that the Mahdi which they are awaiting will be over a thousand years old! Yet, the hadith of Nabi Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) clearly states that his appointment to the office of Khilafat will be the age of forty.

· They claim that his name will be Muhammad bin Hasan Askari. (Mirqaat, vol. 10, p. 174)

· Their Mahdi is invincible, so none has the power to kill him.

· For centuries now the Shias make regular dua to Allah to bring out their Mahdi.

These are beliefs that followers of the Shia religion maintain. Compare this to what we have read from the authentic Ahadith of Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam and you will quickly see the falsehood and deception in the Shia beliefs. Their Mahdi does not exist, except as a figment of their imagination. It is one big myth which vehemently conflicts with the true teachings of Islam.

May Allah save all Muslims from such un-Islamic and false beliefs, and grant us all the correct and true belief about the coming of Imam Mahdi -- Ameen.

A FALLACIOUS BELIEF REGARDING THE ADVENT OF IMAM MAHDI

Among the fallacious signs mentioned about the emergence of Imam Mahdi, one is the event of a solar and lunar eclipse during the month of Ramadan in the year Imam Mahdi is supposed to appear. According to this report, this phenomenon will be visible to the people residing in Hijaaz (modern- day Saudi Arabia). The origin of this alleged sign on Imam Mahdi’s coming is a narration that appears in the book of Hadith known as Dare Qutni. In order to refute this spurious narrative we cite the full narration as it appears in Dare Qutni:

Imam Dare Qutni, the author, quoting the chain of transmission through which this narration reached him, states:

"My Ustaad Abu Saeed Istakhri narrates from his Ustaad Muhammad bin Abdullah, who narrates from his Ustaad Ubaid bin Ya'eesh, and he narrates from Yunus bin Bukair, and he from Amar bin Shamir, and he from Jaabir who narrates that Muhammad bin Ali said:

"Verily, for our Mahdi there are two signs which have never as yet combined since the creation of the heavens and earth; first is the eclipse of the moon on the first night of Ramadan, and second is the eclipse of the sun during the middle of that same Ramadan. This (concurrence of a solar and lunar eclipse in one month) has never happened since Allah created the heavens and earth."

(Dare Qutni vol. 2, p. 65)

THE CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION

Sanad or Isnaad are Arabic terms which mean the chain of transmission through which a hadith or narration is transmitted. In order to verify whether a hadith or narration is authentic and reliable, the narrators whose names appear in the sanad are scrutinized. This procedure, known in Islamic terminology as Jarah wat Ta’deel, was used extensively by the Imams and Muhadditheen of old. They have set out a code of conduct according to which they examined and critically analysed the narrators of any hadith. If even one Raawi (narrator) is discovered to be unreliable or untrustworthy, the entire narration becomes seriously suspect. Such a hadith or narration can never be accepted as a basis for any Islamic belief or practice. They adopted this procedure in order to prevent fabrications and false narrations from creeping into the pristine pure teachings of Islam. It has quite rightly been said: "If there were no chains of transmission then everyone and anyone would say what they like."

Upon studying the chain of transmission quoted above we firstly notice that this sanad does not link up with Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam.) It stops on Muhammad bin Ali, the great- grandson of Ameerul Mumineen Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu). Such a narration, where there is no direct link with Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam), is termed Munqati', and most Ulema do not regard this as tenable proof for any Deeni practice or belief. Secondly, two names appear in this chain, viz. Amar bin Shamir and Jaabir.

Let us now study statements of the Muhadditheen regarding the authenticity and integrity of these two.

The author, Imam Dare Qutni himself, after quoting this narration, singles out these two figures in the chain of transmission and states:

"Both are unreliable narrators. Their narrations are not admissible as proof to substantiate any claim." (Dare Qutni vol. 2 p. 65)

Allama Thahabi, a great authority on hadith has the following entry in his famous critique, Meezaanul I'tidaal:

Amar bin Shamir: A Shia from Kufa. Yahya (bin Mu 'een) says: "(He is) a non-entity." Jauzjaani says: 'A misguided impostor.’ Ibni Hibbaan says: "This man is a Shia who insults the Sahaba, and fabricates narrations in the name of authentic Ulema." Imam Bukhari says: 'His narrations are rejected.’ Yahya says: 'His narrations should not be recorded.’ Suleimani says: 'This Amar used to fabricate narrations for the Shias. Imam Nasaai says: 'His narrations have been discarded.’

(Meezaanul I 'tidaa/)

Allama Ibni Hajar quotes the following in his work, Lisaanul Meezaan:

Ibni Abi Haatim says: I asked my father(Abu Haatim) about Amar bin Shamir, and he replied:

'His ahadith are totally rejected, a weak narrator, a person one should never get involved with. The Muhadditheen have forsaken him." Abu Abdullah Haakim (a high ranking authority on hadith) states: 'He has many fabrications narrated from Jabir Ju'afi, and no-one else besides him (Amar bin Shamir) narrate these blatant fabrications from Jabir."

(Lisaanul Meezaan)

What is evident from the above is that Amar bin Shamir has absolutely no rating among the Ulema and is a discard as far as hadith is concerned. Secondly, he narrates false ahaadith on behalf of the Shias. Furthermore, there is unanimity among the critics on his unreliability and incompetence in matters of hadith. There is not one good word said about him by any of the experts in hadith. Such a narrator must necessarily be rejected. On the basis of this, it is highly likely that the narration mentioned above is one of those fabrications dedicated to the Shias and their fictitious ‘Mahdi’. Hence we see the words "Verily, for our Mahdi there are two signs". This ‘our Mahdi’ is a reference to the Mahdi of the Shias, since their ‘Mahdi’ differs vastly with what was conveyed to us by Rasoolullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).

Apart from what has been stated above, it must be borne in mind the hadith shareef very clearly states that Imam Mahdi will appear when people least expect it, and the first group of ulema and buzrugs who take bay’at at his hands will do so unexpectedly. This is something that will take its natural course. None of the signs are such that people can actually predict them with accuracy. Once these events really transpire, one may spontanteously attribute them to the Imam.

Once Hazrat Umar and Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhuma) were passing along the banks of the Tigris or Euphrates Rive in Iraq. Suddenly, Ameerul-Mumineen Sayyiduna Umar, paused and said: "I’ve heard Rasoolullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) speak of the treasures that this river will throw up onto its banks. Perhaps I should make an attempt to unearth these treasures (thus fulfilling the prophecy)." Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) said: "O Ameerul-Mumineen, just forget it, and continue walking. These treasures are not your department. Instead a youth among the Quraish, who will be called Mahdi, will see to this."

This incident proves that such signs must take their fixed course and cannot be pre-empted. We should concentrate on the signs that are chronicled in authentic and sound ahadith, so that we are sure of our teaching and belief, and do not run the risk of inadvertently endorsing a Shia concept. Despite extensive research we could not find any other hadith book recording this event as cited above, besides the work of Imam Dare Qutni, from which we have obviously quoted. Sometimes the author will cite a narrative purely to reject and criticise it, which is what the author of Dare Qutni has done. Also, all subsequent books that do mention this event quote it from the same Dare Qutni.