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Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 1/179

Trinidad and Tobago

Small Building Code

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 2/179

The Committee, which has prepared this code, include the followings : Mr. Fenrick De Four Mr. Zanim Ali Mr. Burnell Austin Mr. Stephen Basdeo Mr. Kenrick Bethelmy Mr. Mohan Bholasingh Mr. Robert Blache-Fraser Mr. Jack Bynoe Mr. Peter Bynoe Dr. Richard Clarke Mr. J. Holgar Hackshaw Mr. Abdul Latiff Mr. Alan Lodwick Mr. Jameel Mohammed Mr. Graham Montano Dr. Jeffrey M. Phillips Dr. Jean M. Picchiottino Mr. Francis Pierre Mr. Richard Sahadath Mr. Madan Singh Mr. Edwin Yuk Low Mr. Errol Rampaul Mr. Ishmael A. Soobrattee Mr. Aleksandar Brkovic National Physical Planning Commission (Chairman) Ministry of Works Ministry of Local Government National Emergency Management Authority Trinidad and Tobago Fire Services Public health inspector - Chairman of Association Trinidad & Tobago Institute of Architects Board of Architecture of Trinidad & Tobago Trinidad & Tobago Institute of Architects Board of Engineering of Trinidad & Tobago Land Settlements Agency John Donaldson Technical Institute Ministry of Housing and Settlements Town and Country Planning division Ministry of Local Government Ministry of Works Board of Engineering of Trinidad & Tobago Board of Engineering of Trinidad & Tobago Ministry of Local Government, Sangre Grande Regional Corporation Ministry of Works Public health inspector Ministry of Health City Engineer, Port of Spain City Corporation Trinidad & Tobago Bureau of Standards (Secretary 1) Trinidad & Tobago Bureau of Standards (Secretary 2) Trinidad & Tobago Bureau of Standards (Secretary 3)

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 3/179

Content
1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3 2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 3 3 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................................................ 3 4 GENERAL CONSTRUCTION........................................................................................................................... 3 4.1 PRINCIPLE ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.1.1 Site preparation ........................................................................................................................................... 3 4.1.2 Site clearance............................................................................................................................................... 3 4.1.3 Material storage .......................................................................................................................................... 3 4.1.4 Batter boards ............................................................................................................................................... 3 4.1.5 Driveways and paving............................................................................................................................... 3 4.1.6 Earth works................................................................................................................................................ 3 4.1.7 Earthquake considerations ........................................................................................................................ 3 4.1.8 Hurricane considerations ......................................................................................................................... 3 4.1.9 Roofs........................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.1.10 Windows and doors .................................................................................................................................. 3 4.2 DESIGN CRITERIA.................................................................................................................................................. 3 4.2.1 Conventional design.................................................................................................................................. 3 4.2.2 Engineered design ..................................................................................................................................... 3 4.2.3 Dead load................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.2.4 Live load..................................................................................................................................................... 3 COASTAL/TIDAL ........................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.2.5 Roof load. ................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.2.6 Lateral load design.................................................................................................................................... 3 4.2.7 Load factors ............................................................................................................................................... 3 4.2.8 Deflection ................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.3 MINIMAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.1 Site address ................................................................................................................................................ 3 4.3.2 Light............................................................................................................................................................ 3 4.3.3 Ventilation.................................................................................................................................................. 3 4.3.4 Minimum room sizes.................................................................................................................................. 3 4.3.5 Ceiling height............................................................................................................................................. 3 4.3.6 Minimum passage...................................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.7 Sanitation ..................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.8 Toilet, bath and shower spaces................................................................................................................. 3 4.3.9 Glazing ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.10 Enclosed car ports.................................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.11 Emergency escape and rescue openings................................................................................................. 3 4.3.12 Exits ........................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.13 Landings on stairways.............................................................................................................................. 3 4.3.14 Pedestrian ramps...................................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.15 Stairways................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.16 Handrails .................................................................................................................................................. 3 4.3.17 Guards....................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.18 Smoke detectors ........................................................................................................................................ 3 4.3.19 Foam plastic ............................................................................................................................................. 3 4.3.20 Flame spread and smoke density............................................................................................................. 3 4.3.21 Insulation .................................................................................................................................................. 3 4.3.22 Dwelling unit separation.......................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.23 Moisture vapour barriers......................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.24 Protection against decay.......................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.25 Protection against termites ...................................................................................................................... 3

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 4/179

4.3.26 Flood resistant construction .................................................................................................................... 3 4.3.27 Coastal high hazard areas ....................................................................................................................... 3 4.4 BASIC MATERIALS................................................................................................................................................ 3 4.4.1 Reinforced Concrete.................................................................................................................................. 3 4.4.2 Timber ........................................................................................................................................................ 3 4.4.3 Metal........................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.5 ALTERNATE MATERIALS AND TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION ................................................................................... 3 4.5.1 General....................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.5.2 Standards ................................................................................................................................................... 3 5 FOUNDATIONS .................................................................................................................................................... 3 5.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................................................................................. 3 5.1.1 Load bearing walls and columns.............................................................................................................. 3 5.1.2 Reinforcement ............................................................................................................................................ 3 6 VERTICAL STRUCTURES................................................................................................................................ 3 6.1 CONCRETE AND MASONRY ................................................................................................................................. 3 6.1.1 Masonry block walls .............................................................................................................................. 3 6.1.2 Columns, beams and shear panel structure............................................................................................. 3 6.1.3 Framed structure ....................................................................................................................................... 3 6.2 TIMBER ................................................................................................................................................................ 3 6.2.1 Identification and grade............................................................................................................................ 3 6.2.2 Exterior walls............................................................................................................................................. 3 6.2.3 Interior load bearing walls ....................................................................................................................... 3 6.2.4 Interior non-bearing walls........................................................................................................................ 3 6.2.5 Drilling and notching-studs ...................................................................................................................... 3 6.2.6 Headers ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 6.2.7 Cripple walls.............................................................................................................................................. 3 6.2.8 Wall bracing............................................................................................................................................... 3 6.2.9 Structure..................................................................................................................................................... 3 6.2.10 Cladding.................................................................................................................................................... 3 6.3 METAL.................................................................................................................................................................. 3 6.3.1 MS beams and profiles .............................................................................................................................. 3 6.4 MIXED CONSTRUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... 3 7 FLOOR SYSTEMS................................................................................................................................................ 3 7.1 CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS .................................................................................................................................... 3 7.1.1 Layout......................................................................................................................................................... 3 7.1.2 Finishing .................................................................................................................................................... 3 7.1.3 Services....................................................................................................................................................... 3 7.2 TIMBER ................................................................................................................................................................ 3 7.2.1 Identification & Grade .............................................................................................................................. 3 7.2.2 General....................................................................................................................................................... 3 7.2.3 Floor sheathing.......................................................................................................................................... 3 7.3 METAL ................................................................................................................................................................. 3 7.3.1 MS steel beam ............................................................................................................................................ 3 8 ROOF ASSEMBLIES ........................................................................................................................................... 3 8.1 ROOF STRUCTURE ............................................................................................................................................... 3 8.1.1 Concrete roof structure ............................................................................................................................. 3 8.1.2 Timber ........................................................................................................................................................ 3 8.1.3 Metal........................................................................................................................................................... 3 8.2 ROOF COVERING ................................................................................................................................................. 3 8.2.1 Weather protection .................................................................................................................................... 3 8.2.2 Materials .................................................................................................................................................... 3 8.2.3 Requirements for material roof covering................................................................................................. 3 ANNEX A .................................................................................................................................................................. 3 A.1 APPLICATION TO BUILD ..................................................................................................................................... 3 A.1.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 5/179

A.1.2 Form of application to build .................................................................................................................... 3 A.1.3 Approval in part ........................................................................................................................................ 3 A.2 APPROVALS ........................................................................................................................................................ 3 A.3 INSPECTIONS....................................................................................................................................................... 3 A.3.1 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................. 3 A.4 COMPLETION CERTIFICATE ................................................................................................................................ 3 A.5 COMPLIANCE ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 A.6 ALTERNATE MATERIALS AND TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION ................................................................................. 3 A.6.1 Application................................................................................................................................................. 3

Note: All modifications on the next edition index x will be changed in ITALIC

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 6/179

FOREWORD
The Trinidad & Tobago Small building Code was declared a National Standard on ------------------, 2004 After the draft finalized by the Small Building Committee had been approved by the Trinidad & Tobago Bureau of Standards. The preparation of this code/standard arose out of the need to improve the quality of Trinidad and Tobagos house while assuring that the safety of the structure is maintained. In the preparation of this code, extensive use has been made of the Parts of the Caribbean Uniform Building Code (CUBIC) which deals with small buildings. The CUBIC is at this time being considered for revision and the management Committee for the revision project has elected to make use of the International Code Council Inc., of the U.S.A. in the provision of base documentation for the revision of CUBIC. In like manner for this code use has been made of the I.B.C. year 2000. International Residential Code Final Draft 1998. The small Building Code is a document which has been put together by several public and private organisations in Trinidad and Tobago to streamline the approval and construction of small, non complex building structures and ensure that work is completed in a manner that conforms to acceptable standards. The drafting of the code document has been managed by the Board of Engineering of Trinidad & Tobago, sponsored by the Joint Consultative Council in the Construction Industry and the Interim National Physical Planning Commission with the support and active participation of the Trinidad & Tobago Bureau of Standards. The first edition of this code provides simple guidelines for the construction of small buildings (residential, office or light industrial) where use is made of concrete foundations, masonry block walls or timber and metal frame or wooden roofing system. Future editions of this code will cover all types of small buildings constructed with concrete, masonry block walls, steels and timber, metal or any combination of these Future editions of this code will cover also openings, floor, ceiling and wall finishing , burglar-proofing to make with the plumbing and the electrical codes of Trinidad and Tobago a complete collection to cover the Small Buildings.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 7/179

1 Scope
1.1 These provisions shall be known as the Trinidad and Tobago Small Building Code and shell refer to herein as This Code. 1.2 The provisions in this code shall apply to the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, repair, equipment, use occupancy, location, maintenance, removal and demolition of buildings, for single or multiple family residential or general purpose use of not more than two stories in height and with a gross floor area of three hundred square metres (300m2) or less. 1.3 This code is intended to provide minimum requirements to safeguard life, limb, health and public welfare. It calls for minimum requirements for building materials in common use and takes into consideration the need for protection against wind and earthquake. 1.4 Sufficient detail is provided to allow for the adequate preparation of plans for buildings under normal environmental conditions. Regulatory authorities would deal with approvals on the basis of adherence to the requirements of this code. (see Annex A Administration and Enforcement) 1.5 The builder/designer is advised to seek assistance from registered professionals in the design and construction of wind and earthquake resistant structures for buildings outside the scope of this code and/or for special application or other than normal environmental conditions.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 8/179

Normative references

This chapter lists the standards that are referenced in various sections of this document.

ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken, PA 19428

Standard number

reference

Title Specification for steel sheet, metallic coated by the hot dip process and pre-painted by the coil-coating process for exterior exposed building products Lead coated copper sheets Specification bearing wall tile. for structural clay load-

Code reference Roof materials

ASTM A 755M - 94

ASTM B 101-96 ASTM C 34-96 ASTM C 406 - 89 ASTM C 652-95a ASTM C 1167 - 94a ASTM D 224 - 89 ASTM D 225-95 ASTM D 226-94 ASTM D 227-97a

Roof materials Hollow masonry blocks Roof materials Hollow masonry blocks Roof materials Roof materials Roof materials Roof materials Roof materials

Specification for roofing slate Specification for hollow brick (Hollow masonry units made from clay or shale) Specification for clay roof tiles Specification for smooth surfaced asphalt roll roofing (Organic felt) Asphalt shingles with mineral granules (Organic felt) surfaced

Specification for asphalt-saturated organic felt used in roofing and water proofing Coal tar saturated organic felt used in roofing and waterproofing

ASTM D 249-89 (96) ASTM D 312-84 ASTM D 450-96

Specification for coal tar saturated organic felt used in roofing and water proofing Specification for asphalt used in roofing Coal tar pitch used in roofing, dampproofing and waterproofing

Roof materials Roof materials Roof materials

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code ASTM D 1863-93 (96) ASTM D 2178-97a ASTM D 2626-97a ASTM D 3462-97a ASTM D 3909-97a ASTM D 4601-97a ASTM D 4869-88 ASTM D 4897-97a ASTM D 4990-97a ASTM E 84-91a Mineral aggregate used in built up roofs Asphalt glass felt used in roofing and waterproofing Asphalt saturated and coated organic felt base sheet used in roofing Asphalt shingles made from glass felt and surfaced with mineral granules Asphalt roll roofing (Glass felt) surfaced with mineral granules Asphalt coated glass fibre base sheet used in roofing Asphalt saturated organic felt underlay used in roofing Asphalt coated glass fibre venting base sheet used in roofing Coal tar glass felt used in roofing and waterproofing Test method for surface characteristics for building materials burning

First edition Page 9/179 Roof materials Roof materials Roof materials Roof materials Roof materials Roof materials Roof materials Roof materials Roof materials Foam plastic Flame spread smoke density Insulation and

ASTM E 90-90

Test method for laboratory measurement of airborne sound transmission loss of building partitions Standard test methods for water vapour transmission of materials Test methods for fire tests of building construction and materials Test method for laboratory measurement of impact sound transmission through floor ceiling assemblies using the tapping machine Test method for fire tests of through penetration fire stops Standard test method for critical radiant flux of exposed attic floor insulation using a radiant heat energy source Standard practice for determining the minimum thickness and type of glass required to resist a specified load

Dwelling unit separation

ASTM E 96-92 ASTM E 119-88 ASTM E 492-90 (96)

Moisture vapour barriers Dwelling unit separation Dwelling unit separation

ASTM E 814-94b ASTM E 970-94a

Dwelling unit separation Insulation

ASTM E 1300-97

Glazing

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

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AWPA
American Wood-Preservers Association PO Box 5690 Granbury, Texas 76049

Standard reference number C1-90 C15-90

Title All timber products- Preservative treatment by pressure processes Wood for commercial-residential construction- Preservative treatment by pressure processes

Code reference Protection against termites

BS
British Standards

Standard reference number BS EN 490 : 1994

Title Concrete roofing tiles and fittings. Product specifications.

Code reference Roof materials

CPSC
Consumer Product Safety Commission 4330 East West Highway Bethesda, MD 20814-4408

Standard number

reference part part part

Title Safety standard for architectural glazing Interim safety cellulose insulation Cellulose insulation standard for

Code reference Glazing Insulation Insulation

CPSC 16-CFR, 1201-77 CPSC 16-CFR 1209-79 CPSC 1404 16-CFR

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 11/179

CUBIC

Standard reference number

Title

Code reference

IRC
International Residential Code for One and Two Family Dwellings Doubletree Hotel 3050 Bristol Street Costa Mesa, CA 92626

Standard reference number

Title

Code reference

ISO
Case postale 56 CH- 1211 Geneva, 20 Switzerland

Standard reference number STD Version 1

Title STD template for the preparation of normative-type documents. Reference manual.

Code reference Presentation of building code". the "Small

TTS
Trinidad and Tobago Bureau of Standards Trincity Industrial Estate Macoya, Tunapuna, Trinidad

Standard reference number

Title

Code reference

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code TTS 16 80 400: 1991 Code of practice for the design and construction of septic tanks and associated secondary treatment and disposal system. Specification for load masonry concrete units. bearing

First edition Page 12/179 Sanitation

TTS 16 35 508 TTS 16 35 509 TTS 587:2003 TTS 588:2003 TTS 16 35 511: 1998

Hollow masonry blocks Hollow masonry blocks

Specification for non load bearing concrete masonry units. Hollow clay block vertical core Hollow clay block horizontal core Specification for corrugated galvanised and aluzinc coated steel sheets for roofing and general purpose. Electrical code Carbon steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete Specification

Roof materials

TTS 171 TTS 583:2000

Dwelling unit separation Basic materials

ULC
Underwriters Laboratories of Canada 7 Crouse Road Scarborough, Ontario, Canada MIR 3A9

Standard reference number S102.2 - M88

Title Standard method of test for surface burning characteristics of flooring, floor covering and miscellaneous materials and assembly

Code reference Insulation

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

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3 Terms and definitions


3.1 Addition

An extension or increase in floor area or height of the building or structure.

3.2

Anchor

Metal rod, wire, or strap that secures masonry or any structure to its structural support.

3.3

Approved

Acceptable to the building official

3.4

Attic

The space between the ceiling beams of the top story and the roof rafters.

3.5

Balcony

An exterior floor projecting from and supported by a structure without additional independent supports.

3.6

Basement

That portion of a building, which is partly or completely below grade.

3.7

Building

Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy

3.8

Cement plaster

A mixture of Portland or blended cement, and hydrated lime, masonry cement or plastic cement and aggregate and other approved materials as specified in the code.

3.9

Cladding

The exterior surface of the building envelope that is directly loaded by the wind.

3.10

Column

A member with a ratio of height to least lateral dimension exceeding 3, used primarily to support axial compressive load.

3.11

Concrete

A mixture of Portland cement or any other hydraulic cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, and water, with or without admixture.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code 3.12 Construction documents

First edition Page 14/179

Written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a building permit. Construction drawings shall be drawn to an appropriate scale.

3.13

Dead loads

Consist of the weight of materials of construction incorporated into building, including but not limited to walls, floors, ceilings, stairways, built in partitions, finishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and fixed service equipment, including the weight of cranes.

3.14

Diaphragm

A horizontal or nearly horizontal system acting to transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements. When the term diaphragm is used, it includes horizontal bracing systems.

3.15

Dwelling

A building, which contains one or two dwelling units used, intended or designed to be built, used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied, or which are occupied for living purposes.

3.16

Dwelling unit

A single unit providing complete independent living facilities for one or more persons including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

3.17

Emergency escape and rescue opening

An openable window, door, or other similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue of and emergency.

3.18

Fibreboard

A fibrous, homogeneous panel made from lignocelluloses fibres (usually wood or cane) and having a density of less than 500kg/m3 and more than 160kg/m3.

3.19

Fire resistance

That property of material or their assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use.

3.20

Fire resistance rating

The period of time a building or building component maintains the ability to confine a fire or continues to perform a given structural function or both.

3.21

Floor area (gross and net) a) Gross

The floor area within the inside perimeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corridor, stairways, closets, the thickness of the interior walls, columns or other features.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

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b) Net The actual occupied area not including unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways and closets.

3.22

Guard

A building component or a system of building components located at or near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimise the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to a lower level.

3.23

Gypsum board

Gypsum wallboard, gypsum sheathing, gypsum base for gypsum veneer plaster, exterior gypsum soffit board, pre-decorated gypsum board, or water- resistant gypsum baking board.

3.24

Habitable space

A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, hall, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.

3.25

Handrail

A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.

3.26

Header

A masonry unit that connect two or more adjacent withes of masonry.

3.27

Interior finish

Interior finish includes interior wall and ceiling finish and floor finish.

3.28

Interior floor finish

The exposed floor surfaces of buildings including coverings applied over a finished floor or stair, including risers.

3.29

Interlayment

A layer of felt or non-bituminous saturated felt not less than 450mm wide, shingled between each course of a wood shake roof covering.

3.30

Joint

The linear opening in or between adjacent fire resistance rated assemblies that is designed to allow independent movement of the building, in any plane, caused by thermal, seismic, wind or any other loading.

3.31

Live loads

Those load produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure and d not include construction or environmental load such as wind load, rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

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3.32

Load factor

A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual load from the nominal load, for uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the probability that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously. 3.33 Lot

A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit.

3.34

Masonry

A built up construction of building units or materials of clay, shale, concrete, glass, gypsum, stone, or other approved units bonded together with or without mortar or grout or other accepted method of joining.

3.35

Garage

Enclosed carport.

3.36

Mortar

A plastic mixture of approved cementations materials, fine aggregate and water used to bond masonry or other structural units.

3.37

Owner

Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a legal or equitable interest in the property.

3.38

Panel (part of the structure)

The section of a floor, wall, or roof comprised between the supporting frame of two adjacent rows of columns and girder or column bands of floor or roof construction.

3.39

Permit

An official document or certificate issued by the authority having jurisdiction that authorizes performance of a specified activity.

3.40

Pile foundations

Pile foundations consist of concrete or steel structural elements either driven into the ground or cast in place. Piles are relatively slender in comparison to their length, with lengths exceeding 12 times the least horizontal dimension. Piles derive their load carrying capacity through skin friction, through end bearing or a combination of both.

3.41

Pier foundations

Pier foundations consist of isolated masonry or cast in place concrete structural elements extending into firm materials. Piers are relatively short in comparison to their width, with lengths less than or equal to 12 times the least horizontal dimension of the pier. Piers derive their load-carrying capacity through skin friction, through end bearing or a combination of both.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code 3.42 Plain concrete

First edition Page 17/179

Structural concrete with no reinforcement or with less reinforcement than the minimum amount specified for reinforced concrete.

3.43

Plain masonry

Masonry in which the tensile resistance of the masonry is taken into consideration and the effect of stresses in reinforcement are neglected.

3.44

Plywood

A wood structural panel comprised of plies of wood veneer arranged in cross-aligned layers. The plies are bonded with an adhesive that cures on application of heat and pressure.

3.45

Preservative (treated wood)

Wood including plywood impregnated under pressure with compounds, which reduce their susceptibility to flame, spread to deterioration caused by fungi, insects, or marine borers.

3.46

Ramp

A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 5%.

3.47

Registered professional

An individual who is registered or licensed to practice their respective profession as defined by the statutory requirement of the professional registration laws of the country in which the project is to be constructed.

3.48

Reinforced concrete

Structural concrete reinforced with no less than the minimum amounts of pre-stressing tendons non-prestressed reinforcement.

3.49

Roof assembly

A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads.

3.50

Roof covering

The covering applied to the roof deck for weather resistance, fire classification or appearance.

3.51

Roof covering system

The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck.

3.52

Shear wall a) Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall.

A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code b) Wood A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall.

First edition Page 18/179

3.53

Stair

A change in elevation, consisting in one or more risers.

3.54

Stairway

One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another.

3.55

Stirrup

Reinforcement used to resist shear and torsion stresses in a structural member; typically bars, wires or welded wire fabric either single leg or bent into L, U or rectangular shapes and located perpendicular to or at an angle to longitudinal reinforcement.

3.56

Story

That portion of the building included between the upper surface of the floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above.

3.57

Structure

That which is built or constructed.

3.58

Tile

A ceramic surface unit, relatively thin in relation to facial area, made from clay or a mixture of clay or other ceramic materials.

3.59

Treated wood

Wood impregnated under pressure with compounds, which reduce their susceptibility to flame, spread or to deterioration caused by fungi, insects or marine borers.

3.60

Underlayment

One or more layers of felt, sheathing paper, non-bituminous saturated felt, or other approved materials over which a steep-slope roof covering is applied

3.61

Vapour barrier

A material having a good permeance rating such as foil, plastic sheeting, or insulation facing installed to resist the transmission of water vapour through the exterior envelope.

3.62

Ventilation

The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from any space.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 19/179

3.63

Wall (load bearing) a) Any metal or wood stud that supports more than 1.50 kN/m of vertical load in addition to its own weight. b) Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 3 kN/m of vertical load in addition to its own weight.

3.64

Wall (non load bearing)

Any wall that is not a load-bearing wall.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 20/179

4
4.1
4.1.1

General construction
Principle
Site preparation Preliminary investigation

4.1.1.1

Before any construction work commences, it shall be determined whether planning permission and other approvals would be required from the competent (relevant) authorities. A preliminary inspection of the site shall be undertaken so that preparation may be made for any problems or difficulties that may arise. This time should also be used to plan how the site will be organised so that a logical layout may emerge. 4.1.1.2 Checklist for site conditions

Completion of the checklist below will provide enough information about the site and its conditions to permit construction to begin. 4.1.1.2.1 Forms and documents a) Has planning permission been obtained? b) Is there a surveyor's or topographical drawing of the site? 4.1.1.2.2 Site c) The shape and sizes of plot conform to those shown on the layout plan d) Is easy access to the site available? e) The site can be adequately drained? f) Have the location of all boundary markers been found? g) Are water, sewage disposal facilities and an electricity supply available on site? h) Take note of the general topography of site and other physical conditions likely to cause hazards. i) j) l) Is there evidence of termite infestation in the soil or trees? Will there be a need for the removal of large trees? Is there adequate natural provision for the removal of storm water i.e. drainage of water as a result of heavy rains or flooding.

k) Is the area normally subject to land slippage?

m) Will construction endanger any of the public utility services? n) Determine the height of the water table if appropriate. o) Determine whether the soil is suitable for the construction of a soak-away pit. p) Determine the ground floor datum. q) Determine the depth of the foundation stratum, if feasible. r) t) Select suitable areas for stockpiling aggregate. Select location of a materials storage shed. s) Select an area for the location of a concrete mixer or for the hand-mixing of concrete. u) Are there existing structures to be removed or altered? Completion of the above checklist should highlight possible construction problems as well as the requirements of plant and materials. Where foundation problems are evident it is recommended that an engineer or any other appropriate professional be consulted.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

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4.1.2

Site clearance

4.1.2.1 Care should be taken to preserve any trees on the site. Where it is necessary to remove any trees, special care shall be taken to remove, totally, all roots and stumps of the felled trees as well as any of the other remains from the site. Note: There may be statutory limitations on the extent to which large trees may be removed. Consult with the Ministry of Agriculture for further clarification.

4.1.2.2 The area where the building will be situated shall be stripped of topsoil. This material should be stock piled in a suitable area for later use during landscaping.

4.1.3

Material storage

4.1.3.1 Areas shall be allocated on the cleared site for the storage of materials. Coarse and fine aggregate for the mixing of concrete and mortar shall be placed in separate heaps in a location near to the concrete mixer or concrete mixing area. 4.1.3.2 Cement, nails and finished materials (groove ply, PVC pipe, galvanised sheeting etc.) requiring protected storage shall be stored in a shed, which is weather tight and has a wooden floor raised not less than four inches off the ground. 4.1.3.3 Reinforcement steel shall be stacked off the ground to reduce corrosion.

4.1.4

Batter boards

The building shall be properly set out on the site according to the building plan. Batter boards, which are horizontal boards parallel to the sides of the building and supported by vertical boards driven into the ground shall be erected in convenient locations near the four (or more) corners of the building, and to these boards should be transferred the building lines and levels for the project. 4.1.4.1 The floor level is usually marked on the batter boards and used as a permanent reference. All wall lines and levels shall be referred to these boards. Periodic checks shall be made to ensure that these boards have not been shifted from their intended positions.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code 4.1.5 Driveways and paving

First edition Page 22/179

4.1.5.1 The driveways and paving dealt with in this section are those suitable for use as driveways and parking areas for private cars and light goods vehicles only. Driveways shall be not less than 3m wide. 4.1.5.2 The choice of flexible (asphalt) or rigid (concrete) paving is largely influenced by the soil conditions at the site and the cost of driveway. Gravel driveways and paving are acceptable if adequate drainage is available and if the gravel or crushed rock is reasonably hard, free from clay, and would not be easily crushed by the light traffic. Adequate provision for drainage shall be made. 4.1.5.3 Where firm soils or rocks are present, any type of paving previously mentioned may be used. Where soft soils are present gravel or a flexible paving is recommended. 4.1.5.4 For all kinds of paving the topsoil shall be removed and replaced by a minimum of 150 mm of compacted, granular material. 4.1.5.5 For rigid paving, a concrete slab with a minimum thickness of 100 mm is required, reinforced by welded wire mesh of minimum 100 mm2/m wide in both directions, placed 25 mm below the top surface of the slab. Construction joints shall be created every 5 m. Note: A98, A142 and 150x150X4.5 BRC are acceptable. 4.1.5.6 For flexible paving a minimum thickness of 50 mm of asphalt (cold or hot mix) shall be applied and compacted by roller on an approved and adequate sub base.

4.1.6 4.1.6.1

Earth works Site topography

4.1.6.1.1 The natural topography of the land should be maintained and any excavation or back filling that must be carried out (and deemed as necessary) should be kept to a minimum. This is necessary to maintain the natural vegetation, prevent landslides and flooding and preserve in general the natural environment. 4.1.6.1.2 It is essential therefore those buildings should be constructed in such a manner to compliment the natural topography of the site and not vice-versa.

4.1.6.2

Soil conditions

4.1.6.2.1 The characteristics of the site soil conditions shall be ascertained. If necessary, compaction shall be carried out in order to improve the bearing value of the soil. 4.1.6.2.2 Where expansive clay is encountered or where problem conditions are present, professional advice shall be sought before planning the foundation.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code 4.1.6.3 Excavations

First edition Page 23/179

4.1.6.3.1 Excavations for foundations shall be carried out along the building lines to the depth of the foundation stratum identified as suitable. 4.1.6.3.2 Excavations not exceeding 1.2 m in depth may generally be without planking and strutting, which is a system of braced timber walls erected against the faces of the excavation to prevent collapse. For excavations exceeding 1.2 m the extent of planking and strutting necessary shall be determined by the nature of the soil and the location of the water table. 4.1.6.3.3 Where collapse of the side of excavation is anticipated, all excavation in excess of 1.2 m in depth shall be planked and strutted. 4.1.6.3.4 Where the foundation is in rock, it shall be excavated at least 50 mm to provide a key for the foundations. 4.1.6.3.5 The bottom of all excavations shall be level and firm. Where loose materials are encountered, foundation bottoms shall be compacted by ramming. 4.1.6.3.6 Where excavations have been carried beyond their generally required depth, either by accident or design, the deep areas shall be back filled with compacted, adequate material or with Grade E concrete (see Table 6).

4.1.6.4

Back filling

4.1.6.4.1 Back filling shall not be carried out in dry rivers, natural drains, where water flows after heavy rains and along thalwegs (lowest areas in valleys). 4.1.6.4.2 Back filling around foundation walls and under floor slabs shall be carried out using only suitable, selected materials. Unless the floor slab is reinforced to act as a suspended slab, the depth of fill shall not exceed 1m. 4.1.6.4.3 Suitable fill material may be brought to the site or obtained from excavated material, provided always that such material is free of substantial amounts of clay or organic matter. 4.1.6.4.4 All backfill shall be well compacted in layers not exceeding 150 mm in thickness where compaction is by manual methods. Where mechanical compaction equipment is used, the thickness of layers may be increased to 225 mm. 4.1.6.4.5 Where back filling under floor slabs on grade has been effected using hard core, a 50 mm layer of sand shall be applied to the top of the compacted hard core to protect damp proof membranes from puncture.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 24/179

4.1.7

Earthquake considerations

4.1.7.1 Earthquake resistant construction

4.1.7.1.1

General

Trinidad and Tobago is in an earthquake zone and has experienced varying degrees of damage due to earthquakes. It is therefore essential that buildings are designed and constructed so that they have some resistance to the shaking or lateral forces produced by earthquakes.

4.1.7.1.2

Effect of soil type

a) The type of soil at the site may have a significant effect upon the resistance of the building to an earthquake. However for buildings within the scope of this code the effect of the soil type is not so significant provided that the building is not constructed on loose saturated sands, which may liquefy during an earthquake and cause collapse of the building. b) The earthquake may also, due to shaking of the ground, compact loose sand or fill material, and if a building is constructed on such material, the building will be damaged.

4.1.7.1.3

Effect of high seas

Buildings on coastal areas may suffer due to high waves produced by earthquakes, and therefore the sitting of the building in relation to the sea level needs to be considered. Professional advice shall therefore be sought in such cases.

4.1.7.1.4

Building shape

a) The success with which a building survives an earthquake is greatly affected by its shape in plan, the way the building is tied together and the quality of construction. b) Most buildings with a simple rectangular shape with no projections (or only short projections) perform well under earthquake conditions provided the construction is adequate. c) Long narrow buildings should be avoided by limiting the length to three times the width. If the building must be longer, then it should be divided into separate blocks with adequate separation. Figure 1 illustrates desirable and undesirable plan shapes. d) Rectangular buildings with well inter-connected cross walls are inherently strong and therefore desirable.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 25/179

Separation of Blgs to improve resistance Long undesirable plans

Desirable plans

Fig 1 - Plan of building proportion

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 26/179

Not enought shear panel Too narow Too narow

Floor level

Not acceptable opening location Too many openings on the facade

400

400

1 100

1 000

2 020

Floor level

1 800mm min Shear panel

Fig 2 - Recommended location of wall openings

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 27/179

600mm minimum

First floor

Ground level

First floor

Ground level

Fig 3 - Recommended location of wall openings for two storey building

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

600 mm minimum

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code 4.1.7.1.5 Appendages

First edition Page 28/179

Where buildings have decorative or functional additions or appendages such as window hoods, parapets and wall panels etc. extreme care must be taken to ensure that they are securely fixed, since many of such items tend to fall easily and may cause damage during an earthquake.

4.1.7.2

Rules for the construction of earthquake resistant buildings

It is recommended that the following rules be followed for the construction of buildings: 4.1.7.2.1 Masonry buildings

An important factor contributing to the earthquake resistance of masonry buildings is the detailing and placing of steel reinforcement. A registered professional should undertake the design of a reinforced concrete frame building. The reinforcing guide given in this section therefore must only be used for simple single storey buildings constructed of approved quality masonry blocks. For the minimum quantities of reinforcing steel to be used refer to SECTION 5 Vertical Structures. 4.1.7.2.2 Timber buildings

There are two additional areas of concern with respect to timber buildings: --- All corners and intersections must be adequately braced. --- Earthquake and hurricane forces tend to remove timber buildings from their supports by shaking. Because of this, sills shall be securely fastened to foundations. 4.1.7.2.3 Steel buildings

The natural ductility of steel protects the frame from severe damage. However, in many cases masonry block walls are used and the precautions already listed for these walls will apply. The wall reinforcement must now be anchored by welding to the steel columns and beams, or the steel frame encased in concrete in which case the wall reinforcement can be tied into the concrete cage encasing the steel frame.

4.1.7.3

Location of openings

4.1.7.3.1 The location and size of openings in walls have a significant effect upon the strength of a wall and its ability to resist earthquake forces. 4.1.7.3.2 Openings shall be located away from a corner by a clear distance of at least 1/4 of the height of the opening. It is recommended that the minimum distance be 400 mm. 4.1.7.3.3 The total length of the openings should not exceed 1/2 the length of the wall between consecutive cross walls (see Figure 2). 4.1.7.3.4 The horizontal distance between two openings should not be less than 1/2 the height of the shorter opening (see Figure 2). 4.1.7.3.5 For two storey buildings, the vertical distance from an opening to one directly above it shall not be less than 600mm, nor shall it be less than one half the width of the smaller opening.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 29/179

4.1.8

Hurricane considerations

4.1.8.1

Hurricane resistant construction General

4.1.8.1.1

a) It is very important in Trinidad and Tobago to be ever conscious of the fact that the region lies in the hurricane belt. Because of this, hurricane resistant construction principles must be adhered to if safe buildings are to be erected. This section gives general principles for safe hurricane resistant design, and it is recommended that the details shown in these guidelines must be adhered in order to ensure safe construction. b) For the buildings within the scope of this document the areas most vulnerable to hurricane forces are the roofs, windows, walls and appendages. c) The underlying objective of hurricane resistant construction is to produce a building that will not collapse during a hurricane. The building must be standing and its occupants should be safe.

4.1.8.2

Rules for the construction of hurricane resistant buildings

4.1.8.2.1

Building site

a) Buildings sited in exposed areas (e.g. on the brow of a hill or near coastal areas) are most vulnerable, while those sheltered by natural topography are less vulnerable. Buildings sited in gullies or riverbeds are very vulnerable as they are subject to severe damage by floods caused by the heavy rains, which often accompany a hurricane. b) In sitting the building, therefore, steep slopes and edge of cliffs should be avoided, as well as other conditions such as steep sided valleys where exceptionally high wind speeds are found. c) Tie beams should be constructed to reduce the untied height of the columns to a maximum of 3 meters as shown in Figure 5. It is advisable to seek professional assistance for such construction, unless otherwise designed for larger columns.

4.1.8.2.2

Timber buildings

a) Because of the relatively light nature of a timber building, extra precautions shall be taken to prevent uplift. Care must therefore be taken to ensure that the entire structure is securely fastened to the foundations. b) The spaces between the supporting columns or piers may be filled in to reduce the uplift forces (see Figure 6). c) As far as timber walls are concerned, in addition to bracing corners in both directions, diagonal braces or steel straps must be installed at the level of the top plate to provide rigidity of the corners at that level (see Figures 7 and 8).

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 30/179

width of wall

roof level

roof reinforced concrete ring beam

frame of building floor level

Fig 4 - Typical roof gable wall arrangement

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

50mm min

Section through concrete capping

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 31/179

Roof level

Reinforced concrete ring beam

Frame of building Floor level

200mm thk. r.c. blockwall

200x300 r.c. tie beam

Existing grade

r.c. strip footing


600 mm min

Ground slopes should be less than 15 degrees

Roof level

Reinforced concrete ring beam

frame of building Floor level

300x300 mm min r.c. column

existing grade r.c. footing

Steep slopes more than 15 degrees and less than 30 degrees


900 mm min

Note: Those sketches don't show the shear panels

r.c. footing

Fig 5 - Recommended method of construction on sloping sites

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

3 000mm maximum

200x300 r.c. tie beam

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 32/179

100 X 100 Timber sill

Grade

r.c. tie beam

150 mm thick blockwork

Colomn may be 200 x 200mm reinforced concrete or block work filled with concrete and 4 - 12mm bars 8mm links - 200mm centers

Fig 6 - In-fill panel between timber building supports

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 33/179

Horizontal bracing for corners at wall plate level

Wall plate

Uprights

Sheating

Wall sill

Brace corners by diagonal bracings

Fig 7 - Timber framing showing bracing

Wall plate must be fastened and strapped to the top of uprights

Window opening Double uprights at openings Door opening

Wall sill is fixed to foundation wall by anchor bolts Wall sill The uprights are fixed to the wall sill

Fig 8 - Timber framing for wall

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 34/179

roof sheeting

roof battens 50 x 150 timber rafter at 600mm centers ceiling material

metal hurricane tie every other rafter timber wall plate

r.c. ring beam

200

roof eave 900mm (max)


fascia board

150

Fig 9 - Rafter/wall plate connections

100mm min

50 x 100 timber wall plate

12mm anchor bolt at 1200mm centers (maximum) r.c. ring beam T 6mm stirrups @ 200 cts

Fig 10 - Rafter/ ring beam connections

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 35/179

Timber rafter

metal hurricane tie imbedded in ring beam

Infill concrete Timber wall plate r.c. ring beam

metal hurricane tie

Timber wall plate

Timber wall plate Mortise

Tenon Metal strap

Timber upright

Timber upright

Fig 11 - Wall plate connections and hurricane ties

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 36/179

4.1.8.2.3

Steel buildings

The principles for the design and construction of hurricane resistant steel buildings are:
a) Ensure that there are adequate numbers and sizes of foundation holding down bolts, and that they are all in place and properly fixed. b) Ensure that there is adequate lateral support provided by cross bracing or horizontal ties or by cast in place concrete or masonry walls. c) Where concrete walls or concrete masonry is used, the connections between the steel frames and the walls shall be provided. d) Ensure that the fabricator's recommendations with regards to the construction of the roof and roof covering are followed.

4.1.9

Roofs

4.1.9.1 Roofs with pitch between 0 and 20 (or a slope between 0 % and 36 %) are more vulnerable to uplift forces. It is recommended that roofs be constructed with a pitch between 20 and 40 (or a slope between 36 % and 84 %). 4.1.9.2 The aptitude to reduce uplift forces is affected by the shape of the roof in the following order from the most effective to the least effective:

a) Hip roof b) Gable c) Shed


4.1.9.3 Attention should be given to the location of fixings used for the roof cladding. It is necessary to provide additional fixings at the roof edges and ridge, since high-localised pressures are produced in these locations. 4.1.9.4 Roof overhangs also experience high local pressures and, where possible, these should be kept to a minimum or adequately strengthened. 4.1.9.5 Where buildings have covered patios or verandas, their roofs may be separate structures rather than extensions of the main building roof. A patio or veranda roof may be lost without endangering the safety of the main roof. 4.1.9.6 The main roof must be securely fixed to the ring beam and ridge beams and details for achieving this are shown in Figures 9, and 10 and 11.

4.1.10

Windows and doors

Special attention must be paid to the installation of doors and windows, since the loss of a door or window during a hurricane will greatly alter the internal pressure of the building, thus adversely affecting its safety. For this reason, glazed windows and doors may be fitted with shutters.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

File # Small building code 2004_draft


Masonry Suspended first floor slab Ground floor slab suspended or on grade Columns, beams & shear panel structure Suspended first floor slab Ground floor slab suspended or on grade Framed structure Suspended first floor slab Ground floor slab suspended or on grade Masonry Suspended ground floor slab with crawl space Columns, beams & shear panel structure Suspended ground floor slab with crawl space Framed structure Suspended ground floor slab with crawl space Masonry Ground floor slab suspended or on grade Columns, beams & shear panel structure Ground floor slab suspended or on grade Framed structure Ground floor slab suspended or on grade

Fig 12 - Basic 1 or 2 level house type

Date 01 July, 2004

Shear panel

First edition Page 37/179

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Fig 13 - Mixed 1 or 2 level house type

Flat site 2 levels

First level masonry Ground level columns, beams & shear panel structure Suspended first floor slab Ground floor slab suspended or slab on grade

First level masonry Ground level framed structure Suspended first floor slab Ground floor slab suspended or slab on grade

Date 01 July, 2004


First level masonry Crawl space columns, beams & shear panel structure Suspended ground floor slab First level masonry Crawl space framed structure Suspended ground floor slab

First edition Page 38/179

Sloping site

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

File # Small building code 2004_draft


First level timber Ground level columns, beams & shear panel structure Suspended first floor slab First level timber Ground level framed structure Suspended first floor slab First level cold formed steel Crawl space columns, beams & shear panel structure Suspended ground floor slab First level metallic structure Crawl space framed structure Suspended ground floor slab Shear panel

Fig 14 - 1 or 2 level house, other combination

First level timber Suspended first floor slab Ground floor slab suspended or on grade

Date 01 July, 2004

First level timber Suspended ground floor slab with crawl space

First edition Page 39/179

One level timber Ground floor slab suspended or on grade

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 40/179

4.2
4.2.1

Design criteria
Conventional design

--- Buildings and structures, and all parts thereof, shall be constructed to support safely all loads, including dead loads. --- Where different construction methods and structural materials are used for various portions of a building, the applicable requirements of this part for each portion shall apply. 4.2.1.1 Conventional building

--- Conventional construction shall be considered as building with acceptable shape of the Figures 12, 13 and 14, 1 and 2 level house type. --- All conventional construction shall be designed in accordance with this code. 4.2.1.2 Irregular building

--- Irregular buildings shall have an engineered lateral-force resisting system designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. --- A building shall be considered to be irregular when one or more of the following conditions occur:

a) When exterior shear panels or reinforced frame is not in one plane vertically from the foundation to the uppermost story in which they are required. (See Framed structure) b) When a section of floor or roof is not laterally supported by shear panel or reinforced frame on all edges. c) When an opening in a floor or roof exceeds the lesser of 3.60m or 50% of the least floors or roofs dimension. d) When portions of a floor level are vertically offset. e) When shear panel or reinforced frame is do not occur in two perpendicular directions. f) When shear panel or reinforced frame are constructed of dissimilar bracing systems on any one-story level above grade.
--- Limit of this code:

When a building of otherwise conventional construction contains structural elements, which exceed the limits of this code, those elements shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 41/179

4.2.2 4.2.2.1

Engineered design General

Buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this code as limited by the provisions of this section.
4.2.2.2 Wind design.

The requirements in this document are based on design wind speed over open water at equivalent elevation of 10m average over 10 minutes with a recurrence of one in 50 years.
4.2.2.2.1 Minimum load Table 1 - Design pressure for winds

Design pressure Wind zone (Consensus conference) Wall (horizontal load) kN/m Roof (minimum uplift) kN/m

Trinidad Zone 2 0.80 1.00

Tobago Zone 3 1.00 1.45

4.2.2.2.2

Site effect

--- The pressure above shall be modified to take in consideration the site effect in 3 categories. Site types Coefficients Protected 0.80 Normal 1 Exposed 1.35

--- It is considered as exposed , costal site until 5km from the sea or top of hill or ridge, E W valley and special site well now for this exposure. --- It is considered as protected area small building in down town or in special valley N S (This coefficient must be used with caution and the help of the Engineer).
4.2.2.3 Seismic design

All buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Seismic design category: 4.2.2.3.1 Ground acceleration

The requirements in this document are based on maximum ground acceleration associated with 10% probability of occurrence in 50 years. Trinidad and Tobago in Zone 3 (Consensus conference).
for Trinidad for Tobago
2

0.3 g 0.3 g

(g refers to the gravity and g = 9.81m/s )


a) Amplification factor

Where the soil is 100% saturated (low land, reclaimed land, etc.) an amplification factor of 2 shall be applied to the ground acceleration. See calculation for shear load.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


b) Soil liquefaction

First edition Page 42/179

To prevent any soil liquefaction on the same type of land than above a special attention shall be carried out with an engineer specialist for the choice of the appropriate type of foundation. See calculation for shear load.

4.2.2.3.2

Weights of applied finishes

--- Dead load finishes shall not exceed 1 kN/m2 for roofs or 0.5 kN/m2 for floors. --- Dead load finishes for walls above grade shall not exceed:

a - light-frame walls b - masonry walls c - concrete walls

0.75 kN/m2 for exterior 0.50 kN/m2 for interior 2.50 kN/m2 for 150mm thick masonry wall 3.80 kN/m2 for 200 mm thick masonry wall 4.10 kN/m2 for 150 mm thick concrete walls

4.2.2.3.3

Height limitations

The design applied to any construction is limited to two stories with a maximum of 9m to the top of the building.

4.2.2.4

Flood plain construction

Buildings and structures constructed in flood prone areas as established in Fig. 15 & 16 shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Clause - Flood resistant construction and Clause - Coastal high hazard areas of Part "Minimal requirements".

4.2.3

Dead load

The actual weights of materials and construction shall be used for determining dead load with consideration for the dead load of fixed service equipment.

4.2.4

Live load

The minimum uniformly distributed live load shall be as provided in Table 2.


Table 2 - Minimum uniformly distributed live loads Use Live loads (kN/m2) 1.5 2.5 5 5 Horizontal loads (kN/m) 1

Domestic floor - All rooms excepted above Office floor excepted above Small industrial and storage Exterior and interior balconies, Corridors & Stairs
Use

Guard rails and handrails

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 43/179

Fig A2-3 Trinidad flood prone areas

SWAMP HIGH OCCASIONAL SLIGHT UNLIKELY

Fig 15 Trinidad flood prone area

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 44/179


N W S E

TOBAGO

#
P ly m o u th T u r tle B e a c h Bu cco o # S to r e Bay

L o u is D 'o r # R o x b o ro ug h A r g y le

# #

Sc a rb o ro ug h

P a r is h e s

L o w la n d s

20

20

4 0 M i le s

Coastal/Tidal

Area
Tobago north side Tobago south side Tobago south side Tobago north side Tobago north side

Impact / Recurrence interval


Buccoo 9m of limestone cliff eroded Roxborough Argyle Plymouth Turtle Beach Grange Bay

Cause
Flora 1953 1999 band H. Lenny feeder

Tobago north side Tobago north side

Store Bay Pigeon Point

Fig 16 - Tobago flood prone areas

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 45/179

4.2.5

Roof load.

Roof shall be designed for the live load indicated in Table 3.


Table 3 - Minimum roof live loads (kN/m2)

Tributary loaded area for any structural members Roof slope 0 to 20m2 Flat or rise less than (20) 36% slope Rise (20) 36% to (45) 100% Rise greater than (45) 100% 1 0.75 0.6 Area (m2) 20 to 55m2 0.75 0.7 0.6 over 55m2 0.6 0.6 0.6

4.2.6 4.2.6.1

Lateral load design Preamble

--- Wind and earthquake introduce horizontal loads in the superstructure that are transferred to the foundation. We have to consider 2 steps:

a) Transfer of the horizontal load from: i. wind to vertical wall and roof. to the appropriated wall or framed structure. b) Transfer of the load from the top to the bottom of the wall or superstructure and the foundation.
--- According to this code:

ii. acceleration of mass located everywhere in the superstructure

a) b)

horizontal transfer is done by horizontal diaphragm or horizontal beam and slab. vertical transfer is one by shear panel, cross, or framed structure.

4.2.6.2

Diaphragm

--- Floor, roof or ceiling assemblies may be constructed with the necessary stiffness and load path continuity to distribute lateral loads (wind and earthquake) to lateral support subsystems. In this role, floor, roof or ceiling surface act as horizontal beams (also called a diaphragm) spanning lateral supports points. --- Use of floor, roof or ceiling assembly, as a diaphragm requires both strength and stiffness properties and development of connections to transfer the diaphragm force. This consideration is very important to complete the role and action of the shear panel.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 46/179

Shear panel in 2 parts

ground level

Part elevation
L2 = 2400 - L1

Minimum L1=1000

5 diam. 12

In situ concrete

Shear panel in one part

1 600

ground level

Part elevation
1 800 400
150mm min

In situ concrete

Part plan
In situ concrete 2 diam. 12 every 2 rows

Fig 17 - Shear panel - Vertical core blocks

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

1 000

400

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 47/179

Shear panel in two parts

Ring beam concrete and reinforcement

ground level

ground level

Part elevation
L1 = 1000 min

Part elevation
L2 = 2400 mm - L1

Shear panel in one part


Ring beam concrete and reinforcement

500

Limit of opening location

4 dia. 12mm ground level

Part elevation
150 min 1 800 2100 min

250mm min 200


115

1600 max

In situ concrete

6mm stirrup each 150mm

Part plan
m min

Fig 18 - Shear panel - Horizontal core blocks

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 48/179

4.2.6.3

Shear panel

4.2.6.3.1

Concrete shear panel in wall

A shear panel (see Figures 17 and 18 - Shear panel) is a portion or section of a 150mm exterior wall that performs the function of resisting lateral earthquake or wind forces.
4.2.6.3.2 Timber

See Section - Wall bracing.

4.2.7

Load factors

All structures shall resist combined loads as follows:

4.2.7.1

Gravity

1.40 D + 1.70 L
4.2.7.2 Earthquake

a) 0.75 (1.40 D + 1.70 L +/- 1.87 E) and b) 0.90 D +/- 1.43 E

4.2.7.2.1

Shear load calculation

--- A simplified formula, for this code is: V = 0.05 x S x W x A --- Whereas:

total shear in kN

The 0.05 coefficient integrated the Z = ground acceleration, C = amplification factor due to structure frequency, I = importance factor = 1 in this code and Rw = ductility factor related with respect to the column design reinforcement used in the normal practice formula.
S = site factor

S=1

for good soil (rock, gravel)

S = 1.2 for softer material (clay, fill) S = 1.5 for deep alluvial deposits S = 2.5 maximum for reclaimed land and saturated soils (due to the amplification factor)
W = total load in kN A = amplification factor

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 49/179

4.2.7.3

Wind

1.40 D + 1.70 L + 1.75 W Note : D = dead load L = live load E = earthquake load W = wind load

4.2.8

Deflection

The allowed deflection of any structural member under the live load shall not exceed the following values in Table 4.
Table 4 Maximum deflection authorised.

Floor slab, structural beam and ceilings All others structural members Rafters and purlins

L/360 L/240 L/180

Interior walls and partitions Notes: L = span length H = span height

H/180

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 50/179

4.3
4.3.1

Minimal requirements
Site address Premises identification

4.3.1.1

Approved numbers or addresses shall be provided for all new buildings in such a position as to be plainly visible and legible from the street or road fronting the property.

4.3.2 4.3.2.1

Light Habitable rooms

All habitable rooms shall be provided with an area to allow natural light to enter not less than 10 percent of the floor area of such rooms.
4.3.2.2 Adjoining rooms

For purpose of determining requirements of light, any room shall be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when at least one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than 10% of the floor area of the interior room but not less than 2.50m2.
4.3.2.3 Bathrooms

Bathrooms, water closet compartments and other similar rooms shall be provided with an area to allow natural light to enter not less than 0.25m2.
4.3.2.4 Stairway illumination

--- All interior and exterior stairways shall be provided with a means to illuminate the stairs, including the landings and treads. --- Interior stairs shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of each landing at the top and bottom of the stairs. --- Exterior stairs shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of the top landing of the stairs. --- For commercial building, emergency lighting shall be provided for power failure conditions.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 51/179

4.3.3 4.3.3.1

Ventilation Natural ventilation Habitable rooms

4.3.3.1.1

--- Natural ventilation shall be provided in all habitable room through windows, louvers or other natural openings through the external wall to the outdoor air. --- The minimum area of ventilation shall be not less than 15% of the floor area of such rooms, of which of 5% shall be fix ventilation.
4.3.3.1.2 Adjoining rooms

For purpose of determining ventilation requirements, any room shall be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when at least one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than 15% of the floor area of the interior room but not less than 2.50m2.
4.3.3.1.3 Bathrooms

Bathrooms, water closet compartments and other similar rooms shall be provided with a ventilation area not less than 0.25m2.
4.3.3.2 Mechanical ventilation Principle

4.3.3.2.1

--- The centralised ventilation system ensures air renewal to keep the occupants healthy and to protect the building from being damaged by the moisture. A quiet and continuous ventilation of the house is provides an incomparable indoor air quality to the house. --- The system consists of a central extract unit connected to the exhaust grilles by spiral ductwork. Fresh air is introduced into bedroom and lounge through self balancing inlets. Fresh air inlets are fitted either straight across the wall or as trickle vents. Stale air is extracted into the high moisture producing rooms (kitchen, bathrooms and toilets) through self balancing exhaust outlets. --- The centrifugal fan unit is located on the roof or in the loft space and is connected to galvanised metal ducting to outside.

Fig 19 - Mechanical ventilation - Principle

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 52/179

4.3.3.2.2

Habitable rooms

--- All habitable rooms shall be provided with the minimum ventilation rates of 30m3/hr for continuous ventilation for every 12m2 of the floor area or part of such rooms. --- This ventilation shall be through windows, doors or other natural openings through the external wall from the outdoor air through a special 30m3/hr-air regulator.
4.3.3.2.3 Kitchen and bathrooms

--- All the air introduced into the house through the habitable rooms (e.g. Living, dining, bedroom, corridor and entrance) shall be extracted in the rooms e.g. kitchen, bathroom, toilet, washing room and other similar rooms have to be maintained in depression to create an air flow through the house. --- The minimum exhaust airflow for each room is as follows: Kitchen Bathroom Shower Toilet (WC) Washing room and store room 120 m3/hr 60 m3/hr 60 m3/hr 30 m3/hr 30 m /hr
3

--- This ventilation air shall be exhausted permanently and directly outside.
4.3.3.2.4 Internal doors

All internal doors have to be provided with air passages not less than 150 cm2. Note: These passages can be provided with a bottom gap of 20 or 25mm under the door.
4.3.3.2.5 Minimum global ventilation

For each house or apartment the minimum ventilation rate is one volume per hour of the habitable part of the house.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 53/179

4.3.4

Minimum room sizes

4.3.4.1

Habitable rooms

--- Every dwelling unit shall have at least one habitable room (living or sleeping room), which shall be not less than 12m2 of floor area. --- Other habitable rooms shall have a gross area of not less than 7.50m2.
4.3.4.2 Other rooms

Kitchen Bathroom Shower Toilet (WC)

not less than 5m2 not less than 3m2and not less than 2m2 for the second one not less than 1.5m2 not less than 1m

WC for handicapped people the minimum area must be3m See Figures: 20 - Minimum room sizes, 21 - Typical furniture arrangement and 22 - Typical arrangement 7.5m2 room.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 54/179

900mm min 1800mm min

1400mm min

1732mm square

2236mm 1667mm 2143mm 1732mm

2778mm 2236mm

Kitchen 5m2 min

Shower 1.5m2 min

Bath. 3m2 min


800mm

750mm min

1333mm 2500mm minimum

WC 1m2 min

1250mm min

3000mm

3464mm square

2500mm minimum 2739mm square

4800mm

4000mm 3464mm

Main room 12m2 min

3000mm 2739mm

Other room 7.5m2 min

Fig 20 - Minimum room sizes

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 55/179

1800mm min

1400mm min

Bathroom 3m2 min


2143mm 2778mm

Kitchen 5m2 min


785mm

685mm

900mm mini

890mm

Entrance

Shower 1.5m2 min


1667mm 685mm

3000mm

750mm min

4000mm

Main room 12m2 min


1333mm

WC 1m2 min
685mm

Fig 21 - Typical furniture arrangement (except for handicapped)

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 56/179

Other room 7.5m2 min

2500mm minimum

2500mm minimum

3000mm

3000mm

Fig 22 - Typical furniture arrangement - 7.5 m2 room

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 57/179

4.3.4.3

Minimum dimensions

Habitable rooms shall not be less than 2.50m in any horizontal dimension. Other rooms Kitchen Bathroom Shower Toilet (WC) Corridor Stair minimum 1.80m wide. 1.40m wide. 0.90m wide. 0.75m wide and 1.25m long. 1.00m wide. 1.00m wide.

4.3.4.4

Height effect on room area

Portions of a room with a sloping ceiling measuring less than 1.50m or a furred ceiling measuring less than 2.15m from the finished floor to the finished ceiling shall not be considered as contributing to the minimum required habitable area for that room.
4.3.5 Ceiling height

4.3.5.1

Minimum height Habitable rooms

4.3.5.1.1

Habitable rooms (living or sleeping room) shall have a ceiling height of not less than 2.40m. See Figure 23 - Habitable room area
4.3.5.1.2 Other rooms

Other rooms e.g. corridors, bathrooms, toilet rooms, utility room, storage and laundry etc shall have a ceiling height of not less than 2.15m.
4.3.5.1.3 Measurement

The required height shall be measured from the finish floor to the lowest projection from the ceiling.
4.3.6 Minimum passage

The minimum passage for the access to the dwelling and each room shall be as follows:
4.3.6.1 Main entrance

At least one access door from outside shall be not less than 900mm wide and 2000mm high.
4.3.6.2 Habitable rooms and secondary rooms, e.g. store and laundry

All passage for access from another room or from the corridor shall be not less than 785mm wide and 2000mm high (except for handicapped people 900mm wide).

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


4.3.6.3 Other rooms e.g. Bathroom and toilet

First edition Page 58/179

All passage for access from another room or from the corridor shall be not less than 685mm wide and 2000mm high (except for handicapped people 900mm wide).

Room total area Habitable area

2.40m area

Nota: 2.40m area >= 80% of habitable area

2400mm

2150mm lowest habitable part 1500mm m

Fig 23 - Habitable room area

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 59/179

4.3.7 4.3.7.1

Sanitation Toilet facilities

--- Every dwelling unit shall be provided with a water closet or privy, lavatory basin, and a bathtub or shower. --- Toilet access shall be not from kitchen or dining area.
4.3.7.2 Kitchen

--- Each dwelling unit shall be provided with a kitchen area and every kitchen area shall be provided with adequate waste disposal system (e.g. sink). --- In small commercial enterprise approval for this kitchen designs must be given by the Public Health Inspectorate.
4.3.7.3 Sewage disposal

All plumbing fixtures shall be connected to a sanitary sewer or to an approved private sewage disposal system. Approval shall be granted by WASA or other agency authorised to do so on their behalf.
4.3.7.3.1 Septic tank for single family house Table 5 Size ratio for septic tanks

Capacity Ratio per person/full time user 5 persons 8 persons

All wastes 500 litres/p 2500 litres 4000 litres

--- The capacity of the septic tank shall be calculated on the basis of the ratio above and the minimum capacity is 2,500 litres. --- The water table must be a minimum of 1 metre deeper than the septic tank. See Figures 25 for 2500 litres and 26 for 4000 litres septic tank. See also "Code of Practice for the Design and Construction of Septic Tanks and Associated Secondary Treatment and Disposal System" TTS 16 80 400: 1991 or the latest version. Note: The above figures complied with this code.
4.3.7.3.2 Soak-away pit for single family house

See Figure 27 --- The water table must be a minimum of 1 metre deeper than the soak-away base.
4.3.7.3.3 Draining trench for single family house

Where is impossible to make a soak-away, a draining trench shall be used See Figure 28
4.3.7.4 Water supply to fixtures

--- All plumbing fixtures shall be connected to an approved water supply. Approval shall be granted by WASA or other agency authorised to do so on their behalf. --- Kitchen sinks, lavatory basins, bathtubs, showers, bidets, laundry tubs and washing machine outlets shall be connected to the water supply system.
4.3.8 4.3.8.1 Toilet, bath and shower spaces Space required

Fixtures shall be spaced as per Figure 24 - Toilet, bath and shower spaces required.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


4.3.8.2 Bathtub and shower spaces

First edition Page 60/179

Bathtub and shower floors and walls shall be finished with a smooth, hard and non-absorbent surface. Such wall surfaces shall extend to a height of not less than 1.80m above the floor.

min 375mm

min 100mm

min 100mm

min 100mm

clearance mini. 600mm

Lavatories Wall
min 50mm

Tub Shower
min 900mm

900mm min

Clearance in front of opening 600mm min

min 375mm

min 300mm

Tub
Clearance min 600mm

Tub

Water closet or bidet

Fig 24 - Toilet, bath and shower space required (except handicapped)

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Recommended cover Ventilation pipe 100mm Cleanout 100mm

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

Sewage inlet min slope 2% (1 in 50)

min 400mm 100


Tie beam 906 6 dia 10mm Outlet 590

400

900
8 dia 10mm

File # Small building code 2004_draft


1600
dia 12mm every 200mm 500

50 1192
1462

900

2150

900

inside waterproof liner

150

408
concrete

45

950 4 dia 12x 2000mm every 2 rows and tie beam

Fig 25 - Septic tank 2500 litres - 5 persons max


dia 12mm every 200mm both directions

1210 900

Date 01 July, 2004


100 1500 2060 2365 1500mm min from building or boundary

All concrete blocks filled with concrete min 150mm thick

1500

First edition Page 61/179

Recommended cover Ventilation pipe 100mm Cleanout 100mm

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

Sewage inlet min slope 2% (1 in 50)

mjn 400mm 100


6 dia 10mm Outlet 520 Tie beam 1604

400

900
8 dia 12mm

50 1192

1300

2150

File # Small building code 2004_draft


1600
dia 12mm every 200mm 550 950 1657

900

inside waterproof liner 950

150

408

45

Fig 26 - Septic tank 4000 litres - 8 persons max


concrete 4 dia 12x 2500mm every 2 rows and tie beam dia 12mm every 200mm both directions 550

Date 01 July, 2004


100 1500 2295 1500mm min from building or boundary

All concrete blocks filled with concrete min 150mm thick 2600

1300

1604

First edition Page 62/179

1500

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 63/179

min 2500mm from face of building

Concrete slab
1700 square min dia. 1400mm
100

min 1000mm to boundary Top soil and vegetation

Inlet 50mm flat stone


2500mm minimum 900 800 800

25mm stone

Natural sand vein (porous layer)

1100

Fig 27 - Soak-away

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 01 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 64/179

min 2500mm /building Top soil and vegetation general slope 2% (1 in 50) Perforated 100mm pipe
150

min 1000/boundary

650

Inlet

Natural sand vein 25mm stone 10 metres minimum

400

1200

500

Fig 28 - Draining trench

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 65/179

4.3.9 4.3.9.1

Glazing Identification

Each pane of glazing installed in hazardous locations shall be provided with a manufacturers or installers label, designating the type and thickness of glass and the safety glazing standard with which it complies, which is visible in the final installation. The label shall be acid etched, sandblasted, ceramic-fired, embossed mark, or shall be of a type, which once applied cannot be removed without being destroyed.
4.3.9.1.1 Identification of multi-pane assemblies

Multi-pane assemblies having individual panes not exceeding 0.10m2 in exposed area shall have at least one pane in the assembly identified. All other panes in the assembly shall be labelled.
4.3.9.2 Louvered windows or jalousies

Regular, float, wired or patterned glass in jalousies and louvered windows shall be no thinner than nominal 4.80mm and no longer than 1.20m. Exposed glass edges shall be smooth.
4.3.9.2.1 Wired glass prohibited

Wired glass with wire exposed on longitudinal edges shall not be used in jalousies or louvered windows.
4.3.9.3 Human impact loads

Individual glazed areas including glass mirrors in hazardous locations such as those indicated shall pass the test requirements of CPSC 16-CFR, Part 1201.
4.3.9.4 Hazardous locations

--- The following shall be considered specific hazardous locations for the purposes of glazing: 1.Glazing in ingress and means of egress doors except jalousies. 2.Glazing in fixed and sliding panels of sliding (patio) door assemblies and panels in doors including walk-in closets. 3.Glazing in storm doors. 4.Glazing in all unframed swinging doors. 5.Glazing in doors and enclosures for hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers. Glazing in any part of a building wall enclosing these compartments where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 1.50m measured vertically above any standing or walking surface. 6.Glazing, in an individual fixed or operable panel adjacent to a door where the nearest vertical edge is within a 600mm arc of the door in a closed position and whose bottom edge is less than 1.50m above the floor or walking surface. 7.Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel, other than those locations described in Items 5 and 6 above, that meets all of the following conditions: 7.1 Exposed area of an individual pane greater than 0.80m2. 7.2 Bottom edge less than 450mm above the floor. 7.3 Top edge greater than 900mm above the floor. 7.4 One or more walking surfaces within 900mm horizontally of the glazing. 8. All glazing in railings regardless of an area or height above a walking surface. Included are structural baluster panels and non-structural in-fill panels. 9. Glazing in walls and fences enclosing indoor and outdoor swimming pools where the bottom edge of the poolside is (1) less than 1.50m above a walking surface and (2) within 1.50m horizontally of the waters edge. This shall apply to single glazing and all panes in multiple glazing. --- Special solution my be required and not cover in this document.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


4.3.9.5 Wind and dead loads on glass Vertical glass

First edition Page 66/179

4.3.9.5.1

All glass sloped 15 degrees or less from vertical in windows, window walls, doors and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads specified in Clause 4.2 - Design criteria, Table 1 - Design pressure for winds. Glazing designed in accordance with these provisions shall be firmly supported on all four edges.
4.3.9.5.2 Sloped glazing

All glass sloped more than 15 degrees from vertical in skylights, sunspaces, sloped roofs and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the most critical combinations of loads.
4.3.9.5.3 Thicker glass

Allowable loads for glass thicker than 6.4 mm shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E 1300.
4.3.9.6 Skylights and sloped glazing Definition

4.3.9.6.1

Any installation of glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of 15 degrees or more from vertical. Glazing materials in skylights, solariums, sunspaces, roofs and sloped walls are included in this definition.
4.3.9.6.2 Permitted materials

The following types of glazing may be used: 1. Laminated glass with a minimum 0.40mm poly-vinyl-butyral interlayer for glass panes 1.50m2 or less in area located such that the highest point of the glass is not more than 3.60m above a walking surface or other accessible area; for higher or larger sizes, the minimum interlayer thickness shall be 0.80mm. 2. Fully tempered glass. 3. Heat-strengthened glass. 4. Wired glass. 5. Approved rigid plastics.
4.3.9.6.3 Screens general

For fully tempered or heat-strengthened glass, a retaining screen shall be installed below the glass, except for fully tempered glass.
4.3.9.6.4 Screens with multiple glazing

When the inboard pane is fully tempered, heat-strengthened, or wired glass, a retaining screen shall be installed below the glass.
4.3.9.6.5 Screens not required

Screens shall not be required when fully tempered glass is used as single glazing or the bottom pane in multiple glazing and either of the following conditions is met: 1. Glass area 1.50m2 or less. Highest point of glass not more than 3.60m above a walking surface or other accessible area, nominal glass thickness not more than 4.80mm, and (for multiple glazing only) the other pane or panes fully tempered, laminated or wired glass. 2. Glass area greater than 1.50m2. Glass sloped 30 degrees or less from vertical and highest point of glass not more than 3.00m above a walking surface or other accessible area.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


4.3.9.6.6 Screen characteristics

First edition Page 67/179

The screen and its fastenings shall: 1 - be capable of supporting twice the weight of the glazing. 2 - be firmly and substantially fastened to the framing members, and 3 - have a mesh opening of no more than 25 mm by 25 mm.
4.3.9.6.7 Curbs for skylights

All unit skylights installed in a roof with a pitch flatter than 25 percent slope shall be mounted on a curb extending at least 100mm above the plane of the roof unless otherwise specified in the manufacturers installation instructions.

4.3.10 4.3.10.1

Enclosed car ports Opening protection

---

Openings from a private carport into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.

--- Other openings between the carport and residence shall be equipped with either solid wood doors not less than 35 mm in thickness or 30-minute fire-rated doors.
4.3.10.1.1 Duct penetration

Ducts penetrating and installed in the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling from the carport shall be constructed of a minimum 0.50mm sheet steel and shall have no openings into the garage.
4.3.10.2 Separation required

Enclosed carport shall be separated from the residence with 30 min. fire rated wall and/or slab.
4.3.10.3 Floor surface

--- Garage and carport floor surfaces shall be of approved non-combustible material. --- The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.
4.3.11 4.3.11.1 Emergency escape and rescue openings Emergency escape and rescue required

--- Basements with habitable space and every sleeping room shall have at least one openable emergency escape and rescue window or exterior door opening for emergency escape and rescue. --- Where openings are provided as a means of escape and rescue they shall have a sill height of not more 1.10m above the floor. The net clear opening dimensions required by this section shall be obtained by the normal operation of the window or door opening from the inside. Escape and rescue window openings with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground elevation shall be provided with a window well.
4.3.11.1.1 Minimum opening area

All emergency escape and rescue openings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 0.50m2.
4.3.11.1.2 Minimum opening height

The minimum net clear opening height shall be 600mm.


4.3.11.1.3 Minimum opening width.

The minimum net clear opening width shall be 600mm.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 68/179

4.3.11.2

Window wells

The horizontal dimensions of a window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue opening to be fully opened. The horizontal dimensions of the window well shall provide a minimum net clear area of 0.85m2 with a minimum horizontal projection and width of 900 mm.
4.3.11.2.1 Ladder and steps

--- Window wells with a vertical depth greater than 1.10m below the adjacent ground level shall be equipped with a permanently affixed ladder or steps usable with the window in the fully open position. --- Ladders or rungs shall have an inside width of at least 300mm, shall project at least 75mm from the wall and shall be spaced not more than 450mm on centre vertically for the full height of the window well. --- Architectural internal provision must be made for physically challenged.
4.3.11.3 Bars, grills, covers and screens

Bars, grills, covers, screens or other obstructions placed over emergency escape and rescue openings or window wells that serve such openings shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool or special knowledge.
4.3.12 4.3.12.1 Exits Exit door required

--- Not less than one exit door conforming to this chapter shall be provided from each dwelling unit. The required exit door shall provide for direct access from the habitable portions of the dwelling to the exterior without requiring travel through a garage or kitchen. --- If the distance, measured centre of the corridor, between the house main entrance and the inside kitchen door is more than 6m a second exit is required directly in the kitchen.
4.3.12.2 Type of lock or latch.

All egress doors shall be readily openable from the side from which egress is to be made without the use of a key.
4.3.12.3 Type and Size

--- The required exit door shall be a side-hinged door that allow a clear opening not less than 900mm in width and 2025mm in height. --- Other exterior hinged or sliding doors shall not be required to comply with these minimum dimensions.
4.3.12.4 Hallways

The minimum width of a hallway or exit access shall be not less than 1m.
4.3.12.5 Exit facilities

Exterior exit balconies, stairs and similar exit facilities shall be positively anchored to the primary structure at not over 2.40m on centre or shall be designed for lateral forces. Such attachment shall not be accomplished by use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 69/179

minimum opening in slab


2m min 2.15m min Top landing

12 risers maximum Intermediate landing

Minimum clearance

2m min

Floor to floor 2.15m min

12 risers maximum

Bottom landing 900mm min

900mm min

900mm min

1m mini

900mm min

1m min

900mm min

1m min

1m min

1m min

900mm min

900mm

1m min

900mm min

900mm

1m min

1m min

1m min

900mm 900mm

Fig 29 - Stairs and landings

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 70/179

4.3.13 4.3.13.1

Landings on stairways Landings required

There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. There shall be a floor or landing on each side of an exit door.
4.3.13.2 Size

See Figure 29 - Stairs and landings. The width of each landing shall not be less than the stairway or door served. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension of 900mm measured in the direction of travel.
4.3.13.3 Location

The floor or landing shall be not more than 35mm lower than the top of the threshold.
4.3.13.4 Landing required

A minimum 1m by 900mm landing shall be provided: 1. At the top and bottom of ramps, 2 . Where ramps changes direction, 3. After no more than 12 high steps (or change of direction as shown on Figure 29). 4. Where doors open onto stairway the minimum size shall be 1.5m by 900mm.
4.3.14 Pedestrian ramps

See Figure 30 - Ramps and landings


4.3.14.1 Maximum slope

Ramps shall have a maximum slope of 10 percent.


4.3.14.2 Handrails required

Handrails shall be provided on at least one side of all ramps.


4.3.14.3 Landing required

A minimum 1m by 1m landing shall be provided: 1. At the top and bottom of ramps, 2. Where ramps changes direction, 3. Where doors open onto ramps the minimum landing size shall be 1.5m by 900mm.

4.3.15 4.3.15.1

Stairways Width

Stairways shall not be less than 900mm in clear width at all point.
4.3.15.2 Treads and risers

--- The maximum riser height shall be 200mm and the minimum tread depth shall be 250mm. Rise and tread should respect the formula 600mm < 2xRise + Tread < 640mm. --- The riser height shall be measured vertically between leading edges of the adjacent treads. The tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the treads leading edge.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 71/179

--- The walking surface of treads and landings of a stairway shall be sloped no steeper than 2 percent slope. --- The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 5 mm. The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 10mm. --- The treads finishing should not be slippery.
p Bottom landing 1m minimum Maximum slope 10% g

1m minimum

1m minimum

1m minimum

Bottom landing 1m minimum

Up

Top landing

1m minimum

1m minimum

Bottom landing 1m minimum

Up

Intermediate landing Top landing 1m minimum

Up

1m minimum

1m minimum

Bottom landing 1m minimum

Up

Intermediate landing

Up

Top landing

Fig 30 - Ramps and landings


File # Small building code 2004_draft Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 72/179

tread depth 250mm min

R 10mm maximum

riser height 200mm max

250mm min

100mm max

200mm maximum

Open risers

Sloped risers

30 max

30 max

Min 20mm / Max 32mm R 10mm max

Nosing

Fig 31 - Steps (Treads, risers and nosing)

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 73/179

Section F
1m minimum 900mm minimum R mini = 5mm 2m min Handrail 32mm min/ 65mm max 40mm minimum 1m (+/- 10mm)

One handrail

900mm minimum

32mm min / 65mm max 40mm minimum 40mm minimum

Two handrails

Fig 32 - Stair handrails

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 74/179

4.3.15.2.1 Profile

--- The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be no greater than 10mm. See Figure 31 - Steps (Treads, risers and nosing). --- When nosing is provided, shall be not less that 20mm but not more than 32 mm on stairways with solid risers. Bevelling of nosing shall not exceed 10mm. --- Risers shall be vertical or sloped from the underside of the leading edge of the tread above at an angle not more than 30 degrees from the vertical. Open risers are permitted, provided that the opening between treads does not permit the passage of a 100mm sphere.

4.3.15.3

Headroom

The minimum headroom in all parts of the stairway shall not be less than 2.00m measured vertically from the sloped plane adjoining the tread nosing or from the floor surface of the landing or platform. See Figures 29 and 32.
4.3.15.4 Winders

--- Winders are permitted, provided that the depth of the tread at a point not more than 500mm from the side where the treads are narrower should be not less than the depth of tread of the other section. --- The continuous handrail required shall be located on the side where the tread is narrower.

4.3.15.5

Spiral stairs

--- Spiral stairways are permitted, provided the minimum width shall be 700mm with each tread having a 200mm minimum tread depth at 350mm from the narrow edge. All treads shall be identical, and the rise shall be no more than 240mm. Minimum headroom of 2.00m shall be provided. --- Spiral stairs are not to be considered as fire escapes.

4.3.15.6

Circular stairways

Circular stairways shall have a tread depth at a point not more than 350mm from the side where the treads are narrower of not less than 300mm and the minimum depth of any tread shall not be less than 150mm. Tread depth at any walking line, measured a consistent distance from a side of the stairway, shall be uniform.

4.3.15.7

Wooden stair protection

Any enclosed accessible space under stairs shall have walls, under stair surface and any soffits protected on the enclosed side with 13mm gypsum board.

4.3.15.8

Stair illumination

All stairs shall be provided with illumination in accordance with Electrical Code.

4.3.16 4.3.16.1

Handrails Handrails

Handrails having minimum heights of 1.00m measured vertically from the nosing of the treads shall be provided on at least one side of stairways. All required handrails shall be continuous for the full length of any stairs with three or

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 75/179

more risers. Ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals. Handrails adjacent to a wall shall have a space of not less than 40mm between the wall and the handrail. See Figures 32 - Stair handrails and 33 - Guards.

Stair with string Stair without string

100mm min

1m (+/- 10mm)

1m (+/- 10mm)

String

100mm min

Not acceptable

100mm min

1m minimum 100mm min Not acceptable

height more than 750mm

Fig 33 - Guards

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 76/179

4.3.16.2

Handrail grip size

The handgrip portion of handrails shall have a cross section of 32mm minimum to 65mm maximum. Other handrail shapes, which provide an equivalent grasping surface, are permissible. Edges shall have a minimum radius of 3mm.
4.3.17 4.3.17.1 Guards Guards required

Porches, balconies or raised floor surfaces located more than 750mm above the floor or grade below shall have guards not less than 1.00m in height. Open sides of stairs with a total rise of more than 750mm above the floor or grade below shall have guards not less than 1.00m in height measured vertically from the nosing of the treads. See Figure 33 Guards.
4.3.17.2 Guard rail-opening limitations

Required guards on open sides of stairways, raised floor areas, balconies and porches shall have intermediate rails or ornamental closures which do not allow passage of a sphere 100mm or more in diameter. Required guards shall not be constructed with horizontal rails or other ornamental pattern that results in a ladder effect.
4.3.18 Smoke detectors

--- No requirement for smoke detector except: a) In all wooden house where smoke detector shall be installed in each bedroom, outside each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms and on each additional storey of the dwelling, including basement. b) In all two-storied (multi-storied) buildings with only one internal stairway.

--- Detectors are not required in crawl space and uninhabitable attics.

4.3.19 4.3.19.1

Foam plastic General

The provisions of this section shall state the requirements and uses of foam plastic as insulation, structural filling or decoration.
4.3.19.2 Foam characteristics

4.3.19.2.1 Internal characteristics

The minimum density shall be more than 3 kN/m3.


4.3.19.2.2 Surface burning characteristics

All foam plastic or foam plastic cores in manufactured assemblies used in building construction shall have a flamespread rating of not more than 75 and shall have a smoke-developed rating of not more than 450 when tested for the maximum thickness intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


4.3.19.3 Foam protection

First edition Page 77/179

All foam shall be protected from inside and outside by appropriated barrier to prevent damage from: 1- Vapour (humidity from hot air migrating from the hot side to the cold side of the wall, in this region from outside to inside) 2- Fire (both sides) 3- Rodent (rats, mice, etc.) 4- Termites
4.3.19.3.1 Thermal barrier

Foam plastic shall be separated from the exterior of the building by minimum vapour barrier as follows: - Polythene 0.150 mm thick (included in the wall complex) - or metallic cladding (corrosion resistant sheet of 0.50 mm minimum) - or 25mm thickness of masonry or concrete.
4.3.19.3.2 Fire barrier

To allow a minimal ignition protection of 15minutes a fire barrier shall be used as follows:
a) From outside

- Metallic cladding (corrosion resistant sheet of 0.50 mm minimum) - or 25mm minimum thickness of masonry or concrete - or 20mm minimum of structural wood - or 25mm minimum particleboard.
b) From inside

- Metallic cladding - or 25mm minimum thickness of masonry or concrete - or 20mm minimum of structural wood - or 25mm minimum particle board. - or 13mm gypsum board (the gypsum board shall be installed using a mechanical fastening system to ensure that the gypsum board will remain in place when exposed to fire).
4.3.19.3.3 Rodent damage (rats, mice, etc.)

All foam shall be externally protected against any destruction by rodents. This applies to the edge of the foam.
4.3.19.3.4 Termite damage

The use of foam plastics in areas of termite infestation shall be in accordance with this code.
4.3.19.4 Specific requirements

4.3.19.4.1 Foam-filled doors

Foam-filled doors are exempt from the requirements of this Section.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


4.3.19.4.2 Interior trim

First edition Page 78/179

--- Foam plastic trim defined as picture moulds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, ceiling beams, door trim and window trim may be installed, provided that: 1. The minimum density is 3.50kN/m3. 2. The maximum thickness of the trim is 13mm and the maximum width is 100mm. 3. The trim constitutes no more than 10 percent of the area of any wall or ceiling. 4. The flame-spread rating does not exceed 75 when tested per ASTM E 84. --- The smoke-developed rating is not limited.

4.3.20 4.3.20.1

Flame spread and smoke density Wall and ceiling

Wall and ceiling finishes shall have a flame-spread classification of not greater than 200.
4.3.20.2 Smoke developed index

Wall and ceiling finishes shall have a smoke developed index of not greater than 450.
4.3.20.3 Testing

Tests shall be made in accordance with ASTM E 84.

4.3.21 4.3.21.1

Insulation Insulation

Insulation materials, including facings, such as vapour barriers or breather papers installed within floor-ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies, wall assemblies, crawl spaces and attics shall have a flame-spread index not to exceed 25 with an accompanying smoke developed index not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.
4.3.21.2 Loose-fill insulation

Loose-fill insulation materials, which cannot be, mounted in the ASTM E 84 apparatus without a screen or artificial supports shall have a flame-spread rating not to exceed 25 with an accompanying smoke-developed factor not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC-SI02-M88.
4.3.21.3 Cellulose loose-fill insulation

Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall comply with CPSC 16-CFR, Parts 1209 and 1404. Each package of such insulating material shall be clearly labelled in accordance with CPSC 16-CFR, Parts 1209 and 1404.
4.3.21.4 Exposed attic insulation

All exposed insulation materials installed on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux not less than 1200 watt/m2.
4.3.21.5 Testing

Tests for critical radiant flux shall be made in accordance with ASTM E 970.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 79/179

4.3.22 4.3.22.1

Dwelling unit separation Multi-family dwellings

--- Dwelling units in multi-family dwellings shall be separated from each other by wall and/or floor assemblies of not less than 1 hour fire-resistive rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E 119. --- Fire-resistive-rated floor-ceiling and wall assemblies shall extend to and be tight against the exterior wall, and wall assemblies shall extend to the underside of the roof sheathing.
4.3.22.1.1 Supporting construction

When floor assemblies are required to be fire-resistive, the supporting construction of such assemblies shall have an equal or greater fire-resistive rating.
4.3.22.2 Townhouses

--- Each townhouse shall be considered a separate building and separated by walls for exterior walls. --- A common 2-hour fire resistive wall is permitted for townhouses if such walls do not contain plumbing or mechanical equipment, ducts or vents in the cavity of the common wall. --- Electrical installations shall be installed in accordance with TTS 171 Electrical code. --- Penetrations of electrical outlet boxes shall be in accordance with this code.
4.3.22.2.1 Continuity

The common wall for townhouses shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab and shall extend the full length of the common wall.
4.3.22.2.2 Parapets

--- Where parapets are to be provided for townhouses as an extension of the common wall in accordance with the following: --- Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall are at the same elevation, the parapet shall extend not less than 600mm above the roof surfaces. --- Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall are at different elevations and the higher roof is not more than 800 mm above the lower roof, the parapet shall extend not less than 800mm above the lower roof surface.
4.3.22.2.3 Structural independence

Each individual townhouse shall be structurally independent.


4.3.22.3 Exceptions:

- Foundations supporting common walls. - Structural roof and wall covering sheathing from each unit may fasten to the common wall framing. - Non structural wall coverings. - Flashing at termination of roof covering over common wall. - Townhouses separated by a common two-hour fire-resistive wall.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 80/179

4.3.22.4

Sound transmission

Wall and floor-ceiling assemblies separating dwelling units shall provide airborne sound insulation for walls and both airborne and impact sound insulation for floor-ceiling assemblies.
4.3.22.4.1 Airborne sound

Airborne sound insulation for wall and floor-ceiling assemblies shall meet a Sound Transmission Class (STC) of 45 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 90.
4.3.22.4.2 Structural-borne sound

Floor/ceiling assemblies between dwelling units or between a dwelling unit and a public or service area within a structure shall have an impact insulation class ( IIC ) rating of not less than 45 when tested in accordance with ASTM E492.
4.3.22.5 Rated penetrations

Penetrations of wall or floor/ceiling assemblies are required to be fire resistant or should be protected in accordance with this section.
4.3.22.5.1 Through penetrations

--- Through penetrations of fire resistance rated wall or floor assemblies shall comply with this section. Exception - Where the penetrating items are steel, ferrous or copper pipes or steel conduits, the annular space shall be permitted to be protected as follows: 1. In concrete or masonry wall or floor assemblies where the penetrating items is a maximum of 150mm nominal diameter and the opening is a maximum of 90 000mm2, concrete, grout or mortar shall be permitted where installed in the full thickness of the wall or floor assemblies. 2. The material used to fill the annular space shall prevent the passage of flame and hot gases at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire resistance rating of the construction.
a) Fire resistance rated assembly

Penetrations shall be installed as tested in the approved fire resistance rated assembly.
b) Penetration fire-stop system

Penetrations shall be protected by an approved penetration fire-stop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E814, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.25mm of water (3 Pa) and shall have an F rating of not less than the required fire resistance rating of the wall or floor /ceiling assembly penetrated.
4.3.22.5.2 Membrane penetrations

Where walls are required to have a minimum 1hour fire-resistance rating, recessed light fixtures shall be so installed such that the required fire resistance will not be reduced.
4.3.22.6 Non-rated penetrations

Penetrations of horizontal assemblies without a required fire resistance rating shall comply with this section.
4.3.22.6.1 Non combustible penetrating items

Non combustible penetrating items that connect not more than three stories are permitted provided that the annular space is filled with an approved non-combustible material or approved penetration fire-stop system.
4.3.22.6.2 Combustible penetrating items

Combustible penetrating items that connect not more than two stories are permitted provided that the annular space is filled with an approved material to resist the free passage of flame and the products of combustion.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 81/179

4.3.23 4.3.23.1

Moisture vapour barriers Moisture control

In all framed walls, floors and roof/ceilings comprising elements of the building thermal envelope, an approved vapour barrier having a maximum rating of 1.0 perm, when tested in accordance with ASTM E96-92, (Standard Test Methods for Water Vapour Transmission of Materials), shall be installed on the warm side of the insulation.

4.3.24 4.3.24.1

Protection against decay Location required

--- In areas subject to decay damage the following locations shall require the use of an approved species and grade of lumber, pressure preservatively treated, or decay-resistant. See Table 6 - Timber names for use in Trinidad & Tobago. --- Wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor when closer than 450mm or wood girders when closer than 300mm to exposed ground in crawl spaces or un-excavated area located within the periphery of the building foundation. --- All sills or plates, which rest on concrete or masonry exterior walls and are less than 200mm from exposed ground. --- Sills and sleepers on a concrete or masonry slab, which is in direct contact with the ground unless, separated from such slab by an impervious moisture barrier. --- The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or concrete walls having clearances of less than 15mm on tops, sides and ends. --- Wood siding, sheathing and wall framing on the exterior of a building have a clearance of less than 150mm from the ground. --- Wood structural members supporting moisture-permeable floors or roofs which are exposed to the weather, such as concrete or masonry slabs, unless separated from such floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier. --- Wood furring strips or other wood framing members attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry walls or concrete walls below grade except where an approved vapour barrier is applied between the wall and the furring strips or framing members.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 82/179

T n T local name

Normal Recommended use density External Internal Roofing Furniture Flooring Structure at 12% joinery joinery shingle

Resistant to Decay Termites Comments

Local woods Angelia Balata Bamboo Bois gris Boya mulatre or bois mulatre Cajuca Caribbean pine Cedar Crabwood or Crappo Determa Fiddlewood (black) Fiddlewood (white) Galba or Santa Maria Gommier Guatecare Gumbo limbo Hog plum Lay lay Mahoe Mahoe or sterculia Mahogany Mangrue (yellow) or Manni Milkwood Mora or Muru Nargusta or white oliver Olivier mangue or Poirier Pink poui or apamate Podocarp or W ild pine Poui (black) Purple heart Redwood Resclu or W ater wood Saman Sandbox Sardine Silk cotton tree Simarouba Snakewood or Galia Tabebuia white or Calabash Tapana Tapanare or Suradam Teak Tonka 0.80 0.70 0.65 1.08 X X X X X X X X X X X art craft 0.56 0.45 0.80 0.38 0.45 1.15 X X X packaging acajou blanc art craft X must be treated X 0.70 0.56 0.96 0.80 0.80 0.56 0.56 1.12 0.88 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 0.56 0.60 X X maho cochon 0.48 0.95 0.80 0.48 0.80 0.50 0.70 0.62 0.80 0.72 0.64 0.56 1.04 see Gommier X X X X X X X X X Laurier X X 0.80 1.05 X X X X beefwood scaffolding resist to "Capricorn" fineleaf

Table 6 - Timber names for use in Trinidad & Tobago (part 1)

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 83/179

T n T local name

Normal Recommended use density External Internal Roofing at 12% Furniture Flooring joinery joinery Structure shingle

Resistant to Decay Termites Comments

Imported woods

Tropical An gelique Babeon Bagasse Cajuca Eastern red cedar Gommier Green heart Gronfoeloe Kopie Locust or Courbarli Manbarklak Pakuri Wacapou Wallaba Wamara 1.04 0.70 0.82 0.85 1.02 0.83 0.90 0.85 1.20 0.58 0.50 0.85 X X X X X X X bois lait or bois vache X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X x X X X X X X X iron wood brown heart bois caca locust 0.80 0.47 0.82 0.48 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X basralocust

Non tropical Douglas fir Pitchpine 0.61 0.52 X X X X X X from W Canada & USA

References TTS 16 40 000:1978 USDA web site Magazine Les bois de Guyane Construire en bois de Guyane Prinicipaux bois indignes et exotiques 1978 2000 2000 1990 1990 1975

Table 6 - Timber names for use in Trinidad & Tobago (part 2)

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 84/179

4.3.24.1.1 Ground contact

All wood in contact with the ground and which supports permanent structures intended for human occupancy shall be approved pressure preservatively treated wood suitable for ground contact use.
4.3.24.1.2 Geographical areas

--- In geographical areas where experience has demonstrated a specific need, approved naturally durable or pressure preservatively treated wood shall be used for those portions of wood members which form the structural supports of buildings, balconies, porches, or similar permanent building appurtenances when such members are exposed to the weather without adequate protection from a roof, eaves, overhang or other covering which would prevent moisture or water accumulation on the surface or at joints between members. --- Such members may include: - Horizontal members such as girders, joists and decking. - Vertical members such as posts, poles and columns. - Both horizontal and vertical members.
4.3.24.1.3 Post, poles and columns

Posts, poles, and columns supporting permanent structures which are embedded in concrete in direct contact with the ground or embedded in concrete exposed to the weather shall be approved pressure preservatively treated wood suitable for ground contact use.
4.3.24.1.4 Wood columns

--- Wood columns shall be approved timber of natural decay resistance or approved pressure preservatively treated wood. --- Posts or columns must be supported by piers or metal pedestals projecting 50mm minimum above the floor or finish grade and are separated there from by an approved impervious moisture barrier.
4.3.24.2 Quality mark

Lumber and plywood required to be pressure preservatively treated shall bear the quality mark of an approved inspection agency which maintains continuing supervision, testing and inspection over the quality of the product.
4.3.24.2.1 Required information

The required quality mark on each piece of pressure preservatively treated lumber or plywood shall contain the following information: - Identification of the treating plant. - Type of preservative. - The minimum preservative retention. - End use for which product was treated. - Standard to which product was treated. - Identity of the approved inspection agency. - The designation Dry, if applicable.
4.3.24.3 Exception:

Quality marks on lumber less than 25 mm nominal thickness, or lumber less than nominal 25mm by 125mm or 50mm by 100mm or lumber 900mm or less in length shall be applied by stamping the faces of exterior pieces or by end labelling not less than 25 percent of the pieces of a bundled unit.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


4.3.24.4 Fasteners

First edition Page 85/179

Fasteners for pressure preservative and fire-retardant-treated wood shall be of hot-dipped galvanised steel, stainless steel, silicon bronzes or copper.

4.3.25 4.3.25.1

Protection against termites Subterranean termite control

In areas susceptible to termite damage, methods of protection shall be by chemical soil treatment; pressure preservatively treated wood in accordance with the AWPA standards, naturally termite-resistant wood or physical barriers (such as metal or plastic termite shields), or any combination of these methods.
4.3.25.2 Chemical soil treatment

The concentration, rate of application and treatment method of the termiticide shall be consistent with and never less than the termiticide label.
4.3.25.3 Pressure preservatively treated and naturally resistant wood

See Table 6 -Timber names for use in Trinidad & Tobago for the list of naturally termite resistant wood. Pressure preservatively treated wood and naturally termite-resistant wood shall not be used as a physical barrier unless a barrier can be inspected for any termite shelter tubes around the inside and outside edges and joints of a barrier.
4.3.25.3.1 Field treatment

Field cut ends, notches and drilled holes of pressure preservatively treated wood shall be retreated in the field.

4.3.26 4.3.26.1

Flood resistant construction General

All buildings and structures erected in areas prone to flooding and classified as either flood hazard areas or coastal high hazard areas shall be constructed and elevated as required by the provisions contained in this section.
4.3.26.1.1 Structural systems

All structural systems of all buildings and structures shall be designed, connected and anchored to resist flotation, collapse or permanent lateral movement due to structural loads and stresses from flooding equal to the design flood elevation.
4.3.26.1.2 Flood resistant construction

All buildings and structures erected in flood hazard zones shall be constructed by methods and practices that minimise flood damage.
4.3.26.1.3 Establishing the design flood elevation

The design flood elevation shall be used to define areas prone to flooding, and shall describe, at a minimum, the base flood elevation at the depth or peak elevation of flooding (including wave height) which has a 1-percent (100year flood) or greater chance of being equated or exceeded in any given year. This level should be determined by the physical planning standards
4.3.26.1.4 Lowest floor

The lowest floor shall be the floor of the lowest enclosed area, including basement, but excluding any unfurnished flood-resistant enclosure that is useable solely for vehicle parking, building access, or limited storage provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the building or structure in violation of this Section.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


4.3.26.1.5 Protection of mechanical and electrical systems

First edition Page 86/179

--- New and replacement electrical equipment, ventilating, air conditioning plumbing connections, and other service equipment shall be located at or above the design flood elevation. --- Electrical wiring and outlets, switches, junction boxes and panels shall be elevated to or above the design flood elevation for location of such items in wet locations. --- Ducts and duct installation shall not be installed below the design flood elevation.
4.3.26.1.6 Protection of water supply and sanitary sewage systems

--- New and replacement water supply systems shall be designed to minimise infiltration of flood waters into the systems in accordance with the plumbing provisions of this code. --- New and replacement sanitary sewage systems shall be designed to minimise infiltration of floodwaters into systems and discharges from systems into floodwaters.
4.3.26.1.7 Flood resistant materials

--- Building materials used below the design flood elevation shall comply with the following: - all wood, including floor sheathing shall be pressure preservatively treated, or decay-resistant. --- For the list of foreign and local woods see Table 6 - Timber names for use in Trinidad & Tobago
4.3.26.1.8 As-built elevation certifications

A licensed land surveyor or registered design professional shall certify that the building or structure is in compliance with the elevation required.
4.3.26.2 Flood hazard areas

All areas, which have been determined to be prone to flooding but not subject to high velocity wave action shall be designated as flood hazard areas.
4.3.26.2.1 Elevation requirements

--- Buildings and structures shall have lowest floors elevated to or above the design flood elevation. --- In areas of shallow flooding, buildings and structures shall have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated at least as high above the highs natural adjacent grade as the depth number specified in metre, or at least 600mm if a depth number is not specified; --- Basement floors that are below grade on all sides shall be elevated to or above the design flood elevation.
4.3.26.2.2 Enclosed area below design flood elevation

Enclosed areas, including crawl spaces, that are below the design flood elevation shall: a) Be used solely for parking of vehicles, building access, or storage, and b) Be provided with flood openings, which shall meet the following criteria: - There shall be a minimum of two openings on different sides of each enclosed area; if a building has more than one enclosed area below the design flood elevation, each area shall have openings on exterior walls. - The total net area of all openings shall be at least 1/150 of enclosed area. - The bottom of each opening shall be 300mm or less above the adjacent ground level. - Openings shall be at least 75mm in diameter. - Any louvers, screens or other opening covers shall allow the automatic flow of floodwaters into and out of the enclosed area. - Openings installed in doors and windows, which meet requirement (a) through (e), are acceptable; however, doors and windows without installed openings do not meet the requirement of this section.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


4.3.27 Coastal high hazard areas

First edition Page 87/179

--- Areas, which have been determined to be subject to wave heights in excess of 900mm or subject to high velocity wave action or wave induced erosion, shall be designated as coastal high hazard areas. --- All buildings and structures erected in coastal high hazard areas shall be designated and constructed in accordance with this Sections.
4.3.27.1 Elevation requirements

1. All buildings and structures erected within coastal high hazard areas shall be elevated so that the lowest portion of all structural members supporting the lowest floor, with the exception of mat or raft foundations, piling, pile caps, columns, grade beams and bracing, is located at or above the design flood elevation. 2. Basement floors that are below grade on all sides are prohibited. 3. The use of fill for structural support is prohibited. 4. The placement of fill beneath buildings and structures is prohibited.
4.3.27.2 Foundations

--- All buildings and structures erected in coastal high hazard areas shall be supported on pilings or columns and shall be adequately anchored to such pilings or columns. Piling shall have adequate soil penetrations to resist the combined wave and wind loads (lateral and uplift). Water loading values used shall be those associated with the design flood. Wind loading values shall be those required by this code. Pile embedment shall include consideration of decreased resistance capacity caused by scour of soil strata surrounding the piling. --- Mat, raft, or other foundations, which support columns, shall not be permitted where soil investigations that indicate that soil material under the mat, raft, or other foundation is subject to scour or erosion from wave-velocity flow conditions.
4.3.27.3 Walls below design flood elevation

Walls and partitions are permitted below the elevated floor, provided that such walls and partitions are not part of the structural support of the building or structure and: a) Are constructed with insect screening or open lattice, or b) Designed to break away or collapse without causing collapse, displacement or other structural damage to the elevated portion of the building or supporting foundation system. c) Such walls, framing, and connections shall have a design safe loading resistance of not less than 0.50 kN/m2 and no more than 1.00 kN/m2; or d) Where wind loading values of this code exceed 1.00 kN/m2, a registered design professional shall certify the following: i. Collapse of walls and partitions below the design flood elevation shall result from a water load less than that which would occur during the design flood, and ii. The elevated portion of the building and supporting foundation system shall not be subject to collapse, displacement, or other structural damage due to the effects of wind and flood loads acting simultaneously on all building components (structural and non-structural). Water loading values used shall be those associated with the design flood. Wind loading values used shall be those required by this code.
4.3.27.4 Enclosed areas below design flood elevation

Enclosed areas below the design flood elevation shall be used solely for parking of vehicles, building access, or Storage.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 88/179

4.4
4.4.1

Basic materials
Reinforced Concrete Materials

4.4.1.1

Concrete shall be manufactured from ordinary Portland or approved cement, sand, gravel and water.
4.4.1.1.1 The cement shall be fresh and contained in unopened bags, which have been well protected from moisture and stored above the ground. 4.4.1.1.2 The sand shall be clean (i.e. free of clayey lumps, organic materials and broken shells), natural sharp sand, preferably taken from an inland source. Beach sand shall not be used. 4.4.1.1.3 The coarse aggregate shall be of crushed stone or gravel with a size between 10 and 25mm. The aggregate shall be free of dust coating. In areas where only broken stone is available, care shall be taken to use stone as near to 20 mm as practicable. 4.4.1.1.4

Only clean fresh water of a potable standard shall be used for the mixing of concrete.

4.4.1.2

Mixing

4.4.1.2.1 A concrete mix producing concrete with minimum compressive cube strength of 21 N/mm2 at 28 days or 16.8 N/mm2 at 7 days shall be used. The approximate proportions normally required to produce such a mix are 42 kg (1 bag) of cement, 0.056 m3 (1 wheelbarrow) of sand, and 0.084 m3 (1 wheelbarrow) of aggregates and approximately 18 l of water.

Note: any moisture affects the maximum amount of water required, which may be present in the aggregate. The quality is therefore reduced when the aggregate is wet.
4.4.1.2.2 The cement shall be added by the bag. The fine and coarse aggregates shall be measured in cubic metre (m3) and the water shall be measured in litre (l). 4.4.1.2.3 For coastal environment conditions the mix shall be upgraded to 42 kg (1 bag) of cement, 0.056 m3 (1 wheelbarrow) of sand, 0.056 m3 (1 wheelbarrow) of aggregate and approximately 15 l of water. 4.4.1.2.4 The concrete shall be mixed by hand or preferably by machine until there are no visible areas of unmixed materials and a uniform colour is obtained.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 89/179

Metric system Compression at 28 days Proportion for one cubic metre (1m3) Cement kg 42 kg bag Sand litre Gravel litre kN/m2 controlled concrete nscr concrete without any control nscr 1-3-6 Type of concrete

Trinidad and Tobago Number of bag of Number of wheelbarrow of Number of wheelbarrow of

Concrete utilization

Cement

Sand

Gravel

Grade "E"

150

335

665

1.5

Back filling concrete

Grade "D"

250

400

600

nscr

nscr

1-2-4

Foundation

Grade "C"

300

335

665

23,000

15,000

1-2-3

1.5

Slab and protected concrete

Grade "B"

350

335

665

27,000

18,000

1-2-2

Beam and column

Grade "A"

400

10

335

665

30,000

20,000

2-3-4

1.5

Exposed concrete Coastal exposition

Note : Volume of wheelbarrow

57

litres

equivalent

in the type of concrete

Table 7 - Concrete composition

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 90/179

4.4.1.3

Form work

4.4.1.3.1 The form work into which the concrete is to be placed shall be strongly constructed of straight timber or any adequate materials so braced that no movement or deformation is caused by the wet concrete under normal construction loads 4.4.1.3.2 leakage.

The form work shall have close fitting joints so that no fine aggregate, cement or water is lost through

4.4.1.4

Reinforcement

4.4.1.4.1 The minimum requirement for reinforcement steel shall be bars of grade 250 i.e. plain mild steel bars of 250 N/mm2 (minimum yield) stress. This section is based on grade 250 bars; however, higher grades of plain or deformed bars may be used. 4.4.1.4.2 Bar bending

The minimum pin diameter size for steel bar bending in accordance with TTS 583:2000 must be as shown in Table 8.
Table 8 - Recommended minimum size bending

Bar size " d " In mm 250 6 to 16mm 20 & 25mm 32 & 40mm 2.5d (15 to 40mm) Not applicable Not applicable

Steel grade 420 4d (20 to 64mm) 5d (100 or 125mm) 7d (225 or 300mm)

4.4.1.4.3

Bar welding

Welding is not allowed.


4.4.1.4.4 Reinforcement steel, which shall be free of loose mill scale (rust), shall be properly tied together by mild steel tying wire. The whole assembly shall be positioned within the form work with appropriately sized concrete spacers so that the correct concrete cover to the steel is maintained. 4.4.1.4.5 Concrete shall not be vibrated by direct contact between the vibrating instrument and reinforcing bar. The practice of vibrating the form work shall also not be permitted as this may displace the steel fixings. The practice of vibrating the concrete shall therefore be used with caution. 4.4.1.4.6 The recommended concrete covers for normal conditions and coastal environmental conditions are given in Table 9.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 91/179

Table 9 Recommended concrete cover

Type

Concrete cover in mm Normal conditions Coastal environmental conditions 35 40 40 95

Slabs Beams Columns Surfaces In contact with earth Note:

25 30 30 75

The recommended concrete cover for coastal environmental conditions is based on an increase of 25 % for normal conditions.

4.4.1.5

Placing Concrete

4.4.1.5.1 Form work shall be thoroughly cleaned to remove sawdust, bits of wood, wire and other debris before placing concrete in it. 4.4.1.5.2 Transporting the concrete over long distances (unless special equipment is used) shall be avoided to prevent segregation of its components. 4.4.1.5.3 All runways and routes between the mixer and the area where the concrete is to be used should be set up beforehand and kept clear, so that the placing of concrete can proceed smoothly without interruptions. 4.4.1.5.4 The poured concrete shall be compacted in the form work by vibration or rodding, so that dense concrete is obtained. Where necessary, chutes shall be used to place concrete in tight areas such as column forms. 4.4.1.5.5 Where floor slabs or roof slabs cannot be poured in one operation, construction joints shall be used. Professional assistance shall be sought on the proper placing of the construction joints in suspended slabs.

4.4.1.6

Curing

4.4.1.6.1 The optimum concrete strength shall be obtained by proper curing. To achieve this, the curing concrete shall be kept moist by wetting with water for four (4) days after it is poured. 4.4.1.6.2 Proprietary curing compounds may be used in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

4.4.1.7

Stripping of form work

The side form work of beams and columns may be removed from the fresh concrete after 24 hours. The bottom form work and props for suspended beams and slabs shall remain in place for not less than 10 days.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 92/179

4.4.2

Timber

4.4.2.1

Type of wood

Walls, floors and roofs can be constructed of approved structural timber. See Table 6.
4.4.2.2 Preservatively treated lumber

Only treated timber should be used and shall also be identified.


4.4.2.3 Moisture

The timber should be sound, straight and well seasoned timber with moisture content between 15% and 20%.

4.4.3

Metal

4.4.3.1

Structural steel

Material conforming to one following standard specifications (latest date of issue) is approved for use under this code: - Structural steel, ASTM A36 is the all purpose carbon steel used in building construction. - Welded and seamless steel pipe, ASTM A53, grade B.
4.4.3.2 Structural shapes

All shapes are published in the ASTM A6 and the principals used are: - W shapes have essentially parallel flange surfaces. The profile of a W shape of a given nominal depth and weight. - HP bearing pile shapes have essentially parallel flange surfaces and equal web and flange thickness. - S beam and C channel have a slope on their flange surfaces. - L angles shape with equal and unequal leg. - Pipe and structural tubing.
4.4.3.3 Bolts

Steel bolts shall conform to one of the following standard specification: - Low carbon steel externally and internally threaded standard fasteners, ASTM A307. - High strength bolts for structural steel joints, ASTM A325. - Quenched and tempered steel bolts and nuts, ASTM A449.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 93/179

4.5
4.5.1

Alternate materials and types of construction


General

The provisions of this Code are not intended to prevent the use of types of construction or materials or methods of designs as alternates to the standards herein set forth. Such alternates shall be offered for approval and their consideration shall be as specified in Annex A Administration and Enforcement.

4.5.2

Standards

The types of Construction or materials or methods of design referred to in this Code shall be considered as standards of quality and strength. New types of construction or materials or methods of design shall be at least equal to these standards for the corresponding use intended.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 94/179

Strip footing Slab on grade Pad footing


300mm min 600mm 1000mm min
Slab on grade 100mm min

Suspended slab
Suspended slab

125mm min 300mm min 600mm


Crawl space 300mm min

125mm min 300mm min 450


Crawl space 300mm min

300mm min

On pile

Raft
Slab on grade 100mm min.

300 450

Fig 34 - Foundation-types

150mm blockwork

r.c. tie beam

0.15mm polythene damp proof course

300mm minimum grade

100mm slab minimum 50mm sand blinding

well compacted gravel or marl in 100mm layers


150mm blockwork minimum

600mm min Local thickening 100 x 100mm min

450

Fig 35 - Details of ground floor slab on grade

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 95/179

5
5.1
5.1.1

Foundations
General
Load bearing walls and columns

5.1.1.1

--- All loads bearing walls and columns shall be supported on any of the following reinforced concrete footings: a) Pad footing b) Strip footing c) On pile d) Raft --- The above reinforced concrete footings are shown in Figure 34 - Foundations types. --- The two last solutions shall be engineered design.
5.1.1.2 Interior walls shall be supported by thickening the slab under the wall and suitably reinforcing it. The foundation should be located on a layer of soil or rock with good bearing characteristics. Such soils include dense sands, marl, other granular materials and stiff clays. 5.1.1.3 The foundation shall be cast not less than 600 mm below ground, its thickness not less than 225 mm and its width not less than 450 mm or a minimum of three times the width of the wall immediately supported by it (see Figures 36 - Arrangement of strip footing). 5.1.1.4 When separate reinforced concrete columns or concrete block columns are used they shall be supported preferably by square footings not less than 600 mm per side, 225 mm thick and 1000mm depth (see Figure 37 Typical spread footing detail). 5.1.1.5 When the ground is subject to drying (cracks or fissures) the minimum depth above should be increased under the advice of a professional engineer.

--- To avoid this increase in depth, the foundation should be protected by surface paving.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 96/179

5.1.2

Reinforcement

5.1.2.1 For strip footings, the minimum reinforcement shall consist of a minimum of three 10 mm diameter bars placed longitudinally and 10 mm diameter bars placed transversely no more than 600 mm between their centres (see Figure 36). 5.1.2.2 For column footings, the minimum reinforcement shall be 12 mm diameter bars at 150 mm between centres in both directions forming a mesh (see Figure 37).

Bars may be suitably cranked bent or lapped at the ends. Lapped or cranked lengths shall be a minimum 5.1.2.3 of 40 times the diameter of the bars being joined. Table 10 gives the minimum lap lengths for steel reinforcement.

Table 10 Minimum lap lengths for steel reinforcement

Bar diameter mm 6 8 10 12 16 Mesh

Minimum lap length mm 300 350 400 600 750 150 or one square, whichever is greater

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 97/179

1000

150mm blockwork

150mm blockwork

r.c. tie beam grade

125mm slab minimum


grade

125mm slab minimum

Crawl space

300 mm min crawl space

75 600mm mini

150mm blockwork minimum

75

if 200mm blockwork

225 75 450mm minimum

225 75
600mm min 3 times 200mm

Fig 36 - Arrangement for strip footing 150mm and 200mm vertical core blocks

30

75
300 mm

r.c. column

75 1000 min

75mm minimum

600mm minimum 225 75 600mm minimum

12mm rods 150mm crs.

Fig 37 - Typical pad footing details

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

Sloping site

Flat site

File # Small building code 2004_draft


no
R.C./ Masonry Suspended first floor slab

Fig 38 - 1 and 2 level house type


ta c p ta ce ble
R.C./ Masonry Suspended ground floor slab with crawl space Shear panel Masonry Suspended ground floor slab with crawl space Masonry Suspended first floor slab Ground floor slab suspended or on grade Masonry Ground floor slab suspended or on grade

Date 1 July, 2004

First edition Page 98/179

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 99/179

Non load bearing blocks

102 190

152 190

190

102 190

102

190

152
Filled with concrete

152

390

or

Load bearing blocks

152 190 190

Clay blocks

190

or

152

203

Fig 39 - Load & non load bearing clay or concrete blocks

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Clay blocks

Date 1 July, 2004

Concrete blocks

390

390

390

Concrete blocks

390

290

390

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 100/179

Ring beam 200mm minimum

First floor

Minimum slab thickness see table B4 Ring beam 200mm minimum Maximum span see table B4

Ground level

150mm blockwork

150mm blockwork

Crawl space 300 mm minimum

See details figures B14 and/or B 15-1

Fig 40 - 2 level house - Typical cross section masonry blocks

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 101/179

6
6.1
6.1.1

Vertical structures
Concrete and masonry
Masonry block walls

6.1.1.1

General

This section outlines the requirements for structural masonry construction using shear panels for single and two storey structures as configured in Figure 38 - 1or 2 level house type.

6.1.1.2

Workmanship

Cavities shall be clean and substantially free from mortar droppings. Reinforcement shall be placed centrally and/or properly spaced from the masonry. Reinforcement shall be adequately lapped and secured. The procedure for applying concrete as outlined in Clause 4.4.1.5 shall be adhered to.

6.1.1.3

Hollow masonry blocks

Hollow clay block units shall conform to the latest edition of the ASTM C652-95a Hollow Brick 6.1.1.3.1 (Hollow Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale) and/or ASTM C34-96 Structural Clay Load-Bearing Wall Tile. See TTS 587:2003 and TTS 588:2003. --- Grade 3 clay blocks cannot be considered as structural.
6.1.1.3.2 Load bearing concrete masonry block units shall conform to the latest edition of TTS 16 35 508 Specification for Load Bearing Concrete Blocks. 6.1.1.3.3 Non-load bearing interior walls or partitions may be constructed using blocks with a thickness of 100 mm or less. Concrete masonry block units for such application shall conform to the latest edition of TTS 16 35 509 Specification for Non-load Bearing Concrete Blocks. 6.1.1.3.4

Figure 39 shows the various types of load bearing and non-load bearing masonry blocks.

6.1.1.4

Shear panels

6.1.1.4.1 A shear panel (see Figures 17 and 18 - Shear panel) is a portion or section of a 150mm exterior wall that performs the function of resisting lateral earthquake or wind forces. 6.1.1.4.2

Where masonry is used there shall be a shear wall on each exterior wall of every house.

6.1.1.4.3 A shear panel should be 1.8 m in horizontal dimension along the face of the wall and a minimum of 150 mm in block and wall thickness extending from floor to ring beam, with no openings or penetrations. If the shear panel must be divided in two part the total of horizontal dimension increase to 2.4m with a minimum of 1000mm for the smallest part. (See Figures 17 & 18).

--- Figures 41 & 42 shows the various configurations and applications of a shear panel, vertical stiffeners and openings:

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 102/179

horizontal reinforcement every three rows

Alternative for ventilation integrated to the opening

Shear panel

For ventilation blocks

Fig 41 - Typical external wall arrangement - vertical core blocks

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Max 1800mm

Max 1800mm

Min 400mm

Alternative for ventilation integrated to the opening Stiffener every 1800 mm Shear panel of 1800 mm

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

File # Small building code 2004_draft


Shear panel Shear panel of 1800 mm For ventilation blocks horizontal reinforcement every three rows Max 1800mm Max 1800mm Min 400mm

Fig 42 - Typical external wall arrangement - horizontal core blocks

Date 1 July, 2004

First edition Page 103/179

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 104/179

6.1.1.5

Block laying

6.1.1.5.1 41 & 42).

Blocks shall be laid in half bond courses which have been aligned using lines and levels (see Figures

6.1.1.5.2 Walls at junctions and corners shall be bonded to each other by reinforcement and also interlocked in half bond. All walls shall be tied to columns or to reinforced corners at every second course. 6.1.1.5.3 Horizontal and vertical mortar joints shall be a minimum thickness of 12 mm and shall be properly filled with mortar.

6.1.1.6

Mortar

6.1.1.6.1 Mortar shall be made using, by volume, 1 part of ordinary Portland cement and a maximum of 4 parts of clean sifted plastering sand. 6.1.1.6.2 Mortar shall be mixed by hand or preferably by a machine until the ingredients are thoroughly mixed (not less than 3 minutes by machine). A minimum amount of water shall be added to the dry mixture to allow for workability. There shall be no re-mixing of mortar. 6.1.1.6.3

Mortar shall be mixed in appropriate amounts so it is completely used within 2 hours.

6.1.1.7

Reinforcement Shear panel

6.1.1.7.1

See Figures 17 and 18 with vertical and horizontal core blocks.


a) i. Vertical reinforcement With vertical core blocks

Shear panels shall be vertically reinforced using 12 mm diameter bars placed a distance of 400 mm between centres in solid grouted cells. A 1.8 m shear panel would then have five 12 mm diameter bars vertically placed. See Figure 17.
ii. With horizontal core blocks

Shear panels shall be vertically reinforced using a frame of 2 vertical columns 250mm x 150 mm minimum with 4 x 12 mm diameter bars placed vertically and 6mm diameter bar stirrup each 150 mm in solid concrete. See Figure 18.
b) Vertical reinforcement bars shall be adequately lapped and secured to hook dowels anchored both in the foundation and the ring beam. c) Horizontal reinforcement shall be provided using masonry mesh 50 mm 50 mm 3 mm (2 in 2 in 10 G) or an equivalent every two rows. (See Figures 46 & 47).

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 105/179

2 dia. 12mm bar 2 dia. 12mm bar

2 dia. 12mm bar

Max 1800mm
2 dia. 12mm bar

2 dia. 12mm bar 2 dia. 10mm bar Ground level

Window

Door

Fig 43 - Openings and lintels

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 106/179

Part elevation
Vertical reinforcement

In situ concrete

Part plan

Part elevation
Vertical reinforcement

In situ concrete

Part plan

Fig 44 - Typical wall corner & intersection - vertical core blocks

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 107/179

Part elevation
Vertical reinforcement 200 mm min

In situ concrete

Part plan

Part elevation
250 mm min Vertical reinforcement

In situ concrete

Part plan

Fig 45 - Typical wall corner & intersection - horizontal core blocks

File # Small building code 2004_draft

200 mm min

200 mm min

Date 1 July, 2004

Phase 3 Concreting Phase 2 Vertical reinforcement and formwork

Acceptable horizontal reinforcement


Form work

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

Horizontal core blocks


1 dia.10mm horizontal
Horizontal reinforcement every three rows

File # Small building code 2004_draft


1 dia.12mm vertical
Phase 1 Block laying and horizontal reinforcement Vertical stiffener locations zontal reinforcement ry three rows

1800

1800

Fig 46 - Typical wall reinforcement and phasing construction


Phase 0
2 1 dia 12mm

Date 1 July, 2004

Foundation

First edition Page 108/179

Last Phase

14

Phase "n"
13

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

Vertical core blocks


12

Acceptable horizontal reinforcement


8 7 6

File # Small building code 2004_draft


Horizontal reinforcement every two course
5 4 3 2 1

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3
Concrete

Concrete

6 5

Phase 0
Concrete

dia 12mm x 1 000mm 4 3 2 1 2 1 4 3

Fig 47 - Typical wall reinforcement and phasing construction


40mm
2 1 dia 12mm

Date 1 July, 2004

Foundation

First edition Page 109/179

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 110/179

6.1.1.8

Openings

6.1.1.8.1 All openings of 600 mm or greater in any direction shall be reinforced both horizontally and vertically with a minimum of two 10 mm diameter bars. All bars shall extend a distance not less than 600 mm beyond each corner of the opening or otherwise anchored by a 300 mm bend inside the concrete frame (see Figure 43 Openings and lintels). 6.1.1.8.2

Lintels with a span of 600 mm or less shall be horizontally reinforced with two 10 mm diameter bars.

6.1.1.8.3 Lintels with a span ranging from 1.2 m to 1.8 m shall be horizontally and vertically reinforced with two 12 mm bars. 6.1.1.8.4

For large openings refer to Clause - Lintels.

6.1.1.9

Load bearing walls (external and internal)

6.1.1.9.1 Masonry walls other than those described above shall be reinforced as follows:

a) Three 10 mm diameter bars placed vertically at corners (see Figures 44 & 45). b) Four 10 mm diameter bars placed vertically at intersections (see Figures 44 & 45). c) Two 10 mm diameter bars placed vertically at jambs of doors and windows (see Figure 43). d) For vertical wall reinforcement (stiffener) 12 mm diameter bars shall be used spaced 1.8m apart (see Figures 46 & 47). e) Horizontal reinforcement every three rows (see Figures 46 & 47).

6.1.1.10

Non-load bearing walls (internal walls)

The recommended minimum reinforcement for non load bearing walls with concrete block construction (refer to Figures 48 & 49) shall be as follows: a) One 10 mm diameter bar shall be placed vertically at corners. b) One 10 mm diameter bar shall be placed vertically at junctions. c) For vertical wall reinforcement 10 mm bars shall be spaced at a maximum of 2.5 m apart.

6.1.1.11

Concrete in fill

6.1.1.11.1 Vertical core blocks a) Load bearing walls shall be filled with 1:2:4 nominal mix (refer to Table 7) into the block cores. The concrete shall be properly compacted, with concrete being added after every two courses of block erection (see Figure 47). b) Non-load bearing walls shall be filled with grout or fine aggregate concrete as the work proceeds (see Figure 47).

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 111/179

c) Pouring of concrete into vertical block cores shall be stopped 40 mm below the top of the block in order to form a key at joints (see Figure 47). d) The wall reinforcement shall be securely anchored in the wall footing and the ring beam. Horizontal reinforcement shall be embedded in mortar and shall be continuous through intersections and corners (see Figure 47).

Ring beam

2.50m maximum

2.50m maximum

Frame

Frame

External wall 150mm minimum

Stifener each 2.50m maximum

Fig 48 - Internal wall arrangement and reinforcement - Vertical core

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 112/179

Ring beam

2.50m maximum

2.50m maximum

Frame

Frame

External wall 150mm minimum

Stifener each 2.50m maximum

Fig 49 - Internal wall arrangement and reinforcement - Horizontal core

Ring beam - junction reinforcement


2 x 2 dia 12mm/1m angles Concrete beam 150mm min x 200mm min Concrete grade "B" or "C" min Dia 6mm stirrup details 100mm 100mm
200mm min 150mm

Ring beam - corner reinforcement


2 x 3 dia 12mm/1m angles

4 dia. 12mm bars 150mm min

100mm 300mm

Fig 50 - Ring beam reinforcement

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 113/179

6.1.1.11.2 Horizontal core blocks

a) Vertical stiffeners and columns integrated in the wall shall be filled with 1:2:4 nominal mix (refer to table B 1) into the form work. The concrete shall be properly poured and compacted after total block erection in order to insure a good wall interlocking (see Figure 46). b) The wall reinforcement shall be securely anchored in the wall footing and the ring beam. Horizontal reinforcement shall be embedded in mortar and shall be continuous through intersections and corners (see Figure 46).

6.1.1.12

Ring beams

6.1.1.12.1 All walls shall be finished at the top by a reinforced concrete ring beam not less than 200 mm in depth. 6.1.1.12.2 The minimum ring beam reinforcement shall be four 12 mm diameter bars with 6 mm diameter stirrups placed 300 mm between centres. The beam width shall be a minimum of 150 mm without plaster (see Figure 50). 6.1.1.12.3 The corners of ring beams shall be reinforced as shown in Figure 50.

6.1.1.13

Isolated columns

Where columns are required for porches, carports etc., construction shall be as follows: a) b) two. c) Minimum dimensions shall be 200 mm 200 mm. Columns shall be formed by form work on four sides or form work on two sides with block work on the other Square columns:

i. The minimum column reinforcement shall be four 12 mm diameter bars with 6 mm diameter stirrups placed 150 mm between centres. ii. Isolated columns may be formed by 200 x 200 x 200mm concrete blocks filled and reinforced as required above. d) Round columns:

i. Round columns with varying cross-section (fancy columns) shall have a minimum section of 200mm diameter and shall be reinforced with six (6) 12mm diameter bars with 6mm diameter round stirrups placed 150mm between centres.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 114/179

6.1.1.14

Lintels

6.1.1.14.1 Reinforced concrete lintels shall span all door and window openings and shall extend beyond the jambs by not less than 150 mm. 6.1.1.14.2 The lintel shall be 200 mm deep for openings not greater than 2.5 m in width and 300mm deep for greater span between 2.5m and 4m. 6.1.1.14.3 The reinforcement of the lintel shall be four 12 mm diameter bars and 6 mm diameter stirrups placed 200 mm between centres. Reinforcement bars shall be placed in lintels ditto as shown in Figure 50 for ring beam.

6.1.1.15

Chasing

The chasing of walls for the installation of services shall be carefully controlled. Horizontal chases at any one level shall be restricted to 0.7 m in length and only one side of the wall shall be chased. Chasing shall be done before the walls are plastered and then filled with concrete. No chasing of structural members shall be permitted.

6.1.1.16

Services

6.1.1.16.1 Services shall not be carried through shear panels. 6.1.1.16.2 Where services through a structural member other than a shear panel are unavoidable, a sleeve, preferably metallic, shall be provided during the casting operation. The maximum external diameter of the sleeve shall be 25 mm. The minimum spacing between sleeves shall be 150 mm.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 115/179

Section on shear panel

First floor

Section on beam only Beam see table B7

Minimum slab thickness see table B4

Ground level

150mm blockwork see shear panel

Crawl space 300 mm minimum

See details figures B14 and/or B 15-1

Fig 51 - 2 level house Typical cross section columns, beams and shear panel

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 116/179

6.1.2

Columns, beams and shear panel structure

6.1.2.1

General

This section outlines the requirements for structural columns and beams construction using shear panels for single and two storey structures as configured in Figures 12 and 13 for 1or 2 level house type.

6.1.2.2

Shear panels

Ditto "Shear panels" in previous paragraph "Masonry block walls" and "Reinforcement".

6.1.2.3

Columns

Columns construction shall be as follows:


6.1.2.3.1 Sizes

Minimum dimensions shall be 250 mm 250 mm.


6.1.2.3.2 Form work

Columns shall be formed by form-work on four sides or form-work on two sides with block work on the other two.
6.1.2.3.3 Reinforcement

a)

Square columns

The minimum column reinforcement shall be four 12mm diameter bars with 6mm diameter stirrups placed 150 mm between centres. b) Round columns

Where round columns are used, or round columns with varying cross-section (fancy columns) shall have a minimum section of 250mm diameter and shall be reinforced with six (6) 12mm diameter bars with 6mm diameter round stirrups placed 100mm between centres.
6.1.2.3.4 Concrete

--- Columns shall be filled with 1:1:1 nominal mix (refer to Table 7). --- The concrete shall be properly compacted and poured at one time with no joints present for any height of column.

6.1.2.4

Beams

Where beams are used, construction shall be as follows:


6.1.2.4.1 Dimensions

- Maximum span 5000mm - Minimum section - See Tables 11, 12, 13, 14 - Total height not less than 1/12 span with 300mm minimum. (see Tables 11, 12, 13, 14)

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


Beam # 1
Live Load Beam maximum span (metres) 3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 Office floor 2.50 kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Small industrial floor and storage 5 kN/m2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Horizontal span 3.00 Roof 1kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Domestic floor 2.00 kN/m2 Live Load Beam maximum span (metres) 3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 Office floor 2.50 kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Small industrial floor and storage 5 kN/m2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Horizontal span 3.00 Roof 1kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Domestic floor 2.00 kN/m2 Beam section Width (mm) 250 250 350 200 350 400 250 300 400 250 300 350 Slab Total height thick. (mm) 300 400 450 350 400 500 300 400 500 300 400 500 (mm) 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 Main reinforcement Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Dia. 2 Number Total (mm) 16 16 16 16 16 16 12 16 16 12 16 16 min. 2 4 7 2 4 7 2 3 6 3 3 6 mm2 594 944 1,608 518 1,016 1,540 465 856 1,410 542 876 1,326 Top steel on bearing Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Dia. 2 (mm) 12 16 16 12 16 16 10 12 16 10 12 16 Number min. 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 3 3 1 3 3 Total mm2 330 524 894 288 565 856 258 476 783 301 264 736 Dia. (mm) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

First edition Page 117/179

Vert. stirrups Nb vert. Bar/stir. 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 4 4 Space (mn) mini 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Vert. stirrups Total mm2 214 384 560 219 395 577 190 329 513 238 239 524 Dia. (mm) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Nb vert. Bar/stir. 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 Space (mn) mini 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Vert. stirrups Total mm2 328 524 894 286 565 856 257 473 783 300 257 736 Dia. (mm) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Nb vert. Bar/stir. 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 4 4 Space (mn) mini 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Vert. stirrups Total mm2 214 384 560 220 398 577 186 327 511 Dia. (mm) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Nb vert. Bar/stir. 2 2 4 2 4 4 2 2 4 Space (mn) mini 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 maxi 250 250 250 250 250 250 220 250 250 Total stirrup 20 27 33 20 27 33 19 23 30 maxi 220 250 250 250 250 250 220 250 250 220 250 250 Total stirrup 22 27 33 20 27 33 19 23 30 22 27 33 maxi 250 250 250 250 250 250 220 250 250 220 250 250 Total stirrup 20 27 33 20 27 33 19 23 30 22 27 33 maxi 210 250 250 250 250 250 220 250 250 220 250 250 Total stirrup 23 27 33 20 27 33 19 23 30 22 27 33

Beam # 2
Beam section Width (mm) 150 200 250 150 200 250 150 200 250 150 200 250 Slab Total height thick. (mm) 350 400 500 350 400 500 300 400 500 300 400 500 (mm) 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 Main reinforcement Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Dia. (mm) 10 12 16 10 12 16 12 16 16 12 12 16 Number Total min. 2 4 4 2 5 4 1 2 4 2 4 4 mm2 384 691 1,008 394 712 1,039 342 593 923 429 650 944 Top steel on bearing Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Dia. 2 (mm) 12 16 12 16 Number min. 2 2 2 2

12 12 10 10 12

1 3 1 2 3

Beam # 3
Live Load Beam maximum span (metres) 3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 Office floor 2.50 kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Small industrial floor and storage 5 kN/m2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Horizontal span 3.00 Roof 1kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Domestic floor 2.00 kN/m2 Live Load Beam maximum span (metres) 3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 Office floor 2.50 kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Small industrial floor and storage 5 kN/m2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Horizontal span Domestic floor 2.00 kN/m2 Beam section Width (mm) 250 250 350 200 350 400 250 300 400 250 300 350 Total height (mm) 300 400 450 350 400 500 300 400 500 300 400 500 Slab thick. (mm) 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 Main reinforcement Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Dia. (mm) 12 16 16 12 16 16 10 12 16 10 12 16 Number Total min. 2 2 4 1 3 4 1 3 4 2 3 4 mm2 393 629 1,072 343 677 1,027 309 568 940 360 581 884 Top steel on bearing Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Dia. 2 (mm) 10 12 16 10 12 16 10 12 16 10 12 16 Number min. 2 3 3 1 3 3 1 2 3 1 3 3

Beam # 4
Beam section Width (mm) 150 200 250 150 200 250 150 200 250 Total height (mm) 350 400 500 350 400 500 300 400 500 Slab thick. (mm) 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 Main reinforcement Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 Dia. (mm) 10 12 16 12 16 16 Number Total min. 1 3 3 1 2 3 mm2 256 461 672 264 477 693 223 392 613 Top steel on bearing Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 Dia. 2 (mm) 12 16 12 16 Number min. 2 2 2 2

10 12

2 4

10 12

2 3

Table 11 - Typical reinforcement for concrete beams - 2 ways slab and MS steel grade 250

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


Beam # 5
Liv e Lo ad D o m e stic flo o r 1.50 k N /m 2 Beam m axim u m sp an (m etres) Beam sectio n W id th T o tal h eigh t (m m ) (m m ) 250 300 300 400 400 500 250 350 350 450 400 500 250 300 400 250 300 350 300 400 500 300 400 500 M ain rein fo rcem en t S lab th ick n ess D ia. N u m b er (m m ) (m m ) m in . 100 4 16 125 8 16 150 S e e ta b le B 7 -4 100 4 16 125 8 16 150 S e e ta b le B 7 -4 100 125 150 100 125 150 4 16 8 16 S e e ta b le B 7 -4 4 16 7 16 S e e ta b le B 7 -4 T o p steel o n b earin g D ia. N u m b er (m m ) m in . 4 12 4 16 12 16 3 4

First edition Page 118/179

3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 O ffic e flo o r 2.50 k N /m 2 4.00 5.00 S m a ll in d u stria l flo o r a n d sto ra g e 5 k N /m 2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Ho rizo n tal sp an 3.00 R oof 1k N /m 2 4.00 5.00

V ert. stirru p s D ia. N u m b er (m m ) m in . 20 6 25 6 30 6 20 6 25 6 30 6 8 8 8 6 6 6 20 30 35 15 20 25

12 16

3 4

12 16

3 4

Beam # 6
Liv e Lo ad D o m e stic flo o r 1.50 k N /m 2 Beam m axim u m sp an (m etres) Beam sectio n W id th T o tal h eigh t (m m ) (m m ) 150 350 150 400 200 500 150 350 150 400 200 500 150 200 200 150 150 200 300 400 500 300 400 500 M ain rein fo rcem en t S lab th ick n ess D ia. N u m b er (m m ) (m m ) 100 3 12 125 5 16 150 8 16 100 2 16 125 5 16 150 S e e ta b le B 7 -4 100 125 150 100 125 150 16 16 16 16 16 16 2 5 8 2 4 7 T o p cen ter steel D ia. N u m b er (m m ) 1 12 2 16 4 16 2 12 4 12 V ert. stirru p s D ia. N u m b er (m m ) 20 6 25 6 25 6 20 6 25 6 25 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 20 30 25 15 20 25

3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 O ffic e flo o r 2.50 k N /m 2 4.00 5.00 S m a ll in d u stria l flo o r a n d sto ra g e 5 k N /m 2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Ho rizo n tal sp an 3.00 R oof 1k N /m 2 4.00 5.00

12 16 16 12 12 16

1 2 4 1 3 4

Beam # 7
Liv e Lo ad D o m e stic flo o r 1.50 k N /m 2 Beam m axim u m sp an (m etres) Beam sectio n W id th T o tal h eigh t (m m ) (m m ) 200 300 250 400 300 500 200 350 250 400 300 500 250 300 350 200 250 300 300 400 500 300 400 500 M ain rein fo rcem en t S lab th ick n ess D ia. N u m b er (m m ) (m m ) m in . 100 4 12 125 5 16 150 S e e ta b le B 7 -4 100 4 12 125 6 16 150 S e e ta b le B 7 -4 100 125 150 100 125 150 4 12 5 16 S e e ta b le B 7 -4 12 16 16 4 5 7 T o p steel o n b earin g D ia. N u m b er (m m ) m in . 3 12 4 16 12 16 3 5 V ert. stirru p s D ia. N u m b er (m m ) m in . 20 6 25 6 30 6 20 6 25 6 30 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 20 30 35 15 20 25

3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 O ffic e flo o r 2.50 k N /m 2 4.00 5.00 S m a ll in d u stria l flo o r a n d sto ra g e 5 k N /m 2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Ho rizo n tal sp an 3.00 R oof 1k N /m 2 4.00 5.00

12 16

3 4

12 16 16

3 4 6

Beam # 8
Liv e Lo ad D o m e stic flo o r 1.50 k N /m 2 Beam m axim u m sp an (m etres) Beam sectio n W id th T o tal h eigh t (m m ) (m m ) 200 300 250 400 300 500 200 350 250 400 300 500 250 300 350 200 250 300 300 400 500 300 400 500 S lab th ick n ess (m m ) 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 M ain rein fo rcem en t D ia. N u m b er (m m ) m in . 2 12 5 12 5 16 2 12 3 16 5 16 12 12 16 12 12 16 2 5 5 2 4 4 T o p steel o n b earin g D ia. N u m b er (m m ) m in . 2 12 4 12 4 16 1 12 4 12 4 16 12 12 16 12 12 16 1 4 4 1 3 4 V ert. stirru p s D ia. N u m b er (m m ) m in . 20 6 25 6 30 6 20 6 25 6 30 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 20 30 35 15 20 25

3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 O ffic e flo o r 2.50 k N /m 2 4.00 5.00 S m a ll in d u stria l flo o r a n d sto ra g e 5 k N /m 2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Ho rizo n tal sp an 3.00 R oof 1k N /m 2 4.00 5.00

Table 12 - Typical reinforcement for concrete beams - 1 ways slab and MS steel grade 250

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


Beam # 1
Live Load Beam maximum span (metres) Domestic floor 1.50 kN/m2 3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 Office floor 2.50 kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Small industrial floor and storage 5 kN/m2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Horizontal span 3.00 Roof 1kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Beam section Width (mm) 250 250 350 250 300 350 250 300 350 250 300 350 Total height (mm) 300 400 450 300 350 450 300 350 400 300 350 400 Slab thick. (mm) 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 Main reinforcement Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Dia. 2 Number Total (mm) 12 12 16 12 12 16 10 12 16 12 12 16 min. 2 3 4 2 4 4 1 3 4 1 3 4 mm2 337 534 915 365 677 1,000 276 580 1,033 323 592 979 Top steel on bearing Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Dia. 2 (mm) 10 16 12 16 Number min. 2 2 2 2 Total mm2 187 297 508 203 376 555 153 322 574 179 440 544 Dia. (mm) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

First edition Page 119/179

Vert. stirrups Nb vert. Bar/stir. 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 4 4 Space (mn) mini 50 50 50 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Vert. stirrups Total mm2 122 222 321 128 235 342 111 195 304 119 359 343 Dia. (mm) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Nb vert. Bar/stir. 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 Space (mn) mini 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 48 Vert. stirrups Total mm2 183 297 506 202 376 555 150 321 571 175 358 541 Dia. (mm) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Nb vert. Bar/stir. 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 4 4 Space (mn) mini 50 50 50 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Vert. stirrups Total mm2 122 221 321 128 235 342 111 195 304 Dia. (mm) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Nb vert. Bar/stir. 2 2 4 2 4 4 2 2 4 Space (mn) mini 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 maxi 250 250 250 250 250 250 220 250 250 Total stirrup 20 27 33 20 27 33 19 23 30 maxi 220 250 250 220 250 250 220 250 250 220 250 250 Total stirrup 22 27 33 22 27 33 19 23 30 22 27 33 maxi 250 250 250 250 250 250 220 250 250 250 250 250 Total stirrup 20 27 33 20 27 33 19 23 30 20 27 34 maxi 220 250 250 220 250 250 220 250 250 220 250 250 Total stirrup 22 27 33 22 27 33 19 23 30 22 27 33

12 16

1 2

12 16

1 2

Beam # 2
Live Load Beam maximum span (metres) Domestic floor 1.50 kN/m2 3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 Office floor 2.50 kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Small industrial floor and storage 5 kN/m2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Horizontal span 3.00 Roof 1kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Live Load Beam maximum span (metres) Domestic floor 1.50 kN/m2 3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 Office floor 2.50 kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Small industrial floor and storage 5 kN/m2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Horizontal span 3.00 Roof 1kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Live Load Beam maximum span (metres) Domestic floor 1.50 kN/m2 3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 Office floor 2.50 kN/m2 4.00 5.00 Small industrial floor and storage 5 kN/m2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Horizontal span Beam section Width (mm) 150 200 250 150 200 250 150 200 250 150 200 250 Total height (mm) 350 400 500 350 400 500 300 400 500 350 400 450 Slab thick. (mm) 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 Main reinforcement Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Dia. (mm) 12 12 12 12 Number Total min. 2 4 2 4 mm2 219 399 578 231 424 616 199 350 547 213 387 618 Top steel on bearing Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Dia. 2 (mm) Number min.

12 10 12

1 1 1

10 12

2 3

12

12 12

2 4

12

Beam # 3
Beam section Width (mm) 250 250 350 250 300 350 250 300 350 250 300 350 Total height (mm) 300 400 450 300 350 450 300 350 400 300 350 400 Slab thick. (mm) 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 Main reinforcement Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Dia. (mm) 12 12 10 12 16 Number Total min. 2 4 1 2 3 mm2 220 356 607 243 451 667 180 386 685 210 393 649 Top steel on bearing Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 Dia. 2 (mm) 12 12 12 12 Number min. 1 3 2 4

10 12

2 4

10 12

2 3

10 12

3 4

12 12

1 3

Beam # 4
Beam section Width (mm) 150 200 250 150 200 250 150 200 250 Total height (mm) 350 400 500 350 400 500 300 400 500 Slab thick. (mm) 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 Main reinforcement Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 Dia. (mm) 10 12 10 12 Number Total min. 1 2 1 3 mm2 146 265 386 154 282 411 133 233 365 Top steel on bearing Dia. 1 Number (mm) basic bar 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 2 12 12 12 12 2 2 2 Dia. 2 (mm) Number min.

12 10 12

1 1 1

10 12

1 2

12

Table 13 - Typical reinforcement for concrete beams - 2 ways slab and HR steel grade 420

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


Beam # 5
Liv e Lo ad D o m e stic flo o r 2.00 k N/m 2 Beam m axim u m sp an (m etres) Beam sectio n W id th To tal h eigh t (m m ) (m m ) 250 350 300 450 400 550 250 350 350 450 400 550 250 300 400 250 300 350 300 450 550 300 450 550 S lab th ick n ess (m m ) 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 Main rein fo rcem en t Dia. Nu m b er (m m ) m in . 3 12 5 16 5 20 3 12 4 16 5 20 12 16 20 12 16 20 3 4 5 3 3 4 T o p steel o n b earin g Dia. Nu m b er (m m ) m in . 1 10 3 12 4 16 1 10 3 12 4 16 10 12 16 1 3 4

First edition Page 120/179

3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 O ffic e flo o r 2.50 k N/m 2 4.00 5.00 Sm a ll ind ustria l flo o r a nd sto ra g e 5 k N/m 2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Ho rizo n tal sp an 3.00 R oof 1k N/m 2 4.00 5.00

Vert. stirru p s Dia. Nu m b er (m m ) m in . 20 6 25 6 30 6 20 6 25 6 30 6 8 8 8 6 6 6 20 30 35 15 20 25

12 16

2 3

Beam # 6
Liv e Lo ad D o m e stic flo o r 2.00 k N/m 2 Beam m axim u m sp an (m etres) Beam sectio n W id th To tal h eigh t (m m ) (m m ) 200 350 250 400 300 500 200 350 250 400 300 550 200 250 300 200 250 300 300 400 500 300 400 500 S lab th ick n ess (m m ) 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 Main rein fo rcem en t Dia. Nu m b er (m m ) 1 10 4 12 4 16 1 10 4 12 4 16 10 12 16 10 12 16 1 4 4 1 3 4 T o p cen ter steel Dia. Nu m b er (m m ) 10 12 12 12 1 3 1 3 Vert. stirru p s Dia. Nu m b er (m m ) 20 6 25 6 25 6 20 6 25 6 25 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 20 30 25 15 20 25

3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 O ffic e flo o r 2.50 k N/m 2 4.00 5.00 Sm a ll ind ustria l flo o r a nd sto ra g e 5 k N/m 2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Ho rizo n tal sp an 3.00 R oof 1k N/m 2 4.00 5.00

10 12

1 3

10 12

1 2

Beam # 7
Liv e Lo ad D o m e stic flo o r 2.00 k N/m 2 Beam m axim u m sp an (m etres) Beam sectio n W id th To tal h eigh t (m m ) (m m ) 200 300 250 400 300 500 200 350 250 400 300 500 250 300 350 200 250 300 300 400 500 300 400 500 S lab th ick n ess (m m ) 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 Main rein fo rcem en t Dia. Nu m b er (m m ) m in . 2 12 3 16 5 16 2 10 3 16 5 16 10 16 16 10 12 16 1 3 5 1 3 4 T o p steel o n b earin g Dia. Nu m b er (m m ) m in . 1 10 3 12 4 16 1 10 3 16 4 16 10 12 16 1 3 4 Vert. stirru p s Dia. Nu m b er (m m ) m in . 20 6 25 6 30 6 20 6 25 6 30 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 20 30 35 15 20 25

3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 O ffic e flo o r 2.50 k N/m 2 4.00 5.00 Sm a ll ind ustria l flo o r a nd sto ra g e 5 k N/m 2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Ho rizo n tal sp an 3.00 R oof 1k N/m 2 4.00 5.00

12 16

2 3

Beam # 8
Liv e Lo ad D o m e stic flo o r 2.00 k N/m 2 Beam m axim u m sp an (m etres) Beam sectio n W id th To tal h eigh t (m m ) (m m ) 200 300 250 400 300 500 200 350 250 400 300 500 250 300 350 200 250 300 300 400 500 300 400 500 S lab th ick n ess (m m ) 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 100 125 150 Main rein fo rcem en t Dia. Nu m b er (m m ) m in . 10 12 10 16 2 4 3 3 T o p steel o n b earin g Dia. Nu m b er (m m ) m in . 10 12 10 12 1 3 2 3 Vert. stirru p s Dia. Nu m b er (m m ) m in . 20 6 25 6 30 6 20 6 25 6 30 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 20 30 35 15 20 25

3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 O ffic e flo o r 2.50 k N/m 2 4.00 5.00 Sm a ll ind ustria l flo o r a nd sto ra g e 5 k N/m 2 2.50 3.50 4.50 Ho rizo n tal sp an 3.00 R oof 1k N/m 2 4.00 5.00

10 12

2 4

10 12

1 3

10 12

2 3

10 12

1 2

Table 14 - Typical reinforcement for concrete beams - 1 ways slab and HR steel grade 420

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 121/179

6.1.2.4.2

Form-work

---

Beams shall be formed by form-work on three sides.

--- The bottom form-work must be rigid enough to support the weight of the structure, the two other sides and the rigours. --This bottom form support shall remain in place not less than 10 days minimum.

6.1.2.4.3

Reinforcement

For horizontal and vertical reinforcement see Tables 11, 12, 13, 13 and Figures 40, 51, 59, 66, 67, 68, 69.

6.1.2.4.4

Concrete

Beams shall be filled with 1:1:1 nominal mix (refer to Table 7). The concrete shall be properly compacted and poured at one time.

6.1.3

Framed structure

To be published with next edition.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 122/179

1 roof load

1 roof load 1 floor load

Fig 52 - Wall height

6.2
6.2.1

Timber
Identification and grade

See characteristics in paragraph "Basic Materials/Timber".


6.2.2 Exterior walls.

Exterior walls of wood-frame construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.
6.2.2.1 Stud spacing

In bearing walls, studs, which are not more than 3m in height, shall be spaced not more than is specified in the following Table 15.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

H = Height

H = Height

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 123/179

Table 15 - Maximum stud spacing

Stud size

Supporting roof and ceiling only 600mm 600mm 600mm

Supporting on floor, roof and ceiling 400mm 600mm 600mm

Supporting one floor only 600mm 600mm 600mm

50 x 100mm 50 x 150mm 75 x 100mm

6.2.2.2

Top plate

--- Wood stud walls shall be capped with a double top plate installed to provide overlapping at comers and intersections with bearing partitions (see Figure 54). --- Any joints in top plates shall be offset at least 600 mm.
6.2.2.3 Bearing studs

Where floor or roof framing members is spaced more than 400mm on centre and the bearing studs below are spaced 600mm on centre, such members shall bear within 120mm of the studs beneath.

Exterior or bearing wall

Notch greater than 50%

Top plates

1.5mm metal tie across and to each side of the notch

Pipe

Fig 53 - Top plate framing to accommodate piping

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 124/179

Rafters and ceiling joists or approved roof truss

Top plate

First storey
Wall stud See drilling and and notching provisions Floor joist See drilling and and notching provisions Joist may be cut or notched between these limits

Bottom plate Band joist or blocking

1/3 span

1/3 span

Top plate Joist nailed to stud

Platform framing
Lap joists 75mm minimum Bottom plate Joist

Bearing wall

Balloon framing

Subfloor Slab on grade foundation

Sill plate

Crawl space or basement foundation

Fig 54 - Typical wall, floor and roof framing

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 125/179

6.2.2.4

Stud length Table 16 - Maximum allowable length of wood studs

Height (m) 600m

On centre spacing 400mm Supporting a roof only 300mm 200mm

>3m 3.6m 4.2m

50 x 100mm 50 x 150mm 50 x 150mm

50 x 100mm 50 x 100mm 50 x 150mm

50 x 100mm 50 x 100mm 50 x 150mm

50 x 100mm 50 x 100mm 50 x 100mm

Supporting one floor and a roof >4.2m 50 x 150mm 50 x 150mm 50 x 150mm 50 x 150mm

Supporting two floors and a roof >4.2m 50 x 150mm 50 x 150mm 50 x 150mm 50 x 150mm

6.2.2.5

Bottom (sole) plate

Studs shall have full bearing on a nominal 40mm or larger plate or sill having a width at least equal to the width of the studs.

6.2.3

Interior load bearing walls

Interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed, framed and fire-stopped as specified for exterior walls.

6.2.4

Interior non-bearing walls

--- Interior non-bearing walls shall be permitted to be constructed with: - 50mm by 75mm studs spaced 600 mm on centre or, when not part of a braced wall line. - 50mm by 100mm flat studs spaced at 400mm on centre. --- Interior non-bearing walls shall be capped with at least a single top plate.

6.2.5

Drilling and notching-studs

--- Any stud in an exterior wall or bearing partition may be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. --- Studs in non bearing partitions may be notched to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a single stud width. --- Any stud may be bored or drilled, provided that the diameter of the resulting hole is no greater than 40 percent of the stud width, the edge of the hole is no closer than 20mm to the edge of the stud, and the hole is not located in the same section as a cut or notch.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 126/179

6.2.5.1

Drilling and notching of top plate

When piping or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or interior load-bearing wall, necessitating a cutting of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its width, a galvanised metal tie not less than 1.37 mm thick (16 gage) and 40mm wide shall be fastened to each plate across and to each side of the opening with not less than six 16d nails.

6.2.6

Headers

For header spans see Tables on floor section.


6.2.6.1 Wood structural panel box headers

Wood structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accordance with following Table 17.
Table 17 - Maximum spans for wood structural panel box header

Header construction

Header depth In mm 7.5m 1.2m 1.5m 2.1m 2.4m 8m 1.2m 1.5m 1.5m 2.4m

House depth in m 8.5m 0.9m 1.2m 1.5m 2.1m 9m 0.9m 0.9m 1.2m 2.1m 9.5m 0.9m 0.9m 1.8m

Wood structural panel one side Wood structural panel both sides

225mm 450mm 225mm 450mm

6.2.6.2

Non-bearing walls

--- Load-bearing headers are not required in interior or exterior non-bearing walls. A single flat 50mm by 100mm member may be used as a header in interior or exterior non bearing walls for openings up to 2.4m in width if the vertical distance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 600mm. --For such non bearing headers, no cripples or blocking are required above the header.

6.2.7

Cripple walls

Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs not less in size than the studding above. When exceeding 1.2m in height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size required for an additional story (see figure 55).
6.2.7.1 Bracing

--- Cripple walls shall be braced with an amount and type of bracing as required for the wall above plus an additional 15 percent of braced wall length or a maximum braced wall panel spacing to 5.5m. --- Cripple walls with a stud height less than 350mm shall be sheathed on at least one side with a wood structural panel that is fastened to both the top and bottom plates, or the cripple walls shall be constructed of solid blocking. Cripple walls shall be supported on continuous foundations.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 127/179

6.2.8

Wall bracing

Braced wall panels, exterior walls, and required interior braced wall lines shall be constructed in accordance with this Section. The braced wall panels in the braced wall lines in each story of the building shall be constructed of a series of one or more braced wall panels.
6.2.8.1 Braced wall lines

--- Braced wall lines shall consist of braced wall panels, which meet the requirements for location, method and amount of bracing specified in following table. --- Braced wall panels which are counted as part of a braced wall line shall be in line, except that offsets out-ofplane of up to 1200mm shall be permitted between adjacent wall panels, provided that the total out-to-out offset dimension in any braced wall line is not more than 2400mm. Braced wall panels shall begin no more than 2400mm from each end of a braced wall line.

Single or double top plate

Fireblock around pipe

Stagger joints 100mm or use splice plates

Wall sruds

Header- see table Jack studs or trimmers


Bottom plate Solid blocking

Sub floor

Floor joist Foundation Cripple wall

Sill plate

Foundation wall studs Anchor bolts embedded in foundation

Corner and partition posts

25x 100mm diagonal brace let into studs

Fig 55 - Framing details

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 128/179

Table 18 - Adjustment of bracing amounts for interior braced wall lines according to braced wall line spacing

Braced wall line spacing Meter 4.5m or less 6m 7.5m 9m 10.5m

Multiply bracing amount by: Coefficient 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

--- Exterior braced wall lines shall have a braced wall panel located at each end of the braced wall line: 1. Linear interpolation is permissible. 2. The adjustment is limited to the larger spacing between braced wall lines to either side of an interior braced wall line.
6.2.8.1.1 Sheathing attachment

--- Fastening of braced wall panel sheathing shall be nailed with 8d minimum. --- Adhesive attachment of wall sheathing is not permitted.

6.2.8.2

Braced wall panel construction methods

The construction of braced wall panels shall be in accordance with one of the following methods: a) Nominal 25mm by 100mm continuous diagonal braces let in to the top and bottom plates and the intervening studs or approved metal strap devices installed in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. - The let-in bracing shall be placed at an angle not more than 60 degrees or less than 45 degrees from the horizontal. b) Wood boards of 16mm net minimum thickness applied diagonally on studs spaced a maximum of 600mm on centre. c) Wood structural panel sheathing with a thickness not less than 8mm for 400mm stud spacing and not less than 10mm for 600mm stud spacing. d) 13mm or 19mm thick structural fibre board sheathing applied vertically on studs spaced a maximum of 400mm on centre.

6.2.8.3

Length of braced panels

For methods 2,3 and 4 above, each braced wall panel shall be at least 1200mm in length, covering a minimum of three stud spaces where studs are spaced 400mm on centre and covering a minimum of two stud spaces where studs are spaced 600mm on centre.

6.2.8.4

Panel joints

--- All vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over studs. --- Horizontal joints in braced wall panels shall occur over blocking of a minimum of 40mm thickness.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


6.2.8.5 Connection

First edition Page 129/179

--- Braced wall panel sole plates shall be fastened to the floor framing and top plates shall be connected to the framing above. --- Sills shall be fastened to the foundation or slab. --- Where joists are perpendicular to the braced wall lines above, blocking shall be provided under and in line with the braced wall panel.

6.2.8.6

Wall anchorage

--- Braced wall line sills shall be anchored to concrete or masonry foundations. --- Plate washers, a minimum 6mm x 50mm x 50mm in size, shall be provided between the foundation sill plate and the nut.
6.2.8.6.1 Interior braced wall panel

Interior braced wall lines shall be fastened to floor and roof framing: 1. Floor joists parallel to the top plate shall be toe nailed to the top plate with at least 8d nails spaced a maximum of 150mm on centre. 2. Top plate laps shall be face nailed with at least 8-16d nails on each side of the splice

6.2.9

Structure

See figures 7 and 8: a) No timber frame members should be less than 100mm in width. b) At all corners and intersections, uprights should be not less than 100mmx 100mm or 2 members of 50mm x 100mm each bolted together. The posts should be fixed to the sills or floor beams by dowel or metal cleats. c) Intermediate uprights should be not less than 100mm x 50mm and spaced at not more than 600mm. d) The corners of all rooms and intersections should be braced with timber members not less than 50mm x 100mm and shall be jointed to the upright in such a manner as to leave the upright whole. e) The upper sills and wall plates at the outer corners and intersections can be tied with straps at least 225mm x 225mm x 6mm secured with 4 # 10mm diameter coach screws not less than 65mm long. f) Alternatively, bracing may maybe affected by 50mm x 100mm diagonal timber struts in all corners. It is important to have a tight connection between the wall plates and posts. g) The clear height of a wall should not be greater than 3m on the basis of structural calculations showing that the wall framing as designed is adequately supported and can withstand the horizontal imposed loads including wind and earthquakes.

6.2.10

Cladding

a) The cladding of all external walls must be of approved weatherproof material. All cladding must be nailed securely to each framing member. b) Where plaster is used as the cladding, it should consist of not less than two coats applied to metal laths which shall be securely fastened to the weather proof backing. c) The metal laths may consist of expanded metal sheets, "Hirib" or other standard materials. Such material must be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. d) The first or scratch coat of plaster shall be not less than 12mm thick. e) Interior walls may be covered by any approved kind of interior partition boards or with plaster as described above.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 130/179

Steel rafter

Steel haunch

Steel column

Steel beam profiles

Anchors

25mm thick grout

Anchors

Fig 56 - Steel frame typical

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 131/179

Shear connections

Erection seat

Shear splices

Bolted moment splice

Moment splice at ridge


(Field bolted)

Stiffener if required

Fig 57 - Beam framing

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 132/179

Finish col.

Shop weld or bolt

Finish col.

Finish col.

Shop weld or bolt

Finish col.

Weld as required

Shim as required

Erection clearance

Finish col.

Erection pin hole (optional)

Fig 58 - Column base plates and connection

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Finish col.

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 133/179

6.3
6.3.1

Metal
MS beams and profiles

6.3.1.1

General

For steel framed buildings, two systems are generally used for walls. These are hollow concrete block walls or metal cladding.

6.3.1.1.1

Masonry walls

a) When concrete walls are used, the information given in Section "Masonry block wall" is applicable. There are some minor differences concerning the anchoring of the wall reinforcement. The vertical steel is anchored to the footing in the normal manner and anchored at the top by welding to the longitudinal beam, or fixed to a concrete beam constructed on top of the walls. b) The horizontal reinforcement is welded to the web of the columns. If the columns are encased in concrete the reinforcement can be carried to the face of the steel column. c) Care must be taken to fix these walls to the steel frames so as to provide lateral continuity to the walls and to prevent the wall from collapsing either under the shaking from an earthquake or from the pressures due to hurricane winds. d) It is however, sometimes necessary to install a flexible joint between the block wall and the steel column where the walls have not been used to provide lateral stability. In this event the steel frame must be adequately braced to accommodate the lateral loads without collapse.

6.3.1.1.2
a)

Metal Cladding

Where metal cladding is used, Z-purlins are attached to the columns with suitable fixing.

b) The vertical siding, as the sheeting is then called, is attached to the Z-purlins in the normal manner employed for roofs. Fixings made in the valleys rather than on the crowns would provide greater hurricane resistance. c) Care must be taken to prevent leaks.

6.4

Mixed construction

--- See Figures 12 for Basic 1 or 2 level house, and 13 for Mixed 1 or 2 level house and typical arrangement. --- Details are on Figures 40 and 51 for typical cross sections.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

2 way supported slab

1 way supported slab (e.g. joists & blocks)


Beam #4 Beam #6 Beam #8 Beam #8 Beam #8

Beam #2

Beam #4

Beam #4

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

Beam #2 Beam #6

Beam #1

Beam #1

Beam #1

Beam #1 Beam #7

Beam #3 Beam #5

Beam #3

Beam #3

Beam #7

File # Small building code 2004_draft


Beam #1 Beam #6 Beam #1 Beam #1 Beam #2 Beam #6 Beam #4 Beam #4 Beam #4 Beam #8 Beam #8 Beam #2 Beam #4 Beam #4 Beam #6 Beam #8 Beam #8 Beam #8 Beam #1 Beam #1 Beam #1 Beam #6 Beam #1 Beam #3 Beam #3 Beam #3 Beam #5 Beam #7 Beam #7 Beam #3 Beam #3 Beam #3 Beam #8 Beam #1 Beam #3 Beam #3 Beam #3 Beam #5 Beam #7 Beam #7 Beam #1 Beam #1 Beam #1 Beam #6 Beam #2 Beam #4 Beam #4 Beam #6 Beam #8 Beam #8

Beam #2

Beam #2

Fig 59 - Slabs and beams typical arrangements (1 way or 2 ways)

Beam #4

Date 1 July, 2004

Beam #2

First edition Page 134/179

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 135/179

7
7.1
7.1.1

Floor systems
Concrete floor slabs
Layout

7.1.1.1

Slab on grade

For slab on grade (see Figure 35) the following shall be observed: a) The concrete floor shall be a minimum of 100 mm thick and supported on not less than 200 mm of compacted hardcore, gravel or approved granular material. It is recommended that the fill material needed not be more than 900 mm deep and be of well compacted selected granular material. b) Where fills greater than 900 mm are required, the floor shall be constructed as a suspended reinforced concrete slab. This procedure will prevent cracking of the concrete floor slab due to imperfectly compacted fill. c) The finished surface of the floor shall be located not less than 300 mm above finished ground level. On a sloping site, the floor shall be at least 300 mm above the ground at any point at the nearest point relative to the floor.

7.1.1.2

Damp proof course

7.1.1.2.1 A damp proof course shall be provided to prevent rising water through the floor slab and load bearing walls. 7.1.1.2.2 Where polythene is used it shall be at least 0.15 mm thick and shall be laid over the compacted floor foundation. This material shall be used with caution as it easily broken. Laps in the damp proof membrane shall not be less than 150 mm. 7.1.1.2.3 Alternative damp proof course applications:
a) Asphalt b) Concrete screed

7.1.1.3

Reinforcement

7.1.1.3.1 The floor slab on grade shall be reinforced with welded wire mesh 150 mm 150 mm 3 mm. The mesh shall be located 25 mm below the top surface of the slab and care shall be taken during pouring that this location is maintained. 7.1.1.3.2 The mesh shall be tied to the ground beams where such beams are used. Minimum laps in the mesh shall be 150 mm.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 136/179

7.1.1.4

Suspended Slab

7.1.1.4.1

Solid concrete suspended slab

--- For concrete suspended slab (see Figure 34) the following shall be observed: a) The concrete floor slab shall be a minimum of 125 mm thick and conform to Table 19. b) The maximum span shall conform to Table 19. --- As a protection against flooding, the finished surface of the floor shall be located no less than 300 mm above ground level. On a sloping site, the floor shall be at least 300 mm above the ground at any point at the nearest point relative to the floor.
Main reinforcement (2 ways) Dia. Space (mm) (mm) 150 10 150 12 120 12 Top center steel Dia. Spacing (mm) (mm) 250 10 250 12 240 12 Top edge steel Dia. Spacing (mm) (mm) 250 10 250 10 250 10

Slab location Live Load Domestic floor 1.50 kN/m2

Maximum span (metres) 3.00 4.00 5.00

Slab thickness (mm) 100 125 150

Office floor 2.50 kN/m2

3.00 4.00 5.00

100 125 150

10 12 12

150 150 120

10 12 12

250 250 240

10 10 10

250 250 250

Small industrial floor and storage 5 kN/m2 2.50 3.50 4.50

100 125 150

10 12 12

120 120 100

10 12 12

240 240 200

10 10 10

250 250 250

Roof 1kN/m2

Horizontal span 3.00 4.00 5.00

100 125 150

10 10 12

200 150 150

10 10 12

250 250 250

10 10 10

250 250 250

Note:

Steel rods are MS rods and Concrete is Grade "C" (see Table B1) Ratio (Slab Lengh / Slab Width) between 0.8 to 1.25

Slab thickness min 100mm Top center steel lengh = 2 m min. Top edge steel lengh = 1.2m min.

200mm

2000mm min 1000mm min

Table 19 - Typical reinforcement for two way slabs

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 137/179

7.1.1.4.2 Joist and block suspended slab


This type of slab, with concrete joists and different types of blocks is very popular world wide because it is easy to realise slab in the housing with a minimum of concrete to be poured on the job site. The dead load of this type of slab depends only of the type of block used.

a)

Joist types

Two types of joist exists : One with heavy pre-stressed concrete that can span 3.6m easily without any temporary support for completion. One light concrete bottom base necessary to be supported every 1.20m maximum.

b)

Joist length

The joist length equal span + 100mm min. Different types of support: a) Concrete or Clay masonry blocks wall

Fig 60 - Joist and blocks slab on masonry wall

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code b) Metal beam structure

First edition Page 138/179

Fig 61 - Joist and blocks slab on metal structure beam.


c) Block types

Many types of blocks exists for the two series of joists from very light solution with styrofoam to heavy concrete blocks. Blocks can be used independently with the two types of joists.

Fig 62 - Joist and blocks products

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 139/179

d)

Availability of products

For the moment only the 120mm block is available in Trinidad but slab fabricators must develop other thickness as 80mm and more for big span more than 3.5m and right treatment of details (see after).

e)

Slab thickness

--- The slab thickness is composed by the block and the concrete topping. --- Generally the range of blocks available is 80, 120, 150 or 160, 200 and 250mm --- The concrete topping thickness varies from the minimum of 40mm to 50 or 60mm. --- To prevent too much deflection, and without any calculation for justification, the total thickness must be more than span/22.5. Example : span = 4.50m minimum thickness =200mm and can be 160 + 40 or 150 + 50 Note : If services (e.g. electricity conduct) must be installed in the concrete, the minimum topping thickness must be increase by 25mm min. Example : span = 4.50m with electrical conduct in slab minimum thickness 200 + 25 = 225mm composed by 160+65 or 150+75. --- With the use of Clay block n2 or foam the duct can pass inside the block and the extra thickness is not required.

f) -----

Reinforcement: Joist reinforcement Joist additional reinforcement

The fabricator will reinforce the joists based on your slab drawings and live load required. - Joist on edge must be able to absorb a negative moment of 20% of the free span moment and a min of 10mm HT bar x 1.20m is required. - Joist in continuity on internal wall to prevent cracks on top of the slab must be able to absorb a negative moment of 60% of the free span moment and a min of 12mm HT bar x 2.00m is required.

-----

Concrete topping reinforcement Special stiffener

The topping shall receive the reinforcement of BRC installed across the joist. When the slab span is more than 3.60m a central stiffener made with 80mm blocks is required. The reinforcement is done with 2 diameter 10mm in continuity.

--- Slab belt


The same reinforcement that other slab apply.

g) i.

Slab opening Small opening less than 1.10m across joist

We consider two types of opening : This opening is contain inside two joists and just a small integrated beam must be made and connected at each end to a minimum of two joists. Only one joist is cut.

ii.

Large opening more than 1.10m wide

In this case several joist are cut and a complete reinforced concrete solution must be done.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 140/179

Fig 63 - Joist and blocks slab with small opening

Fig 64 - Joist and blocks slab with large opening

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 141/179

h)

Balcony

--- The load of the balcony or stair must be compensated with concrete inside the slab and a certain quantity of 80mm blocks used for that. --- This additional concrete will allow to the anchorage of the top reinforcement of the balcony slab even the balcony span in the same direction or across joist.

--- Balcony minimum thickness


--- The utile thickness = 1/10 of span or more --- The total thickness = utile thickness + reinforcement coverage (see Table 9)

Fig 65 - Balcony section details


Table 20 - Balcony reinforcement
Maxi span In m 1.00 1.20 1.50 Min. total thickness In mm 125 145 175 Type of reinforcement HT = high tensile HT HT HT Top reinforcement Bar Diam In mm 10mm 10mm 12mm Min length In m 2.00 2.50 3.00 Nb/m 7 bars/m 9 bars/m 9 bars/m Long. Reinforcement Bar Nb/m Diam In mm 10 6 10 6 10 6

Important note : When heavy concrete stair is connected and supported by balcony, the above table not apply and Engineer is required.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 142/179

Basic 6mm dia. stirrup and 4x12mm bar

Additionnal stirrup if 3 bars to be maintained Additionnal bar to be maintained

9 rods

7 bars as Table
8 rods

6 bars as Table
7 rods

5 bars as Table
6 rods

4 bars as Table
5 rods

3 bars as Table
4 rods 3 rods 2 rods or

2 bars as Table 1 bar as Table no bar added as Table Additionnal bar See tables

Fig 66 - Beam reinforcement - Typical arrangement Mild Steel

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 143/179

Basic 6mm dia. stirrup and 4x10mm bar

Additionnal stirrup if 3 bars to be maintained Additionnal bar to be maintained

7 rods

5 bars as Table
6 rods

4 bars as Table
5 rods

3 bars as Table
4 rods 3 rods 2 rods or

2 bars as Table 1 bar as Table no bar added as Table Additionnal bar See tables

Fig 67 - Beam reinforcement - Typical arrangement HR Steel

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 144/179

Total height

Width

Type of stirrup

Main reinforcement

Span Total number stirrups max. 200mm

45
Midle top reinforcement

Column 250mm min Width

min 75mm

minimum lap see table B-3

Fig 68 - Concrete beams (Middle & Side)

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Rod details

Assembly rods

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 145/179

Total height

Width

Column 250mm min Width

Fig 69 - Beam sections

7.1.1.4.3

Reinforcement

The minimum requirement for the reinforcement shall conform to Table 19.

7.1.2

Finishing

The slab shall be floated immediately after pouring as this produces a durable surface. Alternatively, a sand cement screed not less than 20 mm thick may be applied to roughened surface of the concrete. The surface shall be cleaned and washed before applying the screed. A screed of proportions of 1 part cement to 4 parts sand (by volume) is acceptable.

7.1.3

Services

All pipes and conduits for services shall be laid and arranged so that the required concrete cover to the reinforcement is maintained. Note: Most structures within the scope of these guidelines would have floor slabs on compacted granular material; but on sloping sites, floor slabs may have to be suspended. The reinforcement set out above will provide a safe suspended floor or roof. Professional assistance should be sought on the size and placement of reinforcement for situations other than those described.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 146/179

Botom wall plate Studs

Subfloor or floor sheating

Sill plates

Optional finish floor

Band, rim or header joist

Joists Wood structural panel Bridging

Solid blocking

Sill plate

Foundation Double joist under bearing partitions pipe in partition

Fig 70 - Timber flooring & supports

7.2
7.2.1

Timber
Identification & Grade

See characteristics in paragraph "Basic Materials/Timber".

7.2.2 7.2.2.1

General Design and construction

Floors shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figure 70.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 147/179

7.2.2.2

Allowable joist spans

Spans for floor joists shall be in accordance with Table 21.

Table 21 - Floor joist span for common lumber species


Joist spacing 50x150mm Dead load = 1kN/m2 and Live load 1.5kN/m2 50x200mm 50x250mm 50x300mm

Maximum floor joist spans in metre 300mm 400mm 500mm 600mm 3.3m 3m 2.6m 2.3m 4.2m 3.6m 3.3m 3m 5.1m 4.5m 4m 3.6m 6m 5.2m 4.6m 4.2m

7.2.2.3

Joists under bearing partitions

Joists under parallel bearing partitions shall be doubled or a beam of adequate size to support the load shall be provided. Double joists, which are separated to permit the installation of piping or vents, shall be full depth solid blocked with lumber not less than 50mm in nominal thickness spaced not more than 1200mm on centre.

7.2.2.4

Allowable header spans

The allowable spans of headers shall not exceed the values set forth in Tables 22 and 23.

Table 22 - Header spans for exterior bearing walls


Headers supporting Number and sizes of header 2 - 50x100mm 2 50x150mm 2 50x200mm Roof, ceiling & 1 centre bearing floor Roof, ceiling & 1 clear span floor 2 - 50x100mm 2 50x150mm 2 50x200mm 2 - 50x100mm 2 50x150mm 2 50x200mm Building width in metre < or = 6m 1m 1.6m 1.9m 0.9m 1.3m 1.7m 0.8m 1.15m 1.5m 6m < < 8.5m 0.9m 1.4m 1.7m 0.8m 1.2m 1.5m 0.7m 1.1m 1.3m 8.5m < < 11m Maximum header span in metre Roof and ceiling 0.8m 1.2m 1.6m 0.7m 1.1m 1.35m 0.6m 0.9m 1.15m

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 148/179

Table 23 - Header spans for interior bearing walls


Headers and girders supporting Number and sizes of header Building width in metre < or = 6m 0.95m 1.35m 1.75m 2.1m 2.4m 6m < 8.5m 0.8m 1.15m 1.5m 1.8m 2.1m < 8.5m < 11m 0.7m 1.05m 1.35m 1.55m 1.9m <

Maximum header span in metre One floor only One floor only One floor only One floor only One floor only 2 - 50x100mm 2 50x150mm 2 50x200mm 2 50x250mm 2 50x300mm

L L/3 no notches permited L/3


D D/6 maxi

Floor joist - center cuts

D/4 maxi

D/6 maxi

D/4 maxi

Floor joist - end cuts


D/3 maxi

maxi D from support

Rafter/ceiling joists
50mm mini

50mm mini

D/ 3

m ax i

Drilling

Fig 71 - Joist cutting, notching and drilling

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 149/179

7.2.2.5

Bearing

The ends of each joist beam or header shall have not less than 50mm of bearing on wood or metal and not less than 75mm on masonry or concrete.

7.2.2.5.1

Floor systems

Joists framing from opposite sides over a bearing support shall lap a minimum of 75 mm and shall be nailed together. A wood or metal splice with strength equal to or greater than that provided by the nailed lap is permitted.

7.2.2.5.2

Joist framing

Joists framing into the side of a wood header shall be supported by approved framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than nominal 50mm by 50mm.

7.2.2.6

Lateral restraint at supports

Joists shall be supported laterally at the ends by full-depth solid blocking not less than 50mm nominal in thickness; or by attachment to a header, band or rim joist, or to an adjoining stud; or shall be otherwise provided with lateral support to prevent rotation.

7.2.2.6.1

Bridging

Joists exceeding a nominal 50mm x 150mm shall be supported laterally by solid blocking, diagonal bridging (wood or metal), or a continuous 25mm by 75mm strip nailed across the bottom of joists perpendicular to joists at intervals not exceeding 2400mm.

7.2.2.7

Drilling and notching

Structural floor members shall not be cut, bored or notched in excess of the limitations specified in this section. See Figure 71.

7.2.2.7.1

Engineered wood products

Cuts, notches and holes bored in trusses, laminated veneer lumber, glue-laminated members or I-joists are not permitted unless the effect of such penetrations are specifically considered in the design of the member.

7.2.2.8

Fastening

Floor framing shall be nailed or screwed. Where posts and beam or header construction is used to support floor framing, positive connections shall be provided to ensure against uplift and lateral displacement.

7.2.2.9

Framing of openings

--- Openings in floor framing shall be framed with a header and trimmer joists. --- When the header joist span does not exceed 1200mm, the header joist may be a single member the same size as the floor joist. Single trimmer joists may be used to carry a single header joist that is located within 900mm of the trimmer joist bearing. --- When the header joist span exceeds 1200mm, the trimmer joists and the header joist shall be doubled and of sufficient cross section to support the floor joists framing into the header. Approved hangers shall be used for the header joist to trimmer joist connections when the header joist span exceeds 1800mm.

7.2.2.10

Wood trusses

7.2.2.10.1 Design
--Wood trusses shall be designed in accordance with approved engineering practice.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 150/179

--- The design and manufacture of metal plate connected wood trusses shall comply with ANSI/TPI 1, National Design Standard for Metal Plate Connected Wood Truss Construction.

7.2.2.10.2 Bracing
Trusses shall be braced to prevent rotation and provide lateral stability in accordance with the requirements specified in the construction documents for the building and on the individual truss design drawings.

7.2.2.10.3 Alterations to trusses


--- Truss members and components shall not be cut, notched, spliced or otherwise altered in any way without the approval of a registered design professional. --- Alterations resulting in the addition of load (e.g. HVAC equipment, water heater, water tank etc.), that exceeds the design load for the truss shall not be permitted without verification that the truss is capable of supporting the additional loading.

7.2.3

Floor sheathing

7.2.3.1

Lumber sheathing

--- Maximum allowable spans for lumber used, as floor sheathing shall conform to the following Table 24.

Table 24 - Minimum thickness of floor sheathing


Joist or beam spacing in mm 400mm 600mm Minimum net thickness Perpendicular to joist 16mm 19mm Diagonal to joist 16mm 19mm

--- Plywood continuous over two or more spans and face grain perpendicular to supports. Unsupported edges shall be tongue and grove or blocked.

7.2.3.1.1

End joints

End joints in lumber used, as flooring shall occur over supports.

7.2.3.2

Wood structural panel sheathing

7.2.3.2.1

Identification and grade

Wood structural panel sheathing used for structural purposes shall be identified by a grade mark of certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 151/179

7.2.3.2.2

Wood structural panel

--- Where used, wood structural panels shall be of one of the grades specified in Table 24. --- When sanded plywood is used as combination sub-floor underlay, the grade shall be as specified in Table 24.

7.2.3.3

Particleboard

7.2.3.3.1

Identification and grade

Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.

7.2.3.3.2

Particle board panel

Where used, particleboard panels shall be of one of the grades specified in Table 24.

7.3
7.3.1

Metal
MS steel beam

MS steel beam structure shall be engineered based on values given by the Design criteria and other characteristics of this code by a recognised registered professional.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 152/179

ridge board

hip rafter

jack rafter

maxim

um s e e table s

facia board

facia board r.c. ring beam

hip rafter

jack rafter

ridge board

rafters

Fig 72 - Typical hip roof construction

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 153/179

Roof assemblies

8.1
8.1.1

Roof structure
Concrete roof structure

Ditto paragraph Concrete floor slabs".

8.1.2

Timber

8.1.2.1

Layout

8.1.2.1.1

Roofs are generally constructed as one of three common types. These are:

a) hip roofs; b) gable roofs; or c) mono roof. (lean-to)

8.1.2.1.2

The gable roof consists of a structural frame made up of a ridge board and (with) rafters.

8.1.2.1.3 The minimum sizes of roof members shall be 25 mm 150 mm for the ridge board and 50 mm 100 mm for the rafters at 800 mm between centres. The same size rafters shall be used for mono-pitched (shed) roofs. 8.1.2.1.4
In the case of the hip roof, hip rafters are introduced into the structural frame as shown in Figure 72.

8.1.2.1.5 The minimum size of the hip rafters shall be 50 mm 150 mm. Table 25 gives rafter sizes of main members constructed of pitch pine. 8.1.2.1.6 The use of timber other than pitch pine at the minimum recommended sizes for pitch pine is acceptable only if it is a stronger timber. Professional advice shall be sought if smaller sizes are used for stronger timber or if weaker timber is used. (See Table 6 for specifying different types of timber). 8.1.2.1.7 The timber roof ceiling is generally constructed using 25 mm 150 mm tongue-and-groove boarding, 16 mm plywood or other patented boarding. 8.1.2.1.8 Sheeting may be replaced by a secondary frame of 50 mm 50 mm or 50 mm 100 mm battens fixed to the rafters.

8.1.2.2

Fixings

8.1.2.2.1 The rafters shall be securely fixed to the ring beam at the top of the walls on a wall plate and to the ridge board at the crown of the roof. 8.1.2.2.2 The use of patented hurricane clips (rafter ties) for fixing rafters to plates; purlins and ridge boards shall be used.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 154/179

Rafter spacing

Solutions 50x100

Dead load = 0.50 kN/m2 Light roof with galvanized sheeting 50x150 50x200 50x250

Dead load = 1.00 kN/m2 Semi light roof with suspended ceiling and asphalt shingle 50x100 50x150 50x200 50x250

Dead load = 1.50 kN/m3 Roof with ceiling and ordinary clay or cement tiles 50x100 50x150 50x200 50x250

Calculation based on minimum wood stress of Maximum length of wood Rough material Solution 1 400mm 600mm 800mm Solution 2 400mm 600mm 800mm Solution 3 400mm 600mm 800mm minimum span span span normal span span span live load = 0.60 kN/m2 3.40 5.10 2.80 4.10 2.40 3.60 live or climatic load = 1 kN/m2 2.90 4.30 2.40 3.50 2.00 3.10 climatic load = 1.5 kN/m2 2.50 3.80 2.00 3.10 1.80 2.70

7,500.00 kN/m2 6.00 m

minimum calculated span authorised more than

1.50 m

5.50 4.80

2.80 2.30 2.00

4.20 3.40 3.00

5.60 4.60 4.00

5.70 4.90

2.40 2.00 1.70

3.70 3.00 2.60

4.90 4.00 3.50

5.00 4.30

5.80 4.70 4.10

5.90 5.10

2.50 2.00 1.80

3.80 3.10 2.70

5.00 4.10 3.50

5.10 4.40

2.20 1.80 1.60

3.40 2.70 2.40

4.50 3.70 3.20

5.60 4.60 4.00

span span span

5.00 4.10 3.50

5.10 4.40

2.20 1.80 1.60

3.40 2.70 2.40

4.50 3.70 3.20

5.60 4.60 4.00

2.00 1.70

3.10 2.50 2.20

4.10 3.30 2.90

5.10 4.20 3.60

How to use the table a) b) c)

choose the coloumns with the type of roof (dead load) choose the lignes with the type of exposure (climatic load) and type of wood (rough or dressed) with the span required choose the righ solution (rafter spacing and size) rafter spacing in the left coloumn size on top of the table

Table 25 - Maximum roof span for rafter (first part)


File # Small building code 2004_draft Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 155/179

Rafter spacing

Solutions 50x100

Dead load = 0.50 kN/m2 Light roof with galvanized sheeting 50x150 50x200 50x250

Dead load = 1.00 kN/m2 Semi light roof with suspended ceiling and asphalt shingle 50x100 50x150 50x200 50x250

Dead load = 1.50 kN/m3 Roof with ceiling and ordinary clay or cement tiles 50x100 50x150 50x200 50x250

Calculation based on minimum wood stress of Maximum length of wood Dressed material exact sizes Solution 11 400mm 600mm 800mm minimum span span span

7,500.00 kN/m2 6.00 m

minimum calculated span authorised more than

1.50 m

loss of 12mm in all direction in rough sizing of the material 38x88 38x138 38x188 38x238 38x88 38x138 38x188 38x238 38x88 38x138 38x188 38x238

live load = 0.60 kN/m2 2.60 4.10 2.10 3.30 1.80 2.90 live or climatic load = 1.00 kN/m2 2.20 3.50 1.80 2.80 1.60 2.50 climatic load = 1.50 kN/m2 1.90 3.00 1.60 2.50 2.10

5.50 4.50 3.90

5.70 4.90

2.10 1.80 1.50

3.40 2.70 2.40

4.60 3.70 3.20

5.80 4.70 4.10

1.90 1.50

2.90 2.40 2.10

4.00 3.30 2.80

5.10 4.10 3.60

Solution 12 400mm span 600mm span 800mm span Solution 13 400mm span 600mm span 800mm span How to use the table a) b) c)

4.70 3.90 3.30

6.00 4.90 4.20

1.90 1.60

3.00 2.50 2.10

4.10 3.30 2.90

5.20 4.20 3.70

1.70

2.70 2.20 1.90

3.70 3.00 2.60

4.60 3.80 3.30

4.10 3.30 2.90

5.20 4.20 3.70

1.70 1.40

2.70 2.20 1.90

3.70 3.00 2.60

4.60 3.80 3.30

1.60

2.50 2.00 1.70

3.30 2.70 2.40

4.20 3.50 3.00

choose the coloumns with the type of roof (dead load) choose the lignes with the type of exposure (climatic load) and type of wood (rough or dressed) with the span required choose the righ solution (rafter spacing and size) rafter spacing in the left coloumn size on top of the table

Table 25 - Maximum roof span for rafter (second part)

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


Rafter or truss spacing Solutions 100x25 Dead load = 0.50 kN/m2 Light roof with galvanized sheeting 50x50 100x50 50x100 50x150 100X150 50x25 Dead load = 1.00 kN/m2 Semi light roof with suspended ceiling and asphalt shingle 100x25 50x50 100x50 50x100 50x150 100X150 50x25

First edition Page 156/179


Dead load = 1.50 kN/m3 Roof with ceiling and ordinary clay or cement tiles 100x25 50x50 100x50 50x100 50x150 100X150

Calculation based on minimum wood stress of 7,500.00 kN/m2 Maximum span of wood 30 times wood height (to prevent flexion) 750 1500 1500 3000 Rough material Maximum space for battens Solution 1 400mm 600mm 800mm 1000mm 1250mm 1500mm 1800mm 2000mm 2500mm 3000mm 4000mm Solution 2 400mm 600mm 800mm 1000mm 1250mm 1500mm 1800mm 2000mm 2500mm 3000mm 4000mm Solution 3 400mm 600mm 800mm 1000mm 1250mm 1500mm 1800mm 2000mm 2500mm 3000mm minimum live load = 0.60 kN/m2 batten space batten space batten space 0.90 1.80 batten space 0.60 1.10 batten space 0.40 0.70 batten space 0.50 batten space batten space batten space batten space batten space

4500

4500

750

750

1500

1500

3000

4500

4500

750

750

1500

1500

3000

4500

4500

Maximum space for purlins

Maximum space for battens 1.20 0.50 0.30

Maximum space for purlins

Maximum space for battens

Maximum space for purlins

1.10 0.60

1.50 1.00 1.40 1.10 0.70 3.20 2.60 1.60 1.10 0.60 5.10 3.30 2.30 1.30

1.20 0.80 0.50 0.30

0.40 0.20 1.60 1.00 0.70 2.00 1.40 1.00 0.80

0.80 0.50

0.90 0.60 0.40 0.30

1.20 0.80 0.50

2.20 1.80 1.10 0.80

4.30 3.50 2.30 1.60 0.90

1.50 1.10 0.70 0.60

2.40 1.70 1.30 0.90 0.60

3.30 2.70 1.70 1.20 0.70

normal live or climatic load = 1 kN/m2 batten space batten space 1.20 batten space 0.70 1.30 batten space 0.80 1.70 batten space 0.50 1.10 batten space 0.40 0.70 batten space batten space batten space batten space batten space exposed climatic load = 1.5 kN/m2 batten space 2.00 batten space 0.90 1.70 batten space 0.50 1.00 batten space 0.60 batten space 0.40 batten space 0.30 batten space batten space batten space batten space

1.00 0.40 0.20 2.10 1.50 1.00 0.80

0.90 0.50

1.00 0.60 0.40 0.30

0.30 0.20 1.30 0.80 0.60 1.60 1.10 0.80 0.60

0.70 0.40

0.80 0.50 0.30

2.30 1.90 1.20 0.80

3.80 2.40 1.70 0.90

2.50 1.70 1.40 0.90 0.60

1.00 0.60 0.40

3.50 2.80 1.80 1.30 0.70

1.30 0.90 0.60

2.00 1.40 1.10 0.70

4.00 2.80 2.30 1.40 1.00

0.80 0.30 0.20 1.30 0.80 0.60 1.60 1.10 0.80

0.70 0.40

0.70 0.30 0.80 0.50 0.30 1.00 0.60 0.40

1.30 0.60 0.30

2.50 1.70 1.40 0.90

1.30 0.90

1.20 0.70 0.40 0.30

3.50 2.80 1.80 1.30

2.00 1.40 1.10

4.00 2.80 2.30 1.40 1.00

1.30 0.80 0.50 0.40

2.60 1.70 1.10 0.70 0.50

2.40 1.70 1.20 0.90

3.30 2.30 1.90 1.20 0.80

How to use the table a) b) c)

choose the columns with the type of roof (dead load) choose the paragraph with the type of exposure (climatic load) and type of space between rafters or trusses with the span required choose the righ solution (batten spacing and sizes)

Table 26 - Maximum roof span for battens and joist

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 157/179

8.1.2.2.3

Plywood decking shall be fastened to the purlins or rafters at a spacing of not less than 600 mm.

8.1.2.2.4 Where timber boards are used as decking, the timber shall be secured at each purlin by at least two galvanised head clout nails at least 40 mm long.

Solution 2 Metal sheet (see paragraph " Metal sheeting" for decking)

Solution 3 Asphalt shingle

Solution 4 Clay or concrete tile

Underlay

Decking (plywood or closeboard)

Decking (plywood or closeboard) 16mm thickness

Solution 1 Metal sheet (see paragraph " Metal sheeting" for purlins or battens spacing )

g cin spa

Exception C replace Z

OK

Sag steel rod @ 10 or 12 mm diam

Z purlin orientation

Fixation type 1 (slope <10 & span <2m)

Fixation type 2 (slope >10 and/or span >2m)

Fig 73 - Z purlin details

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 158/179

Solution 2 Metal sheet (see paragraph "Metal sheeting" for decking)

Solution 3 Asphalt shingle

Solution 4 Clay or concrete tile

Underlay

Decking (plywood or closeboard)

Decking (plywood or closeboard) 16mm thickness

Solution 1 Metal sheet (see paragraph "Metal sheeting" for purlins or battens spacing)

Fixation type 2 Type ridge Rafter


Slope

Horiz. span

Spacing 400mm or 600mm or 800mm Fixation type 1 On ring beam


Fig 74 - Z or C steel profile used as rafter

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 159/179

Beam type 1

Wall or concrete beam Beam section Slope in

Horizontal beam span Cantilever


2 H profile 3 d minimum

Beam type 2

Slope in

Horizontal beam span Cantilever Wall or concrete beam

Typical combinations

Fig 75 - Beam framing

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Hp

Typical assembly for beam more than 150mm

rof ile

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


Beam type 1 Base on design criteria of Trinidad & Tobago Building Code Frame spacing in meter Horizontal beam span in meter S 3x5.7 (75mm x 60mm) S 4x7.7 (102mm x 68mm) S 5x10 (127mm x 76mm) W 4x13 (106mm x 103mm) W 6x12 (153mm x 102mm) W 8x13 (204mm x 102mm) Horizontal beam span in meter S 3x5.7 (75mm x 60mm) S 4x7.7 (102mm x 68mm) S 5x10 (127mm x 76mm) W 4x13 (106mm x 103mm) W 6x12 (153mm x 102mm) W 8x13 (204mm x 102mm) Horizontal beam span in meter S 3x5.7 (75mm x 60mm) S 4x7.7 (102mm x 68mm) S 5x10 (127mm x 76mm) W 4x13 (106mm x 103mm) W 6x12 (153mm x 102mm) W 8x13 (204mm x 102mm) Horizontal beam span in meter S 3x5.7 (75mm x 60mm) S 4x7.7 (102mm x 68mm) S 5x10 (127mm x 76mm) W 4x13 (106mm x 103mm) W 6x12 (153mm x 102mm) W 8x13 (204mm x 102mm) Horizontal beam span in meter S 3x5.7 (75mm x 60mm) S 4x7.7 (102mm x 68mm) S 5x10 (127mm x 76mm) W 4x13 (106mm x 103mm) W 6x12 (153mm x 102mm) W 8x13 (204mm x 102mm) 8.48 11.45 14.87 19.33 17.85 19.33
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

First edition Page 160/179

W eight in kg/m

Solution 1 Galvanized >0.5mm 3.00 3.60 3.60 3.60 4.20 3.60

Solution 2 Galvanized <0.5mm 3.00 3.60 3.60 3.60 4.20 3.60

Solution 3 Asphalt shingle 3.00 3.60 3.60 3.60 4.20 3.60

Solution 4 Concrete or clay tile 3.00 3.60 3.60 3.60 4.20 3.60

8.48 11.45 14.87 19.33 17.85 19.33

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

4.20 8.48 11.45 14.87 19.33 17.85 19.33 4.80 8.48 11.45 14.87 19.33 17.85 19.33 5.40 8.48 11.45 14.87 19.33 17.85 19.33 6.00
Yes Yes Yes Yes

4.20

4.20

4.20

4.20

4.20

4.20

4.20

4.20

4.20

4.20

4.20

Yes

Yes Yes

Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

4.80

4.80

4.80

4.80

4.80

4.80

4.80

4.80

4.80

4.80

4.80

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Yes

Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

5.40

5.40

5.40

5.40

5.40

5.40

5.40

5.40

5.40

5.40

5.40

Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

Yes

Yes

Note: Maximum strengh limited to Acceptable solution for profile

175 N/mm2 Yes

Table 27 - MS beam type 1

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 161/179

Beam type 2 Base on design criteria of Trinidad & Tobago Building Code Frame spacing in meter Horizontal beam span in meter S 4x7.7 (102mm x 68mm) S 5x10 (127mm x 76mm) W 4x13 (106mm x 103mm) W 6x12 (153mm x 102mm) W 8x13 (204mm x 102mm) W10x15 (254mm x 102mm) Horizontal beam span in meter S 5x10 (127mm x 76mm) W 4x13 (106mm x 103mm) W 6x12 (153mm x 102mm) W 8x13 (204mm x 102mm) W10x15 (254mm x 102mm) Horizontal beam span in meter S 5x10 (127mm x 76mm) W 4x13 (106mm x 103mm) W 6x12 (153mm x 102mm) W 8x13 (204mm x 102mm) W10x15 (254mm x 102mm) Horizontal beam span in meter W 4x13 (106mm x 103mm) W 6x12 (153mm x 102mm) W 8x13 (204mm x 102mm) W10x15 (254mm x 102mm) Horizontal beam span in meter W 4x13 (106mm x 103mm) W 6x12 (153mm x 102mm) W 8x13 (204mm x 102mm) W10x15 (254mm x 102mm) Horizontal beam span in meter W 4x13 (106mm x 103mm) W 6x12 (153mm x 102mm) W 8x13 (204mm x 102mm) W10x15 (254mm x 102mm) Horizontal beam span in meter W 4x13 (106mm x 103mm) W 6x12 (153mm x 102mm) W 8x13 (204mm x 102mm) W10x15 (254mm x 102mm) 19.33 17.85 19.33 22.31 19.33 17.85 19.33 22.31 19.33 17.85 19.33 22.31 19.33 17.85 19.33 22.31 14.87 19.33 17.85 19.33 22.31 14.87 19.33 17.85 19.33 22.31 11.45 14.87 19.33 17.85 19.33 22.31 Weight in kg/m Solution 1 Galvanized >0.5mm 3.00 4.80
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Solution 2 Galvanized <0.5mm 3.00 4.80 3.60 4.80 4.20 4.80

Solution 3 Asphalt shingle 3.00 4.80 3.60 4.80 4.20 4.80

Solution 4 Concrete or clay tile 3.00 4.80 3.60 4.80 4.20 4.80

3.60 4.80

4.20 4.80

5.40
Yes Yes

5.40
Yes Yes

5.40
Yes Yes Yes

5.40
Yes Yes

5.40
Yes Yes Yes

5.40

5.40
Yes Yes

5.40

5.40

5.40

5.40

5.40

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

6.00
Yes Yes

6.00

6.00

6.00
Yes

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

6.60
Yes Yes

6.60

6.60

6.60

6.60

6.60

6.60

6.60

6.60

6.60

6.60

6.60

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Yes

Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

7.20

7.20

7.20

7.20

7.20

7.20

7.20

7.20

7.20

7.20

7.20

7.20

Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

7.80

7.80

7.80

7.80

7.80

7.80

7.80

7.80

7.80

7.80

7.80

7.80

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

8.40

8.40

8.40

8.40

8.40

8.40

8.40

8.40

8.40

8.40

8.40

8.40

Yes

Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Note: Maximum strengh limited to Acceptable solution for profile

175 N/mm2 for limitation of deflection to 1/240 Yes

Table 28 - MS beam type 2

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 162/179

8.1.3

Metal

8.1.3.1

MS steel beam

8.1.3.1.1

Roof structure

--- See Figure 75 for details and combinations --- See Tables 27 MS beam type 1 and 28 MS beam type 2 for recommended sections.

8.1.3.2

Cold formed steel

Cold formed steel is composed of galvanised steel sheet 1mm to 1.5mm thickness for C, U and Z sections roll formed profiles.

8.1.3.2.1

Cold formed steel fastening

Cold formed steel must be fastened be self tapping screws or bolt and nuts.

Welding is not allowed.

8.1.3.2.2

Roof structure

--- Cold formed steel shall be used for purling and rafter as shown in Figures 73 and 74. --- See Tables 29 & 30 - Z purlins and 31 & 32 - Z or C rafters for recommended sections.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


Metal steel Z purlins (20G) Base on design criteria of Trinidad & Tobago Building Code Sol 1 Galvanized >0.5mm Sol 2 Galvanized <0.5mm Sol 3 Asphalt shingle

First edition Page 163/179

Sol 4 Concrete or clay tile

Z purlin 100mm x 1mm thickness Spacing (m) 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 Spacing (m) 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 Spacing (m) 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200

Maximum calculated span for slope between 0 and 15 2.70 2.30 2.10 1.90 2.90 2.80 2.50 2.40 2.20 2.20 2.00 2.00 between 15 and 30 2.50 2.40 2.20 2.10 1.90 1.90 1.80 1.70 between 30 and 45 2.30 2.00 1.80 1.60 2.20 1.90 1.70 1.60 2.40 2.10 1.90 1.70

2.30 2.00 1.80 1.70

2.10 1.80 1.60 1.50

2.20 1.90 1.70 1.50

2.00 1.70 1.50 1.40

Z purlin 150mm x 1mm thickness Spacing (m) 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 Spacing (m) 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 Spacing (m) 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 Note : On site limit span to2.50 m

Maximum calculated span for slope between 0 and 15 3.10 2.70 2.40 2.20 3.30 3.20 2.80 2.80 2.50 2.50 2.30 2.30 between 15 and 30 2.70 2.70 2.30 2.30 2.10 2.10 1.90 1.90 between 30 and 45 2.40 2.10 1.90 1.70 2.40 2.10 1.80 1.70 2.80 2.40 2.20 2.00

2.60 2.20 2.00 1.80

2.30 2.00 1.80 1.60

2.30 2.00 1.80 1.60

2.10 1.80 1.60 1.50

Table 29 - Z purlins 1mm thickness (0.96)

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code


Metal steel Z purlins (16G) Base on design criteria of Trinidad & Tobago Building Code Sol 1 Galvanized >0.5mm Sol 2 Galvanized <0.5mm Sol 3 Asphalt shingle

First edition Page 164/179

Sol 4 Concrete or clay tile

Z purlin 100mm x 1.5mm thickness Spacing (m) 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 Spacing (m) 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 Spacing (m) 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200

Maximum calculated span for slope between 0 and 15 3.20 2.80 2.50 2.30 3.40 2.90 2.60 3.30 2.90 2.60 2.30 between 15 and 30 2.90 2.50 2.20 2.00

2.80 2.40 2.10 2.00

2.90 2.90 2.50 2.50 2.30 2.20 2.10 2.00 between 30 and 45 2.70 2.30 2.10 1.90 2.60 2.30 2.00 1.90

2.50 2.20 1.90 1.80

2.50 2.20 2.00 1.80

2.30 2.00 1.80 1.60

Z purlin 150mm x 1.5mm thickness Spacing (m) 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 Spacing (m) 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 Spacing (m) 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 Note : On site limit span to 3.00 m

Maximum calculated span for slope between 0 and 15 3.70 3.20 2.80 2.60 3.90 3.80 3.40 3.30 3.00 2.90 2.70 2.70 between 15 and 30 3.20 3.10 2.80 2.70 2.50 2.40 2.30 2.20 between 30 and 45 2.90 2.50 2.20 2.00 2.80 2.40 2.20 2.00 3.30 2.90 2.60 2.30

3.00 2.60 2.30 2.10

2.70 2.40 2.10 1.90

2.70 2.30 2.10 1.90

2.40 2.10 1.90 1.70

Table 30 - Z purlins 1.5mm thickness

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 165/179

Metal steel Z or C rafters (20G) Base on design criteria of Trinidad & Tobago Building Code Sol 1 Sol 2 Sol 3 Asphalt shingle Sol 4 Concrete or clay tile

Galvanized >0.5mm Galvanized <0.5mm

Z or C rafter 100 mm x 1mm thickness Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800

Maximum calculated horizontal span for slope between 15 and 30 3.70 3.00 2.60 3.90 3.20 2.80 3.90 3.20 2.80 3.40 2.80 2.40

between 30 and 45 Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800 3.00 2.50 2.10 3.20 2.60 2.30 3.20 2.60 2.30 2.80 2.30

between 45 and 60 Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800 2.10 2.30 2.30

Z or C rafter 150mm x 1mm thickness Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800

Maximum calculated horizontal span for slope between 15 and 30 4.80 3.90 3.40 5.00 4.10 3.60 5.40 4.40 3.80 4.70 3.80 3.30

between 30 and 45 Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800 3.90 3.20 2.80 4.10 3.30 2.90 4.40 3.60 3.10 4.20 3.50 3.00

between 45 and 60 Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800 Note : On site limit span less than 35 profile height 2.70 2.20 2.80 2.30 3.00 2.40 2.10 3.20 2.60 2.30

The 1mm thickness measure exactly 0.96mm

Table 31 - Z or C rafters 1mm thickness

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 166/179

Metal steel Z or C rafters (16G) Base on design criteria of Trinidad & Tobago Building Code Sol 1 Sol 2 Sol 3 Asphalt shingle Sol 4 Concrete or clay tile

Galvanized >0.5mm Galvanized <0.5mm

Z or C rafter 100 mm x 1.5mm thicknes Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800

Maximum calculated horizontal span for slope between 15 and 30 4.60 3.80 3.30 4.90 4.00 3.50 4.90 4.00 3.50 4.30 3.50 3.00

between 30 and 45 Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800 3.80 3.10 2.70 4.00 3.30 2.80 4.00 3.30 2.80 3.50 2.80 2.50

between 45 and 60 Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800 2.70 2.20 2.80 2.30 2.80 2.30 2.50

Z or C rafter 150mm x 1.5mm thicknes Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800

Maximum calculated horizontal span for slope between 15 and 30 6.00 4.90 4.20 6.30 5.10 4.50 6.70 5.50 4.80 5.90 4.80 4.10

between 30 and 45 Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800 4.90 4.00 3.40 5.10 4.10 3.60 5.50 4.50 3.90 5.30 4.30 3.70

between 45 and 60 Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800 3.40 2.80 2.40 3.50 2.90 2.50 3.70 3.00 2.60 4.00 3.30 2.90

Z or C rafter 175mm x 1.5mm thickness Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800

Maximum calculated horizontal span for slope between 15 and 30 5.20 4.30 3.70 5.50 4.50 3.90 5.80 4.80 4.10 5.10 4.20 3.60

between 30 and 45 Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800 4.20 3.50 3.00 4.40 3.60 3.10 4.70 3.90 3.40 4.60 3.80 3.30

between 45 and 60 Spacing (m) 0.400 0.600 0.800 3.00 2.40 2.10 3.10 2.50 2.20 3.20 2.60 2.30 3.50 2.90 2.50

Note : On site limit span less than 35 profile height

Table 32 - Z or C rafters 1.5mm thickness


File # Small building code 2004_draft Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 167/179

8.2
8.2.1

Roof covering
Weather protection

8.2.1.1

General

Roof decks shall be covered with approved roof coverings secured to the building or structure in 8.2.1.1.1 accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

8.2.1.1.2 Roof coverings shall be designed and installed in accordance with this code and the approved manufacturer's installation instructions such that the roof covering shall service to protect the building or structure.

8.2.1.2

Flashing

Flashing shall be installed in such a manner as to prevent moisture entering the wall through the joints in the coping, through moisture permeable material, at intersections with the roof plane or at parapet wall penetrations.

8.2.1.2.1

Locations

Flashing shall be installed at wall and roof intersections; wherever there is a change in roof slope or direction; and around roof openings. Where flashing is of metal, the metal shall be corrosion-resistant with a thickness of not less than 0.50mm.

8.2.1.3

Coping

Parapet walls shall be properly coped with non-combustible, weatherproof materials of a width no less than the thickness of the parapet wall.

8.2.1.4

Roof drainage

Unless roofs are sloped to drain over roof edges, roof drains shall be installed at each low point of the roof. Where required for roof drainage, scuppers shall be placed level with the roof surface in a wall or parapet. The scupper shall be located as determined by the roof slope and contributing roof area.

8.2.1.5

Overflow drains and scuppers

--- Where roof drains are required, overflow drains having the same size as the roof drains shall be installed with the inlet flow line located 50mm above the low point of the roof, or overflow scuppers having three times the size of the roof drains and having a minimum opening height of 100mm may be installed in the adjacent parapet walls with the inlet flow located 50mm above the low point of the adjacent roof. --- Overflow drains shall discharge to an approved location and shall not be connected to roof drain lines.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 168/179

8.2.2

Materials

8.2.2.1

Scope

--- The requirements set forth in this section shall apply to the application of roof covering materials specified herein. --- Roof coverings shall be applied in accordance with this chapter and the manufacturer's installation instructions. --- Installation of roof coverings shall comply with the applicable provisions of this code.

8.2.2.2

Compatibility of materials

Roofs and roof coverings shall be of materials that are compatible with each other and with the building or structure to which the materials are applied.

8.2.2.3

Material specifications and physical characteristics

Roof covering materials shall conform to the applicable standards listed in this chapter. In the absence of applicable standards or where materials are of questionable suitability, testing by an approved testing agency shall be required by the code official to determine the character, quality and limitations of application of the materials.

8.2.2.4

Product identification

Roof covering materials shall be delivered in packages bearing the manufacturer's identifying marks and approved testing agency labels when required. The manufacturer shall accompany with the same information issued in the form of a certificate or on a bill of lading bulk shipments of materials.

8.2.2.5

Roof covering application

Roof coverings shall be applied in accordance with the applicable provisions of this section and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

8.2.3

Requirements for material roof covering

8.2.3.1

Metal sheeting Steel sheeting

8.2.3.1.1
---

Where the cladding is protected steel sheeting its thickness shall not be less than:

i. 0.625 mm (24G) when timber battens or purlins shall be used as supporting members with span no more than 1000mm. ii. 0.475 mm (26G) when timber battens or purlins shall be used as supporting members with span no more than 750mm. --Any thickness when close board or 16mm plywood sheathing shall be used as support. --- If the plywood is supported by purlins or rafters with span no more than 810mm, the thickness of the plywood can be reduced to 13mm.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 169/179

8.2.3.1.2

Aluminium sheeting

Aluminium sheeting is not recommended unless 0.60mm (22G) sheeting is available and unless the fixings supplied have been tested to withstand hurricane force winds.

8.2.3.1.3

Fastening systems

--- Protected steel sheeting shall be fastened to battens, purlins or decking using galvanised screws that are at least 50mm long. (Galvanised head twisted shank nails are not llowed.) --- Where corrugated sheeting is used, the nails or screws shall be driven through the crown of the corrugation. --- The minimum fastening density of screws shall be as follow: i. Centre of the roof minimum of 3 fixings per square meter with edge fixation of the sheet. ii. Roof edges eaves and ridges almost one fixing every 250mm maximum.

8.2.3.2

Metal roof panels

The installation of metal roof panels shall comply with the provisions of this section.

8.2.3.2.1

Deck requirements

Metal roof panel roof coverings shall be applied to a solid or spaced sheathing, except where the roof covering is specifically designed to be applied to spaced supports.

8.2.3.2.2

Slope

--- The minimum slope for lapped, non-soldered seam metal roofs shall be 25% (14). --- The minimum slope for standing seam roof systems shall be 10.

8.2.3.2.3

Material standards

--- Metal-sheet roof covering systems that incorporate supporting structural members shall be designed in accordance with the code. --- Metal-sheet roof coverings installed over structural decking shall comply with Table 33.

Table 33 Metal roof coverings


Metal roof coverings standards and installation Roof covering type Galvanised steel Pre-painted steel Aluminium Zinc Alloy Coated Steel Lead-coated copper Copper Hard lead Soft lead Aluminium Standard application TTS 16 35 511: 1988 ASTM A755 TTS 16 35 511: 1988 ASTM B101 4.9 kg/m2 9.8 kg/m2 14.6 kg/m2 0.60mm minimum thickness Rate / thickness 0.63mm thick minimum

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 170/179

8.2.3.2.4

Attachment

Metal roofing shall be installed in accordance with this chapter and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Approved fasteners shall attach metal roofing fastened directly to steel framing. The following fasteners shall be used: a) Galvanised fasteners shall be used for galvanised roofs. b) Hard copper or copper allow shall be used for copper roofs. c) Stainless steel fasteners are acceptable for metal roofs.

8.2.3.3

Asphalt shingles

The installation of asphalt shingles shall comply with the provisions of this section.

8.2.3.3.1

Deck requirements

Asphalt shingles shall be fastened to solidly sheathed decks.

8.2.3.3.2

Slope

Asphalt shingles shall only be used on roof slopes of 17% (10) or greater.

8.2.3.3.3

Underlay

--- For roof slopes from 17% (10), up to 35% (20), underlay shall be two layers applied in the following manner. --- Apply a 480mm strip of underlay felt parallel with and starting at the eaves, fastened sufficiently to hold in place. Starting at the eaves, apply 900mm wide sheets of underlay overlapping successive sheets 480mm and fastened sufficiently to hold in place. --- For roof slopes of 35% (20) or greater, underlay shall be one layer applied in the following manner. --- Underlay shall be applied shingle fashion, parallel to and starting from the Eva and lapped 50mm fastened sufficiently to hold in place. --- End laps shall be offset by 1.80m. --- Underlay applied in areas subject to high winds (greater than 145km/hr) shall be applied with corrosionresistant nails in accordance with manufacturer's installation instructions. --- Fasteners are to be applied along the overlap not farther apart than 900mm on centre.

8.2.3.3.4

Material standards

--- Unless otherwise noted, required underlay shall conform to ASTM D226, Type 1, or ASTM D 4869, Type 1. --- Asphalt shingles shall have self-seal strips or be interlocking, and comply with ASTM D225 or D3462.

8.2.3.3.5

Fasteners

--- Asphalt shingles shall be fixed to the decking using the proper adhesives in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. (Galvanised extra large head clout nails may also be used for fastening asphalt shingles --- Corrosion resistant nails minimum 3.5mm, 10mm head, or approved corrosion-resistant staples; minimum 2mm x 24mm crown width. --- Fasteners shall be long enough to penetrate into the sheathing 20mm or through the thickness of the sheathing, wherever is less. --- Asphalt shingles shall have the type and minimum number of fasteners required by the manufacturer. For normal application, asphalt shingles shall be secured to the roof with not less than four fasteners per strip shingle or two fasteners per individual shingle. --- Where the roof slope exceeds 166% (60), special methods of fastening is required.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 171/179

8.2.3.3.6

Flashing

Flashing for asphalt shingles shall comply with this section.

a)
---

Base and cap flashing


Base and cap flashing shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's installation instructions.

--- Base flashing shall be of either corrosion-resistant metal of minimum nominal 0.50mm thickness or mineral surface roll roofing weighing a minimum of 3.75kg/m2. --- Cap flashing shall be corrosion resistant metal of minimum nominal 0.50mm thickness.

b)

Valleys

--- Valley linings shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's installation instructions before applying shingles. --Valley linings of the following types shall be permitted: i. For open valley (valley lining exposed) lined with metal, the valley lining shall be at least 600mm wide and of any of the corrosion-resistant metals. ii. For open valleys, valley lining of two plies of mineral surface roll roofing, complying with ASTM D249, shall be permitted. The bottom layer shall be 450mm and the top layers a minimum of 900mm wide. iii. For closed valleys (valley covered with shingles), valley lining of one ply of smooth roll roofing complying with ASTM D 224 Type II or Type III and at least 900mm wide or valley lining as described in paragraphs 1 and 2 above shall be permitted. --- Speciality underlay complying with ASTM D 1970 may be used in lieu of the lining material.

Table 34 Valley lining material


Valley lining material Minimum thickness 0.60 mm 0.40 mm 0.63 mm 0.70 mm 12 kg/m2

Material Copper Aluminium Stainless steel Galvanised steel Zinc alloy Lead

Weight/m2 5 kg/m2

8.2.3.3.7

Crickets and saddles

A cricket or saddle shall be installed on the ridge side of any chimney greater than 750mm wide. Cricket or saddle coverings, shall be sheet metal or of same material as roof covering.

8.2.3.4

Metal roof shingles

The installation of metal roof shingles shall comply with the provisions of this section.

8.2.3.4.1

Deck requirements

Metal roof shingles shall be applied to a solid or closely fitted deck, except where the roof covering is specifically designed to be applied to spaced sheathing.

8.2.3.4.2

Deck slope

Metal roof shingles shall not be installed on roof slopes below 17% (10).

8.2.3.4.3
Not required.

Underlay

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 172/179

8.2.3.4.4

Material standards

--- Metal roof shingle roof coverings of galvanised steel shall be 0.40mm minimum thickness. --- Metal roof shingle roof coverings of aluminium shall be of 0.60mm minimum thickness.

8.2.3.4.5

Application

Metal roof shingles shall be secured to the roof in accordance with this chapter and the approved manufacturer's installation instructions.

8.2.3.4.6

Flashing

--- The roof valley flashing shall be provided of not less than 0.40mm corrosion-resistant metal, which shall extend at least 200mm from the centre line each way and shall have a splash diverter rib not less than 20mm high at the flow line formed as part of the flashing. --- Sections of flashing shall have an end lap of not less than 100mm. --- The metal valley flashing shall have a 900mm wide underlay directly under it consisting of one layer of underlay running the full length of the valley, in addition to underlay required for metal roof shingles.

8.2.3.5

Slate shingles

The installation of slate shingles shall comply with the provisions of this section.

8.2.3.5.1

Deck requirements

Slate shingles shall be fastened to solidly sheathed roofs.

8.2.3.5.2

Deck slope

Slate shingles shall only be used on slopes of 50% (26) or greater.

8.2.3.5.3
Not required.

Underlay

8.2.3.5.4

Material standards

Slate shingles shall comply with ASTM C406.

8.2.3.5.5

Application

--- Minimum head-lap for slate shingles shall be in accordance with the Table 35. --- Slate shingles shall be secured to the roof with two fasteners per slate. Slate shingles shall be installed in accordance with this chapter and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

Table 35 Slate shingle head-lap


Slate shingle head-lap Slope 50% (26) < slope < 70% (35) 70% (35) < slope < 173% (60) Slope < 173% (60) Head-lap 100mm 75 mm 50 mm

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 173/179

8.2.3.5.6

Flashing

--- Flashing and counter-flashing shall be made with sheet metal. Valley flashing minimum of 400mm wide. Valley and flashing metal shall be a minimum uncoated thickness of 0.50mm zinc coated. --- Chimneys, stucco or brick walls shall have a minimum of two plies of felt for a cap flashing consisting of 100mm wide strip of felt set in plastic cement and extending 25mm above the first felt and a top coating of plastic cement. The felt shall extend over the base flashing 50mm.

8.2.3.6

Clay and concrete tile

The installation of clay and concrete shall comply with the provisions of this section.

8.2.3.6.1

Deck requirements

Concrete and clay tile shall be installed only over solid sheathing or spaced structural sheathing boards.

8.2.3.6.2

Deck slope

Clay and concrete roof tile shall be installed on roof slopes of 25% or greater. For roof slope 25% to 35%, double underlay application is required.

8.2.3.6.3

Underlay

Unless otherwise noted, required underlay shall conform to: ASTM D226, Type 11; ASTM D2626, Type I; or ASTM D249 mineral surfaced roll roofing.

a)

Low slope roofs

For roof slopes from 25% (15), up to 35% (20), underlay shall be a minimum of two layers underlay applies as follows: i. Apply a 450mm strip of underlay felt parallel with and starting at the eaves fastened sufficiently in place. End laps shall be offset by 1.80m. ii. Starting at the Eaves, apply 900mm wide sheets of underlay felt overlapping successive sheets 450mm and fastened sufficiently in place.

b)

High slope roofs

For roof slopes of 35% (20), or greater, underlay shall be a minimum of one layer of underlay felt applied shingle fashion, parallel to, and starting from the eaves and lapped 50mm, fastened sufficiently in place.

c)

Underlay and high wind

Underlay applied in areas subject to high wind (greater than 145 km/h) shall be applied with corrosion-resistant nails in accordance with manufacturer's installation instructions. Fasteners are to be applied along the overlap not farther apart then 900mm on centre.

8.2.3.6.4

Tile standards

--- Clay roof tile shall comply with ASTM C 1167. --- Concrete roof tile shall comply with BS EN 490 Concrete roofing tile and fittings.

8.2.3.6.5

Fasteners

Nails shall be corrosion-resistant and not less than 3.5mm, 8mm head, and of sufficient length to penetrate the deck a minimum of 20mm or through the thickness of the deck, whichever is less. Attaching wire for clay or concrete tile shall not be smaller than 2.00mm. Perimeter fastening areas include three tile courses but not less than 900mm from either side of hips or ridges and edges of eaves and gable rakes.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 174/179

Table 36 Clay and concrete tile attachment

Clay and concrete tile attachment Sheathing Solid without battens Spaced battens or solid with Roof slope All Slope < 40% (22) 40% (22)< slope <100% (45) 100% (45)< slope < 200% (64) Number of fasteners One per tile Not required One per tile/every other row One per tile

Spaced sheathing without battens

8.2.3.6.6

Application

--- Tile shall be applied in accordance with this chapter and the manufacturer's installation instructions, based on the following: a) Roof Slope b) Underlay system c) Type of tile being installed --- Clay and concrete roof tiles shall be fastened in accordance with this section and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Perimeter tiles shall be fastened with a minimum of one fastener per tile. Tiles with installed weight less than 45kg/m2 require a minimum of one fastener per tile regardless of roof slope. Clay and concrete roof tile attachment shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions where applied in areas where the winds speed exceeds 130km/hr and on buildings where the roof is located more than 12m above grade. In all other areas, clay and concrete roof tiles shall be attached.

8.2.3.6.7

Flashing

--- At the juncture of the roof vertical surfaces, flashing and counter flashing shall be provided in accordance with this chapter and the manufacturer's installation instructions, and where of metal, shall not be less than 0.50mm corrosion resistant metal. --- The valley flashing shall extend at least 300mm from the centreline each way and have a splash diverter rib not less than 25mm high at the flow line formed as part of the flashing. --- Sections of flashing shall have an end lap of not less than 100mm. --- For roof slopes of 25% (15) and over, the valley flashing shall have a 900mm wide underlay of one layer of Type I underlay running the full length of the valley, in addition to other required underlay.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 175/179

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 176/179

ANNEX A

(informative) - Administration and Enforcement

A.1
A.1.1

Application to build
General

A person wishing to erect a building or structure or to carry out a building operation of a small building as defined shall comply with the requirements of the Planning and Development of Land Act and also with the requirements of this Code.

A.1.2

Form of application to build

i. All drawings shall be individually numbered for ease of reference. Revisions shall carry revision numbers an updated date. ii. All drawings, specifications and accompanying data shall bear the name and address of the person responsible for the preparation of the plans and documents. iii. All documents of the application shall be full size A4 (or folded A4 = 210mm x 297mm). --- Three (3) sets of completed application forms and plans are to be provided. The plans format A1 (840mm x 594mm) or A3 (420 x 294mm) shall include the following: a) A location plan, showing the location of the lot sufficient to identify the site. Streets should be named and lots numbered where applicable. b) A site plan, normally at a scale of 1/100, 1/125, 1/200 or 1/250 showing the dimensions of the site and its relationship to abutting lots, roads, public utilities and buildings grades and elevations as described in c); and the location of the proposed building in relationship to the site boundaries, which are to be identified. c) Existing and proposed contours and levels of the site are to be shown. The levels must show the relationship of the lowest floor of the building with the levels of the adjoining street and with the known datum. d) Building plans to include:

I. Architectural floor plan to metric scale 1/50 and/or 1/100


To show: - room sizes and designations (all dimensions finish to finish including plaster) - positioning of doors and windows - materials used in construction - thickness of each wall (including plaster)

II. Elevations and Sections to Metric Scale 1/50 and/or 1/100


To show: - roof heights (floor to ceiling) and pitch - height of floor above ground

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code - positioning of doors and windows - materials used in construction

First edition Page 177/179

III. Structural foundation plan to metric scale 1/50 and/or 1/100


To show: - foundation layout - cross sections - materials used in construction

IV. Structural details to metric scale 1/20 and/or 1/50


To show: - details of beams - details of columns - details of slabs - details of floors - details of all walls - all reinforcement details - roof design and construction details

V. Water supply and waste disposal


To show: - water and waste isometrics - location of inspection boxes - location and details of grease traps - sizes and slopes of the pipes used in the sewer lines - details of septic tanks, soak away and privy.

VI. Site drainage


To show: - storm surface and roof water disposal

VII. Site organisation works


To show: - selected area for stockpiling aggregates. - selected area for the location of a concrete mixer or for the hand mixing of concrete - selected location of a materials storage shed (or not) - selected phases when is necessary (demolition and or construction) - temporary construction for workers accommodations (sanitary WC, shower and hand basin, lockers, changing room, and lunch area)

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 178/179

A.1.3

Approval in part

a) Where approval of a portion of a building is desired prior to the issuance of a permit for the whole project, application shall be made for the complete buildings, and detailed plans for the immediate approval is desired shall be filed with the Chief Building Officer. b) Should a permit be issued for a part of a building, the holder of such permit may proceed with construction without the assurance that the permit for the entire building will be granted. The granting of such permit will depend on the approval of the application including all requirements.

A.2

Approvals

A.2.1 All construction plans specifications and associated reports required by these rules should conform to this code and shall be approved by the Chief Building Officer before construction commences. A.2.2 No construction shall commence until the Chief Building Officer has issued a permit or a written notice to proceed.

A.3
A.3.1

Inspections
Procedure

The Chief Building Officer is authorised to make the following inspections and either approve the portion of the works completed or shall notify the builder where such work does not meet with his approval:

Nb
I II III IV V VI VII VIII

Step
SETTING OUT FOUNDATIONS BEFORE CONCRETING STRUCTURAL FRAME AND ROOF RING BEAMS FORM WORK AND REINFORCEMENT WATER SUPPLY AND WASTE DISPOSAL SITE DRAINAGE MITIGATION MEASURES FINAL INSPECTION (OCCUPANCY CERTIFICATE)

Building inspectors X X X X X X X X

Public health inspectors

X X X X

All inspections shall be carried out by persons authorised as Building Inspectors, Public Heath Inspectors A.3.2 or where required by suitably qualified persons approved by the Chief Building Officer and appointed to carry out such inspections. Work shall not be done on any part of a building or structure beyond the point indicated in each A.3.3 successive inspection without first obtaining the written approval of the Chief Building Officer. Such written approval shall normally be given only after an inspection shall have been made of each successive step in the construction as indicated by each of the foregoing inspections where appropriate.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004

Trinidad & Tobago Small Building Code

First edition Page 179/179

A.3.4 If circumstances warrant, the Chief Building Officer in his discretion may waive inspection but this does not absolve the owner and builder from the responsibility of any construction in contravention of this Code. A.3.5 Reinforcing steel or structural framework of any part of any building shall not be covered or concealed in any manner whatsoever without first obtaining the approval of the Building Inspector.

A.4

Completion certificate

a) A new building shall not be occupied or a change made in occupancy or the nature of the use of a building or part of a building until after a Completion Certificate has been issued. b) Upon completion of a building erected in accordance with approved plans and after final inspection herein referred to, and upon application, the Chief Building Officer shall issue a Certificate stating the nature of the occupancy permitted. c) A temporary Completion Certificate may be issued for a portion or portions of a building, which may safely be occupied prior to final completion of the building.

A.5

Compliance

a) The issuance and granting of a permit shall not be deemed or construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of this Code. b) The issuance of a permit upon approval of plans and specifications, shall not prevent the Chief Building Officer from thereafter requiring the correction of errors on such plans and specifications, or from preventing building operations being carried on hereunder when in violation of this Code or any Regulations applicable thereto. c) When during the construction of the work carried out under the permit, from issuance of permit to issuance of the Completion Certificate, the Chief Building Officer reasonably believes that approved plans are in violation of this Code, he shall notify the permit holder and the permit holder shall correct the drawings or otherwise satisfy the Chief Building Officer that the design and/or working drawings are in compliance with this Code. d) Compliance with this Code is the responsibility of the permit holder until the issuance of a Completion Certificate; at which time it shall become the responsibility of the owner. e) The permit granted for the construction of the work shall be available at the construction site during normal working hours for inspection by the Building Inspector.

A.6
A.6.1

Alternate materials and types of construction


Application

a) Any person desiring to use types of construction or materials or methods of design not specifically mentioned in this Code shall file with the Chief Building Officer proof in support of claims that may be made regarding the safety and sufficiency of such types of construction or materials or methods of design and request approval and permission for their use. b) The Chief Building Officer shall approve such alternate types of construction or materials or methods of design if it is clear that the standards of this Code are at least equalled. If, in the opinion of the Chief Building Officer, the standards of this Code will not be satisfied by the requested alternate, he shall refuse approval.

File # Small building code 2004_draft

Date 1 July, 2004