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1. Abrasive example for each groups? 1) Metallic abrasive Grit(A), Shot(R), Cut wire(C) 2) Non-metallic abrasive Garnet, Slag, Silica sand, 3) Organic abrasive Walnut shell, Nutt shell, 4) Others Plastics, Glass bead,

2. Health and safety regarding abrasive. Silicosis is caused by the silica contained silica sand.

3. Cathodic protection 1) Sacrificial anode system : The anode supply the steel with the protective current necessary to protect the steel.
Protective current

Sea water

) Types of anode : Zinc, Aluminum, Magnesium



2) ICCP System : The necessary current to protect the steel is provided by the permanent anode through the rectifier. DC Rectifier

) Permanent anode : Graphite, Titanium alloy, platinum


Permanent Anode

Reference electrode

4. ICCP ? Immersion area of ship hull outside, the steel pipe or structure in soil

5. Submerged structure sacrificing anode ? In order to save the anode weight and increase the life time of the structure by combining the paint coating and the cathodic protection.

6. (4) Light, DFT gauge, Scraper, Climatic check equipments (whirling hygrometer & dew point calculator)

7. Why daily log is important? And list 7 important aspects of a daily log /report? 1) Daily log - Rust grade and surface preparation grade Type of abrasives Roughness Climatic condition Patch No. and type of paints Paint consumption Film thickness per coat and total film thickness 2) Report - Title Summary Investigations Cause of failure Conclusion Photographs Data and signature 3) Why important : Because it has recorded all tests and controls of finished painting

8. Describe how ISO 8501-1 : 1988 is built up.

ISO 8501-1 : Visual cleanliness of the steel before and after blast cleaning 1) 4 levels of rust grade : A, B, C, D 2) Blast Cleaning grade : Sa1, Sa2, Sa2.5, Sa3 3) Hand and power tool cleaning : St2, St3 4) Flame cleaning : F1 5) Photographic reference

Rust Grade A B C D

St grade St2 St3 0 0 0 0 0 0

Sa1 0 0 0

Sa grade Sa2 Sa21/2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Sa3 0 0 0 0

flame A Fl B Fl C Fl D Fl

9. ISO8501-1:1998 surface preparation ? 1) The standard ISO 8501-1 2) Powerful flashlight

10. Thermal spraying (arc spraying/ flame spraying) Flame spray wire is fed through the nozzle with steam of fuel gas and oxygen. (melted by flame) Capacity 8kg/h , particle speed 180m/s

Arc spray electrically charged wire is fed through nozzle into arc. (melted by electric arc) Capacity 17kg/h, particle speed 150m/s

11. Thermal spraying structure blasting ? Required roughness of surface to medium or coarse and surface preparation to Sa 2.5 ~ sa3 12. Paint application 4 ? 1) Brush (advantage) Good wetting and penetration Minimum paint loss Available on narrow space, edge, corner (for strip coat) Cheap (Disadvantage) Low workability Low and uneven film thickness 2) Roller - (advantage) Faster application on large flat area than brush Cheap Easy to apply (Disadvantage) Very thin film due to excessive rolling Air or solvent entrapment into the film Poor looking 3) Air spray - (advantage) Cheap and simple application equipment Smooth and uniform layer Spraying for small amount of paint (Disadvantage) High consumption of paint Low DFT High thinning ratio 4) Airless spray - (advantage) High workability Available high DFT Available high viscosity (Disadvantage) Expensive spraying equipment Safety problem for high air pressure

20 - 40 V

13. Airless spraying

14. Blasting nozzle 2

15. Blasting blasting ?(4) 1) Heat treatment 2) Heavier grit 3) Shape and size of abrasive 4) High blasting pressure

16. Blasting protection ? a compressed-air fed hood a mask with P2 dust filter or P3 filter a ear protection long gloves & protective boots boiler suit

17. Specification procedure / 1) Specification : A technical document describing all the requirements to achieve the required quality. 2) Procedure : Normally suppliers answering document containing detail description of how to perform the work and all the demands in the specification.

18. Oil/grease remove 4? 1) Wiping or spraying with solvent 2) Dipping in the solvent 3) Cleaning with emulsifier 4) Cleaning with high pressure washing (hot water or steam)

19. Paint curing/drying 3 type? 1) Physical drying paints CR, Acryl, Vinyl 2) Oxidative drying paints Alkyd, Epoxy ester 3) Chemical curing paints Epoxy, Urethane

20. Solvent thinner 1) Solvents dissolve the binder so that the paint gets a suitable viscosity. 2) Thinner is a mixture of solvent and normally added before application in order to have a good workability.

21. Shop primer ? 1) Iron oxide shop primer 2) Zinc rich shop primer

22. Zinc primer paint durability pigment 2? 1) Silica (Extender) 2) ?

23. Wet gauge ?

Combo gauge and wheel gauge based on ISO 2808

24. Zinc ethyl silicate film W.F.T ? Quick solvent evaporation

25. 2 , ? 1) Stirring each drum to make a uniform 2) Exactly mixing base and curing agent according to its data sheet 3) After use the paint drum, keep it tight

26. A/F commonly ? Tin-free SPC Anti-fouling paints according to IMO Regulation 27. A/F mechanism? 1) Conventional or soluble matrix antifouling paints : The binder(rosin) continuously dissolve and release the cuprous oxide(Cu 2O)

2) Long life antifouling paints : The binder(CR, Vinyl) is insoluble in sea water, but the biocides(Cu 2O, TBTO) and rosin are dissolved in sea water.

3) Self-polishing antifouling paints

: The binder which is copolymerized with acryl and TBTO (now metallic ion) is slowly released by reaction with sea water.

28. Passive fire protection ?(2) 1) Organic coating (Epoxy) DFT 5 ~ 20mm 2) Inorganic coating (Cement) DFT 20 ~ 40mm

29. Solvent 3? 1) Skin contact 2) Breathing 3) Swallowing

30. Solvent ? 1) Wearing mask 2) Wearing the protection equipment

31. protection ?

32. Recycle abrasive ?

33. Recycle abrasive ? 1) Salts 2) Oils & greases 3) Dusts 4) Rusts 5) Paint residues

34. Abrasive ?(water soluble/oil)? 1) Oil & Fats - Visual assessment according to Vial Test Mix one volume of abrasive and tow volume of distilled water Shake and settle Visual check the top of the water 2) Other test method for oils & greases ASTM D4940 3) Water soluble Bresle test according to ISO 8502-6

35. IX diagram ?

70 80 90 100

36. Dew point ? Dew point is a certain temperature that the air is no longer able to contain the water vapor. To lower dew point, reduce the relative humidity (RH) using the dehumidifier.

37. RH=70% ?

38. 1) Electrolyte An electrically conductive liquid or substance (sea water, oil ..) 2) Mist coat a coat with a thin film thickness applied on the porous under coat (zinc ethyl silicate paints) 3) Adhesive failure Separated paint film between 1st coating and substrate or between coating films. 4) Cohesive failure Separated paint film within a coating layer itself 5) Pot life Interval of useful time after mixing the two component paints 6) Induction time Pre-reaction time before application Normally need a induction time in polyamide types epoxy paint

7) Popping Small cup-shaped form escaping solvent or air in the coating Normally inorganic zinc ethyl silicate paints cause extensive formation of popping

8) Mud cracking Cracking down to the substrate or one more coats Shape such as dry mud in the film Excessive film thickness of inorganic zinc ethyl silicate paints

9) Checking Light cracking on the film surface or fine superficial cracking caused by the stress in the film or formulation-related failure 10) Blushing A flattening white discoloration on the coating surface during the drying process at high relative humidity 11) Pinpoint rusting Point-shaped rusting on the coating surface caused by pinhole, holiday and low DFT

12) Orange peel Surface such as the skin of an orange caused by too close spraying distance or rapid solvent evaporation 13) Bleeding Discoloration of topcoat due to migration of tar from epoxy tar or bituminous 14) Flash point The lowest temperature to be ignited by a spark or a small flame 15) Mill scale Oxide film which is formed on steel during milling (hot rolling) of the steel 16) Stripe coat Application of extra coat to an area where can not be sprayed such as weld line, edge, corner, near hold 17) Flash point the minimum temp, at which the mixture of flammable solvent vapor and air can be ignited by spark and flame 18) Self life The storage period of paint until using

19) Sealer coat 20) Tie coat 21) Fingering

39. Why mill scale ? Brittle and porous layer Poor adhesion to steel More noble than a steel

40. Grit Shot ? 1) Grit a angular shape for 2nd blasting stage 2) Shot a round shape for 1st blasting stage (shop primer line)

41. Corrosion ? Metal, Oxygen, Electrolyte (humidity) 42. Describe what is Ry5 & Ra, Rz with diagrams. Ra arithmetical mean deviation of the profile within the sampling length


Ry5 the average profile of Ry on 5 points reference length (Ry maximum height of profile within the sampling length)


Rz the average 10 point profile within the sampling length





Rz =

(Z1 + Z2 + + Z9 + Z10) 10

43. Roughness test / Comparator . 1) Method using ISO comparator according to ISO 8503-1 Place the G or S comparator onto the blast-cleaned surface Compare the test surface with the 4 segments of the comparator Assess the profile on the comparator that are Fine nearest to the profile on the test surface. (Fine Medium Coarse) 1 2 Medium
4 3

Coarse 2) Replica tape test (ASTM D4417 Method C) 3) Dial profile gauge (ASTM D4417 Method B) 44. Dust test ISO 8502-3 : Assessment of dust on the steel surface for painting (pressure sensitive tape method) Press the tape (150mm) onto the test surface Rubbing the tape and remove it from the test surface Visually assess the quantity of dust on the tape

45. Why dust on the surface? 1) Reduce the adhesion of coatings 2) Absorb moisture 3) promote corrosion on the surface 46. test 3? 1) Cross cut test ISO 2409 2) X-cut test ASTM D3359 3) Pull-off test ISO 4624

) Cross cut test by ISO 2409 Total DFT 0 ~ 60 61 ~ 120 121 ~ 250 Spacing 1 mm 2 mm 3 mm Cutting tool Single Multi O O O O O X

47. Which important conditions have to be present in order to start corrosion of steel? Oxygen & Electrolyte(Humidity) 48. Which component of the paint determines what generic type of paint it is? Resin (Binder) 49. What are the main components in paint? Binder, Pigments(including extender), Solvents, Additives 50. A paint with 60% of solvents by volume is applied in 100 D.F.T what is the corresponding W.F.T Wet Film Thickness = DFT x (100 + %) / SVR = (100 x 100) / 40 = 250 (60% Solvent SVR 40%) 51. Sa St (. SA21/2, ST3) 1) Abrasive blast cleaning : Sa (ISO 8501-1) Sa 1 Light blast cleaning Sa 2 Thorough blast cleaning Sa 2.5 Very thorough blast cleaning Sa 3 Blast-cleaning to visually cleaned surface 2) Hand & power tool cleaning : St (ISO 8501-1) St2 Thorough hand & power tool cleaning St3 Very thorough hand & power tool cleaning 52. ISO 2808(COMB GAUGE(Sketch) D.F.T ) 1) Immediately after application, place the combo gauge on the test area. Remove and examine the teeth of the gauge. Recording the wet film thickness as lying between the last touching tooth(A) and the first non-touching tooth(B).

2) Magnetic flux principle electromagnet DFT gauge (ISO 2808) Turn on the gauge Place the probe onto the unpainted smooth plate and hold it there to adjust 0 Place the probe onto a slim(ex. 200) and hold it there to adjust 200 using +/- buttons.

53. Galvanic corrosion Galvanic corrosion occurs when a metal or alloy is electrically coupled to another in a electrolyte
Electron Flow


Cathode Anode

54. Pigment - Color pigment : TiO2, Chrome yellow, Cyanine blue Inhibiting pigment : - Zinc phosphate, Red lead - MIO, Aluminum flake, Glass flake - Zinc powder Extender ; MICA, Silica, Talc

55. Binder Binder- form a film - give s durability and adhesion - provide a flexibility and cohesion CR, Vinyl, Acryl,.. Physical drying paints Alkyd, Epoxy ester Oxidative drying paints

Epoxy, Urethane Chemical curing paints

56. Degreasing ? The removal of oil, grease, dirt and chemical salts on the surface alkaline degreasing, solvent degreasing, emulsifier degreasing high pressure water or steam degreasing Degreasing can be done by dipping in bath by open-air spraying by spraying in chamber by scrubbing or brushing

57. Abrasive Oil & Salts Compressor Air Oil ? 1) Oil & Fats - Visual assessment according to Vial Test Mix one volume of abrasive and tow volume of distilled water Shake and settle Visual check the top of the water 2) Other test method for oils & greases ASTM D4940 3) Water soluble Bresle test according to ISO 8502-6 4) ASTM D4285 Visually detecting oil or water in the compressed air (Blotter test method) Closing the abrasive valve Place the white absorbent paper on front of the nozzle (about 60 cm) Air is turned on for at least 1 minute Visually examine the paper Abrasive pot

Air compressor Pressure pot Oil separator



59. Zinc

Zinc ethyl silicate paints will be cured with moisture in the air. When the next coat is applied on the non-cured zinc ethyl silicate paint, the next coat may have adhesion problem. MEK test(ASTM D4752) must be done before application.

60. Geometrical effects The geometrical deign makes cleaning and later maintenance easier and reduces the risk of corrosion. (based on ISO 12944-3) The entire design must be planned and must include surface preparation, painting, inspection and maintenance by international standard EN ISO 12944-3 "Design consideration". 61. ISO 4624 Pull-Off Test : assessment of the adhesion between films or between film and substrate. Lightly sand papering on a dolly and test area Mix the 2 pack solvent free epoxy glue Press the dolly to the test place After 24 hours to cure the glue, cut the coating to the substrate round the dolly Pull-off and record



62. Osmosis blistering Osmosis is a passage of water through the semi-permeable membrane from low concentration solution to higher concentration solution Semi-permeable membrane

Low concentration Solution

High concentration solution

Equal concentration solution

The process of osmosis blistering Absorption of small water molecular in the film Entrapment of water in the interface between the film and the substrate Formation of blister Breaking of the blistering Corrosion of the substrate

63. Paint Ford cup, Flow cup, Din cup 64. De-alloying corrosion Dezincification of brass graphitization of cast iron

Brass is an alloy of zinc and copper, Cast iron has a high content of carbon. In sea water, one of the alloying elements to be preferentially attacked 65. Pigment, Solvent, Binder Binder Coal Tar, Toluene diisocyanate Pigment Zinc chromate, Lead chromate Solvent Dichloromethane, Benzene 66. How do solvents affect the body short term & long term? Short-term effects become intoxicated become more careless, reckless and eventually dizzy finally loose consciousness Long-term effects

become tired and dull become irritated and dizzy finally damage internal organs

1. Describe various Adhesion tests Cross Cut Test (ISO 2409) - below 250 X Cut Test (ASTM D3359) above 125 Pull off tests (ISO4624) 2. Describe ISO 2409.

DFT 0~60um 61~120um 121~250um

Spacing between cuts 1mm 2mm 3mm

Cutting tool Single cutting Yes Yes Yes Multi cutting Yes Yes No

3. A ship will be repaired in a dry dock. It has spots of rust on under water area. The paint system in dry dock should be min 250 A/C Primer Full coat + 2x100 AF. - List 5 important aspects of inspection for this. Type of previous paint, Grade of surface preparation, Check climatic condition Recoating Interval and immersion time of AF paints Film thickness and paint consumption

4. Explain terms 'Adhesion' & 'Cohesion' Failure. Give some examples. Adhesion failure is the separated paint film between substrate and 1st coating or between coatings. : delaminating, peeling off, Cohesion failure is the separated paint film within coating layer itself. :?

5. A ballast tank is made of Stainless Steel & Carbon steel. It has been blasted & painted 'perfectly'. It is ballasted now. a) Will corrosion occur? : Yes. But depend on the times; all organic paint is semi-permeable membrane. Therefore the water is eventually permeable through paint film and then corrode

b) The bottom has many mechanical damages. What will happen? Occurs galvanic corrosion between the stainless and carbon steel. 6. What is ISO 4628-2 & 3 ? ISO 4628 Evaluation of degradation of paint coating-Designation of intensity, quantity and size of common type of defects ISO4628-2 : Designation of degree of blistering

ISO4628-3 : Designation of degree of rusting - Explain how to collect & assess data for these two. The appearance of the painted surface is compared to the photographs in the standard. 1) Classification of density and size of blisters in ISO 4628-2 Blister Quantity 0 1 2 3 4 5 Blister Density No blister Very few blisters Few blisters Medium blisters Medium to dense blisters Dense blisters Blister Size 1 2 3 4 5

2) Degree of rusting and area in ISO 4628-3 Degree Ri 0 Ri 1 Ri 2 Ri 3 Ri 4 Ri 5 Rusted Surface % 0 0.05 0.5 1 8 40/50

7. Explain the Curing Mechanisms & Corrosion Protection Mechanisms of paints with an example of a Generic Type for each. ( ) Physical drying paint exclusively dried by evaporation of solvent (Chlorinate rubber, Vinyl, acryl ) Oxidative drying paint cured by chemical reaction between binder and oxygen in the air (Alkyd, Epoxy ester) Chemical curing paint cured by chemical reaction between binder and hardener (Epoxy, Urethane )

8. Mention the role of each coat in the paint system given below a) 1x70 Zn Epoxy As a primer, provide good cathodic protection to the substrate. b) 2x150 Epoxy Mastic As a intermediate coating, provide good barrier protection for the paint system

and good adhesion between primer and top coating. c) 1x75 Polyurethane Top Coat As a top coating, provide good color and gloss retention.

9. Explain the causes & remedies for Fingering & Dry Spray. Fingering Due to poor atomizing by pressure or unsuitable tip, applied similar human finger. Dry spray Due to long distance spraying or rapid solvent evaporation, cause rough and porous surface.

10. Surface treatment a) Why rounding of edges are important? to provide proper DFT on the edge. b) What is the requirement regarding this? min. radius 2mm

11. [Use IX Diagram] Dry Temp : 15, RH : 50% a) What is the MOISTURE CONTENT? see IX- Diagram

b) Air temperature goes 20, What will be the M/Content? No change c) Relative Humidity? Lower

12. Solvents & Toxic components can enter human body in how many ways? Explain how this can be avoided? Skin contact wear gloves Inhalation wear mask Swallowing ?

13. From the list given below, select the substrates where X cut or cross cut tests can be done. No change HB Epoxy x-cut and cross-cut can be used for adhesion test of it Zinc Epoxy-cut and cross-cut can be used for adhesion test of it IOZ Silicate x-cut is possible, cross-cut can not be used for adhesion test of it TS Aluminum - x-cut is impossible, Cross- cut is impossible Galvanized Steel- x-cut is impossible, Cross -cut is impossible

14. What is Tie coat & Sealer coat? - Why are they applied? 1) Tie coat : a coat applied between coats for increasing the adhesion properties 2) Sealer coat : a coat with low viscosity liquid applied on wood and masonry Tie and sealer coat provide good adhesion between films or between substrate and the next coat.

15. Why Tie coat is applied on IOZ Silicate coatings? To avoid pinhole and bubble defects on the porosity surface, the tin coating is applied on the porous film of IOZ silicate coatings

16. a) steel plate fresh water immersion corrosion ( tank 0% fresh water ) b) corrosion cathodic protection a) In order for a metal to corrode, the surface of the metal must be covered by electrolyte and oxygen. The corrosion in the tank wont be occurred due to 0% of oxygen in the tank. b) Sacrificial anode system or ICCP system 17 4. b. sag curtain . c. anchor pattern d. tie coat sealer coat e. stripe coat

f. stripe coat

g. fingering h. mud crack i. mud crack j. pot life shelf life k. pinhole 5. shop primer a. generic type b. zinc type c. d. cutting e. cutting ? f. zinc primer cutting ?

6. inorganic zinc 70 x 1 Epoxy mastic 150 x 2 P. U 50 x 1 a. steel . b. dry/curing type

7. a. tar A/F ?

b. A/F ? c. self polishing A/F mechanism .

10. mastic: 2 x 200 P.U : 2 x 40 Loss: 30% a. abrasive

b. dead volume (factor 55cm3/m2) c. quantity(20 liters can) d. , m2

12. toxic short, long term effect . .

18. RH% , moisture content . IX diagram

19. ISO ?

20. UHP WJ ? 1. Cathodic protection a) What kind of corrosion occurs on a sacrificial zinc anode, when connected to carbon steel and submerged in an electrolyte?

b) Can sacrificial anodes protect the upper part of ballast tank of the tank is not completely fill with seawater? Explain! c) Explain the reason for cathodic disbanding.

2. Corrosion

Two steel structure, one seawater, one fresh water a) Will there be any difference in corrosion rate on the steel structure I the two liquids? Explain.

b) Give one method for corrosion protection of steel structure in seawater which can not be used for protection in fresh water.

c) Explain why blistering of coating are more common in fresh water than in seawater. -> osmosis by difference of concentration

3. Corrosion Untreated carbon steel pipe is constantly heated 150 C & exposed to a C-4 Atmosphere (ISO 12944-2), will the pipe corrode? Explain.

4. Corrosion Ballast tank in seawater, stainless steel + carbon steel Perfectly coating with epoxy mastic of 375um a) Will corrosion occur place inside the tank when filled with seawater? Explain.

b) After a certain period in service the coating system has several mechanical damages both on the stainless steel and carbon steel parts. Explain what will happen with regard to corrosion.

8. a) What is adhesive failure?

b) Reason of adhesive failure.

c) What is cohesive failure?

d) Reason of cohesive failure.

e) Describe ISO 4624

f) Explain ISO 2409 9. a) Compressed air check

b) What should be looked for when cleaning recycled metallic abrasive? Explain how to do it?

10. a) oil, grease b) mill scale 3

11. b) Describe D Sa2?

e) Describe of positive and negative of profile on coating system.

12. a) RH 60% water content? 1) 25 C b) RH? c) D.P? d) Above condition, apply the paint? 14. a) Name two generic type of binders used in paint for construction submerged in seawater. b) Zinc silicate one coat high build(75mu) seawater ? 2) 35C <dry bulb: 20 C, wet bulb: 14 C, steel temp: 18 C>

15. a) prior to application of coating, check point 8.

c) A ship is to be dry-docked for repairing of the paint system of the under water hull. What are the main control activities during this paint works?

d) What is recommended that the steel temperature in C should be above the dew point during application of paint and why?

16. Term a) Stripe coat?

b) Stripe coat ?

c) Dry spray?

d) Dry spray ?

e) RH

f) Dew point temperature

g) Run & certain

h) Mud-cracking? i) Mud-cracking

j) Mud-cracking sensitive generic type

k) Dead volume l) Pot life

m) Shelf life n) Bleeding

o) Sealer coat

p) Tie coat ?

17. a) loss b) loss

18. pump ratio 45:1, Frosiopox GT (Tip:0.021(0.53mm), 250bar) a) Correct nozzie pressure b) 0.58mm, 200bar your comment?

c) Airless pump sketch

19. Primer a) generic type primer b) c) DFT on plant

d) What is important to look for when inspecting shop primer steel prior to application?

e) Zinc hazard?

21. A/F a) SPC A/F mechanism b) Effect of fouling

22. Daily log a) Daily log ? b) Daily log ?

c) purpose of coating procedure test(CPT)? 23. Health a) Cancer ?

b) Effect of solvent, short-term and long-term

c) Solvent d) Noise unit? 1. Abresives are generally divided into two main groups. a) please name the group b) Give two examples of abrasives from each group.

2. What is the ISO 8501-1 standard constructed?

3. Previously painted steel appearing with rust grade D is blasted to P Sa 2 1/2 According to ISO 8501-2 followed by 2 coats of epoxy paint each 75 micron. The painted steel is located in a marine atmosphere, but after some years, the Paint system has deteriorated 40%. Blistering and under-rusting are observed. What may have caused the premature breakdown?

4. Roughness a) How do we check the roughness of blasted steel on site? b) Mention two methods for measuring the roughness. c) What is the meaning of profileon an abrasive blasted surface? d) What is Ra, Rz, Ry, Rmax?

5. What makes it difficult to measure the correct DFT on a blasted steel surface Where a zinc silicate paint in approx 30 micron has been applied?

6. A paint with 65% volume solids is thinned 15% a) What wet film thickness should we apply to obtain a DFT of 125 micron? b) What will the DFT be if the thinned paint is applied in a wet film thickness of 200 micron? c) Are there any practical llmitations is the use of a wet film gauge?

7. Explain briefly how dry hot dip galvanizing is carried out.

8. A deck of 3500m2 is to be painted with the following system

2003 9 1. Compressed air 1) Which impurities from compressed air oo have an impact on the coating quality? 2) Explain how to check the compressed air supply with regard to impurities? 3) Which impurities will you look for and explain how to check it? 2. Thermal spraying 1) Name one(1) method for thermal spraying of aluminum and describe briefly the principles of the method selected make simple sketch. 2) Describe important factors during the application which will influence the quality of thermal sprayed aluminum 3. Specification and Procedure 1) Explain the difference between specification and procedure 4. Corrosion 1) Selective corrosion may occur on cast iron and some alloy how will this corrosion appear visually, and why? 2) Describe briefly two(2) other forms of corrosion 5. Corrosion A carbon steel pipe and a copper pipe electrically connet and immersed in seawater will set up a corrosion cell 1) Which of the two(2) metals will corrode? 2) What do we call this form for corrosion? 3) Which of the metals will be the anode? 4) What do we call the principie for corrosion protection in which one(1) metal protects the other one?

6. Inspection Inspection of surface preparation and paint application 1) Make a list of necessary instruments, equipment and documents neesed. 2) List important duties of a FROSIO certified inspector. 7. Adhesion testing The terms cohesion and adhesion are used in connection with testing of coatings 1) Explain the terms 2) What are the general reasons for a cohesive failure? 3) What are the general reasons for am adhesive failure? 4) Two(2) standardized methods are used for determination of coating adhesion. Describe these methods. 8. Coationg damages/defects Describe the defects below and explain their causes. 1) Osmotic blistering 2) Fish-eye 3) Pinhole 9. Paints and Cathodic protection A painted steel structure, which is to be immersed in seawater, will receive long-term cathodic protection. 1) Which surface preparation will you specify? 2) Which coating system (generic types) will you specify? 3) Which dry film thickness, DFT(both per coat and for the total system)will you specify? 10. Paint formulation 1) Give examples of pigments used in paints for each the below listed categories: - Two(2) different corrosion inhibiting pigments - One(1) coloring pigment - One(1) pigment with cathodic properties - Two(2) pigments with barrier properties 2) Explain the difference between Solvent and Thinner and give examples

11. Environmental condition 1) What kind of instruments can be used when checking environmental condition? 2) What kind of action and equipment can be used to create acceptable environmental conditions for surface preparation?

12. Identification of paint Paints are divided into groups according to their drying/curing mechanisms. Identify and describe the different drying/curing mechanism and give one(1) example of a generic type of paint for each group. 13. Health and safety 1) Solvent has harmful effect on workers health. Describe short and long term effects caused by solvent exposure. 2) List two components in paint which are considered to cause cancer. 3) Why should used abrasive for blast-cleaning of the underwater hull of a ship be treated as chemical waste? 14. Construction, materials and design 1) Give some advantages by use of square- and bulb-profiles in relation to H-beams and L-beams profiles? 2) Why should edges be rounded and what is the recommended radius? 15. Protection by paint Paints are protecting against corrosion through different principles and/or techniques. 1) Name and describe these principles and techniques. 2) Name one(1) generic type of paint from each of these p principles and techniques. 16. Wet film thickness, WFT 1) Describe(make a sketch)and explain the working method of the wet film gauge most commonly used? 2) Explain the problems, which may occur when using a wet film gauge on: - A multi coat vinyl system? - Zinc ethyl silicate paint? 17. Paint properties 1) How can the viscosity of alkyd paint measured on site, and in what way can it be adjusted? 2) In which way can the viscosity in solvent free epoxy paint be adjusted? 3) What kind of problem may generally occur when adding too much thinner? 18. Application Use enclosed diagram for airless spray nozzle output(L/min) and technical data sheet for FROSIOPOX GT. 1) At what ingoing air pressure should an airless paint pump with ratio 45:1 be set, to get the correct nozzle pressure for FROSIOPOX GT? (Do not take the pressure drop in the paint lines into account) 2) The operator has chosen a 0.58mm nozzle and selected a nozzle pressure of 200bar. Give your comments. 3) Describe the various main components of the airless spray equipment.

Make a simple sketch. 19. Blast-cleaning 1) Explain why the degree of cleanliness and surface roughness/profile have an influence on the performance of coating system? 2) Make a sketch and explain the terms Ra and Ry5. 3) What nozzle pressures would you recommend for blast-cleaning fo steel structure and why? 4) What surface roughness expressed in um(Ry5) should a carbon steel surface have prior to the application of zinc ethyl silicate paing? 5) Explain the term dead volume, DV> 20. Prefabrication Primer(shop primer) 1) Name three(3) generic types of prefabrication primers. 2) Prefabrication primers are normally applied in dry film thickness from 15um to 25um. Explain why.

21. Standards 1) Describe briefly ISO 4628-2 and 3, 2) For which purpose is ISO 8501-1 used? Explain how the standard is built up. 3) What is the differences between B and D steel quality? And what is the differences between surface preparation grades Sa2 1/2 and St3. 22. Zinc ethyl silicate paints 1) What environmental conditions are necessary to get proper curing of zinc ethyl silicate paint? 2) Why is it important that zinc ethyl silicate paints are fully cured prior to overcoating? 3) Which standardized test method shall be used to determine whether zinc ethyl silicate paint is ready for overcoating or not? Describe the standard procedure for the test. 4) Under which circumstances can one(1) coat of zinc ethyl silicate without any topcoat(s) be used and when should it be overcoated? 23. Epoxy paints 1) List eight (8) checkpoints which are important prior to start-up and during application of epoxy paints. Certain epoxy paints cured at too low temperatures and under humid conditions may sometimes excrete a sticky fluid on the surface 2) What is this fluid called and what will you do prior to overcoating? 3) How can an inspector investigate whether an epoxy paint film is cored or not? 24. Flash point 1) Define the term Flash point. 2) Explain why the flash point is stated on the technical data sheets for paints.

25. Climatic condition From the enclosed IX-diagram and the below information determine the following: Dry bulb temperature: 21 C Wet bulb temperature: 17 C Steel temperature: 1) Relative humidity 2) Dew point temperature 3) Whether the condition is acceptable or not for application of paint. 26. Explain the following terms 1) Temporary protection : 2) Relative humidity : 3) Degreasing : 4) Pot life: 5) Ambient temperature: 6) Anchor pattern: 7) Maintenance: 8) Mill scale: 27. Calculation A structure is to be coated. The specification for the surface preparation is blast cleaning and application of a FROSIOPOX GT. Specification: The surface area of the structure is: Surface preparation: Coating system: Calculation basis: Abrasive consumption: Paint loss: 35 kg/m2 25% 3200m2 18 C

Sa2 1/2

3 coats of FROSIOPOX GT, each 150um DFT

1) Calculate the total consumption of abrasives. 2) Calculate the practical paint consumption for the full system, supplied in 20 liters drums. 3) If the dead volume is 50cm3/m2, what will the increase of the paint consumption be for the first coat of FROSIOPOX GT be? (include the loss factor) The answer shall be given in liters. 4) What should the wet film thickness of another paint with 50 col. % solids be, in order to reach a dry film thickness of 80um? (Do the calculation without considering the dead volume.) 5) You shall apply a wet film, thickness, WFT of 245um of FROSIO-MASTIC. Use the enclosed

technical data sheet for FROSIOMASTIC with recommended nozzle size and pressure. Use the diagram for nozzle sizes and pressure, to calculate: Theoretical application rate(m2/min) FROSIOEPOXY GT: Vol% solid= 60% FROSIO-Mastic: Vol% solid= 82%

1. ? , dead volume dead volume is the amount of paint needed to fill up the surface roughness

2. Frosio 5 . Witness, reporting, survey, monitoring, advising

3. Epoxy Check point 9 . Induction time, pot life, max and min recoating interval, ventilation, RH, temperature, stirring, mixing ratio of base and curing agent, surface preparation

4. (equipment & material) flashlight, mirror, DFT gauge, WFT gauge, steel temperature gauge, sling hygrometer, IX-diagram etc 5. Flash point? The minimum temperature of air and solvent mixture will be ignited by flame and spark. 6. Flash point To prevent the explosion from ignition source such as flame, spark etc

7. solvent long, short term (hazard) . Shot term : become intoxicated->careless->dizzy->loose conscious Long term : become tired and poor coordination->become irritated->damage organ (liver, lung etc) 8. pigment . Zinc chromate, lead chromate

9. steel dressing . Steel dressing is the same as steel preparation. It is removed lamination, undercut etc.

10. L H ? Easy to surface preparation and painting Easy to cleaning and maintenance Prevent to corrosion 11. W.F.T . Comb gauge, wheel gauge

12. Vinly Zinc W.F.T ? ? ZINC dry too fast so cant measure the W.F.T VINYL if vinyl overcoat to vinyl, top coat dissolve the under coat 13. adhesion the attached condition of paint between layers 14. cohesion the attached condition of paint within layer

15. test standard . Iso 2409 cross cut, iso4628 pull off test(dolly), astm d 3359 x-cut

16. abrasive type(2) . Metallic / non metallic 17. . Metallic grit, shot ball, cut wire Nonmetallic- olivine, garnet, 18.

19. mill scale the thin oxide film layer formed on the metal surface during hot rolling

20. osmosis

21. R.H The ratio of amount of water vapor present in a given volume of air at a given temp.

22. Ambient Temperature Air temperature

23. dead volume The amount of paint needed to fill up the surface roughness