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Year 2013-14

Report compiled by:Shubham Garg Jinay Patel Ishita Rupapara

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The completion of this research based project would have virtually been impossible without the support of a few people whom I would heart fully like to thank. My group members Jinay Patel and Ishita Rupapara Our teacher as well as our mentor Mrs. Preeti Dave, She has been with us throughout the completion of the project and has helped us to gain as much knowledge about the machine we have been working on. She has been helping us with guiding as well as has took us to a pathological lab to help us more with the project, however unfortunately none of our group members could attend the session. Our Lab teachers Mukesh sir and they have been helping us throughout in

giving us idea of what to do and what not to do. They actually helped us in beginning the project by doing research for our project on which machine to work.

I thank all the people once again from the bottom of my heart to help us complete this task.. Shubham Garg
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Table of Contents

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What Is Thermal Imaging?

A thermal imaging camera detects the amount of infrared energynot visible to the human eyeemitted, transmitted and reflected by objects. Algorithms are then used to display that energy in a visible image. Everything near room temperature emits infrared radiation, so thermal imaging enables viewing of environments with or without light. Warmer objects are clearly visible against cooler items when seen through a thermal imaging camera. Several data sources are used based on the surrounding environment for the camera to determine the approximate temperature of specific objects. A thermal imaging camera is typically similar to a camcorder. However, a recording device is often not included, since live readings often show temperature variations so plainly that further analysis is not required. In the field of thermography, applications can be divided into passive and active types. With passive applications, what the viewer is interested in is naturally at a higher or lower temperature than that of the background. In active thermography, the viewer uses an energy source to create a thermal contrast between features of interest and the background. Suspected H1N1 Swine Flu cases were detected using thermography by airport and government officials during 2009. Thermal imaging can also be applied in veterinary medicine and research, especially since it is a non-destructive test technique.

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What is infrared?
Our eyes are detectors that are designed to detect electromagnetic radiation in the visible light spectrum. All other forms of electromagnetic radiation, such as infrared, are invisible to the human eye. The existence of infrared was discovered in 1800 by astronomer Sir Frederick William Herschel. Curious to the thermal difference between different light colors, he directed sunlight through a glass prism to create a spectrum and then measured the temperature of each color. He found that the temperatures of the colors increased from the violet to the red part of the spectrum. After noticing this pattern Herschel decided to measure the temperature just beyond the red portion of the spectrum in a region where no sunlight was visible. To his surprise, he found that this region had the highest temperature of all. Infrared radiation lies between the visible and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The primary source of infrared radiation is heat or thermal radiation. Any object that has a temperature above absolute zero (-273.15 degrees Celsius or 0 Kelvin) emits radiation in the infrared region. Even objects that we think of as being very cold, such as ice cubes, emit infrared radiation. We experience infrared radiation every day. The heat that we feel from sunlight, a fire or a radiator is all infrared. Although our eyes cannot see it, the nerves in our skin can feel it as heat. The warmer the object, the more infrared radiation it emits.

Why use thermal imaging?

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Working of Thermal Imaging Camera

Here's how thermal imaging works: 1. A special lens focuses the infrared light emitted by all of the objects in view. 2. The focused light is scanned by a phased array of infrared-detector elements. The detector elements create a very detailed temperature pattern called a thermogram. It only takes about one-thirtieth of a second for the detector array to obtain the temperature information to make the thermogram. This information is obtained from several thousand points in the field of view of the detector array. 3. The thermogram created by the detector elements is translated into electric impulses. 4. The impulses are sent to a signal-processing unit, a circuit board with a dedicated chip that translates the information from the elements into data for the display. 5. The signal-processing unit sends the information to the display, where it appears as various colors depending on the intensity of the infrared emission. The combination of all the impulses from all of the elements creates the image.

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Thermal Imaging System for SWINE FLU Detection

An early warning system to screen people in "real time", the High Resolution Fever Alert infrared camera offers unmatched image sensitivity and clarity in a 320 x 240 radiometric imager. In less than a second it quickly and easily detects elevated body temperatures and gives off both an AUDIBLE and VISUAL ALARM when a pre-defined threshold is exceeded, indicating possible fever in humans. A Blackbody reference is also used to regularly verify the accuracy of the imager. This screening system can be used as part of a plan to minimize the spread of flu, and potentially limit the infectious transmission of disease during an outbreak, in both the workplace and public facilities

Features Less than a second to take a temperature reading, thus no delay processing people past the system. Optimal response when screening narrow focused and at a short distance. Non-threatening - non-contact: Measures the temperature coming off a surface and requires no contact with subject. Blackbody verifies the accuracy of the imager. Fever Alert System -

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The best choice as part of a prevention plan to detect Swine Flu. Screen large groups of people, and possibly minimize the spread of influenza in both the workplace and public venue's. Choose from hand held thermometers or cameras, to a high resolution thermal imaging system. No delay processing people past the system Safe for subject and operator - No lasers Readout in F or C Automatically detects the highest temperature in an image and alerts you with both AUDIBLE and VISUAL ALARMS In market Irisys' infrared thermal imaging technology is used to detect Swine Flu

Purpose and details of the Instrument

A breakout of Swine Flu has been reported in Mexico and cases of Swine Flu are also now been reported globally. Swine Flu causes fever with the body temperature rising to greater than 100 F (38.0 C). Other symptoms may include headache, an overall feeling of discomfort, and body aches.

In light of this various countries are considering or are deploying or carrying out trials using infrared as a scanning technology to detect persons with elevated temperatures which may be the result of Swine Flu.

The purpose of such equipment is to:

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1. Produce infrared or "heat pictures" of a human face by utilizing an infrared camera and based on these thermal images provide surface temperature measurements. 2. Indicate if a user defined threshold temperature is exceeded. (Say 39 Deg C). (Note: that Surface skin temperature is lower than the internal body temperature.)

The product that IRISYS are offering for such initial screening, (not a diagnostics tool) is the IRI 2010. When a temperature in the scene exceeds the user defined threshold an alarm is flashed up on the camera screen and an audible alarm sounded.

Additionally, the IRI2010 also incorporates a visual camera. This means that a person with fever will not only be detected, but by use of the visual camera that person will also be identified. This is particularly useful when screening groups of people.

Specifications The key specifications are :1. Sensitivity - IRISYS 0.3 deg C

2. Accuracy of measurement - IRISYS Spec. is +/- 2 deg. C. Improved Accuracy: Improved accuracy system - The easy way to improve the accuracy of a temperature measurement system is to have an external reference source in the
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field of view. The imager can then measure the temperature of the reference source and a correction can be made on the human body temperature. A check could be made on the reference source every half hour or so.

Examples of various blends of thermal and visual pictures showing a person with a temperature higher than the threshold set at 36C. An audible alarm is also sounded through the Camera Speaker.

100% Visual image 0% Thermal image

75% Visual image 25% Thermal image

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50% Visual image 50% Thermal image

25% Visual image 75% Thermal image

0% Visual image 100% Thermal image

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Why use thermal imaging cameras?

Thermal imaging cameras for Swine Flu detection have the following benefits: It is as easy to use as a camcorder or a digital camera Gives you a full image of the situation Measures temperatures Stores information Tells you exactly which person is feverish Saves you valuable time and money

The prevalence of Thermal Imaging Cameras throughout the World

The miniature, discreet and ultra-portable Scan Skin Temperature Monitoring system provides peace of mind with high speed sensitive temperature measurement for high volume pedestrian transit areas. The system is based on a thermal imaging camera working in conjunction with a blackbody calibration unit for high accuracy temperature measurement. This scanner is a tried and tested screening system which is serving in numerous countries including UK, Thailand, Mauritius, Angola and in Mexico - where seven units have been installed.

This scan thermal imaging and temperature measurement system is easily installed, operated and relocated with the very minimum of setup time and operator training. On-screen alerts identify one or more individuals in a large crowd situation, aiding
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rapid detection and maintaining passenger flow. The system is password protected to prevent unauthorized changes.

The SARS, Bird flu and now H1N1 Swine Flu viruses have affected tens of thousands of people and businesses with massive disruption to all people in all walks of life and the system ensures that a high rate of human transit is monitored effectively without slowing queues in busy areas.

Infrared Imaging Science

Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science. Thermographic cameras detect radiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum (roughly 9,00014,000 nanometers or 914 m) and produce images of that radiation, called thermograms. Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects above absolute zero according to the black body radiation law, thermography makes it possible to see one's environment with or without visible illumination. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore, thermography allows one to see variations in temperature. When viewed through a thermal imaging camera, warm objects stand out well against cooler backgrounds; humans and other warm-blooded animals become easily visible against the environment, day or night. As a result, thermography is particularly useful to military and other users of surveillance cameras.

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Thermogram/Thermal Image Production

Thermal images, or thermograms, are actually visual displays of the amount of infrared energy emitted, transmitted, and reflected by an object. Because there are multiple sources of the infrared energy, it is difficult to get an accurate temperature of an object using this method. A thermal imaging camera is capable of performing algorithms to interpret that data and build an image. Although the image shows the viewer an approximation of the temperature at which the object is operating, the camera is actually using multiple sources of data based on the areas surrounding the object to determine that value rather than detecting the actual temperature. This phenomenon may become clearer upon consideration of the formula Incident Energy = Emitted Energy + Transmitted Energy + Reflected Energy where Incident Energy is the energy profile when viewed through a thermal imaging camera. Emitted Energy is generally what is intended to be measured. Transmitted Energy is the energy that passes through the subject from a remote thermal source. Reflected Energy is the amount of energy that reflects off the surface of the object from a remote thermal source. If the object is radiating at a higher temperature than its surroundings, then power transfer will be taking place and power will be radiating from warm to cold following the principle stated in the Second Law of Thermodynamics. So if there is a cool area in the thermogram, that object will be absorbing the radiation emitted by the warm object. The ability of both objects to emit or absorb this radiation is called emissivity. Under outdoor environments, convective cooling from wind may also need to be considered when trying to get an accurate temperature reading.

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The thermal imaging camera would next employ a series of mathematical algorithms. Since the camera is only able to see the electromagnetic radiation that is impossible to detect with the human eye, it will build a picture in the viewer and record a visible picture.

Use of Infrared to detect elevated Body temperatures

Infrared thermography can help detect elevated body temperatures which may indicate the presence of a fever. As such, the use of infrared as an adjunctive diagnostic tool to help detect people with a potential fever may contain or limit the spread of viral diseases such as bird and Swine Flu. The growth of international travel and economic migration require a consistent, prompt, effective and global disease prevention policy. Elevated human body temperature, or fever, is often a reliable indicator of many serious infections. Since the recent outbreak of serious flu strains such as H1N1, and the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), public health authorities have been looking for a fast, easy, contactless ( non-invasive), and reliable method to detect elevated human body temperature. When used properly, infrared screening is such a method: a vital tool in the detection of elevated body temperatures in high-risk groups such as travelers. It is being used by health authorities around the world to screen passengers entering a country via mass transportation, and has proven itself as an effective monitoring method.

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Control of a Pandemic
Thermal Imaging cameras automatically detect elevated skin temperatures that may indicate a fever and underlying infection. Each cameras unique Automatic Temperature Compensator (ATC) adjusts for ambient conditions to minimize false readings. The color image, temperature scale, and alarm mechanism make it easy to decide when a person needs further examination. Viral and bacterial infections that spread through human contact and airborne transmission pose a serious health problem, including the possibility of pandemics, as shown by recent flu outbreaks.

The Need of the Technology

Use of Infrared to detect elevated Body temperatures makes Infrared cameras a cost- effective way to help prevent pandemic outbreaks and the deaths that often follow. Public health authorities remember all too well that SARS took the lives of some 10% of infected people. Similarly, the H5N1 strain of avian influenza at one point had a death rate of over 50% in Asia and Europe. Since influenza viruses have the ability to quickly mutate, scientists are concerned about their ability to make effective vaccines that prevent high death rates among weaker members of the global population. Infrared thermography: an effective tool to detect elevated body temperatures. An infrared camera produces thermal images or heat pictures that display even the smallest temperature differences. Human body temperature is a complex phenomenon. Humans are homeothermic; they radiate heat, which must be lost to the environment to control their internal temperature. The interface between that heat production and the environment is the
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skin. This dynamic organ is constantly adjusting the optimum balance between the physiologic demands of the body and external environmental conditions. Infrared thermography provides a visual map of skin temperatures in real time. In addition, IR cameras are very sensitive devices. IR cameras measure temperature differences as small as 0.07 C.

Mass screening
The built-in functions of IR cameras include color images and temperature scales, and sound alarms that can be set to go off when a certain temperature threshold is exceeded. These functions make it easy for an operator to instantly decide whether the subject needs to be referred for medical examination. Since the cameras produces images in real time the total evaluation process takes less than a second. This makes infrared technology very useful for rapidly screening large groups of people.

Minimizing Errors
A person's general skin temperature is not equal to the person's core temperature. The most practical spot on the body giving the most reliable result (where the skin temperature approaches the core temperature of the human body) is in the corner of the eyes where the lachrymal (tear) duct comes to the surface. Still, skin temperature is affected by one's surroundings, even if they have a fever. Nevertheless, their skin will be hotter than other nearby persons (affected by those same surroundings) who do not have a fever. The cameras unique Automatic Temperature Compensator feature takes this into account and minimizes this error too.
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A small investment to protect public health Major airports are already using thermal imaging cameras and have successfully applied this methodology to screen passengers entering and leaving the country. It Infrared cameras: Allow to screen large numbers of people anywhere at any time Display and detect critical temperature elevations in real-time Activate color and sound alarm Are easy to set up and use Can be smoothly integrated in public area pedestrian traffic streams Are able to store evidence

Protect public health is a quick and contactless method, which is perfectly safe for both the camera operator and the screened subject. IR cameras have proven themselves as tools that can be operated by non-specialists after a few hours of training. They enable a quick and accurate scan of a large number of people to trace fever, a major symptom of viral and bacterial infections. As some officials have put it, it is a very small investment to protect public health worldwide.

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Apart from all the important people who helped us completing the report there were a few other sources too which helped us in compiling the work Some websites and links

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