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Contents
Chapter Generator Proper................................................................................. 1

1.1 Basic Knowledge.................................................................. 1.1.1 Working Principle ............................................................................................... 1 1.1.2 Magnetic Field and Magnetic Potential............................... 1.1.3 Synchronous Generators................................................................................... 7 1.2 Proper Structure ................................................................... 1.2.1 Basic Structures .................................................................. 1.2.2 Cooling Mode..................................................................................................... 9 1.2.3 Stator.................................................................................................................. 9 1.2.4 Rotor ................................................................................................................ 16 1.2.5 Ventilation System ........................................................................................... 18 1.3 Normal Operation .............................................................................................. 20 1.3.1 Rated Condition ............................................................................................... 20 1.3.2 Operation under Non-rated Conditions............................................................ 21 1.3.3 Active Power Regulation and Static Stability ................................................... 23 1.3.4 Safe Operation Limit ........................................................................................ 24 1.3.5 Reactive Power Regulation ............................................................................. 26 1.3.6 Normal Operation and Monitor ........................................... 1.4 Abnormal Operation .......................................................................................... 32 1.4.1 Capability of overload ...................................................................................... 32 1.4.2 Asymmetric Operation ..................................................................................... 32 1.4.3 Operation on Loss of Excitation...................................................................... 34 1.4.4 Operating at Leading Power Factor................................................................. 35 1.4.5 Operation in Air ................................................................................................ 36 1.4.6 Torsion Stability ................................................................... 1.5 Technical Data ................................................................................................... 38 ChapterExcitation System ..................................................................................... 45 2.1 Introduction to UNITROL 5000 System............................................................. 46 2.1.1 Excitation Transformer..................................................................................... 46 2.1.2 Excitation Regulator......................................................................................... 47 2.1.3 SCR.................................................................................................................. 47 2.1.4 Excitation and De-excitation Unit..................................................................... 47 2.1.5 UN5000 Excitation System Performance ........................... 2.2 Operation and Adjustment of Excitation System.................. 2.2.1 Control and Display Unit .................................................................................. 49 2.2.2 Remote Control................................................................... 2.2.3 Local Control....................................................................... 2.2.4 Startup of Excitation System............................................... 2.2.5 Shutdown of Excitation System .......................................... 2.3 Automatic Control and Protection ........................................ 2.3.1 Switching between Main Channels.................................................................. 55
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2.3.2 Auto/Mannual Switching of Main Channels ........................ 2.3.3 Emergency Spare Channel................................................. 2.3.4 SuperimposedControl ......................................................... 2.3.5 PSS .................................................................................................................. 58 2.3.6 Rotor Earthing Protection ................................................................................ 58 2.3.7 Limiter ................................................................................. 2.3.8 De-excitation and Overvoltage Protection ....................................................... 62 2.3.9 PT Fault Inspection .......................................................................................... 62 2.3.10 Rotor Temperature Measurement.................................................................. 62 2.3.11 Overcurrent Protection ................................................................................... 63 2.3.12 Protection for Loss of Excitation (P/Q) .......................................................... 63 2.3.13 Overexcitation Protection (V/Hz Relay) ......................................................... 64 2.3.14 Excitation Transformer Temperature Measurement ...................................... 64 2.4 Technical Specifications ....................................................... Chapter Generator Hydrogen Control System ................................................... 68 3.1 Description of System and Equipment.............................................................. 68 3.1.1 Principle of Work.............................................................................................. 68 3.1.2 Cooling Channels of Rotor and Core............................................................... 69 3.1.3 Operation Control of Hydrogen System........................................................... 70 3.1.4 Cooling of Hydrogen ........................................................................................ 70 3.1.5 Generator Gas Replacement........................................................................... 70 3.1.6 Gas Replacement Work Issues Requiring Attention ....................................... 71 3.1.7 Attention Points in Pperation............................................................................ 71 3.2 Systems Equipment and Their Principle of Work.............................................. 72 3.2.1 Hydrogen Gas Control Unit.............................................................................. 72 3.2.2 CO2 Gas Control Unit ...................................................................................... 73 3.2.3 Purging Control Valves .................................................................................... 73 3.2.4 Gas Replacement Plate................................................................................... 73 3.2.5 Hydrogen Purity Detector ................................................................................ 73 3.2.6 Hydrogen Dryer................................................................................................ 73 3.2.7 Hydrogen System Special-purpose Circulating Blower................................... 77 3.2.9 Temperature and Humidity Transmitter ........................................................... 77 3.2.10 Generator Hydrogen Leakage on-line Tester ................................................ 77 3.3 Technical Specifications ....................................................... Chapter Generator Sealing Oil Control System .................................................. 79 4.1 Description of System and Equipment.............................................................. 80 4.1.1 Oil Smoke Purifier............................................................................................ 83 4.2 Operation of Sealing Oil System ....................................................................... 84 4.2.1 Work Process of Sealing Oil System............................................................... 84 4.2.2 Work Mode of Sealing Oil System ...................................... 4.2.3 Attention Points in Operation ........................................................................... 85 4.3 Technical Specifications ....................................................... Chapter Stator winding Cooling Water System ................................................... 91 5.1 Description of System and Equipment.............................................................. 91 5.1.1 Equipment Configuration of Stator winding Cooling Water System ................ 91 5.1.2 Main work flow as follow: ................................................................................. 92
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5.1.3 Control Requirements on Water Temperature................................................. 93 5.1.4 Control Requirements on Water Quality.......................................................... 93 5.1.5 Operation and maintenance ............................................................................ 94 5.2 Introduction to Local and Remote Control Equipment ...................................... 95 5.2.1 Water Tank ....................................................................................................... 95 5.2.2 Water Pump ..................................................................................................... 95 5.2.3 Cooler............................................................................................................... 96 5.2.4 Demineralizer and Its Use ............................................................................... 97 5.2.5 Water Filter....................................................................................................... 98 5.2.6 Temperature Regulator Valve and Pressure Regulator Valve........................ 98 5.2.7 Instruments ...................................................................................................... 99 5.2.8 Loss of Stator Winding Cooling Water............................................................. 99 5.3 Technical Specifications ....................................................... Chapter Synchronizing Equipment.................................................................... 101 6.1 Summarize ...................................................................................................... 101 6.1.1 Technical Data............................................................................................... 101 6.2 Front Panel and Dimensions........................................................................... 102 6.3 Working Mode ................................................................................................. 103 6.4 Definition Terminal............................................................................................112 Chapter Generator Relay Protection ...................................... 7.1 Relay Protection Configuration ........................................... 7.1.1 Configuration Features of Protection.................................. 7.2 Composition of Generator Protections .............................................................116 7.2.1 Generator Differential Protection ....................................................................116 7.2.2 Generator 95%-Stator Earth Fault Protection.................................................116 7.2.3 Generator 100%-Stator Earth Fault Protection...............................................116 7.2.4 Generator Reverse Power Protection.............................................................116 7.2.5 Generator Low Forward Protection ................................................................117 7.2.6 Generator Low Impedance Protection............................................................117 7.2.7Generator Under Frequency Protection& Generator Over Frequency Protection 118 7.2.8 Generator Overvoltage Protection ..................................................................118 7.2.9 Generator Overload Protection.......................................................................118 7.2.10 Generator Loss of Excitation Protection .......................................................118 7.2.11 Generator Back-up Overcurrent Protection(Voltage Controlled) ..................119 7.2.12 Generator Unblanced Load Protection ........................................................ 120 7.2.13 Generator Pole Slipping Protection ............................................................. 120 7.2.14 Generator Interturn Protection ..................................................................... 120 7.2.15 Generator Rotor Earth Fault Protection....................................................... 121 7.2.16 Generator Cooling Water Loss .................................................................... 121 7.2.17 Generator Rortor Overload Protection......................................................... 121 7.2.18 Turbine Stearm Valve Closed ...................................................................... 121 7.2.19 Generator Overexcitation Protection ........................................................... 121 7.3 Composition of Excitation Transformer Protections........................................ 121 7.3.1 Excitation Transformer Overcurrent Protection ............................................. 121 7.3.2 Excitation Transformer Overload Protection.................................................. 121 Chapter Microcomputer Dynamic Recorder for Generator-transformer Unit.... 122
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Introduction...................................................................................................... 122 Technical Characteristics................................................................................. 122 Technical Parameters...................................................................................... 123 Hardware Illustration ....................................................................................... 127 Recorder Monitor Software Illustrations.......................................................... 128 Analysis Software............................................................................................ 135

Chapter Esp Control System ............................................................................ 143 1. The main features of EPIK series controller: .................................................. 143 1.1 The EPIK main functions:................................................................................ 144 2 The Computer controlled communication system........................................... 146 2.1Displaying screen............................................................................................... 146 2.2T/R sketch map.................................................................................................. 146 2.3Comparing diagram of the Current .................................................................... 147 2.4The record table of T/R state. ............................................................................ 147 2.5Rapping running................................................................................................. 148

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Chapter Generator Body The generators used are QFSN-600-2-22F three-phase synchronous generators jointly manufactured by Dongfang Electrical Machinery Co., Ltd. and HITACHI in the usage of technologies introduced from the latter. The cooling mode of the generator is water-hydrogen-hydrogen. Static excitation with self-excitation in side of generator is used. UNITROL 5000 micro-computer digital silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) excitation system manufactured by ABB is used (imported at bulks and assembled by Dongfang Electrical Group). Basic Knowledge Working Principle A generator consists mainly of a stator and a rotor, between which there is an air gap. The working principle is shown in Figure 1-1. There are three-phase windings, AX, BY and CZ on the stator, which in space have a difference of 120 angle and each of them has equal number of coils.The rotor pole (main pole) is installed with exciter windings. Excitation is produced by direct current, the direction of flux comes from Pole N of Rotor, which enters Pole S of rotor to form a circuit through air gap, stator core and air gap, as shown by the dashed lines in the figure. to drive the generator to rotate in the counterclockwise direction with prime mover, the Figure 1-1 Working principle of synchronous generator magnetic line of force will cut the conductor of stator winding. It can be learnt from the law of electromagnetic induction that alternating potential will be induced in the stator conductor: e = Bmlvsint = Emsint Bm is the maximum value of sine wave flux density, l is the length of conductor cut by magnetic line of force, v is the linear speed of cutting and =2f, f is the frequency of potential. As the three-phase windings of the generator stator Figure 1-2 Three phases potential curve have a difference of 120 in physical spatial arrangement, the magnetic line of force of the rotor field will cut Phase A, B and C in turn. As such, the induced potentials of the three phases are equal in amplitude and have a difference of 120 in phase angle. Suppose the maximum value of the phase potential is Em, the initial phase angle of Phase A potential is 0, then the transient values of the three phase potentials are: eA = Emsint eB = Emsin(t-120) eC = Emsin(t-240) If a generator has p pairs of poles and the rotating speed of a rotor is n/min, the rotating speed of the rotor in second will be n revolutions/60, the induced potentials will be alternated pn/60 times per second, i.e., the frequency is f=pn/60. As there are one pair of poles in steam
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1.1 1.1.1

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1.1.2

turbine, so in case of n=3000r/min, f=50Hz. Magnetic Field and Magnetic Potential The fluxes of AC generator are divided into two parts, one in simultaneous interlinkage with both stator and rotor windings, called air gap flux and serving as the media for conversion of mechnical and electric energy in generator; the other part is in interlinkage with stator winding or rotor winding, called leakage flux. The route of air gap fluxes is: from stator yoke to rotor through stator teeth and air gap, then through air gap and stator teeth to stator yoke, forming a closed magnetic circuit. The air gap flux can be established by stator magnetic potential or rotor magnetic potential. When current exists in both stator and rotor windings of generator, it will be jointly established by stator magnetic potential and rotor magnetic potential. 1) No-load operation of synchronouse generator

Fig. 1-3 No-load magnetic field of salient pole synchronous generator When the synchronous generator is driven to synchronous speed by prime mover, the rotor winding is fed with DC excitation current while stator winding is opened, the status is called no-load operation. The magnetic circuits in no-load operation are shown in Figure 1-3. At this time, the stator armature current is 0, in the air gap of generator there are only magnetic potential Ff and magnetic field independently produced by rotor current, which are called excitation magnetic potential and excitation magnetic field. The fluxes in interlinkage with rotor and stator through air gap are called main flux, i.e., the air gap flux in no-load (0), or also called excitation flux. While the fluxes in interlinkage with only exciter winding other than stator winding are called leakage flux (f), which are not involved in energy conversion process in generator. When the rotor is rotating at the synchronous speed of n1, the main fluxes are cutting stator winding to induce three phase fundamental wave potentials at frequency of f=(pn/60), the effective value of which is: E0=4.44fN1kN10. As such, the main flux of 0 can be changed by chaning the excitation current If, when the value of no-load potential E0 will also be changed. It can be learnt from the calculation formula of magnetic circuit that when the sizes and material of cores are determined, the magnetic features thereof are determined as well.

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Figure 1-4 shows the time-space vector diagram in case of synchronous generator no-load operation, wherein Ff1 is the fundamental wave of excitation magnetic potential, Bf1 is fundamental wave of air gap flux density, both of which are in same phase and their positive wave amplitudes are in the positive Figure 1-4 Time-Space vector diagram of synchronous direction of rotor axis and generator in no-load rotating with the rotor at synchronous speed of (1=2f). The flux at flux density wave of Bf1 in interlinkage with any phase of stator is a time variable, represented by 0. The potential of 0 induced by this phase is represented by E0, which is lagged behind 0 by 90. 2). Synchronous generator symmetric load operation When the stator is connected with symmetric load, a second magnetic potential, armature magnetic potential, is created by the load current. The armature magnetic potential will interact with the excitation magnetic potential to form a combinted magnetic potential in air gap in case of load, and establish air gap magnetic field in case of load. Therefore, the so-called armature reaction in case of symmetric load is the impace of fumdamental wave of armature magnetic potential on fundamental wave of main pole magnetic field. The fundamental wave of armature magnetic potential produced by three phase symmetric load current flowing through symmetric three phase coil is a rotating magnetic potential at a speed of n=60f/p, substitute with f=pn1/60, n=n1, showing that the speed of fundamental wave of armature magnetic potential is equal to that of excitation magnetic potential and entry are in same direction. It can be seen that the fundamental wave of armature magnetic potential have same speed and direction as excitation magnetic potential, always maintaining relative motionlessness in space. On account of this, their mutual relations are maintained unchanged and they jointly establish air gap magnetic field with steady values and produce average electromagnetic torque, realizing the energy conversion from mechnical to electric. This relative motionlessness between stator and rotor magnetic potential is a fundamental conditions for normal operation of all electromagnetic induction generators. The nature of armature reaction depends on the relative spatial locations between armature magnetic potential fundamental wave and excitation magnetic potential, mainly the phase phase difference from excitation magnetic potential E0 and armature current I, i.e., in relation to (angle between E0 and I). a. Armature reaction when and 0 are in phase (=0)

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Figure 1-5 Armature reaction when =0 Figure 1-5 shows a principle diagram of a synchronous generator, in which each phase of armature coil is represented by an equivalent integral centralized coil, and only the fundamental waves of exciter winding and armature coil are considered. The diagram is made when the excitation potential of Phase A is at maximum. Excitation magnetic potential Ff1(excitation flux 0) is located on axis d of rotor, while the potential E0 produced by induction of rotating excitation magnetic field in stator three phase coils is located on axis q 90 behind axis d, so is the fundamental wave Fa of armature magnetic potential combined by three phase currents. As such, when I and E0 are in phase, the axis line of armature magnetic potential Fa is always 90 different from the rotor pole axis line (axis d) and coincides with the quadrature axis of rotor (axis q). Therefore, this type of armature reaction is called quadrature axis armature reaction, and the armature magnetic potential Fa at this time is called quadrature axis armature magnetic potential Faq. The air gap combined magnetic potential F is a vector sum of Ff1 and Fa, while B is the air gap flux density wave produced by F. It is clear that the quadrature axis armature reaction reverses the combined magnetic field axis location a sharp angle from the direct axis at no-load, as well the amplitude is increased. b.Armature reaction when is behind 0 at a sharp angle of

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Figure1-6 Armature reaction when 0<<90 Usually, when 0<<90, the armature current I is behind the excitation potential E0 at a sharp angle of , the armature reaction will be as shown in Figure 1-6. At this time, the excitation magnetic potential of Phase A happens to be at maximum, take this as the starting point of time, i.e., t=0. As 0, so when t=0 the current of Phase A has nor reached positive maximum, i.e., the axis line of armature magnetic potential is not on axis line of Phase A (axis q), while locating at electrical angle in space behind Phase A axis line, with Fa lagging behind excitation magnetic potential at (90+) electrical angle. Fa at this time can be decomposed into two components at quadrature axis and direct axis: a = ad + aq Fad = Fasin Faq = Facos Current I at each phase decomposed into: = d + q Id = I sin Iq = I cos Where in Iq and potential E0 are in phase, Faq is quadrature axis armature magnetic potential, the current component Iq producing this magnetic potential is called quadrature axis component of I; Fad is the direct axis armature magnetic potential, the current component Id producing this magnetic potential is called direct axis component of I. The armature reaction produced by magnetic potential quadrature axis Iq is in function of quadrature for air gap flux, making the combined magnetic field to reverse at a certain angle, while the armature reaction produced by direct axis component Id will de-excite the air gap magnetic field. 3). Potential equation, synchronous reactance and vector diagram of non-salient pole synchronous generator For simplification, the condition of saturation is not considered: in accordance with principle of superposition, the separate flux and potential produced by Ff1 and Fa in each phase of stator can be acquired. In further consideration of leakage flux of and leakage potential E caused by armature leakage flux magnetic field in each phase, the following relations are obtained:
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If ()

Ff1()0() ()E()

E0()

I()Fa()a()Ea() Excitation current Excitation magnetic potential fundamental wave :Excitation flux :Excitation potential :Stator three phase current :Armature magnetic potential fundamental wave :Armature reaction flux :Armature reaction potential Stator leakage flux Stator leakage potential According to KVL, for any phase of the armature the potential equation as follows can be acquired: E = E0+Ea+E = U + IRa Wherein U is the terminal voltage at a phase coil of armature, IRa is the resistance voltage drop of a phase coil of armature.

Figure 1-7 Time-Space vector diagram of synchronous generator Accordign to law of electromagnetic induction, 0a are respectively lagging at 90 phase angle behind their originated fluxes0, a and 90. a is lagging at 90 phase angle behind , while a, so a = -jXa Wherein, Xa is called armature reaction reactance, which is equivalent to magnetizing reactance. Similarly, the leakage potential may also be written in the form of negative leakage resistance voltage drop, = -jX 0 = + Ra + jX + jXa = + Ra + jXt Wherein Xt is called synchronous reactance of synchronous generator, which is equal to the sum of armature reaction reactance and stator leakage reactance, i.e., Xt = X + Xa Synchronous reactance is a composite parameter that represents the armature rotating
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1.1.3 1.1.3.1

1.1.3.2

1.1.3.3

magnetic field and armature leakage magnetic field in case of symmetric steady operation. Connection of synchronous generator Connection operation Before a generator unit is put into system for operation, its voltage connection point and the quantities of state of system voltage (amplitude, frequency and phase angle) are usually unequal, proper operations shall be performed on the generator to make it compliant with conditions for connection, only when closure operation of switch is allowed for grid connection. The connection of synchronous generator shall be in compliance with the following principles: a. When the connection switch is closed, the impact current shall be minimized, the transient maximum value of which is usually less than 1-2 times of rated current. b. When the generator unit is connected into the grid, it soon enters synchronous operation state, the transient process of which shall be short to minimize the disturbance of power system. Now the connection method of large turbine synchronous generators are using automatic quasi-synchronization device for quasi-synchronization connection operation. Connection conditions a. Frequency of generator and grid, f= f (to be adjusted before grid connection); b.The voltage waveforms of generator and grid shall be same; c.The voltage amplitude and phase of generator and grid shall be same, 0 = (to be adjusted before grid connection); d.The phase sequence of generator and grid shall be same. If the frequencies are different, there will be relative motions between 0 and , a circular current with chaning amplitude will be produced, causing power oscillation in generator. If the waveforms are different, a high order harmonics circular current will be produced between generator and grid. If the two voltages are different in amplitude and phase, a circular current will be produced between the generator and the grid. Under the condition of reverse polarity, if the closure operation is misoperated, the value of Ih may be as high as 20~30IN, possibly causing significant damage to end of stator winding. Principle of connection

Figure 1-8 Generator connection principle schematic diagram Suppose the voltage at both sides of connection switch DL to be U G and UX. The transient impact current when the DL main contact is closed and the transient process into synchronous operation are determined by impulse voltage U S and slip angle frequency S during the closure operation. Impulse voltage (US)
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2 2 US = U X +UG 2U X U G cos S t

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1.2 1.2.1

It can be seen from the above equation that the detection information required for quasisynchronization connection is in the impulse waveform of impulse voltage US-voltage amplitude difference, frequency difference and phase angle change laws following time. Therefore, it can be used to provide the information for automatic connection device and select proper closure signal issue time. Voltage amplitude difference: as Usmin = |UG UX|, through the measurement of Usmin, it can be judged whether the voltage amplitude difference between UG and UX exceeds the allowable value. Frequency difference: the frequency difference between UG and UX is the frequency fS of impulse voltage US. The control of closure phase difference is: in oder that the closure transient is the transient that two phases of G and X are closed, considering that the inherent operation time of swich operation mechanism and closure circuit control electrical devices, the signal for closure must be issued before the phases of two voltages are closed, which is, a lead. Proper Structure Basic Structures

Figure 1-9 Generator structure principle diagram Retaining ring;rotor;Base; Hydrogen cooler; End cap; Outlet terminal; Core; Carbon brush holder; Bearing; :Rotor;Stator winding.

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Figure 1-10 Generator sectional view A steam turbine generator consists of mainly stator, rotor, end cap and bear. Refer to Figure 1-9 and 1-10 for the detailed structure. Cooling mode The heat emission parts of generator consists of mainly stator winding, stator core (magnetic hysteresis and vortex loss) and rotor winding. Efficient cooling measures must be used to emit the hear generated by these parts so that the temperature of various parts of generator do not exceed allowable values. The generator is cooled by water-hydrogen-hydrogen means, which is, the generator stator winding and lead are water internally cooled, the rotor winding is hydrogen internally cooled and the rotor proper and stator core are hydrogen cooled. For this purpose, the generator is provided with stator water cooling system, hydrogen cooling system and sealing oil system to prevent hydrogen from leaking out of the shaft seal. Stator The stator consists of mainly base, stator core, stator winding and end cap. 1) Base and end cap The base is a casing structure welded by steel plates, which is mainly used to support and fix the stator core and stator winding. In addition, the base may prevent leakage of hydrogen and withstand the explosion of hydrogen. The space between casing and stator core is part of generator ventilation (hydrogen) system. As radial ventilation is used for generator stator, the space between casing and core back is axially separated into several sections, each of which forming a small circular air compartment. The compartments are alternatively inlet and outlet sections and commected with pipes for alternative ventilation. Hydrogen alternatively passes the outside and inside of core and then is gathered to pass the cooler, thus effectively preventing thermal stress and
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1.2.2

1.2.3

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local overheating. End cap is part of generator for sealing, the structure of which is shown in Figure 1-11. For easy erection, maintenance and disassembly, the end cap comprises two horizontally separated halves, which are provided with end cap bearing. Sealing ditches are provided on the joint surface of end cap, which are filled with sealing gum for good tightness.

Figure 1-11 Generator end cap bearing structure The bearing pad is in the structure of ellipse horizontal midsplit, the spherical surface of pad external circle ensures the self alignment of bearing. The hydrogen sealing at the location the shaft crosses end cap is ensured by oil film of oil sealing. The sealing pad is made of copper alloy, with a clearance between the internal circle and shaft, mounted in the sealing holder at the internal circle of end cap. The sealing pad is divided into four sections, which are fixed with springs in radial and axial directions. Although the sealing pad may radially float with the shaft, there are pins both on and under sealing holer to prevent tangential roatation. The sealing oil, through the oil cavity of sealing holder and sealing pad, flows into the clearance between the pad and the shaft, forming an oil film along the radial direction to prevent leakage of hydrogen. Double-layer earth insulation is provided at the excitation end oil seal to prevent shaft current from burning shaft. 2). Base vibration isolation-stator elastic support To minize the double frequency vibration caused due to magnetic pull of rotor flux on stator, and impact of vibration of stator core on base and foundation due to short circuit and other factors, a horizontal elastic support vibration isolation structure is used between the stator core and base.Its structure is shown in the following diagram: a spring board is mounted on back of key bar, the board, through a block, is fixed at the back of key bar with bolts. The middle of spring board is connected with the clapboard in the base, forming an elastic vibration isolation structure.

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Figure 1-12 Base elastic vibration isolation structure Stator core;Press ring; Annualy plate; Sheath; Axiliad spring board; Section plate 3). Stator core Stator core is an important part in generator magnetic circuit and fixation of stator winding. To minimize the magnetic hysteresis and vortex loss of core, the stator core is made of quality cold-rolled silicon steel sheets with high magnetoconductivity, small loss at thickness of 0.5mm by punching. Each layer of silicon steel sheet forms a circle by means of several sectors, each of which is painted with inorganic insulating paint resistant to high temperature.The punched steel is provided with cable laying slot for embedding coil and dove tail slot for placement of wedge. The sector shaped punch steel is positioned by stator positioning bar. The pressure is applied through ductile cast iron press ring, which forms a rigid cylindrical core fixed by positioning bar to the base. The teeth are pressed by non-magnetic press finger inside the press ring. The side core is applied with adhesive paint and heated after core installation, forming a rigid body for further rigidity of core. To minimize the heating effect of end leakage flux on press ring and side core as well as the additional electrical loss in end core, full copper shield is mounted on the press ring; the side core is in the shape of cascade to increase the air gap between core internal circle and rotor; small slots are punched on the teeth. There are a lot of leakage fluxes at the end of rotor winding, and, during operation of generator a lot of fluxes will be produced by stator winding on core end, which mainly enter the end stator core from the vertical direction, thus inducing vortex perpendicular to axis and causing overheating at core end. When the generator is operating under underexcitation condtions, the stator core will produce more leakage fluxes, causing more severe overheating at the core end. To minimize the overheating caused by end leakage fluxes at press ring and side core as well as the additional electrical loss in end core, Dongfang has adopted the following measures: a. Core end is designed into the shape of cascade Both ends of core hole are gradually expanded to prevent excessive rotor leakage flux from gathering at the stator core end, and in addition, part of the leakage fluxes may be
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changed to radial flux perpendicular to the stator axis line, thereby reducing the loss and minimizing overheating at end. b.Non-magnetic retaining ring is used at the rotor winding end Through the de-excitation function of exciter winding winding, the magnetic resistance is increased and thus the impact of rotor end leakage flux on stator core is minimized. c. A copper guard plate is used on the surface of core end, which is the so called shield ring. The use of shield is intended to prevent most of the end axial leakage fluxes from crossing core. As the core end is made into the shape of cascade, the leakage flux at the press ring will be increased. By using the leakage flux, a lot of vortices are produced in the cooper guard plate, the direction of which will prevent the leakage fluxes from crossing. Comparted with the ductile cast iron used for core end sheets, copper has only a resistivity of about 1/5. According to the magnetic penetration depth lay, the loss will be reduced by about 1/2, and that the thermal conductivity of copper is five times that of ductile cast iron, overheating will not occur on copper guard plate. d. Material with high electrical resistivity and low magnetic conductivity is used for core end press ring and core end plate (press ring) This material increases the magnetic resistance between copper guard plate and core, preventing leakage flux from penetrating core; while the high electrical resistivity reduces the vortex at this location, therefore this part will also not be overheated. e. Opening slot on sector at core end As a slot is opened at teeth of sector at core end, the vortex flow area is reduced by about 1/2, the vortex loss is reduced by about 3/4. f. Cooling of end is highlighted in cooling air system. 4). Stator winding The end structure of stator winding is as shown in Figure 1-13, which is coils formed at end by insulating rods embedded in core slot. The winding end is in basket structure and the fixed phase belt is connected by lead circile. Continuous Class F epoxy mica insulatin system is used, the surface of which is provided with corona treatment measure. Axially it can move freely along the support slide pin, minimizing the stress caused in stator winding and support system due to load or operating condition change, meeting the requirement for unit in peak regulation operation.

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Figure 1-13 Generator stator end structure Slide pinSlide blockCopper supportInsulating supportBushingbolt pin Under the operation with load, the stator will produce self induced vortex loss. To minimize such loss, the stator bar is taken in the form of Roebel. The so called replacement is such: when weaving the bars, each bar along the axial length is placed at different heitghs in the slot. So the leakage reactance of each bar is equal to make the current in each conductor even, minimizing the circular current and supplementary loss in linear and end latitudinal leakage flux in each strand of conductors. The stator bar is made of rectangular hollow and rigid strands. The stator winding is cooled by water in the hollow strands. All the strands of stator bar end are welded to the connectors. Through the copper bands the two bars are welded to form electrical connection, structuring a turn of coil; while the cooling water in the hollow strands is connected to the collection header close to the slide ring end through the water connector loop, and then through the insulating inlet pipe to the coil. At collector ring end of generator an inlet water header is provided; an outlet header is provided at end of turbine. The flow channel of cooling water is unidirectional, i.e., from the collector ring end to turbine end. The collection header is directly earthed to the ground, and the connection from coil to collection header is made by means of individual enhanced insulating tube, the design of which may withstand the operation voltage of generator and thus the coil to earth insulation is ensured. However, in this design, the measurement of coil insulation is inconvenient.

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Figure 1-14 Fixation of stator bar 1-Slot bottom packing 2-Main insulation 3-Rigid wire 4-Inter-layer packing 5-Semiconductor elastic corrugated plate 6-Hollow wire7-Transmission bar8-Slide wedge9-Cone wedge pin The fixation of generator stator bar in slot is shown in Figure1-14: the side is provided with semiconductor elastic corrugated plate, and radially it is fixed in a combined way using oblique slot wedge. The stator winding end is provided with a special support system, which is fastened by gummed insulated rope on the end fixture consisting of glass fiber reinforced plastic support and retaining ring and then baked for solidification after binding. The eitire end is rigidly fixed at radial and circumferential directions. It is ensured that the end has an inherent frequency far from the frequency multiplication to avoid resonance during operation. Axially it can move along the support slide pin freely according to the change of load or operating condition, as such the reliability of unit operation is improved and the requirement for peak regulation is met. 5). Generator outgoing terminal The outgoing terminals of various phases and neutral point are lead out of the base through the terminal enclosure at lower collector ring end base. Sealing cushion is provided between the terminal enclosure and the stator external base to maintain tightness. The terminal enclosure plate is made of non-magnetic material to minimize the vortex loss due to stator current. Drainage holes are opened under the terminal enclosure plate to prevent gathering of oil or water around the lead.

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Figure 1-15 Generator stator terminal and hydrogen cooling loop Inlet air;Outlet airCircular air duct; Terminal enclosure; CT; Porcelain bushing The stator terminal and hydrogen cooling loop are shown in Figure 1-15. The stator terminals are lead out of the casing through high voltage insulating bushing, which is made of integrated porcelain and copper conductor rod. The conductor is coated with silver at both ends. The transition lead and terminal bushing are internally cooled with hydrogen. CT is mounted on the bushing for measurement and protection purposes. The hydrogen enters from the inlet on top of copper conductor rod to the inside tube of conductor rod, turning to the circular space of the double layer copper tube. Then it is discharged to the transition lead through a special joint on the top, and through the hollow magnetic bushing fixing the transition lead to the interlayer air duct of terminal enclosure, finally to the low air pressure area between the internal and external end caps. 6). Temperature measuring elements and terminal board RTD: RTD is arranged at the hottest point of each phase of the stator winding to measure the temperature of winding. While the temperature of bar is measured by the RTD arranged between upper and lower bars in each slot. The temperature of core is measured by thermocoupling. In addition, RTD is arranged in the inlet area of cooler to measure the inlet and outlet air temperature of cooler. All the thermometers in the generator are lead out through the terminal board at the lower base. Thermocoupling: as the temperature of stator end parts will be very high when the generator is operating under underexcitation, so thermocouplings are arranged at these parts to measure temperature. At the stator press ring, copper shield and core side teeth as well as yoke, the thermocouplings mounted are konstantan thermocouplings, the sensor part of which is welded at the location of measuring point. The outlet water temperature of stator winding is measured using the thermocoupling arranged at the outlet water joint. The temperature of pad is measured with the thermocoupling arranged under the tungsten. The gap between strands of thermocoupling and protection sleeve is packed with porcelain materials to isolate the strands from external air and protect the thermocoupling from being corroded in air and under high temperature. The leads of thermocoupling (glass fiber covered
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1.2.4 1.2.4.1

1.2.4.2

1.2.4.3

strands) are lead to the terminal board of temperature measuring terminal box. Rotor Rotor proper The generator rotor is made of an integrated alloy steel forged part, on the proper of which a number of longitudinal slots are made in radial direction for installation of rotor windings as well as for purpose of magnetic circuits. The rotor windings in the slots are fixed with aluminum alloy and steel slot wedges to combat the centrifugal force. The application of both magnetic and non-magnetic slot wedges may ensure the reasonable distribution of fluxes. These slot wedges are made into the dove tail slots at the rotor notches. Latitudinal slots (crescents) are made on the rotor large teeth to equalize the rigidity of in large and small teeth direction and thus avoid frequency multiplication vibration due to significant difference between them. Rotor winding The rotor windings are made of high strength silver contained copper wires, which are resistant to creep deformation and thus improve the capability of generator in peak regulation.To avoid that the rotor winding end is damaged due to centrifugal force, the notches are fixed with aluminum alloy and steel slot wedges after the rotor winding is placed into the slots to combat the centrifugal force caused by rotation of rotor at high speed. The application of both magnetic and non-magnetic slot wedges may ensure the reasonable distribution of fluxes. The retaining ring made of high strength and non-magnetic alloy steel forged part is used, fixed to both ends of rotor proper by shrinkage fit in the form of suspended flush mounting, with one end in coordination with rotor proper by shrinkage fit and the other end in form of suspension. Moulded insulating rings are used between rotor winding and retaining ring. To separate and support the end coil and limit their relative displacement due to temperature difference and centrifugal force, moulded epoxy glass glass cloth insulating blocks are arranged for end winding spacer block. The rotor slot linings are made of compounded insulating material containing mica and glass fiber, with good insulating and mechanical performance. The internal surface of lining and end retaining ring insulation is applied with dry slide agent with low friction factor, which enables that the rotor copper wire may move along the axis in case of expansion and shrinkage due to thermal conditions caused by change of load and operating condition, such as the requirement for peak regulation is met. Rotor lead and collector ring Through the rotor lead, collector ring and brush, the excitation current required for rated output and force excitation of generator may be provided. The rotor current through the brush is fed to the collector ring fixed at the rotor external end by shrinkage fit, then through the radial and axial conductor rods connected with the collector ring to the rotor winding. The conductor rods are made of copper alloy with high strength and high conductivity. Sealing structures are provided between the conductor rods and the rotor shaft to prevent leakage of hydrogen. The collector rings are made of alloy steel resistant to wear. They are a pair of steel rings withg rooves, which are made onto the rotor shaft by shrinkage fit after insulating treatment. Insulating sleeves are provided bwteen the collector rings and shaft. Radial and axial ventilation holes are provided on the collector rings. The spiral slots on the surface may improve the contract between brush and collector rings, making the current distributed evenly between the brushes. A co-axial centrifugal fan is provided between the two collector rings to cool the collector rings and brushes.
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1.2.4.4

Retaining ring, center ring and damping ring During rotation of rotor, the rotor winding end is subject to a great centrifugal force. To prevent the damage of the end, retaining rings made of non-magnetic and high strength alloy steel (Mn18Cr18) forged part are used for protection. The retaining rings are mounted at both ends of the rotor proper. One end is fixed by means of shrinkage fit to the proper end and the other to the suspended center ring. Moulded insulating rings are used between rotor winding and retaining ring. To separate and support the end coil and limit their relative displacement due to temperature difference and centrifugal force, moulded epoxy glass glass cloth insulating blocks are arranged for end winding spacer block. The center rings are functioning to align the retaining rings with the shaft. When the rotor is rotating, the deflexion of shaft will not cause the retaining rings subject to alternating stress and thus damaged. The center rings may also prevent the axial displacement of rotor winding end. To minimize the heating of rotor due to negative sequence current caused by unbalanced loads, and improve the capacbility of generator to withstand unbalanced load (negative sequence current and asynchronous operation), semi-damping windings are uaed. Damping windings are provided at both ends of rotor proper (under the retaining rings), the structure of which is shown in Figure 1-16. In this semi-damping design, damping rings made of copper sheets in the shape of comb teeth are mounted only at both ends of rotor, the teeth of which extend into each slot and the slot wedge of damping slot on large teeth, pressed by slot wedges. The damping current circuit is a damping system consisting of retaining ring, slot wedge and damping copper band.

Figure 1-16 Generator rotor damping winding 1.2.4.5 Carbon brush Carbon brush is a key part to service the excitation current to rotor winding rotating at highs peed. To ensure that the brushes may be replaced in a safe and fast way during operation of generator, the box structure is used. As such, a group of brushes (4) can be replaced at a time. The brushes fed with rotor excitation current are made of natural graphite materials by bonding. The brushes have low friction factor and self lubrication function. Each brush has two flexible copper leads (pigtails). They are axially mounted on the brush box using constant pressure springs, which enables that the springs need not to be adjusted before the brushes reach their extreme wear limit in length. The pressure of spring is applied on the center line of brushes. The springs are spiral with constant pressure. The brush holders are separated into combined halves, consisting of conductor ring, brush base and air enclosure. The holders are insulated to the earth, with a detailed structure as shown in Figure 1-17.

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Figure 1-17 Generator excitation carbon brush structure SpringPigtailBrushInsulated handle Replacement of brush: in normal operating conditions, the wear of brush will be 10-15mm for every 1,000 hours. When the length of brushes reach their wear limit, the leads will be almost fully stretched. Therefore, a wear limit is marked on the brush. A brush can not be used any more and needs to be replaced if this limit is exceeded. Ventilation system Hydrogen is used as the main cooling medium for generator, which is operating in the mode of radial multiple flow sealed circulating ventilation system. A separate water cooling system is used for the stator winding. While the hydrogen cooling system, including the fans and hydrogen coolers, is entirely placed in the generator. Stator ventilation system The stator core is divided into 13 air sections along the axial direction, 6 air inlet sections and 7 air outlet sections in alternative arrangement. The two axial flow fans mounted on the rotor (one at turbine side and one at excitation side) respectively blows air into the air gap and core back. The air flow into the back along the core radial air duct cools and inlet air section core and enters the air gap; littile air enters the rotor slot air duct, cooling the rotor winding; most of the remaining air returns to the core, cooling the core at air outlet section and then to the cooler through the base air duct; the hydrogen cooled by the cooler flows to the fans for recirculation. Such alternating radial multiple flow ventilation ensures that the core and windings are evenly cooled and thermal stress and local overheating of members are reduced. To prevent short circuit of air course, air gap spacer rings are often mounted on the stator core between cold and hot air in the air gap between stator and rotor, thus preventing the hot air exhausted by rotor from entering rotor again.

1.2.5

1.2.5.1

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Figure 1-18 Generator ventilation system 1.2.5.2 Rotor ventilation system

Figure 1-19 Rotor ventilation and cooling mode Rotor rotating direction Cooling gas Sub-slot The ventilation and cooling mode of rotor is shown in Figure1-19, for which the following two situations are available: a.The cooling of conductor at proper section of rotor is by means of air gap intake system : two rows of oblique holes in different direction to the slot bottom are made on the rotor bar, as such, a number of parallel flow ducts are formed along the axial direction of rotor proper. Through these ducts, the hydrogen for cooling alternatively flows in and out the air scoop at rotor winding air inlet, which is forced to pass the ducts to the bottom the conductor slot at the same speed as the rotor, then turning to the other side and flowing out of the conductor through duct. The cold air from each of the air inlet is separated into to ducts and flows into the conductor in two directions. In this way, there are two air outlet ducts collecting at the air outlet and flowing into the air gap. So, each duct viewed from the angle parallel to the longitudinal section of bar takes the shape of V, while the projection perpendicular to the cross section of bar is in the shape of U.
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1.2.5.3

b.As oblique flow sections at any number can be axially arranged, the structural design of this rotor winding is irrelevant to length of rotor and thus is very flexible. The generator supplied by HITACHI has 13 air sections (6 inlet and 7 outlet), each having 8 ducts with a total of 81 ducts. Number of holes for hydrogen cooling of rotor: there are 48 holes in one slot of inlet air section and there are 32 slots, so the number of holes is 3248=1536; there are 56 holes in one slot of air outlet section and there are 32 slots, so the number of holes is 3256=1792; there are 4 holes in each section for cooling of end, so the number of holes at both ends is 8. The high temperature air outlet sections and low temperature ait inlet sections are arranged alternatively along the length of rotor. At the same time, the inlet and outlet sections of stator match the inlet section of the rotor, and static air dampers are used to limit the recirculation of hot air in the rotor. Additionally, the flow from stator into the air gap is larger than that into the rotor, which further reduces the recirculation of hot air in rotor. Therefore, the copper wire temperature of rotor is quite even. For the windings at both ends of the rotor, the parts that can not be cooled through the above way, the cooling air is forced by the fan into the axial duct under the retaining ring (the 7th inlet section) and then from the proper end to air gap through radial duct. Hydrogen cooler To minimize the air resistance of hydrogen cooling generator and shorten the air duct, the hydrogen coolers are mounted in rectangular blocks inside the base. The coolers are divided into four groups, respectively arranged at the four corners of the generator base. The sealing cushion structure between the cooler and base may seal the hydrogen and compensate when the cooler is shrinking or expanding due to change of temperature, thus always taking an effective role in sealing. The water tank structure of the hydrogen cooler ensures that then the generator is charged with hydrogen, the water tank can be opened to clean the cooling water pipe. When the cooling water pipes are disconnected from the external water pipes, the hydrogen coolers may be extracted out of the generator.

1.3 Normal operation 1.2.6 Rated condition Rated output 600MW Maximum contionus output 640MW Maximum permissible capacitive loading at full load 208MVAR Maximum capacitive loading for stability at rated voltage &zero power factor 300MVAR Rated power factor 0.85 Rated stator voltage 22KV Rated staor current 18525A Rated speed 3000r/min Rated frequency 50Hz Number of phases 3 Insulation class F(temp.limited in B class) Cooling mode H2O-H2-H2 Rated H2 pressure 0.45Mpa(g) Excitation type Static Thyristor Excitation Short circuit ratio 0.5 Efficiency 98.8%
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1.2.7 1.2.7.1

The allowable output of generator under long time operation is mainly limited by the allowable heating condition of the unit. When the generator is operating under load, there are energy losses at the windings and the core, causing emission of heat at various parts. When operating under certain cooling conditions, the temperature rise and loss of various parts of generator are related to the heat generated. The large the load current of generator is, the large the loss is, the more heat is produced and the higher the temperature rise is. The rated capacity of steam turbine generator is determined by long term allowable heating temperature range of stator windings, rotor windings and stator core under certain cooling medium temperature and hydrogen pressure. The long term operating heating temperature of windings and core of generator is related to the insulation class. The 600MW steam turbines of Dongfang are provided with F/F class insulation (temp.limited in B class), limit of temperature as follows: Stator winding 120C Stator winding outlet water 90C Stator core 120C Field winding 115C Structure part of stator end 120C Collector ring 120C Bearing 90C Bearing outlet oil &sealing outlet oil 70C The insulation of generator is subject to gradual aging in operation. Temperature has significant impact on insulation, the higher the temperature is and the longer it lasts, the faster the aging process will be, and the shorter the service life will be.Therefore, the operation of generator must be in compliance with the regulations of manufacturers. The maximum temperature of various parts must not exceed their allowable limits to ensure the normal service life of generator. Operation under non-rated conditions Change of cooling conditions a. Hydrogen Great impact will be caused on output when the temperature and pressure of hydrogen change. When the inlet water temperature of cooler is higher than the specified value by manufacturer, the output of generator shall be reduced based on the following principle: make sure that the temperature of windings and core does not exceed the maximum monitoring temperature under rated operation mode. However, the inlet water temperature of hydrogen cooler shall be maintained under 43C. When the cooled end hydrogen temperature is reduced, the output may not be increased as the stator windings are internally cooled by water. The temperature limits of hydrogen and its cooling water are as follows: Cold hydrogen temperature: 46C Hot hydrogen temperature: 68C Hydrogen cooler inlet water temperature: 20~38C Hydrogen cooler outlet water temperature: 45C When the pressure of hydrogen is lower than the rated value, as the thermal transmission capability of hydrogen is weakened, the allowable load of generator must by reduced in accordance with the capacity curve provided by the manufacturer. When the purity of hydrogen changes, as the mixture of hydrogen with air with a hydrogen content at 4%~75% is possible to explode, so it is usually required that the purity of hydrogen
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1.2.7.2

1.2.7.3

be maintained above 95% when the generator is operating. Hydrogen with purity below this value shall be purified. In addition, as the purity of hydrogen is closely related to the centilation friction loss (purity of hydrogen reduced by 1%, the ventilation friction loss increased by 11%), so purity low warning signals are to be given when the purity drops below 90% to ensure that the purity maintains no lower than 97%~98% during operation. A generator is installed with four hydrogen coolers. When one cooler is out of operation, the maximum continuous operating capacity of generator will be 80% of the rated value. When 1/10 of the cooling water pipes are clogged, the generator may continuously operate under 2/3 of the rated output. b.Stator cooling water When the amount of cooling water changes within the range of 10% of rated value, the impact on temperature of stator winding is not great, as such the flow of cooling water needs not to be increased. However, when the amount of cooling water drops significantly, the winding outlet water temperature will be increased and the temperature rise of winding will be uneven. But the water temperature can not be too low to prevent excessive temperature difference between stator winding and core, causing relative displacement between them increased or resulting in dew on collection header. The temperature of cooling water is allowed to change within the range of 5C of rated value, when the output of generator can be maintained. In addition, the conductance of cooling water can not be too high as it may cause flashover on the internal wall of water pipe; and low conductance may may be more sustainable when the circulation of cooling water stops. Parameter limits of stator cooling water are as follows: Stator winding inlet water temperature: 40~50C Stator winding outlet water temperature: 85C Water amount: 92t/h Conductivity: 0.5~1.5s/cm c.Allowable water break time of stator winding: In case of water break incident for stator winding, the generator may operate 30S with rated load; if after 30S the standby stator cooling water pump may not be put into operation, the generator should be disconnected and reduce the generator terminal voltage to 0. Change of frequency a. When the operation frequency is much higher than the rated value, the speed of generator and the centrifugal force on the rotor are increased, which may cause the damage of parts on the rotor. At the same time, high frequency and speed will cause higher ventilation friction loss, though the flux and core loss may be lower, the total generator efficiency is reduced. b.When the operation frequency is lower than the rated value, the speed of generator is reduced, when the amount of forced air of the fans at both ends is decreased, resulting worse cooling conditions for the generator and thus the temperature rise of various parts going up. In this case, to maintain the rated voltage, the flux has to be increased, causing increase of leakage flux and subsequent local overheating. The blades of turbine may also be damaged and the auxiliary motors may also have to reduce output due to the decrease in frequency. Change of terminal voltage a.The lower limit for operation voltage of generator, according to the requirement for stability, shall in generall not be lower than 90% of the rated value. As the low voltage will aggravate the operating conditions and auxiliary motors with decreased torque, thus
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affecting the normal operation of boiler and turbine. b.If the operation voltage of generator is higher than the rated value, when it rises by 105%, the output of generator has to be reduced as the flux density in core and core loss will be increased, causing temperature rise of corem stator and rotor windings. Under the rated power factor, the generator of Dongfang may operate safely and continuously with full load in the following three cases: a). Change of voltage within 5% b). Change of frequency within -5%~+3% c). The absolute value of sum of change range of terminal voltage and change range of frequency is 5% Active power regulation and static stability 1)Regulation of active power The electromagnetic power of non salient pole generatoris: Pe = m

1.2.8

EqU Xd

sin

Wherein m is the number of phase of stator, Eq is the excitation potential, U is the terminal voltage, is the angle between q and . If represented by per unit value, Pe =

EqU Xd

sin

When the generator does not deliver active power, the power fed in by the prime mover happens to compensate the losses, so =0, Pem=0. When the prime mover increases power by P1, i.e, the torque is increased by T1, when T1>Tp(loss torque, including mechnical loss, core loss and supplementary loss), there will be residual torque to accelerate the rotor, and correspondingly the potential phasor 0 leads terminal voltage phasor at a phase angle, >0 and Pem>0, the generator starts to deliver active current, with concurrence of braking electromagnetic torque Tem corresponding to Pem, when is increased to a certain value and the electromagnetic torque is equal to residual torque (T1-Tp), the rotor of generator will be no longer accelerated and balance is established at the value of . The above analysis shows that when the output power of generator is to be increased, the input power of prime mover has to be increased. While along with the increase of output power, the power angle of will be certainly increased when excitation is not regulated. 2). Static stability In case of accidental disturbance of grid or prime mover, the generator may restore to synchronous operation when the disturbance disappears, the generator is termed to be statically steady.

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Figure1-20 Turbine generator power angle characteristics The power angle characteristics curve of generator is shown in Figure 1-20. The generator may deliver a maximum power of Pmax =

E qU Xd

to the system. As the condition to judge

whether the generator is at steady operation is:

dP > 0 , so, when of the generator is within d

the range of 0~90, the operation is steady; if in the range of 90~180, the operation is not steady. But in practice to improve the reliability of power supply, the rated operation point of generator should be maintained at a certain distance from the limit of stability, rendering the limit power larger by certain times than the rated power, the power angle of for normal operation is 30~45. 1.2.9 Safe operation limit 1)Safe operation limit Under steady operation conditions, the safe operation limit of generator is dependent on the following four conditions: a. Output power limit of prime mover b.Rated capacity of generator, i.e., the safe operation limit determined by heating of stator windings and core. Under a given voltage, the allowable value for stator current is determined. c.The maximum excitation current of generator, usually determined by the heating of rotor. d.Stability of leading phase operation. When the power factor of generator is smaller than 0 (current leading voltage), the generator turns to leading phase operation, the active power output of magnetic potential generator is limited by the conditions for static stability. In addition, the internally cooled generator may be limited by the end heating. The above conditions determine the allowable operating range of generator. 2). Generator P-Q curve For a generator operating in the power system, under certain voltage and current, the reactive power of such generator will increase and the active power will decrease as the power factor decreses; as the power factor increases, the reactive power needs to be decreased and the active power needs to be increased so that the output capacity will not exceed the allowable value. The P-Q curve of generator shows the relation of allowable active power P and reactive power Q under various power factors, which is also called safe operation limit of generator.

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Figure 1-21 Steam turbine generator P-Q curve Actual stability limit;Prime mover output limit; Stator heating limit;Rotor heating limit P-Q curve of generator is drawn when the generator terminal voltage, cooling medium temperature are certain under various hydrogen pressure conditions. The voltage, electromotive force and power are all indicated in per unit value. The basic steps in drawing include: a.Take Point O as the center and take stator rated current of IN as the radius, draw the arc. b.On left of Point O of horizontal axis, take a segment OM equal to

UN , which Xd

approximates to the short circuit ratio KC of the generator, in direct proportion to the no-load excitation current. c.Take Point M as the center, take

Eq as the radius (segment MC in Figure1-21, which Xd

is in direct proportion to the rated excitation current) to draw the arc. d.Draw a horizontal line HBG with the rated power of turbine parallet to the x-coordinate, representing the prime mover output limit. e.Draw a line MH from Point M perpendicular to the x-coordinate, with a corresponding =90, representing the theoretically static stability limit. Considering that the generator may possibly be subject to overload, proper leeway shall be reserved for the actual static stability limit so that the generator may withstand sudden overload without changing the excitation current. (BF curve in the above figure) The area enclosed by the above curves or segments (Area DCGBFD) is called the safe operation range or safe operation area of the steam turbine generator. The operation point of generator is in the area or on the boarder, when long term safe and steady operation of generator can be maintained.

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Figure 1-22 Generator P-Q diagram 1.2.10 Reactive power regulation When the generator is in parallel connection with system with infinite capacity, if the active power output remains unchanged, the reactive power can be regulated by adjustment of excitation current. 1)No load characteristics When adjusting the excitation current, the electromotive force of generator will change accordingly as per its no load characteristics. When measuring the no load characteristic curve, as the remanence in rotor magnetic circuit varies, two different curves, one asending and one descending, will be obtained if the excitation current If changed from 0 to a maximum value and changed from such value to 0. The magnetic hysteresis is reflected in magnet material. Es1 and Es2 in the diagram represent Figure 1-23 No load characteristics under the remanence potentials when If=0 under two situations. difference remanence The no load characteristics may be drawn on basis of
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actual value or per unit value (take rated voltage UN as the base value for potential and excitation current If0 for the base value of excitation current). 2). Short circuit characteristics

Figure 1-24 Analysis of synchronous generator steady state short circuit No load characteristics; Short circuit characteristics Short circuit characteristics is the relation between short circuit current Ik and If in case of generator three phase steady state short circuit. The above diagram is the vector diagram of the generator in case of short circuit. In this case U=0, the factor limiting the short circuit current is just the internal impedance in the generator. The armature resistance of synchronous generator is far smaller than the synchronous reactance and the short circuit current can be considered as purely inductive, i.e.,90. So the armature magnetic potential at this time is basically a direct axis magnetic potential with pure function of de-excitation, i.e., Fa=Fad, the various magnetic potential vectors are one a line, with the resultant magnetic potential ' = - ' . The resultant potential E of air gap can be

F F f Fad IX

acquired using the no load characteristics. As U=0, so & + & +j & j & & =U

IRa

IX

It can be seen from the above equation that the short circuit resultant potential is only equal to leakage reactance voltage drop, the corresponding air gap resultant flux is very small and the magnetic circuit of the generator is not satured, equivalent to Point C in the above diagram. As such, the resultant magnetic potential ' I. So, the excitation magnetic potential

F f is in direction proportion to I. As such, the short circuit characteristics is a line.


3) Short circuit ratio Short circuit is data frequently used in design of synchronous generator. Originally short circuit means the ratio of short circuit current to rated current in case of three phase steady state short circuit under excitation current corresponding to no load rated voltage. As the short circuit characteristics is a line, thie definition is converted to the ratio of excitation
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required for generation of no load rated voltage and rated short circuit current.

Kc =
Unsaturated

I k 0 I f 0(U =UN) 1 = = k * I N I fk(Ik=In) X d (

The above equation shows that the short circuit ratio is the inverse of direct axis synchronous reactance unsaturated value represented by per unit value multiplied by saturation factor k under no load rated voltage (usually k=1.1~1.25). The value of short circuit has great impact on generator. If the short circuit ratio is small, when the load changes the voltage of generator is significant and the stability of generator in parallel operation is poor, though the cost of generator is low; the short circuit ratio may be increased by increasing the air gap and thus decreasing Xd, the performance of generator is improved with higher cost, as more copper is required for excitation magnetic potential and rotor. In general, along with the increment of single unit capacity, the required value of short circuit is reduced to improve the utilization rate of material.

Figure1-25 Generator short circuit current and no load characteristics curve 4). Synchronous generator external characteristics

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Figure 1-26 External characteristics of generator under different power factors Lagging; Leading The external characteristics shows the relation curve of terminal voltage U and load current I under the conditions of n=nN, If= constant and COS=constant. In case of inductive load and pure resistance load, the external characteristics is descending and in case of capacitive load, it is ascending. It is clear that in order to make sure U=UN when I=IN under all power factors, a higher excitation current needs to be provided under inductive load, maing the generator operating under overexcitation state; while under the capacitive load, a smaller excitation can be provided when the generator is operating under underexcitation state. 5). V curve When the generator is under inductive load, the armature reaction shall have the nature of de-excitation. At this time, to maintain the terminal voltage of the generator, the excitation current must be increased. Therefore, the change of reactive power must depend on the regulation of excitation current. Below we will study then change of stator current when regulating excitation current under given output power P.

Figure 1-27 Phasor Diagram of Synchronous Generator a. As the E01 is rather high, the stator current outputs reactive power to the system for its lagging to the terminal voltage, and at this time the magnetizing current is relatively large and called as over excitation state for its large current. b. With the decrease of the magnetizing current, the E0 is decreased , the power angle and factor COS are raised, and the stator current of the generator is decreased as well with
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the reduction of the reactive power. As the exicitation potential is dropped to E02, the COS equals to 1 and the staotor current is up to minimum, such conditions are called as normal exciation. c. With conditinous decrease of the magnetizing current, the stator current bcomes more excessive than the terminal voltage, and so the generator begins to take the reactive power from the system at an underexcitation state. d. if further decrease of the mangeitzing current is performed, the potential E0 will reduce much more, and the power angle and factor COS will go on increasing as well. Limit for the stable operation of the genearo will reach in case of =90

Figure 1-28 Synchronous generator V curve Unsteady area; Leading; Lagging; Constant; Underexcitation; Normal; :Overexcitation We will use a test, maintaining the grid voltage and generator output active power unchanged, to change the excitation current If and measure the corresponding stator current I, thus obtaining the relation curve between the two: I=f(If). As this curve takes the shape of V, it is called V curve of synchronous generator. For each active power value a V curve can be drawn, the higher the power value is, the higher the curve moves. The lowest point of each curve represents COS=1. Connect the lowest points of the various curves, a COS=1 curve is obtained, on right side of which the generator is under overexcitation while on the left side the generator is under underexcitation. There is an unsteady area at left of the V curve (corresponding to >90).

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Figure 1-29 Generator V curve 1.2.11 Normal operation and monitor 1). Rated operation mode During normal operation, the generator shall be operating according to the data shown on the nameplate (rated operation mode) or operating continuously for long term within the capacity limit curve (P-Q curve). As the long term operation output of generator is mainly affected by the heating of unit, so the parameters such as active power, reactive power, stator current, stator voltage, hydrogen pressure, purity, cold hydrogen and hot hydrogen temperature, stator winding temperature,
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1.3 1.3.1

core temperature, stator inlet and outlet water temperature and rotor winding temperature. 2). Speed with load Operation of generator within the capacity curve with any load is allowable, the load change rate of which shall in principle follow the turbine load curve. 3). Allowable scope of change for voltage and frequency Under rated load, the allowable scope of change for voltage and frequency of generator is as described before. 4). Generator shaft center elevation change As the generator and turbine are connected with rigid coupler, so the shafts must be aligned. During operation, if the centers are misaligned, the connection stress will be increased, the load distribution of bearing will be unreasonable and there will be more vibration, causing mechanical accident. The change of generator shaft elevation is a function of support part temperature, while the temperature is directly following the change of cooling hydrogen temperature. So, during the normal operation of generator, the cooling hydrogen temperature shall be maintained to the extent possible. Abnormal operation Capability of overload When the generator system has trouble, avoid the static stability of the grid being destroyed, over load operation of stator and over voltage operation of rotor in short time is allowed, but hydrogen parameter, cooling water parameter in stator winding and stator voltage should be at rated value. This operation condition can occur for not more than two times each year, and time interval can not be less than 30 minutes, detailed regulations are listed in the following tables:

Time(second) Stator current / rated stator current (%)

10 226

30 154

60 130

120 116

Time(second) Rotor voltage/rated rotor voltage (%) 1.3.2

10 208

30 146

60 125

120 112

Asymmetric operation 1). Asymmetric operation Asymmetric operation of generator is abnormal condition. It means an operating state when the three phase symmetric state of electrical components forming the power system is destroyed, such as three phase impedance asymmetry and three phase load asymmetry. While incomplete phase operation is a special condition of asymmetric operation, in which case the transmission line, transformer or other electrical equipment has one or two phases open. The degree of asymmetry is usually represented by the proportion of negative sequence I2 to rated current IN. 2). Hazard of negative sequence current on generator When the generator is in asymmetric operation, there is negative sequence current in the
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stator winding of generator in addition to the positive sequence current. Positive sequence current is produced by generator potential, which maintains a synchronous speed with the rotor in same direction. For purpose of rotor, it is static and at this time the heating of rotor is determined by the excitation current only. When negative sequence current appears, in addition to superimposition with positive sequence current which may make the winding phase current exceed the rated value, it will further cause additional heating of rotor and mechanical vibration. When negative sequence current flows in the stator three phase winding, the negative sequence magnetic field created will rotate in reverse direction to the rotor at synchronous speed, inducing current at double frequency in the excitation winding, damping winding and rotor proper and thus causing additional heating. Due to the skinning effect, these currents mainly flow in the thin surface, forming circular current along the circle at the rotor end. These currents flow the wedge and teeth of the rotor as well as a number of contact surfaces with the collars. These parts have high resistance and the heating is particularly significant. In additional to the above heating, the negative magnetic field produced by the negative sequence current will cause impulse torque at double frequency on the rotor, causing generator to emit vibration at 100Hz with noise and torsional oscillation on the shaft system.The steam turbine generator, as the rotor is non-salient, the windind is arranged in the slots with poor emission conditions, so the additional heating produced by the negative sequence current is often the main condition restricting the asymmetric operation. 3). Capability of unbalanced loading For generator s normal operation, stator three-phase current should be equal; the generator should not be operated at any loads above nominal rating in normal operation mode. When three-phase currents are unbalanced, the negative phase sequence current (I2) can not exceed 10% of rating current (IN) in steady condition, and any one phase current shall not exceed the rating value. When non symmetrical fault occurs, the phase current will deviate from the ideal relationship of balanced load, and a negative phase sequence armature current is imposed on the generator, excessive unbalanced loading results in extra losses and temperature rise. The extra losses appear primarily on the surface of rotor. The permissible unbalanced load limits (I2, I22 t) are stated as follows (See Figure 1-30) I2/IN 8% (I2/IN)2t 8 seconds

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Figure 1-30 Unblanced fault capacity Steam turbine generator asymmetric load allowable range is determined by the three conditions: a. The current of the phase with most load shall not exceed the rated current of the generator; b. The temperature of any point on the rotor shall not exceed the allowable temperature of rotor insulating material class and metallic material. c.The mechanical vibration in case of asymmetric operation shall not exceed the allowable range. The first condition considers that the heating of stator winding shall not exceed the allowable value, and the second and third conditions are intended for the hazards of negative sequence current in asymmetric operation. The asymmetric operation capability of generator is also termed negative sequence capability, which is usually represented by two technical parameters: a. Steady negative sequence capability for allowable long time operation, represented ; by allowable maximum negative sequence current per unit value

I 2 =

I2 IN

b.Transient negative sequence capability for allowable short time operation, represented by allowable short time 2 , meaning the maximum negative sequence heating for short

I 2 t

time. The negative sequence capability of generator: steady I2( per unit value) 8%, transient 2 8s.

I 2 t

1.3.3

When the unbalanced negative sequence current of generator exceeds the allowable value, the unbalance current shall be minimized to the allowable value; if the allowable time for unbalanced current is reached, the generator shall be disconnected immediately. Operation on loss of excitation If the generator loses its excitation, it will function as an induction generator. In the case of that

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the field winding is short circuited or closed by discharge resistance, taking the following factors into consideration: a).The particular overheating and the cooling condition on the rotor surface. b).The overheating and cooling condition of stator end portion. After the generator loses excitation, it can still operate for 15 minutes with 40% of load , which is shown in Figure 1-31 However, if excitation circuit is open, an excessive high over voltage will be induced in the field winding due to the induction and endanger the field winding insulation.

1.3.4

Figure 1-31 Operation on loss of excitation Operating at leading power factor Allowable scope of generator s leading phase operation is mainly limited by static stabilization of generator and heat of the stator core. The generator can be steadily operated at rating active power with the leading power factor (0.95). The Generator Curve in Figure1-32 Shows the details.

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Figure 1-32 Generator capability curve 1.3.5 Operation in air The generator is allowed to operate for a short time only during installation, adjustment and test run for dynamic mechnical inspection. The prerequisite conditions for operation in air are as follows: 1). No excitation current. 2). The air in the generator must be dry with a relative humidity <50% and the pressure in the range of 3000~6000Pa (gauge pressure), and the cooling air wind at 20~38C.
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1.3.6

3). Hydrogen cooler fed with cooling water. 4). Stator windingd fed with cooling water. 5). The oil supply for sealing oil is ensured. 6). The hydrogen analyzer and pressure differential gauge are cut and hydrogen supply pipe is cut. Torsion stability In case of short circuit fault, asynchronous closure or other disturbance in the power system, impact electromagnetic torque will be caused to the generator unit, resulting in torsion of unit shaft system and service life loss due to fatigue of shaft. 1). Concept of torsional oscillation A torsional torque is applied on the shaft, when the torque disappears, due to the elastic effect of shaft, the torsional angle of the shaft is changed from positive to 0, the torsional potential energy changed to kinetic energy. Due to the existence of moment of inertia, the value of will change to the negative direction, when the kinetic energy is again changed to potential energy, with the entire shaft section having reverse deformation.The value of is chaning repeatedly between positive and negative and the shaft section has repeated torsions, this is called torsional oscillation of shaft. The frequency of torsional oscillation is determined by geometric shape and quality of the shaft section. Torsional oscillation will cause fatigue of metallic material. Each torsional oscillation will consume certain fatigue life. Continuous torsional oscillation, particularly resonance, will result in destruction of material. 2). Torsional oscillation of steam turbine generator The shaft system of large steam turbine generator consists of a number of sections, usually HP cylinder rotor, IP cylinder rotor, LP cylinder rotor and generator rotor, forming a flexible torsional shaft system. Positive torque produced by impulse of steam is on the turbine rotor and a reverse electromagnetic torque on the generator rotor. During normal operation, the positive torque on the turbine rotor is balanced with the reverse torque on the generator rotor, and the entire shaft system maintains rotation at constant speed with certain torsional deformation. When the input or output torque has sudden change, torsional oscillation of the shaft system will occur. The maximum torsional stress of 600MW unit appears at the steam end journal of the generator. 3). Impact of electrical disturbance on shaft system torsional oscillation The impact of mechanical system disturbance on shaft system torsional oscillation is very mild as the disturbance is very slow. While the disturbance of electrical system is fast and continuous, the impact caused thereby on torsional oscillation of steam turbine generator shaft system is more significant that that caused by mechnical. a. Negative sequence current The negative sequence current will cause a shock excitation torque on the system at 100Hz. If an order of the shaft system has an inherent torsional oscillation frequency at 100Hz (double power frequency), resonance will occur. b. Asynchronous closure In case of asynchronous closure, greater current and electromagnetic torque than generator outlet three phase short circuit will occur, causing severe torque impact on the shaft system. When the closure phase angle reaches 120 or 240, the electromagnetic torque will be maximum, normally at 5 times of rated torque. c. Short circuit fault and reclosure In case of short circuit falut at the generator outlet, greater short circuit current and significant
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impact torque will appear. In the various short circuit faults, the generator outlet two phase short circuit and three phase short circuit will have significant impact on the shaft system. When two phase short circuit occurs at unfavorable moments, greater electromagnetic torque will occur. In the line protection of the system, usually automatic reclosure is equipped. When short circuit fault occurs, the protection operates and the switch trips to clear the fault; then, after a short time reclosure will be done again after a very short time. If the fault has been cleared when the reclosure is done and the switch does not trip again, it is called successful reclosure; if the fault still exists in case of reclosure, the switch will trip again to clear the fault, it is called unsuccessful reclosure. Therefore, as the reclosure device functions, the shaft system will be subject to multiple torque impacts. If the phase when torque impact occurs is consistent with the phase of shaft system torsional oscillation, superimposed stress will occur on the shaft system, causing higher oscillation ampliture. If a number of times of torque impact superimpose at same phase, a very high mechanical torque may occur, causing the shaft system unable to withstand stress and life consumption. d.Subsynchronous resonance When fault or disturbance occurs in the system, the synchronous generator may product electromagnetic torques at various frequencies. If the frequency of electromagnetic torque is same as or close to an inherent torsional oscillation frequency of the shaft system, resonance will occur. Although the electromagnetic torque at this time is not significant, very high mechnical torque is possible, causing unstable torsion and damage of shaft. Subsynchronous resonance is one example. e.High initial response excitation regulator and power system stablizer (PSS) As the response speed of excitation current is very fast, the power angle swing of transient process is reduced from the grid. But residual torque will occur on the generator, causing impact on the shaft system. 4). Generator fatigue life loss a Generator outlet three phase, two phase short circuit or single phase short circuit, the fatigue loss is maximum 0.248%/time (three phase), 0.2%/time (two phase) and 0.2%/time (single phase) b.120 the mistake connection fatigue loss is at a maximum of 12%/time, the number of which shall not exceed 2 during the entire life of generator; 180 mistake connection shall not exceed 5 times. c. Close-up short and clearance with a clearance time of less than 150ms, the fatigue loss is 0.1%; if the clearance time is more than 150ms, the fatigue loss is >0.1 %; d. Line single phase quick reclosure shall not be subject to limit; e. Unit with excitation out of step, if the oscillation current and moment are smaller than the corresponding values of 0.6~0.7 output short circuit, the allowable operation time is 15~20 cycles. Technical data Serial number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Item Type Rated output sn Rated output pn Maximum permissible capactive Rated power factor cosN Rated voltageUN Rated current IN
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1.4

Unit MVA MW MVA kV A

Technical data QFSN-600-2-22F 706 600 208 0.85 22 18525

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Serial number 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

Item Rated frequency fN Rated speed nN Rated field voltageUfN Rated field current IfN Field voltage of no load Field current of no load Stator winding connection Cooling mode Excitation type Dc resistance of stator winding(per phase) Dc resistance of field winding( at 15C) Capacitance of stator winding A phase B phase C phase Inductance of stator winding Direct-axis synchronous reactance Xd Quadrature-axis synchronous reactance Xq Direct-axis transient reactance (Unsaturation)Xdu Direct-axis transient reactance (Saturation) Xd Quadrature-axis transient reactance (Unsaturation) Xqu Quadrature-axis transient reactance (Saturation) Xq Direct-axis subtransient reactance (Unsaturation)Xdu Direct-axis subtransient reactance (Saturation) Xd Quadrature-axis subtransient reactance (Unsaturation)Xqu Quadrature-axis subtransient reactance (Saturation)Xq Negative phase-sequence(Unsaturation)X2u Negative phase-sequence(Saturation)X2 Zero phase-sequence(Unsaturation)Xou Zero phase-sequence(Saturation)Xo Direct -axis transient open-circuit time constant Tdo Quadrature-axis transient open-circuit time constant Tqo Direct -axis transient short-circuit time constant Td Quadrature-axis transient short-circuit time constant Tq Direct -axis subtransient open-circuit time constant Tdo Quadrature-axis subtransient
39

Unit Hz r/min V A V A

Technical data 50 3000 431 4727

YY H2O-H2-H2 Static Thyristor Excitation pf pf pf H % % % % % % % % % % % % % % sec sec sec sec sec sec 0.001456(at 15C) 0.067715 243000 243000 243000 0.521 184.11 184.11 28.85 25.39 28.85 25.39 20.49 18.85 20.49 18.85 23.01 21.17 9.64 9.16 8.446 0.938 1.187 0.118 0.047 0.047

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Serial number 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83

Item Unit Technical data open-circuit time constant Tqo Direct -axis subtransient short-circuit sec 0.035 time constant Tdo Td Quadrature-axis subtransient sec 0.035 short-circuit time constant Tq Deexcitation time constant Tdm sec 3.357 2 Inertia moment GD t.m 2 39 Short circuit ratio 0.5 Steady negative sequence current I2 % 8 Transient negative sequence 8 2 current I 2 t Allowable variation of frequency % -5~+3 Allowable variation of voltage % 5 Underexcitation asynchronous MW/min 240/15 operation capability Leading phase operation capability MW 600MW cos=0.95(Leading) Leading phase operation time h Long term operation 120, no more than 2 times; Mistake connection capability 180, no more than 5 times; THF % 1 Voltage waveform sine distorsion % 3.0 rate Ku Sustained short-circuit current(3 % 151.9 phase) Initial transient short-circuit current (effective) Line-neutral % 633..7 Line-line % 437.8 3 phase % 463.5 Initial subtransient short-circuit current (effective) Line-neutral % 698.0 Line-line % 495.2 3 phase % 607.0 Three phase short circuit maximum % 790.21 current (DC component peak) Phase-phase short circuit maximum t.m 1587.0 electromagnetic torque Noise dB(A) 85 Peak regulation capability Time 10000 Generator service life Year 30 Vibration amplitude Critical speed First order r/min 982 Second order r/min 2671 Critical speed bearing/shaft vibration amplitude Vertical mm 0.08/0.15 Horizontal mm 0.08/0.15 Bearing/shaft vibration amplitude in case of overspeed Vertical mm 0.08/0.15 Horizontal mm 0.08/0.15 Bearing/shaft vibration amplitude in case of rated speed
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Serial number Item 84 Vertical 85 Horizontal Stator winding end vibration 86 frequency f v Stator winding end vibration 87 amplitude 88 Shaft torsional oscillation frequency 89 Stator winding copper loss Qcu1 90 Stator iron loss Qfe 91 Excitation loss Qcu2 92 Short-circuit supplementary loss QKd 93 Mechanical loss Qm 94 Total loss Q 95 Effeiciency 96 Insulation class 97 Stator winding 98 Field winding 99 Stator core 100 Limit of temperature 101 Stator winding 102 Field winding 103 Stator core 104 Stator winding outlet water 105 Structure part of stator end Pressure, flow and temperature of 106 cooling medium Inlet hydrogen temperature of 107 generator Outlet hydrogen temperature of 108 generator Inlet temperature of stator winding 109 water 110 Conductivity of stator winding water 111 Ph valve of stator winding water Inlet pressure of stator winding 112 water 113 Water quantity 114 Number of hydrogen coolers Inlet water temperature of hydrogen 115 cooler Outlet water temperature of 116 hydrogen cooler 117 Water quantity of hydrogen cooler 118 Rated H2 pressure 119 Maximum permissible H2 pressure 120 Hydrogen volume in generator 121 Hydrogen leakage 122 Purity of hydrogen Minimum permissible purity of 123 hydrogen) 124 Dew point of hydrogen Inlet temperature of bearing 125 lubricating oil Outlet temperature of bearing 126 lubricating oil
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Unit mm mm Hz mm Hz kW kW kW kW kW kW %

Technical data 0.025/0.076 0.025/0.076 fv94 or fv115 0.15 455595110 1858.8 837.56 1883.0 1232.4 1105.79 6917.6 98.8 F F F

C C C C C

120 115 120 90 120

C C C
s/cm

46 62 455 0.5~1.5 7.0~9.0

MPa(g) 0.1~0.2 t/h C C t/h MPa(g) MPa(g) m3 Nm 3/24h 96 4 20~38 48 4115 0.45 0.5 86 14 98% 95% C C C -25~-5 35~45 70

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Serial number 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169

Item Quantity of steady bearing lubricating oil Inlet temperature of gland sealing oil Outlet temperature of gland sealing oil Quantity of gland sealing oil Number of sealing oil pumps Sealing pad temperature Pressure of gland sealing oil Inner diameter of stator core Do Outer diameter of stator core Da Length of stator core Li Gas gap(one side)g Number of stator slots Number of stator winding branches a1 Stator winding dimension Rigid m h-wall thickness Rigid m h Number of coil strands in each slot Hollow Rigid Stator current density J1 Stator line load As1 Stator slot main insulation single side thickness Weight of stator (The maximum lift,including trunniousfoots etc.) Transporting weight of stator (excluding trunniousfoots etc.) Transporting dimensions of stator(LW H) Weight of rotor Outside diameter of rotor D2 Body length of rotor Transporting length of rotor L2 Number of rotor slots Rotor slot dimension m h Number of line turns in each slot of rotor Copper line dimension of each turnmh Rotor current density J1 Rotor slot insulation single side thickness Air gap flux density Bs Thickness of insulation between turns of rotor Diameter of retaining ring Dk Length of retaining ring Lk Main materials and stress Type of silicon steel sheet for stator Thickness of silicon steel sheet Type of copper line
42

Unit L/min C C L/min Set C MPa mm mm mm mm 25 35~45 70

Technical data

290 2 90 Than hydrogen pressure 0.0560.02Mpa 1312 2625 6731 94 42 2

mm mm n n A/mm2 A/cm mm t t mm t mm mm mm mm

4.66.4-1.2 2.256.4 28 28 10.36 1887.6 5.85 266 258 920038203850 67.5 1124 6909 14300 32 47.2(38)150 7

mm A/mm mm Gs mm mm mm
2

13.1644.6 9.86 1.52 10208 0.33 1201 859 50W310 0.5 Oxygen free annealed copper

mm

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Serial number 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188

Item Type of material for shaft FATT Shaft yield limit s Shaft safety factor K Rotor copper line type Rotor copper line yield limit s Material type of retaining ring Retaining ring yield limit s Rataining ring safety factor K Material type of rotor slot wedge Collector ring and brush Collector ring surface linear speed OD of collector ring Material of collector ring Allowable carrier density for brush Brush carrier density under rated condition Allowable excitation current for collector ring and brush Brush friction factor Brush resistivity

Unit C N/mm 2 N/mm 2 N/mm 2 k

Technical data 25Cr2Ni3MoV -17 580 2 Silver contained copper line 206 18Mn18Cr 980 2 Ly12-Cz 54 343.5 T10A 10

m/s mm A/cm 2

A/cm 2 7.08 A m 6193 0.22 18

Serial Item number 1 Type 2 Quantity Grade of 3 accuracy 4 Capacity

Table 1-1 Techncial data for bushing CT CT for metering gauge Protective CT and AVR Bushing Bushing 15 6 5P20 200VA 0.5 200VA

Active and reactive energy meter Bushing 3 0.2 100VA

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ChapterExcitation System The power supply that feeds synchronous generator with excitation current and its attached systems at called excitation system, which usually consists of two main parts, excitation power unit and excitation regulator. The excitation power unit provides excitation current to the rotor of synchronous generator; and the excitation regulator controls the output of excitation power unit in accordance with the input signals and the given regulation rules. The excitation system of synchronous generator consists of mainly power unit and regulator (device) as shown in Fi.g 2-1:

Figure 2-1 Basic principle block diagram of generator excitation system Excitation power unitGeneratorPower system Excitation regulatorInput signalExcitation system Excitation system is an important part in generator, which has high influence on the safe and stable operation of power system and the generator itself. The main functions of excitation system include: 1). Regulate the excitation current according to the load of generator to maintain the terminal voltage at a given value; 2). Control the distribution of active power among the generators in parallel connection; 3). improve the static stability of generator in parallel connection; 4). improve the transient stability of generator in parallel connection; 5). deexcite in case of internal fault of generator to minimize loss; 6). maximum and minimum excitation limits on the generator according to operation requirements.

Figure 2-2 Excitation system category block diagram


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Excitation system; Categorized accoding to power supply mode; Separately excited; Self excited; Categorized accoding to power lead mode; Categorized accoding to rotation of rectifier; DC excitation system (DC exciter); Rectifier excitation system (AC exciter); Self shunt excitation system; Self compounded excitation system; Harmonics excitation system; Categorized according to compound position; Static rectifier excitation system; Rotating rectifier excitation system; AC side compounded self compounded excitation system; DC side compounded self compounded excitation system There are a variety of excitation system forms for synchronous generator, which can be divided into two categories according to power supply mode, separately excited and self excited, as shown in Figure 2-2. The excitation system used in generator manufactured by us is end seld shunt excitation static excitation system, which is UNITROL5000 excitation system supplied by ABB. 2.1 Introduction to UNITROL 5000 excitation system The generator static excitation system controls the excitation current through the SCR bridge, fulfilling the purpose of regulation of voltage and reactive power of synchronous generator. It consists of four main parts: excitation transformer, SCR, excitation and de-excitation unit, as shown in Figure 2-3:

RE

~
Figure 2-3 Generator static excitation system schematic diagram Excitation transformer; Excitation regulator; Regulator; De-excitation unit; Regulator; Measuring element 2.1.1 Excitation transformer The excitation transformer system consists of three single phase dry transformer, with a capacity of 32400kVA and a transformation ratio of 22 kV /900V. Connected group: Y/d-11. Class F insulation, the windind conductor material is copper, natural cooling, with the operating ambient temperature at 0C~ 50C. The excitation transformer is provided with measuring devices for temperature, light gas and heavy gas as well as pressure release device. These
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Generator Excitation System

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devices are equipped with lead-out contacts for provision of remote signals. At the high voltage side, each phase is provided with 3 groups of CT with an accuracy of 5P20/5P20/0.5. Two groups are for protection and one group is for measurement. At the low voltage side, each phase is also provided with 2 groups of CT with an accuracy of 5P20/5P20, one group for protection and one group for measurement. 2.1.2 Excitation regulator Excitation regulator (AVR) is of digital microprocessor based type, with reliable performance and having characteristics of fine adjustment and improvement of generator transient stability.The excitation regulator is provided with units such as overexcitation limit, overexcitation protection, underexcitation limit, PSS, V/HZ limiter, rotor overvoltage protection and PT broken conductor block protection; the additional functions include rotor earthing protection, rotor temperature measurement, serial communication module, crowbar, DSP smart current equalizer, shaft voltage spike absorption devices. The AVR has two identical but independent automatic excitation regulators in parallel operation, which may automatically trach each other. When one regulator channel is faulted, it may automatically switch to the other channel for operation and give alarm. When a regulator is in independent operation, the various operation conditions of the generator may be satisfied, the automatic and manual circuits may mutually and automatically track each other; when the automatic circuit is faulted, it will automatically switch to manual. The AVR has the functions of automatic regulation of reactive power and power factor. The automatic excitation regulation device is capable of operating continuously under the ambient temperature of -10C~+40C and an ambient with an average monthly minimum temperature of 25C and an average monthly maximum relative humidity of 90%. The air cooled SCR is capable of operating continuously in an ambient temperature of -10C~+40C. The AVR panel is by means of natual or forced draft and the normal operation of AVR can be maintained in case of fan fault. SCR When one power cabint of the power rectifier quits, the operation requirements that generator force excitation and 1.1 times of rated excitation current. When two power panels quit operation, the excitation capacity reauired for rated condition of generator may be provided. The design value of SCR element junction temperature (forced air cooling): 90C. Each power element of the rectifier device is equipped with quick fuse so as to clear the short circuit elements in time and detect the fuse as well as give signals. The cooling fans of the rectifier device has 100% standby capacity, which may come into operation automatically in case of insufficient air pressure or volume. The ventilation power supply of the rectifier device has two circuits and may switch automatically. In case of fault on any rectifier panel or cooling power supply, warning signals will be given. The fault free service hours of fan is 50,000 hours with a redundancy of 22, with 10 years mean time between failure. The SCR bridge is in the redundant configuration of n-2. The rectifier device shunt elements are all equipped with current equalizers, the coefficient of the rectifier element shall be no less than 0.9. Excitation and deexcitation unit In the static excitation system (usually called self shunt excitation or end excitation system), the power supply for excitation is fed from the generator end. The excitation current of synchronous generator is fed from excitation transformer, magnetic field switch and SCR bridge. In usual conditions, when the excitation starts, the excitation energy of the generator
47

2.1.3

2.1.4

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Generator Excitation System

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is from the residual voltage of the generator. When the input voltage of SCR increases to 10V~20V, the SCR bridge and excitation regulator may be put into normal operation and the soft start process will be completed under the control of AVR.. If the residual voltage of generator can not meet the excitation requirement due to long time shutdown, 220V DC power supply may be used. When the voltage of generator increases to the specified value, the excitation circuit will release automatically. Then the SCR bridge and the excitation regulator may be put into normal operation and the soft start process will be complted under the control of AVR. The curve of soft start process of excitation system is shown in Figure 2-4:
UG 100%

So

fts

ta

rt

Field flashing

Softstart time (Ex. 5s)

Figure 2-4 UN5000 excitation system soft start process curve After connection with grid, the excitation system will be operating under the mode of AVR, regulating the terminal voltage and reactive power of generator, or operating under the mode of superimposed regulation (including constant power factor regulation, constant reactive power regulation and grouped regulation that may accept dispatching orders). The function of deexcitation equipment is to open the magnetic field circuit and release the energy of the magnetic field as soon as possible. The deexcitation circuit consists of mainly magnetic field switch, deexcitation resistor, SCR jumper and relevant trigger elements. UN5000 Excitation System Performance 1). When the excitation voltage and current of the generator do not exceed 1.1 times of its rated excitation current and voltage, the excitation system is ensured to operate continuously. 2). The excitation system has short time overload capability, which is greater than the short time overload capability of the generator rotor windinds. 3). The force excitation times of the excitation system shall be no less than 2 (static excitation system, even when the stator voltage drops to 80% of the rated value), the allowable force excitation time is 20s. 4). The excitation system has a high initial response characteristics, within 0.1s the excitation voltage increases to the maximum voltage and 95% of the rated voltage. 5). The response ratio of the excitation system, i.e., the voltage increase speed, shall be no less than 3.58 times/s. 6). The steady gain of the excitation system ensures that the voltage static error ratio of the generator is .5%. 7). The dynamic gain the excitation system ensures that when the voltage of the generator suddenly drops, the SCR bridge opens to the maximum allowable value.
48

2.1.5

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Generator Excitation System

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8). The regulation range of the automatic excitation regulator: in case of no load, it shall be capable of regulating smoothly within 20-110% of the rated voltage, with resolution of the setting voltage not exceeding 0.2%~0.5% of the rated voltage. In case of no load of generator, the manual voltage regulation range is 10%-130%UN. 9). The voltage frequency characteristics: when the generator no load frequency change is within 1% and the SCR regulator can be used, the change of terminal voltage shall not exceed 0.25% of the rate value. 10). When the generator is operating under no load, the voltage regulating speed of the automatic excitation regulator may be set. The setting at delivery shall not exceed 1% rated voltage/s, and no smaller than 0.3% rated voltage/s. 11). The rotor circuit of the generator is equipped with overvoltage protection, the dispersity of operation voltage shall be no more than 10%. The silicon parts or the SCR parts of the excitation device and other equipment may withstand the operating conditons such as DC side short circuit fault and asynchronous operation of generator. 12). The forced outage rate of generator caused by fault of excitation system shall be no more than 0.25 time/year, the forced clearance rate of excitation system shall not exceed 0.1%. 13). The availability of AVR (including PSS) shall not be lower than 99.9%. 14). The exciation system shall meet the requirement of 125% of terminal voltage in case of turbine generator short circuit and no loat test. 2.2 Operation and Adjustment of Excitation System The UNITROL5000 excitation system is a complete set installed in power plant. The generator static excitation system consists of 9 panels, arranged in a line by the generator at turbine house 13.7m platform. The arrangement of the panels is as shown in Table 2-1 (front view): Table 2-1 Arrangement of UNITROL5000 excitation system panels panel Deexcitation panel DC outgoing line panel Rectifier panel Rectifier panel Rectifier panel Rectifier panel Rectifier panel AC excitation incoming line panel

2.2.1

The UNITROL5000 excitation system has the following main control methods: a. Remote control by key pad orders in the control room. These orders are given through the excitation system in binary signals. b. Remote control by scree monitor control orders in the control room. These orders are given through the excitation system in binary signals or through the Field bus. c. Local control by local control unit (local control panel) integrated in the excitation system. In normal conditions the excitation system is operated by the control system through remote control. The local control panel installed on the front panel of the exciation system is only optional in case of commissioning, test or emergency. The operators must be familiar with the design of system control and display elements, the functions of the orders of the excitation system as well as the use of control and display units. Control and display unit The available remote control and local control orders are given in Table 2-2. The right column
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Generator Excitation System

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(feedback indication) shows whether the feedback indication is displayed in the control room: Table 2-2 List of available remote and local control orders Order Remote Local Feedback indication Excitation circuit switch on Excitation circuit switch off Excitation on Excitation off Channel 1 in operation Channel 2 in operation Operation mode-auto Operation mode-manual Operating regulator given point up Operating regulator given point down Reactive power regulator in service Reactive power regulator out of service PSS in service PSS out of service Control mode...Local Control mode...Remote Test of indicator lamp Release Excitation switch on Excitation switch off Max. Max.

2.2.2

The shaded area in the above table gives the local control orders, indicating that they are only effective when the ENABLE key is pressed on the local control panel. Before the excitation system is put into service, it must be ensured that all the required power supplies are in place to maintain safe startup, and the following inspections must be done: 1). Maintenance of the system is completed 2). The control and power cabinets are ready and properly locked 3). The generator delivers no load and the temporary earthing wires are removed 4). The control power supply of the deexcitation switch and the power supply of he regulator are energized 5). There are no alarm and fault signals 6). The excitation system is switched to remote control mode 7). The excitation system is switched to automatic operation mode 8). The generator reaches rated speed (check the speed shown on the display instrument) Remote control Many control orders and feedback indications may achieve the effective remote control of the excitation system in the control room. When the excitation system switch is placed at
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Generator Excitation System

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2.2.3

REMOTE mode, the orders given from the control room are effective. The orders of the excitation system and the generator and their functions are detailed as below: 1). Excitation switch on/off As long as there is no trip signal, the ON order may close the excitation switch. After the closure, the excitation may be put into service. The OFF order may open the excitation switch and make the excitation quit, switching the deexcitation resistor to parallel connection with the rotor windings. As such the deexcitation of the generator is quickly completed through the rectifier and the deexcitation resistor. When the main switch of the generator is opened (generator operating under no load), the excitation switch may be opened by remote control. 2). Excitation on/off The EXCITATION OFF order is used to immediately cut off the excitation of the generator. At the same time, the rectifier of the excitation system is coverted to AC inversed operation (magnetic field energy feedback), and the deexcitation resistance is switched parallel connection with the rotor windings so that the generator discharges quickly through the rectifier inversion and deexcitation resistance. At the same time the excitation off order is given, the excitation switch is opened. After 60 seconds the trigger pulses applied on the rectifier are blocked, and the entire excitation system is fully blocked and cut off. The EXCITATION ON order is used to put the excitation of the generator into service. The excitation system feeds to the generator rotor and the voltage of the generator can be quickly established to the rated value. As long as the trip order is in function, the excitation on order is null. When the excitation on order is given, if the excitation is still in open position, it will close automatically. Only the deexcitation switch is closed the excitation will be initiated and the excitation current starts to flow. The following conditions must be ensured for a successful start of excitation: The excitation switch must be in ON position. There are no open orders and trip signals. The speed of the generator shall be above 90% of the rated speed. If the excitation transformer is directly powered by the generator terminal, the initial excitation power system is required for the excitation system. Local control

8-lines display

Keys for panel operation

Keys for local operation of excitation system

Figure 2-5 UN5000 excitation system local control panel

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Generator Excitation System

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The arrangement of the local control panel on the regulator cabinet is shown in Figure 2-5, which includes 16 special system display and control keys with LED, 10 operation mode and internal function control keys as well as an LCD monitor with 8 lines 40 characters. The basic control of the excitation system may be achieved by 16 keys with status information. The alarm information and analogue values may be displayed on the LCD. It has a good man-machine interface, used for local control and monitor of the excitation system.The LCP has the following functions: 1). The display resolution is 24064, which may at the same time display 840 characters. The LCP may at the same time display 8 analogue value signals, or 4 analogue value signals in the form of bar chart (with the range of 0% to 120%). The setpoint display signals have as many as 32 points. The display mode can be set through the function keys. The display signals can be searched through page roll key and selected by cursor. 2). Signal and alarm In case of excitation system alarm, the alarm signals will prevail over the measurement signals. The alarm conent includes alarm number and the textual description of the alarm in 40 characters. The LCP may chronologically display alarm messages at the same time, if there are more, the remaining ones may be displayed through roll key. The capacity of the alarm messages is 80. The alarm indicator lamp is located on the upper right corner of the alarm key, which will blink upon occurrence of alarm. After pressing the acknowledge key, if the alarm still exists, the indicator lamp changes from blinking to constant on, and the lamp will be off after the alarm disappears. 3). Local operation control The LCP has 16 membrane keys with status indicator lamps, which are used for local control of the excitation system. Digital and bar display: after initialization, 8 defined analogue values will be displayed. When pressed, 8 analogue signals with channel number, signal description, value and unit will appear, and the yellow LED is on. More analogue signals will show using roll key. When pressed, first 4 analogue signals with channel number, signal description, value and unit as well as combined bars will appear. At the same time, the yellow LED is on. More analogue signals will show using roll key. The 8 analogu values are listed in the table below: Table 2-3 List of analogue values of generator excitation system Channle number Value 1 Value 2 Value 3 Value 4 Value 5 Value 6 Value 7 Value 8 Value Generator voltage Generator current Active power Reactive power Excitation current Setpoint of automatic channel Setpoint of manual channel Actual voltage value of generator Unit kV kA MW Mvar A-dc kV A-dc %

Fault display: there are a variety of alarm and trip signals that indicate the faults of the excitation system.

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Generator Excitation System

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When presses, if there is any fault (red LED on), up to 8 fault messages will appear. The first fault always shows in the first line, and the subsequent faults will show in turn according to the falut numbers. More subsequent faults will show using the roll key. These fault messages may be grouped into excitation alarm, protection switching and trip. For the first fault message, the control panel automatically switches to display the corresponding fault message. The first fault will show in the first line and subsequent faults show in the following lines. In addition, when the first fault is reported, the LED on the RESET key blinks. The fault messages are removed: All the alarm messages are stored in the control panel. In addition, the specified alarm messages are also stored in the microprocessor; these may only be reset by pressing the RESET key and held for a period. When pressing the RESET key for a short time, if the alarm stored in the microprocessor operates, the LED change from blinking to constant on. If new fault alarm appears, the LED will again begin to blink. This may eliminate the fault display stored in the control panel. If there is no alarm operation, the LED on the key will be off. When pressing the RESET key for more than 1s, if there is still alarm operation, the LED will change from blinking to constant on. If new fault alarm appears, the LED will again begin to blink. This may reset the alarm stored in the control panel and reset the alarm stored in the microprocessor. If there is no alarm operation, the LED on the key will be off. Display and print control:

#
Cursor key Roll key

Press the cursor key to display the 1-8 lines or 1-4 lines on the screen. The current line is the hightlighed channel number with reverse contrast indication. When the last line is shown, it will jump to the first line. The cursor key is only active when analogue signals are displayed (digital or bar display).

When analogue signals are displayed (digital or bar display), press the roll key, the displayed (indicated by reverse contrast) channel number and its analogue value will change accordingly. When fault messages are displayed, press the roll key to show all the fault messages at all lines 2-8 or move up or down. The first fault shown in the first line maintains its position. Page change key When this key is pressed, the channel number changes 10 positions or the fault number changes 6 positions. The other functions are similar to the roll key. Print key When the print key is pressed, the analogue values of lines 1-8 are transferred to the printer (if connected) through RS-232 serial interface. If the fault messages are active, these messages are transferred to the printer as well. If the data are transferring and the printer has received them, the yellow LED will be on. If the yellow LED blinks, it indicates the buffer of thr printer is full for the moment. To extend the service lif of LCD, the display and background light thereof do not need any key, which will be off and disappear after 60 minutes. Afterwards, if press one of the 10 function keys on the local control panel or if a fault message occurs, the LCD of the local control panel
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2.2.4

will be active again. Startup of excitation system Table 2-4 Sequence of startup of generator excitation system Operation 1 2 Excitation switch on Excitation system into service Display Control Indicator lamp Excitation switch already on ON on Indicator lamp Voltage established in ON on 5-20s

Generator operation under no load 3 Excitation system ready to operate under low load. Use up/down keys to adjust the voltage of generator to the grid level. When the generator voltage is synchronized with the grid voltage, close the main circuit switch of the generator. Voltage of generator adjusted to the setpoint. The reactive power of the generator approximates to 0. Adjust the voltage of the generator and the generator will produce certain reactive power.

Generator operation under low load Use up/down keys to set the reactive power of the generator to the operation limit

2.2.5

Shutdown of excitation system Table 2-5: Sequence of shutdown of generator excitation system Operation Disconnection of generator from the grid: decrease the reactive power through the voltage setpoint of the generator. decrease the active power through the turbine regulator. open the generator main circuit switch Excitation system out of service, excitation switch open The voltage of generator Indicator lamp decreases to 0 within OFF on several seconds. Display Control

The sequence chart of the generator excitation system startup and shutdown is shown in Figure 2-14. 2.3 Automatic control and protection There are a variety of configuration types for the automatic control of the UNICTROL 5000 excitation system, the selected type by us is 2 AVR+2 FCR+2 BFCR, i.e., the double channel system with manual emergency spare channel (as shown in Figure 2-6). This is the top configuration of the UNICTROL 5000 excitation system at the time.

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Figure 2-6 Double channel system with manual emergency spare channel 2.3.1 Switching between main channels This excitation system has two totally independent regulators and control channels (Channel I and Channel II). The two channels are identical, as such either of them can be selected as operating channel. The spare channel (the one not in operation) always tracks the one in operation. Basically, switching between the channels can be carried out at any time except the following conditions: If any fault is detected on the channel in operation, it will be automatically switched to the second channel as an emergency response. Afterwards, it is only possible to switch back to the active automatically. If any fault occurs on the spare channel, the switching from the active one to the spare one can not be done. If fault occurs on one channel, the voltage of generator at the same time experiences dynamic disturbance, it will be automatically switched to the spare channel immediately, which will not follow the dynamic disturbance of the generator voltage. To prevent this condition, the spare channel will in a relative slow manner follow the voltage of the generator with a certain time delay. Auto/mannual switching of main channels This excitation system is such featured that each main channel has an automatic regulator (automatic) and a manual regulator (manual). In the automatic mode, the voltage of the generator is regulated, as such a constant voltage is generated at end of generator. While in the manual mode, the excitation of generator (magnetic field current) maintains constant, along with the change of generator load, the excitation of generator (setpoint of magnetic field current) must be regulated manually to maintain the voltage of the generator unchanged. Basically, as the spare regulator is always following the active regulator, at any time the switching between auto and manual modes is possible. However, special attentions shall be paid to the following: 1). If any fault is detected in the automatic mode (switched to manual mode as emergency response), it will automatically be switched back to auto mode after the fault is eliminated. 2). If any fault occurs in the manual mode, the switching from auto mode to manual mode will be stopped. 3). If the generator may operate at the limit of the automaci mode but in the allowable operation range, which has exceeded the alloable operation range of the manual mode. In this case, the manual regulator may stop to follow the automatic regulator. The feedback indication allows the manual regulator to follow inspection and verification.
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2.3.2

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Generator Excitation System

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Note

4). It is possible that switching from auto to manual and then back to the operation mode before occurrence of fault as a result of fault. Therefore, the follow up control of manual regulator has the function of delaying and correspondingly slowing down the change of excitation current. 5). During switching from auto to manual mode, the characteristics of relative slow follow up of the manual regulator must be considered. It will direcly follow the change of excitation current and the switching will have a very short delay (waiting message: AUTO/MANUAL READY). So, the switching without disturbance under any circumstance can be maintained. The manual mode as a special regulator (as spare regulator) has only the function of regulating excitation current (without the function of regulating generator voltage). In manual mode, the excitation of generator must be under supervision of skilled operators. As long as the signals of generator voltage and CT exist, in manual mode the underexcitation limiter may also prevent the hazardous low excitation of generator. In extremet conditions, the low excitation will result in pole slipping. In addition, under no load and low speed, the V/Hz limiter will decrease the excitation current to prevent the generator and the transformer connected therewith from oversaturating. The variables of operation such as generator voltage, current and reactive power must be monitored by the operators, which, in case of necessity, may be regulated through change of settings of the excitation current.

2.3.3

2.3.4

Emergency spare channel In addition to the two main channels, the excitation is also provided with two emergency spare channels. The emergency spare channels, which have similar manal mode as the main channels, are equipped with an excitation current regulator. In addition to the excitation current regulator, the emergency spare channels are also provided with overvoltage protection and trigger pulse controllers independent of the main channels. The overvoltage protection inserted into the main channl functions as standby protection. The function of the emergency spare channels is the same as that of the main channels, i.e., the emergency spare channels may only regulate the excitation current other than the voltage of the generator. The excitation current regulator of the emergency spare channels automatically follows the main channels. Therefore, in faulted condition of the main channels, automatic switching without disturbance will be done. The manual switching from main channels to the emergency spare channels may only be performed by specially authorized operators. The follow up regulation of the two regulators ensures that switching back to the main channels is possible. Superimposed control If automatic mode is selected and the generator is connected to the grid, it may be switched to
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the reactive power regulator (Q)/power factor regulator (cos). The reactive power regulator (Q)/ power factor regulator (cos) are the upper regulators of voltage regulator and may only function slowly in operation. Therefore, the short time fault of grid will not affect the upper regulator, which will remain functional. All the limiters in auto mode are same functional as before. The voltage regulators, including upper regulators, may be controlled by the limiters if necessary.

Figure 2-7 Superimposed control schematic block diagram The reactive power regulator/power factor regulator has the feature that it may set the setpoint of its own (setpoint integrator). When the upper regulator is opened, the setting of the setpoint always follows the actual value (the current reactive power Q/ current power factor). This means that the operation point of generator will not take function immediately after transferring from voltage regulator to upper regulator. Only after the setpoint of the upper regulator is regulated by the HIGHER / LOWER order, the reactive power Q /power factor will change accordingly. HIGHER / LOWER (/) order: the (/) order in the control room may control the operation modes of AUTO, MANUAL / AUTO, MANUAL and the setting of setting value of the upper regulator. If an operation mode is activated, the setpoint may only be regulated by these orders. 1). In auto mode In the auto mode, the setpoint of the generator voltage is regulated by the order of /. In case of operation under no load, the setpoint is changed to regulate the voltage of the generator; in case of operation under load, the setpoint is changed to regulate the reactive power. In case of operation up to the limit of the generator stator and/or the rotor, the corresponding limit regulators will in the proper direction interfere with and stop the functioning of / order. If the setpoint of generator voltage reaches its minimum or maximum setting value, the Active regulator MIN-POS / MAX-POS message will appear. If at the same time the orders of and are given, the setpoint will not be regulated. When the excitation is connected, the setpoint of the generator voltage will automatically set to its rated value. 2). In manual mode In the manual mode, the setpoint of the exciation current is regulated by the order of /. In case of operation under no load, the setpoint is changed to regulated the voltage of the generator; in case of operation under load, the setpoint is changed to regulate the reactive power. In the manual mode, on the underexcitation limiter (to prevent pole slipping of generator) and V/Hz limiter (to prevent saturation of magnetic circuit) are available. The / order is not as in auto mode prevented from exceeding its limit by limiter. Therefore, it must be ensured that the operation limit of the rotor and generator will not be exceeded in accordance with the power diagram.
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2.3.5

2.3.6

If the setpoint of the excitation current reaches its minimum or maximum setting value, the Active regulator MIN-POS / MAX-POS message will appear. If at the same time the orders of and are given, the setpoint will not be regulated. When the excitation is connected and the main switch of the generator is at the open position, the setpoint of the excitation current will automatically set to its no load excitation current value. PSS PSS is a standard software function of MUB of the UNITORL 5000 excitation system. By introducing additional feedback signals, the PSS suppresses the low frequency oscillation to improve the stability of the grid. The control algorithm of PSS is based on the double input PSS model, and the additional feedback signals are the accerlation power signals of the units, integrated from power signals and rotor angle frequency signals. When the active power of the generator reaches a setting value, the PSS can be manually put into service (must be carried out the professionals), as such the voltage of generator is limited within the given range (such as 90-110% UGN). The PSS may at any time be taken out of service, and, it will quit operation automatically when the active power and the voltage of the generator exceed their setting values or the generator is disconnected from the grid. Rotor earthing protection The rotor earthing protection device UNS 3020 is an independent protection relay. It is used as the earthing fault protection of the entire rotor circuit (including the power SCR and excitation transformer secondary side) of the generator. Its features include: 2 sections of structures (one for alarm and two for trip), the setting value and time delay of each section may be reagulated separately. Figure 2-8 shows the schematic diagram of wiring for earthing protection relay of ABB UN5000 excitation system. The protection is superimposed AC voltage measurement admittance bridge type, CK1 and CK2 are block coupling capacitors, CR is the equivalent capacitor of the generator excitation circuit to earth, CK1, CK2 and the excitation circuit equivalent capacitor CR are in series, connected at the mearuing arm of the AC bridge. The to earth capacitance of excitation circuit of large units is great, only the to earth capacitance of the excitation winding will be as high 1~2F, if the additional voltage

U0

has a

frequency at 50Hz, the to earth capacitive reactance is only 1.6~3.2k. It can be seen that for hydrogen cooled units, the to earth capacitive reactance is far smaller than the to earth insulation resistance (usually at megohm class). Therefore, the superimposed AC voltage one point earthing protection has low sensitivity, to improve which the AC bridge is used. The superimposed AC voltage one point earthing protection has simple wiring and has no dead zone. The earthing sensitivity of any point on the entire excitation winding is more or less the same, and the protection may be used as the earthing fault protection of the entire rotor circuit of the generator (including the power SCR and excitation transformer secondary side). But the balance of bridge is easily affected by the rotor brush and the shaft earthing brush contact resistance; the requirement on frequency of the superimposed AC power supply is strict; the measuring arm is complex arm, therefore it is complicated to regulate the balance of bridge.

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Figure 2-8 Rotor earthing protection principle 2.3.7 Limiter The limiter is intended to maintain the safe and stable operation of the generator and avoid abnormal outage due to operation of the protection relay. Figure 2-9 shows the typical power diagram of salient pole synchronous generator and the corresponding operation limit position at rated terminal voltage. It can be seen from the diagram that two overexcitation limiters of maximum excitation current and inductive stator current are provided in the overexcitation area; three underexcitation limiters of capacitive stator current, reactive power limiting (P/Q limiting) and minimum excitation current limiters are provided in the underexcitation area. The working principle of limiter is: each limiter has its limiting quantity and limiting value, when the value of the limiting quantity reaches the limiting value, the corresponding limiter will generate a deviation signal between the limiting quantity and the limiting value. After operation of the limiter in the overexcitation area, the excitation current will be decreased to a maximum allowable level; while after the operation of limiter in the underexcitation area, the excitation current will be increased to the required minimum level. In normal operating conditions, the operation of the generator is within the allowable range of the power diagram and the input of the PID controller is the deviation signal of the terminal voltage, i.e., the main deviation signal. If the change of operation condtion makes that the deviation signal of the overexcitation limiter inferior to the main deviation signal, the priority thereof will be higher than the main deviation signal. As such, the PID controller will obtain the minimum value of the various deviation signals. This principle applies also to the underexciation limiter, just in opposite direction. 1). Limitation of excitation current The maximum excitation current limiter is used to prevent the rotor circuit from overheating, the design of which has the characteristics of inverse time limit. The limiter has two limiting values: one force ceiling current limiter, the other is the allowable overheating limiting value for continuous operation. The two control parameters in relation to the overheating limiting value are the rotor equivalent heating time and rotor equivalent cooling time. During normal operation of synchronous generator (without operation of limiter), the limiting value of the maximum excitation current limiter is the force excitation ceiling current limiting
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Generator Excitation System

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value Imax, the AVR may provide force excitation ceiling current when necessary. When system fault occurs and force excitation is required to eliminate such fault, if the actual value of the excitation current exceeds the overheating limiting value, the regulator will start a residual power integrator, integrating the current deviation value i2(wherein i=Ifield-Itherm) to time, the result of which is in direct proportion to the heating energy of the excitation winding. If the excitation current continues to remain higher than the overheating limiting value, the output of the integrator i2dt=E will increase. When the output of the integrator exceeds Emax, the limiting value of the maximum excitation current limiter will be decreased from Imax to Itherm. The above work is done by the overheating detector. When the excitation current drops below the normal value, the residual power integrator will start the reverse cooling intergration, reducing the output according to the cooling time constant Tcooling.

Figure 2-9 Salient pole synchronous generator typical power circle diagram Underexcitation area; Overexcitation area; Capacitive stator current limit; Active power; Inductive stator current limit; Maximum turbine power; P/Q Reactive power (P/Q limit); Maximum excitation current limit; Minimum excitation limit; Reactive power If the system fault continues to occur and again force excitation is allowed, when the cooling time is not over yet, the time required for the remaining energyto reach emax (the allowable time for operation under such force excitation current) will be shorter than the first time. If the cooling time is over (the limiter in reset position), the limiter will allow the excitation current to maintain at the ceiling level during the nomal period allowed by the force excitation. External signals may be used to interfere with the overheating limiting value Itherm, such as the temperature signal representing the cooling gas of generator, which may be added to the overheating limiting value Itherm. The maximum excitation current limiter has two limiting characteristics under different situations, as shown in Figure 2-10.

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If [A ]

Generator Excitation System

NAGARUNA THERMAL POWER PROJECT UNITS-#1&2

p r o s p e c t iv e v a lu e o f f ie ld c u r r e n t
If m a x ( 1 ,6 * If n )

C ase 1 C ase 2

I f th e r m ( 1 ,0 5 * If n )

T e q u iv (1 0 s ) t

t [s ]

Figure 2-10 Two limiting characteristics of mamximum excitation current limiter The main task of minimum magnetic field current limiter to prevent loss of excitation. This function is often applied in water turbine generators, which may perform in-depth leading phase operation at the underexcitation side of the power diagram, i.e., operating close to the zero excitation current. In this case, the minimum excitation current limiter ensures that the excitation current is no smaller than the minimum limiting value. This limiting value is a must to maintain the normal operation of converter and it may prevent the rotor shoe from overheating. The minimum magnetic field current limiter has only one minimum limiting value, instant operation. 2). Limitation of stator current The limiter is used to prevent the generator stator from overheating, which is effective at both the overexcitation and underexcitation sides. Its working principle is similar to that of the maximum excitation current limiter. The main difference lies in the fact that the stator current limiter does not have a definite maximum stator current limiting value. When the time tends to zero, the limiting value theoretically may be infinite (Imax=), which may be set by proper parameters and the inverse time limit characteristics close to the stator winding maximum allowable thermal energy. The stator current limiter is divided into two parts at underexcitation and overexcitation sides, the limiting quantities of which are both average values of the stator current. When the generator is overexcited, the stator current limiter at the underexcitation side will close, and vice versa. By detecting the power factor of the load, it can be ensured that bidirectional operation (overexcitation and underexcitation) of the stator current limiter is correct. It is obvious that the stator current limiter may not affect the active current component of the generator. If the active current component of the generator is higher than the limiting value of the stator current limiter, the limiter will automatically regulate the reactive power of the generator to zero to avoid misoperation. 3). P/Q limiter The P/Q limiter is in nature an underexcitation limiter, used to prevent the generator from entering the unsteady operation area. The limiting curve of this limiter is determined by five reactive power setting values corresponding to five active power points (P=0%, P=25%, P=50%, P=75%, P=100%). The curve is related to the voltage level of the stator and deviates following the change of such voltage.

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Generator Excitation System

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2.3.8

Deexcitation and overvoltage protection The trigger unit of part of static deexcitation device (jumper), having a number of independent discharge silicon controlled circuits, as shown in Figure 2-11.
U N S 00 17
3 4

X 1

1 2

5 6 7

Figure 2-11 Principle diagram of deexcitation circuit The controlled deexcitation circuit of the generator may be duplicated, connected at the same time as the trip coil of the deexcitation switch. In addition, a voltage detection circuit is provided, which will automatically trigger the controlled silicon if the excitation voltage exceeds its preset value. Therefore, the controlled silicon bridge and the magnetic field winding is protected from impact by dangerous peak voltage as the jumper is used as the independent overvoltage protection device. 2.3.9 PT fault detection The detection of PT fault is achieved by comparison of the measured values of generator terminal voltage and excitation transformer secondary voltage. If the difference between the two voltages exceeds the setting value (15% of the rated value of the generator terminal voltage), the logic controller will initiate the switching: if two channels share one CT, the mode will be switched from auto to manual, if two channels use their independent PT and disconnection of PT occurs on the active channel, the auto mode of the active mode will be switched to the auto mode of the spare channel. If two groups of PT have fault, the mode will be switched to manual. 2.3.10 Rotor temperature measurement The measurement of rotor temperature is achieved by the calculation of resistance of the excitation winding, as expressed below:

T1 =

Td 0 Tdl

Wherein: Uf=magnetic field voltage If=magnetic field current Lf=excitation winding inductance UB=brush voltage drop RB=brush resistance RL=resistance of the main circuit conductor between measuring point of magnetic field and brush T1=equivalent time constant
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Generator Excitation System

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Td0=magnetic field time constant Td1=load time constant (between Td and Td0) P= Laplacian According to the calculation result of the winding resistance, the temperature is calculated as per the following expression:

Rf Tf = Rf 0

Wherein: Tf=rotor temperature Rfo=0C rotor excitation winding resistance =resistance temperature coefficient of excitation winding material [1/C] The measurement result of the rotor temperature may be displayed locally and/or remotely, and may be used for alarm. 2.3.11 Overcurrent protection The overcurrent protection is divided into inverse time limit overcurrent protection and transient overcurrent protection. The characteristics of the overcurrent protection is similar to that of the described maximum excitation current limiter, only that the curve is higher. 2.3.12 Protection for loss of excitation (P/Q) When the operating point of the generator exceeds its stability limit, protection for loss of excitation will operate to trip the generator. The protection curve is set using the five points in the power circle diagram (see chapter 11 for details), and the curve is similar to the limiting curve of the P/Q limiter. But the P/Q protection curve moves left by 5% to 10% based on the limiting curve of P/Q. As the stability limit of the synchronous generator is related to the terminal voltage, the P/Q protection curve is also corrected in direct proportion to the terminal voltage of the generator. When the operating point of the generator exceeds the protection curve, the timer will be triggered and the order to trip the generator will be given after a settable time delay. The timer delayed startup signal may also be used for alarm.

Figure 2-12 Principle diagram for loss of excitation protection of generator

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Generator Excitation System

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2.3.13 Overexcitation protection (V/Hz relay)

Figure 2-13 Principle diagram for overexcitation protection of generator This is used to prevent excessive flux of synchronous generator and transformer.The overexcitation protection at first calculates the current allowable value of the terminal voltage based on the generator frequency and setting value. If the actual voltage of the generator exceeds the allowable value, the timer delay will be triggered. Before the time delay is over, if the voltage fails to return to the allowable value, the tripping signal will be given. 2.3.14 Excitation transformer temperature measurement The UNITROL 5000 software may through the PTC or PT100 sensors embedded at the position of the excitation transformer secondary coil with maximum temperature measure the temperature of the winding. If PTC is used, two sensors will be used for each phase and connected in series then to the two analogue value input points of the FIO. The regulator will detect whether the temperature of the current excitation transformer reaches the setting value of the two sections of temperature. The alarm will be activated if the section 1 setting value is exceeded and the trip of excitation system will be activiated if the section 2 setting value is exceeded.

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On / off cycle for generator application (Standard application without additional application program, no fault or alarm present)
r.p.m. Voltage

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Remote Local control control


ON OFF

Figure 2-14
1
ON OFF

Enable excitation *)

No fault no alarm

FCB On

FCB Off

Excitation ON OFF

Exc. On

8 4
Load operation (on network)

ON / OFF

Exc. Off

Machine breaker ON OFF

Generator Excitation System

65
ON OFF

ON / OFF

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3
Reset to 100%

Superimposed Regulation

Q/cos On

ON / OFF

Q/cos Off

Reference value change

Synchron. system

Higher/lower

By operating personnel

Reset to 100%

ON/OFF time sequence of excitation for generator


Perm. reset to 90% Ifo Compensation to AUTO-Regulator
By operating personnel

MANUAL

Perm. reset to 90% Ifo

Superimposed regulation

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*) Remote operation: Enable via external locking functions

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Generator Excitation System

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2.4 Technical specifications Table 2-6 Type of excitation

Main technical data of generator excitation system UNITROL 5000 431V 1000V 4727 A 8986 A 80ms DC220V 58 kW IP54 Dry transformer 3*2400 kVA 3 Y/d-11 50Hz 22/0.9 22kV 900V 1 min.

Type Rated excitation voltage Ceiling voltage of excitation system (at 100% Ugn) Rated continuous excitation current Celing voltage (for 20s ) Response time Excitation mode Total power consumption of excitation cabinet Protection class 2. Excitation transformer Type Rated capacity Number of phase Group of wiring Rated frequency Rated voltage: HV side LV side Time that the HV side may withstand 1.3 times of rated voltage of the generator

Time that the HV side may withstand 2 times of rated 20s current Protection class Cooling mode BIL Power frequency withstand voltage Partial discharge Insulation class Noise level 3. Rectifier deivce Number of branches in parallel Current equalization coefficient of the branches in parallel IP22 Self cooling+fan 170kV 70kV (1 min) <10Pc F 56dB 5 0.9 5 5STP18H4200 2075A 4200V

Number of SCR rectifier cabinet Type of SCR


Rated positive average current of SCR element

Reverse voltage of SCR

Maximum inversion angle of SCR in case of 150 inversion Load capability with one rectifier bridge out of All operating conditions service
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Forced fan cooling Cooling mode of rectifier cabinet Overall dimension of rectifier cabinet W DH 1000*1000*2300 4. AVR Type Manufacturer Mode of regulation Accuracy of regulation Regulation and setting range of AVR Setting range of manual current regulator Operation mode and redundancy Dimension (LxWxH) (mm) 5. Deexcitation and rotor protection a. Magnetic field switch Type Model Manufacturer Rated current Rated voltage Maximum breaking current Number of breaks Operating voltage (trip and closure coil) Trip device b. Discharge resistance Material Type SiC Non-linear High speed single break DC switch UNITROL 5000 ABB Switzerland Ltd PID+PSS <0.5% 20110 10% ~ 130% Ifn 2 AVR+2 FCR+2 BFCR 800x1000x2300mm

HPB60M-82S
ABB 6000A 1000V 100kA 1 DC220V

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Generator hydrogen control system

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Chapter III Generator hydrogen control system The generator hydrogen colling system is used to cool the stator core and rotor of the generator, for which carbon dioxide is used as the replacement medium. The generator hydrogen cooling system is closed hydrogen circulating system, in which the hot hydrogen is cooled by the cooling water through the hydrogen cooler of the generator. As indicated by the operating experience, the loss of ventilation of generator is mainly determined by the mass of the cooling medium. The lighter the medium is, the smaller the loss is. Hydrogen has the minimum density among the gases and is thus beneficial for reduction of loss; in addition, the heat transfer coefficient of hydrogen is five times that of the air and thus the transfer capability is good; the hydrogen has very good insulation performance and the control technology thereof is mature. However, the most significant weakness is that once the hydrogen is mixed with air at certain proportion (4%-74%), it will be subject to strong explosion. As such, the casing of generator is designed as explosion proof type, and carbon dioxide is used as replacement medium. The basic requirements on performance of the generator hydrogen cooling system: athe temperature of hydrogen directly cooled by the cooling water of the hydrogen cooler usually does not exceed 38C; b. When the purity of hydrogen is not lower than 95%, the rated power shall be generated under rated conditions. But the purity of reference hydrogen used for calculation and measurement of efficiency shall be 98%; c. the casing and end cap shall be able to withstand the water pressure test under the pressure of 0.8MPa for 15 minutes, so as to ensure that the internal explosion of hydrogen during operation will not endanger people; d. When the operating water pressure of the hydrogen cooler is above 0.35MPa, the test water pressure shall be no lower than 2 times of the operating water pressure; e. the cooler shall be designed to withstand 0.8MPa on one side; f. all the pipes, valves and relevant devices as well as the flanges and inverse flanges of the generator hydrogen cooling system and hydrogen control system shall be made of 1Cr18Ni9Ti. The sealing valves of the hydrogen system are all of packless sealing valves. Description of system and equipment Principle of work The air and the hydrogen prohibit to replace directly which in generator, in order to avoid form a explosion mixture gas. Usually use the CO2 gas to take in the middle medium alization generator air and hydrogen replacement. The hydrogen control system has special-purpose pipeline, CO2 gas supply unit, purging control valves can achieve gas indirect placement.The hydrogen inevitably can mix in the sealing oil, and carried over along with the sealing oil discharge generator, sometimes also possibly appear other leakage spots.Therefore the hydrogen pressure always assume to the drop tendency, hydrogen pressure drop possibly cause the generator temperature rise, so the hydrgen pressure must keep in stipulation scope. In this control system hydrogen gas control unit has two sets of hydrogen pressure reducer, can be realized hydrogen pressure automatic control.Hydrogen humidity excessively high will affect the generator more blights, so generator establish the special-purpose hydrogen dryer, its inlet pipe connect to high-pressure side of the rotor fan, its outlet pipe connect to low-pressure side of the rotor fan, thus the hydrogen can be
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2.5 2.5.1

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Generator hydrogen control system

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continuously flow in the dryer to dry. The hydrogen purity must be keep in 98%, hydrogen purity low, one affect the cooling effect, two increase ventilation loss. If hydrogen purity is lower than alarm value90%generator cannot continue operate, at least cannot completely load operate. When in generator the hydrogen purity is low, can through the hydrogen control system vent or supply hydrogen. Generator sealing oil system which used the vacuum clean oil equipment, the sealing oil has been deal with by vacuum clean, contains the air and moisture really micro, therefore the hydrogen purity can maintain at a higher level. Only in vacuum clean oil equipment fault, causing the hydrogen purity quickly drop. The hydrogen pressure, purity and temperature are must be regular monitor parameter, leakage of the oil yr water also must be regular monitor. In hydrogen system has different 2.5.2 special-purpose instruments to monitor each operation parameter can send out alarm signal. Cooling channels of rotor and core The cooling of rotor is in the structure of air vent diagonal flow ventilation. Inlet and outlet gaps are opened on the surface slot wedge of rotor. And ventilation holes are opened on the rotor winding, which form diagonal flow channel after assembly and fixation. The gas is absorbed into the bottom of slot through a group of diagonal channels and ridially turns, the through another group of disgonal channels to the air vent. Refer to the diagrams for the details. The two fans arranged at the two ends are used to pressurize the hydrogen, which follows the rotation of rotor to enter and leave the cooling channel. (as shown in Figure 3-1)

Figure 3-1 Generator rotor digonal flow ventilation structure diagram Outlet; Inlet; Air gap; Upper turning point; Lower turning point; Gas diagonal flow diagram; Rotation direction 1 Smooth inlet hopper; 2 Inter-turns insulation; 3 Copper wire; 4 Outlet; 5 Forged ventilation gap; 6 Insulation mat; 7 Slot lining; 8 Inlet; 9 Slot mat The cooling channel of the rotor and the core is in the structure of multiple input and multiple output. Radial and axial air gap clapboards are used to separate the gas into cold and hot section, which may effectively restrict the mixing of cold and hot gas and ensure an even distribution of temperature along the axial direction of the rotor. The entire cooling section may be divided into four subsections.
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Generator hydrogen control system

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2.5.3

2.5.4

2.5.5

Figure 3-2 Generator proper multiple input and multiple output ventilation system As shown in Figure 3-2, the pressure of hydrogen is boosted by the fans and it enters the cooling channel of the rotor and core, then to the hydrogen cooler for cooling after heat exchange. Then it enters the fan to start the next circulation. Operation control of hydrogen system The designed internal pressure of generator is 0.45MPa. During normal operation of the unit, the hydrogen will leak through the sealing oil system and other unsealed parts. To maintain the pressure of gas at the specified value, hydrogen needs to be filled continuously. The feed hydrogen is from the hydrogen storage station. The feed of hydrogen is by manual operation through the double loop system at 0m of the turbine. The designed maximum leakage is 14m 3/day. When the amount of feed hydrogen is exceptionally increased, inspection shall be done on the system for leakage. During normal operation, the hydrogen detector shall also be used to detect leakage of hydrogen at relevant sections. Local control panel shall be provided at the 0m of turbine for real time monitor of hydrogen pressure, temperature and purity. When the purity is below 95%, the hydrogen shall be discharged and fed until the purity meets requirement. Cooling of hydrogen The hydrogen has four sets in the structure of circumambulation. The flow of cooling water of hydrogen coolers at both sides is controlled separately by two valves and the inlet and outlet water pipes of hydrogen coolers are in symmetric arrangement. The system has four sets of coolers arranged at four corners of the generator, with one out of service, the unit may operate with 80% of the rated load. The cooling medium is open type water with one regulation valve provided on the return header, and through the regulation of water flow the temperature of cold hydrogen is maintained at the proper value of 40~46C. Generator gas replacement The hydrogen pipes for inlet and outlet of the generator casing are mounted on the upper part of the generator, and those for carbon dioxide are on the lower part of the generator. When fill hydrogen in generator, first used the carbon dioxide (CO2) to drive away air which in the generator, wait for CO2 content surpasses 85% then introduce hydrogen, this period keep generator pressure in 0.02 ~0.03MPa. When exhaust out hydrogen, first hydrogen pressure drop to 0.02~0.03MPa, then used CO2 to drive away generator hydrogen, wait far CO2 content surpasses 95% then can introduce compressed air to drive away CO2, until CO2
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Generator hydrogen control system

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2.5.6

content is 5%, then might stop to deliver the compressed air in generator, this process also will be keep generator pressure in 0.02 ~0.03MPa. Gas replacement work several matters need attention: 1). Seals oil system must guarantee for the oil supply, and oil-gas differential pressure kept in 0.056 0.02MPa, the generator rotor is at static condition.(hand fuming condition also can carry on gas replacement, but quantity of waste gas will increase) 2). The sealing oil drain enlargement section need to time exhaust by manual while in gas replacement process. each time continuously about 5min. In replacement process ought to vent one times gas when each kind of gas content close to the requested value. After f inish gas vented operator should confirm valves have closed strictly then can leave. The hydrogen dryer connection pipeline also ought to gas replace. 3). Before gas replacement, ought to check the measuring appliance of gas replacement platemeter display the CO2 and H2 purity value should collate with chemical examination result, the error does not surpass 1%, otherwise the purity value should be increased to compensate the measuring appliance error. The hydrogen humidity meter fore-and-aft calves should be closed . 4). Before gas replacement, operator should according to the hydrogen control system diagram to inspect each valve switch condition whether does conform with the request. 5). During gas replacement, the hydrogen humidity transmitter of hydrogen system must be cut-off. Because this instrument sensor cannot contact the CO2 gas, otherwise the sensor "will be poisoned", will cause not to be able to normal work. 6). Copper tools shall be used for opening and closing valves, and tools shall be applied with yellow glycerol if cooper tools are available to avoid sprak due to collision. 7). Opening and closing of valves must be performed slowly, particularly when hydrogen is fed, filled and discharged to avoid intensive friction of hydrogen with the valves and pipes which may cause sparks. 8). When discharging hydrogen, it must be checked that within 20m from the discharging location of the hydrogen there are no flames and flammables. Discharge of hydrogen into room is prohibited. 9). During replacement of gas, the cranes above the unit shall be maintained out of service and electrical operations such as testing of insulation are prohibited in the vincity. Attention points in operation The inlet and outlet pipeline of hydrogen purity analyzer all installed drain valve , each month at least discharge 3~4 times in initial operation period, inspect whether does have greasy dirt, if does not have the oil or the water discharge, then later might each week discharge one times. If pipe has greasy dirt possibly to make the analysis function of hydrogen purity analyzer to drop. Hydrogen purity analyzer should exit from generator operation by oil-water pollution. Operator can use carbon tetrachloride to remove the greasy dirt. Inspection and surveillance 1). Each daily inspection project:
71

2.5.7

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Generator hydrogen control system

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aInspect the oil-water detector, if it has oil or water, operator should discharge; b. Inspect the hydrogen dryer whether normal c.Inspect the hydrogen purity, pressure,temperature indicator whether normally operation. 2). Each week inspection project: a. Inspect the hydrogen purity analyzer filter (if have installed) desiccant whether replacement b. Drain valve in hydrogen system pipeline should be discharge one times each week. 3). Each month inspection project: Drain, vent valve should be opened to discharge oil-water dirt. 4). Every 3 6 month-long inspection project: a. Used in alarm switch relay etc. movement test; b.The safety valve movement test; c.Check the hydrogen purity analyzer; d. Energization of gas replacement panel and calibration of analyzer. 5). Every 6~12 month-long inspection project: Check pressure gauge, indicator etc.. 6). Each 12 month inspection project:Inspect and clean relay etc. 2.6 Systems equipments and their principle of work 2.6.1 Hydrogen gas control unit Usually, hydrogen come from store hydrogen device. This hydrogen gas control unit have two hydrogen imports, two hydrogen filter, two hydrogen reducer. The hydrogen inlet pressure biggest permissible value is 3.2MPa(supply generator hydrogen pressure must be limit below 3.2MPa),through the double mother pipes connect to the hydrogen gas control unit, then send into the generator after have been reduced. (Gas replacement period reducer outlet pressure may set 0.5MPa, normal operation period may set 0.45Mpa) Reducer use are the YQQ-II type hydrogen reducer. It is composed by two levels: The first level falls the high-pressured hydrogen below to 2.5MPa, the second level falls again to the need pressure. The reducer inlet pressure generally cannot be lower than 0.6MPa, outlet pressure manual operation set automatic maintenance. Hydrogen gas control unit installed an angle safety valve, its open and return pressure depend on internal spring tightness. Before the equipment leave manufactory the safety valve has been adjusted to 0.5 0.53MPa open, to 0.456MPa close. Before the safety valve operated in power plant it should be readjust, also it should be readjust every 6 months, the max opening pressure value also can be adjusted, but not break through 0.53MPa as suitable. All used in hydrogen gas control unit and hydrogen system valves is bellow shutoff valve (welding type). Between this kind of valve core and valve seat used soft gasket structure, its merit is well sealing property. If discovered the valve close not strictly, generally should
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inspect the gasket damage or distortion, then should replace the soft gasket. When weld this valve it must be at opening device, in order to avoid the soft gasket burn suffer injury. Hydrogen gas control unit and CO2 gas control unit all have installed gas filter.If it stopped up by anything, then must take out the filter elements to clean. The hydrogen gas control unit also has pressure monitor instrument, the pressure switch uses in low pressure alarm signal, the pressure gauge uses for monitor the reducer import and export pressure. 2.6.2 CO2 gas control unit CO2 gas control unit uses in generator gas replaced, to control CO2 gas enter in generator of need pressure value (usually generator interior gas pressure maintain between 0.02 0.03MPa in replacement process) . CO2 gas control unit has one set of reducer, safety valve and gas valve etc.these components structure, type same as hydrogen gas control unit corresponding component. CO2 gas usually supply by bottle. CO2 bottle generally assumed liquid state CO2,its pressure is very high, must pass through specially separate CO2 standard manifold to release, pressure fall to 1.6MPa, so use pipe connect to the CO2 gas control unit, through the filter and the reducer drop to the need pressure, then supply to generator. CO2 standard manifold generally have five to ten bottles positions. Liquid state CO2 release to gasificativn from the bottle, it must absorb quantity of heat, cause freeze pipe and reducer, so release rate is restricted .More bottle position more release. Moreover also may used the water to drench the CO2 standard manifold to defrost, but must connect pipe in addition, also have drain. Adopt these two means for reduce the gas replacement time. 2.6.3 Purging control valves Purging control valves only installed several valves. When generator normal operation, these valves must be closed, only when the generator need to carry on gas replacement, so operate these valves by manual. 2.6.4 Gas replacement plate Gas replacement plate uses to analyze CO2 or H2 content which in gas replacement process 2.6.5 of generator, thus to make sure the gas replacement whether conform with the request. Hydrogen purity detector The hydrogen purity detector is an analyzer used to measure the purity of hydrogen in the generator (measuring range at 80%~100%), which shall be energized for preheating for 2h before use to maintain that the feedback data and signals are accurate. When the detector is delivered, the lower limit alarm point is set at 92% and that below this is set at 90%. Hydrogen dryer The hydrogen dryer is of condensing type, the basic working principle is such that the hydrogen let in the dryer is cooled under -10C, part of the vapor in the hydrogen is condsend to frost in the dryer and then the frost automatically quits to melt the frost. The melt water flows into the header and signals are given when certain amount has been reached for manual discharge. The water content in hydrogen of the generator is gradually reduced. The cooling element of the condensing hydrogen dryer is compressor. The cooled and
73

2.6.6

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Generator hydrogen control system

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dehydrated hydrogen is delivered back to front of the generator and then heated to about 18C, and the heating equipment is also located in the dryer. The circulation of hydrogen is dependent on the pressure difference between fans at two ends of the generator, the gas resistance of the druer is about 1KPa(100mm water column), as such the resistance of the inlet and outlet pipes of hydrogen shall be minimized. Online detectors are provided at both inlet and outlet of the hydrogen dryer and resin type oil eliminator is provided at the inlet to ensure that the dew point of hydrogen in the generator under rated pressure is no higher than -5C and no lower than -25C. The dew point of feed and fill hydrogen of generator shall be -50C. The treatment amount of hydrogen by the dryer shall be no less than 100Nm 3/h. 1). Cooling system After the low pressure cooling agent gas absorbed from the evaporator is compressed by the cooling compressor, it becomes high temperature and high pressure gas and enters the condenser for heat exchange with air or water, releasing the thermal energy absorbed in the evaporator and produced by compressor and thus the high temperature and high pressure vapor is condensed to high pressure liquid cooling agent; it enters the evaporator through the liquid storage rank, drying and filtering device and thermal expansion valve for relief and pressure reduction to absorbe the thermal energy of hydrogen in the cooler, boiling and evaporating the cooling agent to gas, which then enters the compressor through the low pressure pipe for compression. As circulating in this way, the thermal energy of the hydrogen is continuously absorbed to decrease the temperature of vapor below dew point temperature and separate the water content, thereby cooling and drying. 2). Hydrogen dryer system a Heat regenerator: the hot and wet hydrogen from the generator enters the heat regenerator from the inlet of dryer for heat exchange with the cooled and dried hydrogen. It is intended to increase the temperature of the dried hydrogen and serve as the first class cooling and drying. b. Cooler: the hot and wet hydrogen through the heat regenerator enters the cooler for heat exchange with the evaporator surface of the cooling system. When the temperature of hydrogen is decreased below the dew point temperature, the vapor in the hydrogen is condensed to water and frost and the hydrogen passes the heat regenerator after drying. Then, it leaves the outlet of drier to the generator. c. Water storage tank: the condensate eliminated from the cooler enters the water storage tank through the drainage pipe. When the water in the tank reaches up to certain level, the water level controller will give alarm signals, when the discharge valve is opened for drainage. The water tank is provided with water level alarm. The tank has a capacity of 14L, when the water amount reaches 10L, visual signal will be given. 3). Electrical control system The drier will be operating in dual or single mode, determined by button of double or single. Suppose two alternating driers are A and B respectively. The hydrogen drier is controlled in single mode for this generator. The protection system is provided with pressure protection, loss of phase protection and overcurrent short circuit protection for the cooling unit; reliable membrane solenoid valve is used for defrosting. Time setting value: the setting range of the operation time is 0.5-2 hours; the setting range for the defrosting time is 2-5 minutes; the setting range of slot time is 15-60 minutes (the specific time will be set during commissioning).

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Generator hydrogen control system

NAGARUNA THERMAL POWER PROJECT UNITS-#1&2

Figure 3-3 Work principle diagram of hydrogen drier Terms in the diagram: from industrial water; oil drain; condenser; oil reservoir; device for drying and filtering;; compressor; regenerator; storage water tank; return to generator; from generator; A: device A; Bdevice B. 4). Alternating operation of hydrogen drier First switch on A and B driers. Press the double and defrosting on buttons of A and B driers respectively. Press the start button of drier A and its hydrogen inlet solenoid valve will open automatically (the solenoid valve 301 is NO type, which will be closed when energized), the B drier hydrogen inlet solenoid valve 301 automatically closes. The hot ant wet hydrogen flows through A drier for heat exchange with the surface of evaporator in the cooler, thus cooled and dried. The operation of drier is controlled by timing. When the cooling operation time is over (when the cooling compressor will continue to operate), the A drier will automatically close the hydrogen inlet solenoid valve 301 and the hot vapor defrosting solenoid valve 103 automatically opens. The high temperature and high pressure cooling agent vapor from the compressor enters the evaporator from the bypass pipe, defrosting the evaporator; the defrosted condensate will directly flow into the water storage tank. The A drier hydrogen inlet solenoid valve 301 closes, when the B drier hydrogen inlet solenoid valve 301 will automatically open and be in service for drying operation. The B drier defrosting, the A drier is in service, in this way the two are in alternating operation. 5). Single operation of hydrogen drier If the A drier is operating as drier, the power supply of B drier shall be switched off and the previous class valve of the B drier is closed, as such the B drier quits operation. Press the buttons of single and defrosting on of A drier, then press the start button, the A drier will operate as self circulation in single mode for drying.
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Generator hydrogen control system

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6). Hydrogen drier on a. Complete the routine inspection of auxiliary equipment and system before operation. b. Open the hydrogen pipe inlet and outlet valves of the generator connected to the drier. c. Open the compressor inlet valve 101, exhaust valve 102 and liquid supply valve 104 for check. d. For the condenser of water cooled cooling compressor, open the water supply valve and regulate the flow before operation. e. Check that the lubricating oil level is normal of the compressor (no lower than the low oil level and no higher than 2/3 of the high oil level) f. Check that the power supply voltage is within the range of 400V10%. g. Respectively switch on the power supplies of A and B driers, with the power indicator lamp on. h. Press the buttons of double and defrosting on of A and B driers, with double and defrosting on buttons on, and defrosting on in green. i. Press the start button of A drier (the cooling indicator lamp on), the drier will be in operation. At this timethe B drier is in standby, once the cooling of A is completed and the defrosting process starts, the defrosting on indicator lamp will change green to red, the B drier will be in operation automatically. j. Check that the parts of the driers are in normal operation. Note: if single operation of A is used, the power supply switch of B that will not be used shall be closed, and the previous class valve shall be closed also to quit the B drier. If the buttons of single and defrosting of A drier are pressed, and then the start button is pressed, the A drier will be in operation of single mode for drying operation. 7). Maintenance of hydrogen drier a. Check that the lubricating oil level of the compressor is OK (neither lower than the low oil level nor higher than 2/3 of the high oil level). b. Check that the high pressure and low pressure of the setting value of the compressor pressure controller are at 1.5Mpa and 0~0.02Mpa. c. After the drier is put in operation, the thermal expansion valve may be slightly regulated to make sure that the low gauge pressure value of the compressor is within the range of 0.02~0.1Mpa. d. Make sure that the compressor is in normal operation, without exceptional noise. e. Make sure that the connections are free of gas and oil leakage. f. Check that the water level of the water storage tank does not exceed 2/3 of the height. The water shall be discharged at least once a day (in the initial days after the drier is put in operation or after feed of hydrogen, the stagnant water may be much and the frequency of discharge shall be increased). g. To maintain the high efficiency of the water cooled condenser, clean cooling water must be used to prevent scale. 8). Hydrogen drier off a. Press the off button (the cooling indicator lamp off). b. Switch off the power switch of the drier (the power indicator lamp off). c. Close the hydrogen pipe inlet and outlet valves of the generator connected with the drier. d. Close the condenser of the water cooled cooling compressor and the water supply valve. The residual water in winter shall be discharged.

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Generator hydrogen control system

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2.6.7

Hydrogen system special-purpose circulation blower Circulation blower generator under the stop mare to use in the generator system, when generator under the stop or hand turning condition, open the circulation blower can make the Hydrogen dryer be able to normally work.

2.6.8

Oil-water detection annunciator If oil or water leaked in generator, the oil-water should flew in the annunciatar. In the annunciatvr has a float, the top of float carried a magnet steel, on the annuaciator equipped with magnetic switch. when the fluid which in annunciator position rise, the float along with it rise, the magnet steel attracts along with it gather, the magnetic switch close and send out alarm signal, after operator have received this alarnn signal, then personnel can open valve of the annunciator bottom to drain out oil-water. In the same detection anrlunciatvr hydrogen system established two, in sealing oil system established one to detect oil level whether ultra

does limit of the sealing oil drain enlargement section. Temperature and humidity transmitter One temperature and himidity transmitter is mounted respectively at the inlet and outlet of the hydrogen drier of the generator, so as to monitor the humidity conditions of the hydrogen in the generator online. 2.6.10 Generator hydrogen leakage on-line tester 2.6.10.1 Application It is used for semi-quantitative on-online monitor of hydrogen leakage concentration in the sealed busbars and oil and water system of the generator, showing the change trend of the hydrogen concentration at the measured location with the function of alarm at rated value. As such, it is made easy for identification and timely treatment of hydrogen leakage points, creating favorable conditions for the safe and economic operation of hydrogen cooled generator, which may effective prevent hydrogen explosion that causes severe danger to human and equipment safety. 2.6.10.2 Handling after alarm given by tester After the tester gives alarm, the change of relevant parameters shall be understood at first (such as hydrogen pressure and hydrogen feed amount). On condition that the tester is not deenergized, open the nut used for fixing sensor on the alarm measuring point gas chamber, take out the sensor from the chamber with cable and place at a clean place close to the chamber, then observe the indication of the instrument. If the instrument returns to 0, it shows that the instrument is give correct alarm and the probe may be re-mounted. This tester is a semi-quantitative on-online monitor of hydrogen, which focuses on monitor of existence and change trend of hydrogen leakage. It shows the hydrogen concentration under the membrane at the gas chamber bottom. 2.7 Technical specifications 2.6.9 Table 3-1 No. 1 2 Main design parameters of generator hydrogen system Type 0.5 0.2~0.45 Quantity MPa MPa Unit

Description Maximum hydrogen pressure in generator casing Allowable range of change for hydrogen pressure
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Generator hydrogen control system

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3 4

Rated hydrogen purity in generator casing Maximum hydrogen purity in generator casing

98 92 (alarm value)

% %

6 7 8

Guaranteed amount of total hydrogen feed (under rated hydrogen 14 pressure) Manufacturer/country of hydrogen Dognfan system g Type of hydrogen system Dimension of hydrogen system (LW H) Table 3-2 Intergate d 10801050480

Nm 3/24h

mm

Descriptio n Carbon dioxide

Generator gas replacement data sheet Required gas capacity Replacement operation Operation Operation status status V=300 V=300 V=375 V=300

Estimated time

Expel air with carbon dioxide (with V=350 purity at 85%) Expel carbon dioxide with Hydrogen V=350 hydrogen (with purity at 96%) Increase the pressure of hydrogen V=375 Hydrogen to 0.414Mpa Carbon dioxide Expel hydrogen with carbon dioxide (with purity at 96%) V=350

5~7 5~7 1.5~2 5~7

Table 3-3 Main operation parameters of generator hydrogen system Description Value Unit Remark Rated hydrogen 0.45 MPa Gauge pressure pressure in generator Hydrogen temperature 46 C Hydrogen 14 Nm 3 Average per day consumption 98% Volume percent

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Generator sealing oil control system

NAGARUNA THERMAL POWER PROJECT UNITS-#1&2

Chapter Generator sealing oil control system As the generator stator core and rotor are cooled by hydrogen, in order to prevent axial leakage of hydrogen along the rotor during operation which may cause fire or explosion, sealing pads (rings) are provided at both shaft ends of the generator and sealing oil at pressure higher than the hydrogen is supplied in circulation to the sealing pads at the joint between shaft and end cap (as shown in Figure 4-1). The sealing oil of this generator has only one loop (conventionally called single flow ring type), which separates and enters respectively the sealing pads at the turbine side and the excitation side and then flows to the air side and hydrogen side through the middle oil hole along the axial gap, forming an oil film with the function of sealing and lubrication. Then the oil separates into two loops (hydrogen side and air side) and return.

Figure 4-1 Generator sealing oil pad structure End cap; Sealing oil; Sealing oil chamber; Sealing pad; Shaft; Hydrogen area; Return oil The generator seal tile (links) must use the oil(actually is turbine bearing lube), people according to its use called it sealing oil. While the combination of all the equipment used to maintain the normal supply of sealing oil for the generator is called generator sealing oil system. The sealing oil has the following main functions: a prevent leakage of hydrogen from generator; b. provide lubrication for the sealing pad to prevent wear thereof;c. minimize the amount of air and vapor entering the generator.

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Generator sealing oil control system

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2.8 Description of system and equipment

Figure 4-2 Principle schematic diagram of generator sealing oil system Terms in the diagram: generatorair detraining section steam return oilfloat valvemain machine lube differential pressure control valvefilter sealing oul pump recirculating pumpvacuum pumpvacuum box sealing oil drain enlargement sectionmain power block. Sealing oil drain enlargement section Sealing oil drain enlargement section arrange approach the generator base,it function mainly is to store hydrogen side return oil.Sealing oil drain enlargement section (refers to blueprint which separate provides) The turbine end(to be called T) and exciter end (to be called G) of generator hydrogen side have a drainage pipe connected with sealing oil drain enlargement section, came from seal ring draining oil expand in this section, enable to separate hydrogen (H2) in the return oil. Sealing oil drain enlargement section inside has a transverse clapboard, it divided into two compartments of the section, between the compartment connected with outside U shape pipe, in order to prevent the generator air blower differential pressure causing the gas circulated in sealing oil drain pipe. Sealing oil drain enlargement section interior has a pipeline connected with oil-water detector (LSH-202), when the oil level in section surpassed predetermined value then oil-water detector sent out alarm sisal. Float oil tank Through sealing oil drain enlargement section hydrogen side return oil flew in float oil tank, this float oil tank function is further to separate hydrogen from the oil. The float oil tank interior has installed float valve which can automatic control oil level, made this float oil tank oil level to keep in normal scope to avoid hydrogen come into air detraining section. Outside the float oil tank has installed manna! by-pass valve and fluid position inspection window, in order to necessity manual control oil level.Hydrogen separated from of oil return to the sealing oil drain enlargement section, the lube through the pipe flew to air
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Generator sealing oil control system

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detraining section .

Figure 4-3

Float oil tank

Figure 4-4 Structure of floater regulating valve in floater oil tank The control principle diagram of float ball valve (floater valve) is shown in Figure 4-4, when the oil level gradually rises, the float ball valve will gradually open wider until fully opened; when the oil level gradually goes down, the float ball valve will accordingly close until fully closed. When the float ball valve is stuch, such condtions that the oil level is excessively high or low or even become invisible may occur. High oil level indicates that the float ball valve is not effectively open and exceptionally high oil level in the enlargement slot may occur; low oil level indicates that the float ball valve is not effectively closed, which may cause the results that hydrogen leaks in significant amount and pressure in the generator reduces. In case of the above conditons, the float ball valve shall be knocked. If failed, the float ball valve shall be isolated and bypass valve shall be used for regulation, with the oil level observed through the glass oil meter. Air detraining section Generator air side sealing oil and bearing lube mix together flew into air detraining section, gas separated from oil through the pipeline (GBV) exhausted to atmosphere, the lube through the pipe flew to turbine main oil tank. The air separation tank shall be mounted under the hydrogen side oil return enlargement slot to ensure that the oil return is smooth. Sealing oil supply control device Sealing oil supply control device main include: two main AC oil pumps, an accident oil pump, vacuum oil tank, one oil-gas differential pressure valve, two oil filters, instrument box, local gauge and the pipeline valves so on. 1). Vacuum device
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Generator sealing oil control system

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The vacuum device mainly is including vacuum oil tank, vacuum pump and circulation oil pump. They are oil purification equipment in the single ring type sealing oil system. 2). Vacuum oil tank In normal work condition (here refer main AC sealing oil pump operation for normal work), bearing lube continuous supplied in vacuum oil tank, air and moisture can separated from lute in vacuum oil tank, then through the vacuum pump and vacuum pipe exhausted to atmosphere, thus caused the sealing oil to be purify, prevented air and moisture caused pohution to generator hydrogen. The float valve automatic control oil level in the vacuum oil tank, float ball rises and falls along with oil level height, thus adjusts the float valve to open, like this causes to make up supply oil speed to be able to control, in vacuum oil tank oil level also be control along with it.The vacuum oil tank main appendix also has liquid level annunciator, when oil level high or low ,liquid level annunciator will send out alarm signal.(switch signal and 4~20mA). Vacuum pump continuous work to keep vacuum degree in vacuum oil tank, at the same time, extractive air and moisture (steam) exhaust out. In order to accelerate air and moisture release from the oil, the vacuum oil tank interior establishment has many nozzles, supplement oil through these nozzles to jet in vacuum oil tank, the circulating oil through circulation jet nozzle to proliferate again, acceleration gas and steam separated from of oil.Through pipe made the oil formed a partial circulation route in vacuum oil tank thus enable made the oil to be better purification.

Figure 4-5 Structure of vacuum oil tank float ball regulating valve 3). Oil pump Two main oil pumps, one is work, another is standby. They are installed AC .One emergency oil pump. When main oil pump have fault, so emergency oil pump worked. It is installed DC motor. They are three screw rods oil pumps. 4). Oil-gas differential pressure regulating valve This regulating valve to use in the automatic control seal tile oil pressure, made the oil pressure automatic tracking with generator gas pressure, also kept the oil-gas differential pressure in need scope. 5). Oil filter Two oil filters be installed on oil-gas differential pressure regulating valve inlet pipeto filtrate solid state impurity in sealing oil. The oil filter structure is filter element type. Oil filters

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Generator sealing oil control system

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installed on sealing oil supply control device, before the product leaved factory, filter element have been taken out from oil filter, after the power plant has finished circulation flush series pipeline of oil system, then installed the filter element. 6). Instrument box Each sealing oil pump outlet has installed pressure gauge on sealing oil supply control device, used to instruct each oil pump outlet pressure. Following instrument collection installed in instrument box: a. Pressure gauge and vacuum gauge each one used in to instruct the sealing oil pressure and the vacuum oil tank vacuum (pressure). b. Two pressure switches: one used in to send out alarm signal while vacuum degree reduced; another used in to send out alarm signal while sealing oil pressure low, for control standby sealing oil pump and emergency sealing oil pump open or stop. c. One oil-gas differential pressure gauge, used in to instruct the sealing oil pressure and the generator gas pressure difference value (abbreviation oil-gasdifferential pressure). d. One differential pressure switch uses in to send out the alarm signal while oil-gas differential pressure ultra limit. Oil smoke purifier The air separation tank of the generator sealing oil system is equipped with 2100% smoke exhaust fans, which are connected in parallel through the check valve at the outlet of fans. In normal condtions, one fan is in operation and the other is on standby, which may be mutually switched. To start the fan, first open all the oil drain valves to remove the residual oil, the butterfly valve at the inlet of fan may be locked at an opening of 50%. In normal operating conditions, one fan is put in operation, and the negative pressure of the vacuum gauge shall be maintained at 0.250.5KPa, which may be achieved by regulating the vacuum between the inlet butterfly valve and the inlet. At the same time the exhaust shall be observed that it is proper. A bypass check valve is provided between the outlet and inlet of the fan, which is used to discharge the oil smoke into atmosphere bu the natual lift force of the smoke when both of the fans are out of operation. If under certain conditions the negative pressure at the inlet fails to meet the requirement, the two fans may operate at the time in parallel.

2.8.1

Figure 4-6 Air separation tank oil smoke purifier system diagram S1 Pre-separator S2 Demister S3 Separator Vb Butterfly valve plate; Vc Check valve plate
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Generator sealing oil control system

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E Fan Jf Flexible hinge Pi Vacuum gauge M Motor Outlet Inlet Drainage 2.9 Operation of sealing oil system 2.9.1 Work process of sealing oil system The sealing oil system mainly include: normal. operation return pipeline, accident operation return pipeline, emergency sealing oil return pipeline, vacuum device, oil-gas differential pressure valve and switch instrument plate etc.. These return pipeline and the equipment may complete the sealing oil system automatic control, signal outp ut and alarm function. Under normal operation mode, the lubricating oil from the turbine enters the sealing oil vacuum tank, which, as regulated to proper pressure by pressure differential regulating valve after boosted by the main sealing oil pump. Enters the sealing pad of the generator after filtered. The return oil at the air side enters the air separation tank and the return oil at the hydrogen side enters the hydrogen side return oil enlargement slot and then flows down to the floater oil tank, to the air separation tank depending on the pressure differential. As the high pressure oil source of turbine lubricating oil is used, the oil in the air separation tank can only flow into the turbine lubricating oil package oil pipe other than the vacuum tank, then back to the main oil tank for the next oil cycle. The system is further provided with a recirculating oil pump, used to circulate the sealing oil in the vacuum tank under normal operation. Through spray at reduced pressure by the sprayers on top of the vacuum tank in high vacuum, the water and gas in the oil is seaparted and continuously drained out of the main building for circulated treatment. This pump is in combined startup and shutdown with the main sealing oil pump. The function of the vacuum pump is to from high vacuum in the vacuum tank, with a water storage at the outlet which requires periodic drainage. The strainer is used to filter the oil mud and other impurities in the sealing oil, and the rotating handle shall be rotated regularly for blowdown. In addition, thin pipes are lead from the top of hydrogen side return oil enlargement slot and the bottom of the generator to the oil and water detector, so as to check the ingress of sealing oil into the generator during normal operation and replacement of gas. Once oil is found, it shall be drained in time and the reason shall be found out for elimination. Work mode of sealing oil system Sealing oil systerm can work in four operation modes.These modes can guarantee the seal of hydrogen in all kinds working operations 1). In normal operation mode,one main oil pump is running ,the oil come from the bearing lubepipeline.The operation return pipeline as follow:

2.9.2

2). When two main pumps are fault or lossing of power,the operation return pipeline shows as follow:

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Generator sealing oil control system

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3). When main sealing oil pump and DC oil pump out of work, bearing lube direct to seal generator hydrogen. This time in generator hydrogen pressure must be fell to 0.02MP~0.05MPa.The operation return pipeline as follow:

4). When bearing lube system out of work ,the sealing oil system can work by itself. This time the vacuum oil tank must keep high vacuum to make the oil ruturn freely .The operation pipeline as follow:

vacuum oil tank main seal oil pump(or standby sealing oil pump) sealing oil filter oil-gas differential pressure valvegenerator seal tile

vacuum oil tank


2.9.3 Attention points in operation As long as generator bearing rotation or has gas which need seal, sealing oil System can supply oil to seal tile. When generator bearing rest: sealing oil pressure kept higher than hydrogen pressure 0.036~0.076MPa.g; 1). The two main oil pumps (type: DLZB DLXB), one emergency oil pump (type: HSN(SN)) and one recirculating pump (type: DLZB DLXB) are all three screw pumps, which have very good suction capacity and resistance to cavitation. The principle of structure is shown in Figure 4-7.

Figure 4-7 Structure principle of screw pump 1 Rear cover; 2 Plug screw (for injection of oil); 3 Driven screw; 4 Master screw; 5 Sleeve; 6 Bearing; 7 Pretensioned spring; 8 Control valve; A/B Balancing piston; D Sealing cavity The three screw oil pumps for low pressure (4.0MPa) with types of DLZB DLXBand HSN(SN) are positive displacement pumps with good suction, which are applicable for
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Generator sealing oil control system

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delivery of lubricating liquid without solid granules at an temperature 110C. They must not be used for delivery of water and other similar media. Structure: the main working elements in the pump are three screws (one master screw (4) and two driven screws (3)). The screws rotate with small meshing clearance in the sleeve (5) mounted in the pump. One end is the front cap and the other the rear cap (1). The rolling bearing (6) in the pump sealing cavity is to fix the position of the master screw and bear the weight of the three screws in vertical pump. The pump may be provided with accessory safety valve mounted on the pump. Principle: three screws (3 and 4) during the meshed rotation form a sealing cavity moving at even speed axially between the teeth, as such the liquid is delivered from the inlet to the outlet steadily. The axial force acting on the teeth surface is balanced by the balancing pistons (A and B). Therefore the bearing (6) is subject to the residual axial force only. The driven screws are driven by hydraulics, which only overcome the torque caused by liquid friction, with the main function of sealing other than a power transmission element. The sealing cavity (D) is connected with the suction cavity through the return oil on the sleeve, and the pressure is controlled by the pressure of the suction cavity. The sealing cavity is mounted with a control valve (8), and by regulating the spring of the valve a low positive pressure is obtained in the sealing cavity to prevent gas from entering and dry operation of sealing. The pretensioned spring may create certain pressure at the shaft sealing. The pressure in the cavity shall be at 0.03~0.1MPa. If the pressure at the inlet is positive, the spare parts (7 and 8) may be dismantled. Proper mechanical sealing shall be seleced. Startup: a) Dry operation of the pump is prohibited. Before initial operation the pump body shall be filled with the intended liquid to provide liquid sealing during the startup (the plug screw for oil injection is on the top of the pump body). b) Open all the valves on the inlet and outlet pipes before startup(to ensure the rise of pressure in the pump is under some limit when faults such as clogging occurs in the drainage pipe and causes burst). c) Operate by inching to check the rotation direction of the motor. 2). When oil-gas differential pressure value need to change, can readjust the differential pressure regulating valve compression spring. When differential pressure regulating valve breakdown need to overhaul, should closed cut-off valves of the main pipe and the introduction pressure pipe, change to supply oil by bypass valve(temporary), opening degree of bypass valve according to the oil-gas indicated value, made the differential pressure conformed to requirement. When generator is at air condition, if the seal tile need to supply oil, according to third supplies oil is quite economical. 3). Emergency sealing oil pump (DC pump) put into operation When emergency sealing oil pump (DC pump) put into operation, sealing oil don't flow into vacuum oil tank, so oil cannot purify processing, the air and humidity which in oil contain possibly along with hydrogen side oil proliferate in generator cause the hydrogen purity to drop, this time should strengthen to hydrogen purity surveillance. When hydrogen purity obvious drop, each 8h (hour) should operate the vent valve which on enlargement section top to exhaust gas, then let high-purity hydrogen supply into generator through hydrogen main pipe. Emergency sealing oil pump put operation, also estimated 12h (hour) within the oil pump
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Generator sealing oil control system

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cannot restore to normal work then closed vacuum oil tank supplement oil valve and vacuum pump inlet valve, stopped circulation oil pump and vacuum pump, then opened the vacuum valve to destroy vacuum made the vacuum oil tank out of working. Except main sealing oil pump breakdown to need turn-on the emergency sealing oil pump, while float valve of vacuum oil tank need to examine and repair, also should change to the emergency sealing oil pump to supply oil, the vacuum oil tank out of working. If vacuum pump has fault out of working, main sealing oil pump still in operating to supply oil, this operating mode should according to the above operating mode carrying on, kept generator hydrogen purity. Under this operating mode also should watch the vacuum oil tank level, if was unable to keep permission oil level, then should stop the main sealing oil pump and open the emergency sealing oil pump. 4). The third supplies oil route to supply oil Emergency sealing oil pump breakdown, also the main sealing oil pump or vacuum oil tank and vacuum pump cannot restore movement, then generator hydrogen pressure drop to 0.05MPa.g below (this time generator load to de decreased,)changed to third supplies oil route to supply oil, vent valve on enlargement section also to be continuous exhausted and supplied high-purity hydrogen in generator. 5).The float oil tank out of working If enlargement section oil level excessively high caused liquid level annunciator sent out alarm signal, then should immediately withdraw the float oil tank movement,changes to bypass valve to drain oil, this time bypass valve operation should according to the liquid level indicator display, to kept the oil level at the liquid level indicator middle position, also must closely monitor. Because the oil level gradually increase, possibly caused the side oil flowed in interior; The oil level excessively low, possibly caused generator hydrogen massive released, hydrogen should leak in air detraining section, this time generator hydrogen pressure possibly suddenly dropped.Therefore operator must repair float valve to restore the float oil tank in running status. When the float fuel tank out of working, operator should first close inlet and outlet oil pipeline cut-off valve, also closed S-72 valve, then opened S-78 valve to release tank gas pressure, and also opened s-67 valve to drain oil. Only affirm gas pressure is zero then may open the tank to overhaul float valve. operator also should closely monitor the generator hydrogen pressure, if generator hydrogen pressure quickly drop, should supposed to take corresponding remedial treatment, or reduce the generator load. 6). Generator gas pressure be low Generator gas pressure is lower than 0.05MPa.g, the float oil tank inevitably to drain oil no free even appeared full oil, so long as oil-water detector of enlargement section was not filled oil, then the explanation is hydrogen side oil naturally flow into main return oil device (air
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detraining section) depend on difference height between with enlargement section and air detraining section. Still monitor the oil-water detector when gas pressure is low, once appeared alarm signal or has oil, should immediately artificially discharge, to avoid oil flood in generator. While generator pressure rose, the float oil tank draining oil can be unobstructed. 7). Instruments Sealing oil system measuring appliance ha}re oil pump outlet pressure gauge, on main supply oil pipe pressure switch and pressure gauge, liquid level annunciator of vacuum oil tank, vacuum gauge, vacuum pressure switch, difference pressure gauge and difference pressure switch and so on. Oil-gas differential pressure value displayed in gauge must be higher than actual difference pressure value, because hydrogen pressure took from enlargement section base, sealing oil pressure took from sealing oil pipe, two pipes difference height will cause liquid static pressure to reflect in difference pressure gauge, therefore the differential pressure value displayed in gauge should be actual oil-gas differential pressure value add liquid static pressure value. 8). Vacuum oil tank breakdown and its processing countermeasure: a.Vacuum oil tank vacuum low Cause the reason: One is pipeline and valve seal is lax,operator must discover the leaking point to eliminate; Two is vacuum pump extraction air abolity drop, operator must look for the reason according to the vacuum pump instruction to eliminate bug. b.Vacuum oil tank oil level high Cause the reason mainly is in vacuum oil tank float valve movement malfunction, showed float valve need to overhaul, if vacuum oil tank cannot withdraw for a while, then took the emergency processing means, may close 5-58 valve small, manual control supply oil speed. c.Vacuum oil tank oil level low Cause the reason: one is the float valve movement malfunctions; Two is float valve expert end (vacuum oil tank body) spray nozzle stopped up by dirty. These two kind of situations must withdraw the vacuum oil tank movement, stopped vacuum pump, circulation pump and main oil pump(changed to emergency sealing oil pump operate) to destroy vacuum, when finish draining oil then open the vacuum oil tank manhole cover to repair. Morever, because the seal tile gap unusual increase also possibly caused vacuum oil tank oil level to be in low condition, this time may measure the seal tile total oil mass, operator can contrast the measurement result and primitive record to judge seal tile gap whether unusually increase. If obtain the confirmation, then must use in exchange new seal tile to be able to salve this problem. 9). Oil-gas differential pressure is low and its processing means: Differential pressure regulating valve track performance is not good, possibly cause the

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oil-gas differential pressure to be low, this time readjust the differential pressure regulating valve, and unifies following two processing result judgment differential pressure regulating valve whether has to exchange. a: Oil filter stopped up also possibly caused oil-gas differential pressure to lower, this time should be cleaned up the oil filter. b: Readjust differential pressure instrument. 2.10 Technical specifications Table 4-1 No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Technical data of main equipment of generator sealing oil system Description Type Sealing oil quantity Oil tank capacity AC pump motor DC pump motor AC pump capacity Recirculating pump Recirculating pump motor AC pump outlet pressure DC pump capacity DC pump outlet pressure Oil hydrogen pressure differential Single flow ring oil pressure Sealing oil pressure Electrical heater Sealing oil quality Sealing pad inlet oil temperature Sealing pad return oil temperature Type Single flow ring type Quanity Unit Capacity Location

l/min m3 kW kW m 3/h 1 1 m 3/h kW MPa m 3/h MPa

185 3 7.5 5.5 16 14.4 5.5 0.8 15.8 0.8 0.0560.0 2 0.6 0.7

2 1

12

MPa

13 14 15 16 17

MPa MPa

# 32 turbine oil C C 35~45

18

70

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Design parameter list for purifier of air separation tank Unit S2FDHB-7-2 Type Package bulk 3 Design flow M /min 7 3 Maximum flow M /min 8 Design inlet negative Pa -250~ -500 pressure Design outlet pressure Quantity of fans Total pressure of fan Associated motor of fan Model Power Rated speed Voltage/phase/frequency Number of stage of pre-separator Number of stage of demister Number of stage of separator Integral net weight Overall dimension (L, W, H) KPa Set KPa 10 2X(100%) 42 Explosion proof rytpe YB100L-2 3 2880 400V/3 phase/50HZ 1 1 1 860 195012001460

Table 4-2 Item

Kw r/min V/phase/HZ Stage Stage Stage kg mm

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Chapter Stator winding cooling water system

The stator winding cooling water system main function is guarantee cooling water (pure water) uninterrupted flow into stator winding, thus carry out quantity of heat from this part, guaranteed temperature conform to generator requirement. At the same time, the system also must control enter the stator winding water pressure, flow, temperature, conductivity and so on parameter, make it to be conform to corresponding stipulation. The conductor of water intal cooling winding is both the conductance circuit and the water circuit. Each bar is separated in to various groups, each of which containing one hollow copper tube and several solid copper wires. Cooling water passes the hollow copper tube to take away the heat generated by the bar. At the end of the bar out of the slot, the hopper tube and the wires are separated, with tubes bundled with others and welded with special water joint, then connected to the main inlet or outlet header through a thicker hopper tube and insulated water guide pipe. The cooling water enters the bar from one end of the bar and leaves from the other end after cooling in circulation, continuously taking away the heat generated by the stator bars. Special requirements on cooling water of generator stator: a the cooling water shall transparent, clean, free of mechanical impurities and granules; b. the conductance of the cooling water during normal operation shall be less than 0.5us/cm. Excessive conductance will cause great leakage current, resulting in aging of insulated water guide pipe and flashover between phases of the stator; c. to prevent scale on internal wall of the cooling pipe in hot state, with reduction in cooling effect or even clogging, the hardness of water shall be controlled no more than 10ug/L; d. the concentration of NH3 shall be minimized to prevent corrosion of copper pipe;e. the PH value is required to be neutral, within the range of 6~8; f. to prevent internal dew in generator, the stator water temperature shall be above certain specified value in correspondence to the hydrogen inlet temperature. Usually it is specified at 40~46C. To meet the above requirements, condensate or demineralized water is often used as the water source. And continuous operating resin type ion exchange system is provided to ensure the water quality during operation. The stator cooling system serves the generator stator winding for sooling, which has closed independent water systwm is in the structure of packaged installation. 2.11 Description of system and equipment 2.11.1 Equipment configuration of stator winding cooling water system Two pumps, coolers and filters respectively are provided in the stator cooling water system for mutual standby. The flow and maximum water temperature of either cooler are designed according to the maximum load of the generator, with the water side contamination coefficient at 0.000176m 2.C/w and 5% clogging of pipe as well as the cooling in the type of pipe. The generator internal water cooling inlet pipe is installed with pressure gauge, pressure switch and flow meater as well as flow measuring device. And to ensure that the water interruption protection operation signal is reliable, three switches with very low flow are
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provided. The generator proper is provided with water and oil leakage monitoring device. All the elements in the stator water system in contact with water shall be made of 1Cr18Ni9Ti or nonferrous metal resistant to water erosion. On the summit of stator water return pipe, a thin pipe is lead out to the water tank, which may lead the possible leakage of hydrogen to the water tank and prevent occurrence of evaporation at the high temperature outlet end due to siphon and thus high gas resistance.A connecting thin pipe is provided between the inlet and return water pipes to ensure that the pressure at return water side is higher than the atmosphere pressure to reuduce the possibility of evaporation. 2.11.2 Main work flow as follow:

System first fill in water, need total water volume approximately 4500L, water tank storage capacity approximately 11 00L. When system operation, water unceasingly circulate in the system interior. Only when system drain water reason caused water tank water level drop, then by manual control valve to supply water in system. supplement water pressure control in 0.2~0.7MPa- supplement water flow not to be higher than 250L/min. When exterior supplement water pressure is higher than 0.2~0.7Mpa, should be reduced pressure to the system request value. During supply water, should observe water tank water level change, after water tank water level rise to normal, then closed supplement water valve. After

supplement water first pass through the dernineralizer then flow in water tank(demineralizer inlet water pressure not to be higher than 0.6Mpa),through water tank enter in main circulation route.(pump, cooler etc.) Water pump drive system water to circulate. In the system installed two water pumps, one is work, another is standby. The standby pump start-up point according to the drop of pressure value, namely when the work pump discharge pressure lower to one value, standby pump self-start, thus guarantee cooling water uninterrupted flow in generator stator winding. In the system installed two coolers, one is work, another is standby (in peculiar circumstance, two coolers also can simultaneously put operation). The cooler function is let the cooling water absorption quantity of heat, by other water source (general cooling water, also call

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circulating water) carries off the quantity of heat. The water temperature which came out from generator stator winding along with generator load changed, max temperature value can up to 73 C even higher. But stator winding inlet water temperature to hope stabilized in 45 5 C scope. Therefore, in the system has installed automatic control water temperature regulator valve. The temperature regulator valve is T valve, it does not change the stator cooling water (hot medium) total flow, only control water flow ratio in cooler and bypass, thus caused the regulating valve downriver end, enter the generator stator winding cooling water temperature control in steady value. The temperature signal measuring point came from the regulating valve downriver pipeline. The temperature regulator valve receive adjustment signal come from the power plant DCS. In normal operation period system cooling water must maintain high-purity, conductivity should not be higher than 0.5s/cm. Therefore, the temperature regulator valve outlet end installed a bypass pipe, can made part of cooling water through bypass pipe flow in demineralizer to purge, after purification this partial water conductivity can reach to about 0.2s/cm, then flow in water tank. Usually, this bypass pipe maximum current capacity should not be higher than the system rating current capacity 20%. Cooling water enter the stator winding count pressure is 220kPa, for keep this pressure, in the system has installed pressure regulating valve. It is mainly through change valve opening degree to adjust outlet pressure, caused it to stabilize in setting value, pressure signal took from pressure transmitter which installed on regulating valve downriver pipeline. The pressure regulator valve receive adjustment signal come from the power plant DCS. Main filter function is filtrate mechanical impurity in water which installed in water system. The Y type interceptor is the last mesh of the stator winding cooling water inlet. In generator interior, cooling water from inlet pipe to enter, pass through in water end water catch-ring(namely circuit pipe), insulated draft tube, hollow copper wire, outlet water end insulated draft tube, water catch-ring}circuit pipe) to outlet water pipe drain, then return to water tank. Water tank water level; water pump discharge pressure; the main filter import and export differential pressure; water pressure, temperature, conductivity, flow; the backwater temperature and so on, each kind of movement parameter is equipped with the special-purpose instrument to surveillance, the important parameter can send out alarm signal or protection movement signal. 2.11.3 Control requirements on water temperature The cooler cooling water inlet design temperature is 38C and the stator winding internal cooling water inlet temperature is in the range of 40~50C. Automatic regulating device is provided to maintain that the fluctuation range of cooling water is within3C and the outlet temperature shall not exceed 85C. The water system is provided with electrical heater. 2.11.4 Control requirements on water quality The stator cooling water shall transparent and clean, free of mechanical impurities, when the temperature at 20C:
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Conductance PH value Hardness

0.5~1.51.0S/cm(20C) 7.0~9.0 2g equivalent/L)

Ammonia (NH3) Slight The stator water system is provided with 10% ion exchange and the associated flow meter, conductivity meter, pressure gauge and thermometer for better water. The stator water tank is designed and manufactured as per pressure container, pressurized with nitrogen. The air vent pipes on the water tank are installed with gas sensitive elements and hydrogen concentration detection alarm. The generator pipes are designed with consideration that the drainage pipes and valves are easy for bach wash of the stator winding. The back wash pipes are mounted with laser cut filters. 2.11.5 Operation and maintenance After finished debugging the stator cooling system put into operation, when the backwater temperature rise approach 48Cthe cooler should pass cooling water (circulating water)and the cooler interior gas must be exhausted. The circulating water flow should gradually increase. After system normal operating, mainly monitor each movement parameter and periodic inspection. 1). Every day inspection project is as following: (a). Stator cooling water inlet, outlet water temperature. (b). Stator cooling water inlet pressure, flow, conductivity. (c). Pump outlet pressure, pump bearing oil level, pump vibration and sound whether have exceptionally. (d). Demineralizer outlet water conductivity, inlet water pressure and flow Observe resin whether does suddenly change from observation window (e). Water tank water level and equipment whether have leakage. (f). Main water filter import and export differential pressure value. (g). Pressure regulator and temperature regulator valve input and the output electricity\gas pressure is whether normal, whether valve open degree have exceptionally change. 2). Each week of operational check project as following: a. Cooling water pump movement and standby exchange. b. Pressure regulator and temperature regulator valve whether have lock. 3). Each three to six months inspection project as following: (a). Alarm signal and electrical loop examination. (b). Protection movement signal and electrical loop examination. (c). Measure instrument examination. 4). Regular maintenance and inspection project (a). Exchange heat pipe interior cleaning, this cleaning work can carry on at each winter, spring season.

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(b). Y type filter cleaning. This cleaning work can carry in generator off period or in filter element cleaning period. (c). Deminerali2er resin replace 2.12 Introduction to local and remote control equipment Stator cooling water supply control device including water tank, two water pumps, two coolers, temperature regulator valve, pressure regulator valve, main water filter, supplement water filter, demineralizer and its mutual connection pipe, valve, partial pressure gauge, temperature element. Also installed instrument box, it is including conductivity transmitter and connected with inside and outside electrical connection terminal. 2.12.1 Water tank Water tank itself cubage approximately is 1.93m 3, when system normal operate storage water in tank approximately is 1.06 m 3,water level is above water tank center line approximately 60mm position. The water tank body internal structure is very simple, only some net plate use to intercept solid state sundry goods. On water tank manhole cover installed observation window, to observe water Ievel and return water. On water tank top place is equipped hydrogen leakage examination connection, this connection use to determine whether has hydrogen, if include hydrogen, explained generator interior has leaking point need to process. On water tank installed liquid level annunciator, it has liquid level signal contact and liquid level transmitter, its can sent out liquid level high or low alarm and 4~20mA. 2.12.2 Water pump The two water pumps are AC motor, one is working, another is standby. When working pump discharge pressure is low, through pressure switch signal ought to be able to make standby pump automatic start-up. Water pump is anti-corrosive centrifugal pump, suitable for delivery of clean or few granule contained, neutral, corrosive, low temperature or high temperature media. The pump is in the structure of rear pull-out, for maintenance of which the outlet pipes or even the motor need not to be removed, with the entire rotor (impeller, shaft sealing modules and bearing supports) pulled out from the rear side. At the same time closed impeller structure is used, with the pressured on the shaft seal balanced by the back blade of the impeller or the balancing hole. The bearing is lubricated with thin lubricating oil. The structure of stator cooling water pump is shown in the diagram:

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Figure 5-1 Stator cooling water pump structure diagram 1 Shaft sleeve; 2 Impeller; 3 Packing case; 4 Water sealing ring; 5 Acid protection ring; 6 Exhaust oil plug; 7 Constant level oil ring; 8 Rolling bearing; 9 Shaft; 10 Pump body;11 Wear ring; 12 Packing stuff; 13 Shaft sleeve; 14 Retainer ring; 15 Support 1). Preparation for initial startup of pump: a. Inject lubricating oil to the oil storage chamber (to be cleaned) of the bearing casing (or bearing support) b. Check the alignment of coupling c. Check the shaft sealing d. Check the rotation of motor e. Fill up of pump Pump in reverse fill up: open the suction pipe valve and vent at the plug screws of the pump outlet pipe and sealing casing, close the valve when there is no bubble. Pump in suction: the suction pipe must be installed with low valve. Open the inlet pipe valve, fill up the pump with delivery medium or pump with vacuum pump. 2). Startup and operation of pump: a. Open the valves in the auxiliary equipment pipes. b. Close the outlet pipe valves, start the motor and slowly open these valves until the pressure differential meets the specified value in the data table. c. The pressure differential may not be far lower than the design point and shall be free of pressure fluctuation. d. The pressure differential is equal to the pump outlet gauge pressure minus the inlet gauge pressure. 3). Shutdown of pump: a. Close the outlet pipe valves. b. Switch off the motor, while observing the slowdown of the rotor till standstill. c. If the pump is operating under suction and it will not be started again shortly after shutdown, the suction pipe valves must be closed then. d. Close the valves in the auxiliary equipment pipes. e. The liquid in the pump and auxiliary equipment must be drained when freezing might occur or the pump will not be used for a long time. 2.12.3 Cooler Two water coolers installed in water system, when generator normal operating one cooler is working, another is standby. Cooler basic structure is pipe type.
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2.12.4 Demineralizer and its use Demineratizer is made of stainless steel, resin filling volume is 0.36m3. This demineralizer is mix bed type, namely use alkalescent negative resin and positive acid resin also according 2: 1 proportion to mix filling. Demineralizer inlet and outlet water differnent pressure should be control in 0.1 ~0.15 MPa,can manual operate the valve of demineralizer inlet and outlet pipe, the highest permission water temperature is 60 C. When enter in demineralizer water conductivity is not higher than 1.0 s/cm, its discharge water conductivity is not higher than 0.1 s/cm; when enter in demineralizer water conductivity is not higher than 9.9 s/cm, its discharge water conductivity is not higher than 0.2 s/cm a slcm. If in the system water conductivity could not maintain below 0.5 s/cm, then the resin must be replaced, Filling or replacement resin should pay attention to following item: 1). Filling resin Usually resin take from power plant chemistry desalinization equipment which had been already processed. After the system interior pipe has flushed and water pump was in rest condition then filling resin. First closed CH-311 and BF-321 valve of demineralizer import and export pipe, opened top vent valve (CU-317) to confirm demineralizer interior not remaining pressure, removed the top cover, filled the resin in demineralizer which had been foreclosed mixing. This process need to inspect the filling piece was whether complete, if cannot continue to use should exchange. New load resin must full pretreatment and mix, otherwise discharge water quality will diffculty confirm with request. 2). Exhaust and supply water Open deminerahzer top exhaust valve (CU-317) and valve (BF-312 and CH-315) let water inflow demineralizer, and interior gas vent over, then open BF-312 valve fill water in system, wait water level in water tank to rise maximum position so stop filled water. Again open water pump, turn on the CH-311 valve to let system water according to the normal operation circulate, according to water tank water level decided whether need to supply water or drain water, if need drain water, can through CU-320 or CU-326 valve to discharge. 3). Resin replacement in system operating In demineralizer resin replacement usual need about 4 hours, but generator can continuously to operate in long time without demineralizer. Therefore in generator normal operation period resin replacement is possible. The system design has considered this possibility. First close CH-311 and BF-321 valve, demineralizer exit from generator operation, Prepare 400um cribriform net and vessel to load resin which discharge from CU-318 valve. open the CU-318 valve, should introduce water from supplement water pipe in demineralizerintroduction water capacity should be more than 2.8L/S then resin may discharge along with current from the CU-318 valve. Afrer resin discharged, then can shut off supplement water pipeline, replenish resin, exhaust gas, fill water, again dive into working. The new replacement resin if only has good pretreatment and mix proportion, period of validity can reach to 1 5~18 months,
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but user still must replace one times each year. Although in generator movement period carry on resin replacement is possible, but does not recommend user use, because in movement period replacement resin can make water tank water level undulate, cause alarm sigpal or protection system to act, so resin replacement should better carry on in generator off period. 4). Routine iispection Every year when resin replacement operator should inspect the demineralizer interior whether appear crack, rust eclipse etc. unwonted thing, inspect seal filling piece whether exchange; inspect the support, bolt appendix and so on whether does have crack and rust eclipse, necessity should exchange it; On bottommesh is 200um and 100um two-double stainless steel mes if it has damaged or stopped up by resin powder, then should replace or clean it, clean the stainless steel mesh can use scrub or blow with compressed air. The demineralizer interior nozzle also to be inspect and clean. 2.12.5 Water filter System has installed double-duty filter, one kind used in supplement water pipeline and demineralizer export pipeline, another kind used in main pipeline. The filter element of main pipeline filter is specially intertwist type, namely the stainless steel pipe which has drilled many eyelets, its outside surface wind around absorbent cotton which has specially processed or other fibre, thus made the filter element have very high filtration precision (not to bigger than 10 um). The filter top has installed exhaust valve, when system is filling water should exhaust gas, the filter bottom has installed discharge valve, for cleaning or filter element replacement use. When the main filter is put into normal operation, operator should record import and export differential pressure value, after generator normal operate period of time, the differential pressure value increase to 55KPa, must carry on cleaning or replace the filter element. Y type filter internal has installed 20um mesh, it used at main filter behind pipeline, when normal operation it was spare protective device, it also use to backwash pipe. 2.12.6 Temperature regulator valve and pressure regulator valve aTemperature regulator valve use to adjust stator cooling water inlet temperature, it is T valve. Temperature regulator signal come from power plant DCS system, but DCS system receive temperature signal from Pt100(TE-321)which has installed on stator winding cooling water supply control device. The T regulating valve only adjust water flow proportion of

cooler and bypass, to achieve maintaining water temperature. b.Pressure regulator valve use to adjust stator cooling water inlet pressure, it is butterfly valve. Pressure regulator signal come from power plant DCS system, but DC5Ssystem receive pressure signal from pressure transmitter (PX-321) which installed on stator winding cooling water inlet pipe.

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2.12.7 Instruments Stator winding cooling water supply control device also has installed the pressure gauge, differential pressure gauge, temperature element, conductivity transmitter etc.. In addition,

on the system pipeline separate installed throttle orifice plate (FE-321 )and flow signal device, in this device installed differential pressure switchPSW-321 (A),PSW-321(B),PSW-321 (C) and differential pressure transmitter (FX-321). These instruments not only use in display the system various parameters but also send to alarm signal. 2.12.8 Loss of stator winding cooling water Generator is allowed to operate with rated output for 30 seconds in the case of loss of water.Generator must be tripped immediately and the terminal voltage should be reduced to zero if the water flow could not come up to the nomal value within the 30 seconds.(See figure 5-4)

Figure 5-4 2.13 Techinical specifications Table 5-1 No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Loss of stator winding cooling water

List of parameters for main equipment of stator cooling water system Description Type Quanti ty Unit m kg m3 m3 2 Set/k W Capacity 6.3143.68 ~1100 ~4.5 ~5 45 Remark

Dimension (LW H) Integral weight Water storage capacity Total capacity of cooling water Number of pump sets and power Number of pipes for each cooler/area Type of cooler Pipe type Cooling water flow under rated condition of generator
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Pcs/m 2 498/100 2 m 3/h 91.8

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No. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Description

Type

Quanti ty

Unit MPa C

Capacity 0.1~0.2 50

Remark

Pressure differential between cooling water and hydrogen of generator Stator winding internal cooling water inlet maximum temperature Stator winding coil internal De-ionized cooling water nature water System material Stainless steel Pump Stainless steel Pipe Stainless steel Heat exchanger Stainless steel 191 copper Heat exchanger pipe pipe Hen70-1 Header Stainless steel Electrical heater Stainless steel

Table 5-2 Rated flow

Main operation parameters of generator stator cooling water system 1530 Lmin

Inlet pressure (calculated value) 196 kPa Inlet temperature 453 C Coil outlet water temperature under maximum 73 C continuous output (calculated value) Conductivity of water No higher than 0.5 us/cm Rated processing flow of ion exchanger 250 L/min Inlet water temperature high alarm value 49 C Outlet water temperature high alarm value 73+1 C Outlet water temperature high protection 78 C operation value Inlet water pressure low alarm value 110 kPa Inlet water pressure low protection operation 89 kPa value Inlet water flow low alarm value 1200 L/min Inlet water flow low protection operation value 1050 L/min

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Chapter Synchronizing Equipment

This device is SID-2SL-A type produced by SID Co.,LTD. in China. 2.14 Summary This device includes a synchroscope and many sync compelling relays, which is used in manually operation sync phase angle instruction and sync lockout with manual or automatic. The main functions are as follows: a). Sync channel both sides voltage phase angle instruction with analogue and digital mode. b). There are 12 sync compelling relays in SID-2SL-A, each relay can set lockout angle alone. When external inputs difference frequency or same frequency paralleling signals, the selected sync compelling relay will automatically set a sync lockout angle value with the corresponding nature of paralleling. a). The input TVs voltage can be phase voltageline voltage or 220V. If there is an inherent phase angle between two sides, the system side TVs voltage phase angle of each sync channel can be modified alone. b). Each sync channel can be set allowable voltage deviation and allowable frequency deviation alone. When the difference value of voltage or frequency exceed the permissible value, the compelling relay will automatically lock the closing circuit. c). Support non-voltage close in one/two sides. When meeting the specification, the compelling relay will be closed continuously, without needing other circuit breaker relieves it. d). There are quadruplex lockouts for voltage deviation, frequency deviation, phase displacement and power angle to ensure ultra-safe manual or automatic sync operation. But SID-2SL-A is not a synchronous device. It is incapable of catching zero phase angle to close breaker in paralleling of difference frequency. 2.14.1 Technical data a).Two sides TVs voltage ranges: Nominal voltage ranges Maximum power consumption 10 to 264 VAC 0.5 VA

b). Switching values with sync channel option, non-voltage verify in one side, non-voltage verify in both side, difference/same frequency paralleling judgement and remote reset are all normally open idle contacts. Its be defined as difference frequency paralleling when the switching value of difference/same frequency paralleling judgement is unconnected.
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c). Outputs of sync lockout contacts contain 600VDC/ 6A. d). Measuring accuracy Max difference in frequency Max difference in angle Max difference in voltage -0.01 to +0.01 Hz (35~65Hz) -1 to +1 0 -1 to +1 V (<100V) Or -1 to +1 % (>100V) e). Auxiliary voltage: Nominal voltage ranges Maximum power consumption f). Insulating strength: Weak-current to ground g). Working environment: Working temperature Storage temperature Maximum relative humidity 2.15 Front panel and dimensions The structure for installation of SID-2SL is embedded in the panel. The front panel is composed of 36 highlight LEDs display, the phase-displacement of two LEDs is 10. When generator/line frequency is higher than system side, the display is clockwise rotation (namely fast direction), and vice versa. During paralleling, the sync closing locking contact may be only closed if both sides voltages are approximately equal and synchronous. Otherwise, the contact will be opened. There are two LEDs of bi-colour on the axis of front panel. When a difference between both sides voltages excesses max voltage deviation, the left LED light, and it flashes red when generator/line side voltage is lower than system sides, on the contrary, the left lamp flashes green. The lamp will go out just at the value within allowable voltage deviation. When a difference between both sides frequencies excesses max frequency deviation, the right LED light, and it flashes red when generator/line side frequency is lower than the system sides , on the contrary, the right lamp flashes green. The lamp will go out just at the value within allowable frequency deviation. 6 digital tubes on top of the panel show the correlation parameters of each sync channel. 0 to +50 0C -20 to +70 0C 90 % 2000V/50Hz/1min 110 to 220VAC/DC 10 VA

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2.16 Working mode a). Summarize SID-2SL-A consists of three modes, working mode, setting mode and inquiring mode in order. Three modes must be reset to switching in sure of reliability and independence.

b). Sync parameter inquiring mode


1.a.1 Mode introduction

This mode can inquire all sync channels parameters (12 channels all together). In this mode, SID-2SL-A does nothing about all inputs(except remote reset), sync lockout contact TJJ output be always opened, alarm output is usually opened, only if the equipment examines own mistake. 1.a.2 How to enter

As soon as the equipment is wired up, presses key PARA to reset the equipment, it displays PP0000 at once, the figure 0at leftmost position among them flicker, PP means enter passwords, if not input the passwords, presses PARA again directly and enter into, it shows P1 the figure 1 flicker. 1.a.3 Display and operation explanation by now, and

In this mode, there are only 6 highlight eight-segment numerics indicators on top of the panel which can be shown, the synchroscope and other indicator do not work. 6 highlight numeric indicators used to show the devices information and setting sync parameters, 2 of which on the left show the parameter type and serial number of proposed sync channel. The first bit indicates parameter type, there are 9 characters all together, namely P, S, g, d, L, h, U, F and C, whose definitions are as blow: P--the serial number of current sync channel S--system side TVs nominal voltage g-- generator/line side TVs nominal voltage d-- system side TVs aux turn angle L--closing lockout angle h--allowable power-angle in same frequency paralleling U--allowable voltage deviation F--allowable frequency deviation C--equipment information, temporarily only one--C0, indicated the software edition number, for
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instance the software edition number will be 0601 (later like has modification, even slightly will not inform). The second digital tube display device information or the serial number of current proposed sync channel, namely 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, A, b, C, separately express the equipment information and the 1st ~ 12th sync channels. Four red digital tubes at right flank demonstrate parameter value or the equipment information, the different data corresponds the value scope and the mark is also different . Four pressed keys on the right on panel use for to shift the parameter demonstration. PARAkey: With shifts to choose the parameter, when continuously presses 'PARA' key and choose the 'sync channel' parameter, the first digital tube on the left side demonstrate ' P ', the serial number of sync channel can unceasingly glitter, this time may modify the serial number by presses the ' + ' key. + key: With chooses the information which plans to examine, when demonstrated the plans chooses parameter, presses ENTER to confirm, if does not press ' ENTER' key but directly to press ' PARA' key to be able to return to #1 sync channel parameter inquiry. > >key: It is invalid under working mode. ENTERkey: With confirmed which hopes to check the information. 1.a.4 Parameter explanation

System side TVs nominal voltageIt indicates the value of system side TVs real rated voltage, e.g. 98V or 103V, TVs phase voltage or line voltage will allow to be used, or directly connect the AC 220V. The factory setting is 100V. Generator/line side TVs nominal voltageIt indicates the value of Generator/line TVs real rated voltage, e.g. 95V or 97V, TVs phase voltage or line voltage will allow to be used, or directly connect the AC 220V. The factory setting is 100V. System side TVs aux turn angleWhen transformer connection is different, there is an inherent phase-displacement between system side and generator/line side. This could be modified through setting the value of system side TVs aux turn angle. In order to define a specific concept, the angle specializes system side TVs voltage. The factory setting is 0. Difference frequency sync closing lockout anglewhen paralleling in difference frequency, the sync lockout contact on both sides is closed within the setting angles, otherwise it is opened. The factory setting is 30. Same frequency sync closing lockout anglewhen paralleling in same frequency, the sync lockout contact on both sides is closed within the setting angles, otherwise it is opened. The factory
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setting is 60. Allowable voltage deviationIt indicates the value of max voltage deviation. if the difference value fell outsides the setting range, the U LED(alarm lamp) light. Attentions: differential voltage deviation is not the actual voltage deviation, it is says the relative respective rated voltage. The factory setting is 5%. Differential voltage deviation formula: The differential voltage deviation = (Generator/line side voltage divided by Generator/line side rated voltage - system side voltage divided by system side rated voltage) 100%. Allowable frequency deviation It indicates the value of max frequency deviation. if the difference value fell outsides the setting range, the F LED(alarm lamp) light. The factory setting is 0.15Hz. Differential frequency deviation formula: The differential voltage deviation = Generator/line side frequency - system side frequency. 1.a.5 Setting ranges of parameters 40.0 to 242.0V 0.1V -60 to +60 0.1 0 to +80

TVs nominal voltage setting ranges Resolution factor System side aux turn angle setting ranges Resolution factor

Difference frequency Closing lockout angle setting ranges Resolution factor 0.1

Same frequency allowable power-angle setting ranges Resolution factor Allowable voltage deviation setting ranges Resolution factor 1% 0.1

0 to +80

0 to 20%

Allowable frequency deviation setting ranges Resolution factor 0.01Hz

0 to 0.5Hz

b). Sync parameter setting mode


1.a.6 Mode introduction

This pattern needs to input the password only then to be allowed to enter, with inquires the equipment information, revises the password, inquires or settings all sync channels

parameters(altogether 12). In this mode, SID-2SL-A does nothing about all inputs(except remote

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reset), sync lockout contact TJJ output be always opened, alarm output is usually opened, only if the equipment examines own mistake. 1.a.7 How to enter

As soon as the equipment is wired up, presses key PARA to reset the equipment, it displays PP0000 at once, first 0flashes, PP means enter passwords, now, presses >> key and + key to input the password and confirm the password by ENTER. Factory setting is 1111, if the code correct can enter into the setting mode and shows P1 , 1flickers. if the password wrong then the display

will be clear to PP0000 , the flash position and the before pressing PARA are same, in this process, if presses PARA key then enter into sync parameter inquiring mode.

1.a.8

Display and operation explanation

In this mode, only six high light digital tubes above front panel which can be shown, the synchroscope and other indicator do not work. The method of show parameters is the same as sync parameter inquiring mode. if need revise the parameter, then after find out the needed modified parameter and presses >> key to select the corresponding position and modify by + key. Notes: Must presses ENTER to save after revising. If not presses ENTER key but presses PARA key directly, then the revision is invalid, the setting values is not saved. The PARA' key uses to circularly shift to the proposed parameter. When continuously presses PARA key, the first digital tube on the left shows P and the sync channel serial number unceasingly flicker when selected the sync channel parameter. By now may press + ' key to choice the needed check or modify parameter and confirm by ENTER key. The ENTER key is used to save the modified parameter or inquire the selected sync channel parameter. Then, presses >> key to enter into setting mode, and circularly choice the bit which needs to be modify, the selected bit will unceasingly flash, the +'key is used to modify the value of parameter and sign (circularly increasing), until presses ENTER key to save. If not presses ENTER key but PARA key directly, then the revision is invalid and the value is not saved. Each keys functional description is as follows: PARA keyIt is used to circularly shift the proposed parameter. When continuously presses PARA' key, the first digital tube on the left shows P and the sync channel serial number unceasingly flicker when selected the sync channel parameter. By now may press + ' key to choice the needed check or modify parameter and confirm by ENTER key. +keyIt is used to modify the value of parameter and sign (circularly increasing), until presses

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ENTER key to save. If not presses ENTER key but PARA key directly, then return to inquire #1 sync channel. >>keyIt is used to choice the proposed bit, the selected bit will flicker. ENTERkeyIt is used to confirm the proposed information or confirm modification. 1.a.9 Parameter explanation The parameter besides the described parameters in 4.2.4 ,still have two settings as following: Factory parameter setting: If wants to set all sync channel parameters to factory setting values (factory setting reference 4.2.4 parameters explanations), may reference the following method to operate: When inquires the software edition number, demonstrates C00601 presses > >' key and +' key to revise 0601 to 1234, then presses ENTER to change all sync channel parameters to factory setting values. Password revision: The equipment password is empowered to revise the sync parameter and demarcate the devices measurement parameter. The factory password is 1111, please safekeeping and unforgotten the revised password. To revise password can reference the following method: When appearing PP the next P flashes presses ENTER keyno longer flashes

presses ENTER key again, shows PP0000 then presses >> key and+ key to revise password, at last, presses ENTER key to confirm the revised password. 1.a.10 Setting ranges of parameters Software guaranteed all input parameters are in the permission scope, the concrete parameter permission scope sees 4.2.5.

b) . Sync working mode


1.b.1 Mode introduction The normal working mode is SID-2SL-A main working pattern, may control TJJ outputs according to system side and generator/line side sync parameters, guarantee the sync closing breaker operation correctly execute. Simultaneously may inquire system side and generator/line side voltage, frequency, phase-displacement and so on, also may inquire the current sync channel parameter. 1.b.2 How to enter

Accessing power or reset operation to directly start up SID-2SL-A. The device selects a sync channel first and displays ------ , it flashes and waits an input signal to choice the sync channels,
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then can enter into nominal working mode after selecting successfully. If the select channels signal have been selected before start up the device, then waiting about 0.5 second and enter. After entering into nominal working mode, if the select channels signal alters or disappears, the device will automatically select a channel again. Success selecting will enter into nominal working mode again and no manual intervention to ensure that the final choice of synchronization parallel automatically.

1.b.3

Display and operation explanation

In working mode, the nixietube and synchroscope (composed of 36 highlight LED) and other lights are shown to be effective. The synchroscope displays the phase-displacement of system side and generator/line side, the degree of two adjacent LED is 10.When generator/line frequency is higher than system side, the display is clockwise rotation (namely fast direction), and vice versa. When a difference between both sides voltages excesses max voltage deviation, the left LED light, and it flashes red when generator/line side voltage is lower than system sides, on the contrary, the left lamp flashes green. The lamp will go out just at the value within allowable voltage deviation. When a difference between both sides frequencies excesses max frequency deviation, the right LED light, and it flashes red when generator/line side frequency is lower than the system sides , on the contrary, the right lamp flashes green. The lamp will go out just at the value within allowable frequency deviation. Closing light shows TJJ state action, when TJJ closed the LED light (red), when TJJ opened the LED extinguishes. 6 eight-segment highlight digital tubes display parameters at three Display modes. They are: automatic display mode, measure parameters inquiries mode, sync parameters inquiries mode. Three display mode through the 'PARA' key switching cycle. Automatic display mode: After entering into the normal mode is the automatic mode. It automatic displays voltage deviation, frequency deviation and phase-displacement. When the voltage deviation of both sides exceeds the setting value, it displays UCXX.X which indicates both sides voltage deviation percentage, the max value is 99.9Only showed 99.9 even more than 99.9% and the generator/line side is the high side which means positive(not shown positive sign), the system side of high means negative (minus sign indicates -).

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When the system side and the generator/line side voltage deviation is in the setting scope and the frequency difference is over setting, shows FC X.XX indicates both sides frequency deviation, the max value is 9.99and the generator/line side of high means positive(not shown positive sign), the system side of high means negative (minus sign indicates -).

When the voltage and frequency deviation are all in setting range, shows JCXXX.X indicates both sides phase-displacement, 0-359.9scope. Note that satisfy any of the following conditions, the phase-displacement would be set 180 directly.

l l l

Frequencies of system side or generator/line exceed 35-65Hz scope. Frequency deviation exceeds 5Hzboth positive and negative). Voltages of system side or generator/line lower 10V.

The three parameters automatic display, when the system side and the generator/line side inputs change, the display item automatically change without control button.

In this mode, PARA is used to switch other display modes, the keys of >>, + and ENTER are invalid.

Measure parameters inquiries mode Presses PARA key can switch to this mode, circle displays system side voltage, generator/line side voltage, voltage deviation, system side frequency, generator/line side frequency, frequency deviation and phase-displacement in turn.

System side voltageTo display SUXXX.X the unit of V Generator/line side voltageTo display gUXXX.X the unit of V Voltage deviationSame as automatic mode;

System side frequencyTo display SFXX.XX the unit of Hz

Generator/line side frequencyTo display gFXX.XX the unit of Hz

Frequency deviationsame as automatic mode Phase-displacementsame as automatic mode.


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In this mode, PARA key is used to switch other display modes, >> key is used to inquire above parameters in turn, the keys of+ and ENTER are invalid. Sync parameters inquiries modePresses PARA key can switch to this mode, circle displays 7 sync parameters of the selected sync channel in turn. They are system side rating voltage, generator/line side rating voltage, system side TVs aux turn angle, difference frequency lockout angle, same frequency allowance power-angle, allowance voltage deviation and allowance frequency deviation. System side rating voltageTo display SnXXX.X the unit of Vn=1-9AbC indicates the present sync channel serial number, followed by 1-12, the following are similar; Generator/line side rating voltageTo display gnXXX.X the unit of V System side TVs aux turn angleTo display dnXX.X the unit of Difference frequency lockout angleTo display LnXX.X the unit of Same frequency allowance power-angleTo display hnXX.X the unit of Allowance voltage deviationTo display UnXX the unit of % Allowance frequency deviationTo display Fn0.XX the unit of Hz. In this mode, PARA key is used to switch other display modes, >> key is used to inquire above parameters in turn, the keys of+ and ENTER are invalid. 1.b.4 TJJ action logical specification

TJJ action conditions set by the logic of action, as described below:

a). condition decisionthere are following 12 action logical specifications. (1). Frequency deviation higher generator/line side frequency is higher than system side frequency and frequency deviation is larger than setting value;

(2). Frequency deviation lower generator/line side frequency is lower than system side frequency and frequency deviation is larger than setting value;

(3). Voltage deviation highergenerator/line side voltage percentage is higher than system side voltage percentage and voltage deviation is larger than setting value;

(4). Voltage deviation lowergenerator/line side voltage percentage is lower than system side
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voltage percentage and voltage deviation is larger than setting value;

(5). Same frequency/difference frequency paralleling category judgment inputcorrelative input signal connection is same frequency paralleling, correlative input signal disconnection is difference frequency paralleling;

(6). Phase-displacement over limitphase-angle difference of both sides is larger than setting value (difference frequency sync is difference frequency lockout angle, same frequency sync is same frequency allowable power-angle);

(7). System side non-voltagesystem side voltage is less than system side rating voltage 20%;

(8). Generator/line side non-voltagegenerator/line side voltage is less than generator/line side rating voltage 20%;

(9). System side alive-voltagesystem side voltage is larger than system side rating voltage 70%;

(10). Generator/line side alive-voltagegenerator/line side voltage is large than generator/line side rating voltage 70%;

(11). One side non-voltage confirm input signalinput judgmentone side non-voltage confirm input signal connect and both sides non-voltage input signal disconnect;

(12). Both sides non-voltage confirm input signalinput judgmentboth sides non-voltage confirm input signal connect and one side non-voltage input signal disconnect.

b). action logical (1). TJJ closing logical Meet any of the following conditions TJJ are closed (&&means fore-and-aft conditions come together, means conditions dissatisfied) .

one side non-voltage confirm input signal&&system side non-voltage

&&generator/line side alive-voltage


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one side non-voltage confirm input signal&&system side alive-voltage

&&generator/line side alive-voltage u both sides non-voltage confirm input signal&&system side non-voltage

&&generator/line side non-voltage u frequency deviation higher&&frequency deviation lower&&

voltage deviation higher&&voltage deviation lower&&phase-displacement over limit &&system side alive-voltage&&generator/line side alive-voltage. (2). TJJ opening logicalIf not satisfied with any of the above conditions then TJJ opened.

2.17 Definition terminal All terminals are accessible from the rear, the definitions are as show as below

l
1 2

Definitions of JK1 socket pins: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

syste m side TVs A phase

syste m side TVs B (N) phase

Gener at or/line side TVs A phase

Generat or/line side TVs B (N)

V ac an cy

#1 loc k out-

#1 lock out +

#2 loc k out-

#2 lock out+

Alar m-

Alar m+

Vac a ncy

powe r sourc e -

powe r sourc e +

phase

Auxiliary voltage is supplied from 110 to 220VAC/DC

Definitions of JK2 socket pins:

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1e i #3lock g out 11

2 #3lock out + 12

3 #4lock out 13

4 #4lock out + 14

5 #5lock out 15

6 #5lock out + 16

7 #6lock out 17

8 #6lock out + 18

9 #7lock out 19

10 #7lock out + 20

#8lock out -

#8lock out +

#9lock out -

#9lock out +

#10lock out -

#10lock out +

#11lock out -

#11lock out +

#12lock out -

#12lock out +

Sync lockout contact uses a MOSFET relay with high-power optoelectronic isolator, its output divide into positive polar and negative polar. Please note that polar when connecting. MOSFET relay contact contains 600VDC/6A, which could drive the circuit breaker to close directly. Not only do the relay comb-out the time lag of the electromagnetic type synchronism-check relay and inductive electric potential disturbance, but also entirely exterminate the abuse of long operation frequently of the electromagnetic type synchronism-check relay that lead to fatigue and damage. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Sele Sele ct #1 sync chan nel Sele ct #2 sync chan nel Sele ct #3 sync chan nel Select #4 sync chann el Sele ct #5 sync chan nel Select #6 sync chann el ct #7sy nc cha nnel

Sele ct #8sy nc cha nnel Select #9 sync chann el

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

NonSele ct #10 sync chan Sele ct #11 sync chan Sele ct #12 sync chan Non-voltag e verify in one side volta ge verify in one
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SF/DF select

Remote rest

Spare input

Public input

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nel

nel

nel

side

Inputs adopt DC110V or DC220VPlease specify when ordering.

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Chapter Generator Relay Protection Generator is the most important equipment in power system. Large capacity units play a critical role in a system, as such how to maintain the safe operation of generator in power system is highlighted. As direct cooling technologies are often used for large capacity units, the volume and weight are not increasing in direct proportion to the capacity. Therefore, the parameters of large generators are significantly different from those of small and medium sized generator. In this case the characteristics of faults and unsafe operation are also different, which poses complexity for protection. Compared with small and medium generators, the large ones have the following main features: 1). The short circuit ratio is decreased and the reactance is increased. The short circuit ratio of large generator is used reduced by about 0.5 and all the reactances are bigger than those of the small and medium generators. Therefore the short circuit level of large generators is lower, which is undesired for relay protection. As Xd is increased, the static stability reserve coefficient of generator Kch is decreased, therefore the static stability is easily lost in case of system disturbance or loss of excitation of the generator. As parameters such are Xd", Xd' and Xd are increased, the average asynchronous torque is greatly reduced, roughly from 2-3 times of the rated value for small and medium generators to the rated value. As such the slip during asynchronous operation after loss of excitation is increased, the allowable load and time for asynchronous operation are smaller and shorter. On the other hand, more active power needs to be absorbed from the system, therefore it is very bad for stable operation of the system. 2). The time constant is increased. The stator circuit time constant Ta and the ratio Ta/Ta' are singnificantly increased. In case of short circuit, the attenuation of stator acylic current is slow and the entire short circuit current is deviating at a side of the time axis for a number of power frequency cycles, making that the CT more easily saturated and the correction operation of protection is greatly affected. 3). The inertia time constant is decreased. The volume of large generators does not increase in direct proportion to the capacity, in which the utilization rate of material is higher and thus the directe effect of lower inertia contant H is caused. The inertia time constant of 600MW generator is at about 1.75, and the unit is more likely to experience oscillation under disturbance. 4). The thermal capacity is reduced. Another effect of higher utilization rate of material is that the thermal capacity of generator (WS/C) is significantly reduced compared to copper loss and core loss.For example, the stator winding symmetric overlaod capability of 200MW generator and lower is 1.5 times of rated current, with an allowable operating time of 120S, the rotor winding overload capacity is 2 times of rated excitation current, with an allowable operating time of 30S; while for 600MW steam turbine generator, the stator winding overload capacity is specified to be 1.5 times of rated current with a time of 30S, and the rotor winding overload capability is 2 times of rated excitation current with a time of 10S. The rotor surface capability of withstanding negative sequence overload I 2t , for small and medium generators
2

(indirect cooling mode) it is 30S and for 600MW (directing cooling mode) generator it is 10S. 2.18 Relay protection configuration 2.18.1 Configuration features of protection Two complete electrical quantity protections are provided, either using different groups of CT and PT and having separate output trip circuits.
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In addition to the UN5000 excitation system of ABB, the rotor earthing protection of generator is also achieved by the separate protection. The rotor earthing protection is provided with one earthing point, with the first time limit for alarm and the secone for trip. 2.19 Composition of Generator Protections The device for generator protections are 7UM6225 and 7SJ602 produced by Simens Co., Ltd. 2.19.1 Generator Differential Protection The numerical current differential protection of the 7UM62 is a high speed selective short-circuit protection for generator Differential protection systems operate according to the principle of current comparison and are therefore also known as current balance protection systems. They utilize the fact that in a healthy protected object the current leaving the object is the same as that which entered itAny measured current difference is a certain indication of a fault somewhere within the protected zone. The protected zone is limited by the CTs in the neutral point of generator and the CTs at the terminal side. 2.19.2 Generator 95%-Stator Earth Fault Protection The stator earth fault protection detects earth faults in the stator windings of three phase machines. The criterion for the occurrence of an earth fault is mainly the emergence of a displacement voltage. This principle makes possible a protected zone of 90 % to 95 % of the stator winding. The displacement voltage UE can be measured either at the machine starpoint via voltage transformers or neutral earthing transformers or via the e-n winding (broken delta winding) of a voltage transformer set 2.19.3 Generator 100%-Stator Earth Fault Protection The 100 % stator earth fault protection detects earth faults in the stator windings of generators which are connected with the network via a unit transformer. This protection function, which works with a 20 Hz injected voltage, is independent of the network frequency displacement voltage appearing in earth faults, and detects earth faults in all windings including the machine starpoint. The measuring principle used is not influenced at all by the generator operating mode and allows measurements even with the generator at standstill. The basic principle is shown in the following figure. An external low frequency alternating voltage source (20 Hz) injects into the generator starpoint a voltage of max. 1% of the rated generator voltage. If an earth fault occurs in the generator starpoint, the 20 Hz voltage drives a current through the fault resistance. From the driving voltage and the fault current, the protective relay determines the fault resistance. The protection principle described here also detects earth faults at the generator terminals, including connected components such as voltage transformers.

2.19.4 Generator Reverse Power Protection Reverse power protection is used to protect a turbo-generator unit on failure of energy to
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the prime mover when the synchronous generator runs as a motor and drives the turbine taking motoring energy from the network. This condition leads to overheating of the turbine blades and must be interrupted within a short time by tripping the network circuit-breaker. For the generator, there is the additional risk that, in case of a malfunctioning residual steam pass (defective stop valves) after the switching off of the circuit breakers, the turbine-generator-unit is speeded up, thus reaching an overspeed. For this reason, the system isolation should only be performed after the detection of active power input into the machine. The reverse power protection of the 7UM62 precisely calculates the active power from the symmetrical components of the fundamental waves of voltages and currents by averaging the values of the last 16 cycles. The evaluation of only the positive phasesequence systems makes the reverse power determination independent of current and voltage asymmetries and rresponds to actual loading of the drive end. 2.19.5 Generator Low Forward Protection The machine protection 7UM62 includes an active power supervision which monitors whether the active power falls below one set value as well as whether a separate second set value is exceeded. Each of these functions can initiate different control functions. When, for example, with generators operating in parallel, the active power output of one machine becomes so small that other generators could take over this power, then it is often appropriate to shut down the lightly loaded machine. The criterion in this case is that the "forwards" power supplied into the network falls below a certain value. In many applications it can be desirable to issue a control signal if the active power output rises above a certain value. The device calculates the active power from the positive sequence systems of the generator currents and voltages. The computed value is compared with the set values. 2.19.6 Generator Low Impedance Protection Machine impedance protection provides backup protection functions to the main protection of generator. Pickup is implemented as overcurrent pickup and can be optionally supplemented by an undervoltage seal-in circuit. After numeric filtering, the currents are monitored for ver-shooting of a set value. A signal is output for each phase where the set threshold has been exceeded. These pickup signals are considered for choosing the measured values. The pickup is reset when 95% of the pick-up threshold is undershot, unless maintained by the undervoltage seal-in feature. For calculating impedance only the currents and voltages of the faulty (shorted) phase loop are decisive. Accordingly the protection, controlled by the pickup, evaluates these measurement values Loop Selection The corresponding phase-earth loop is used for a 1-pole pickup With a 2-pole pickup, the phase-phase loop with the corresponding phase-tophase voltage is used for impedance calculation. With a 3-pole pickup, the phase-phase loop with the highest current value is used and with equal current amplitudes Since the impedance protection is multi-stage, the protected zones can be chosen such that the first stage (ZONE Z1, T-Z1) covers faults in the generator and the lower voltage side of the unit transformer, whereas the second stage (ZONE Z2, ZONE2 T2) covers the network. It should be noted that high voltage side 1-pole faults cause impedance measurement errors due to the star-delta connection of the unit transformer on the lower voltage side. An
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unwanted operation of the stage can be excluded since the fault impedances of power system faults are modeled too high. 2.19.7 Generator Under Frequency Protection& Generator Over Frequency Protection The frequency protection detects abnormally high and low frequencies of the generator. If the frequency lies outside the admissible range, appropriate actions are initiated. Frequency protection consists of the four requency elements f1 to f4 (47Hz,48Hz,49Hz51Hz),theses stages are used alternatively for frequency decrease or increase separately. The frequency can be determined as long as at least one of the phasetophase voltages is present and of sufficient magnitude. If the measurement voltage drops below a settable value Umin, frequency protection is blocked because precise frequency values can no longer be calculated from the signal. 2.19.8 Generator Overvoltage Protection Overvoltage protection serves to protect the electrical machine and connected electrical plant components from the effects of inadmissible voltage increases. Overvoltages can be caused by incorrect manual operation of the excitation system, faulty operation of the automatic voltage regulator, (full) load shedding of a generator, separation of the generator from the system. The setting of limit values and time delays of the overvoltage protection depends on the speed with which the voltage regulator can regulate voltage variations. The protection must not intervene in the regulation process of the faultlessly functioning voltage regulator. For this reason, the two-stage characteristic must always be above the voltage time characteristic of the regulation procedure. 2.19.9 Generator Overload Protection The thermal overload protection prevents thermal overloading of the stator windings of the machine being protected. The device calculates the overtemperature in accordance with a single-body thermal model .When an initial settable overtemperature threshold is reached, an alarm is issued for load reduction measures. If the second overtemperature threshold is reached, the protected equipment is disconnected from the network. 2.19.10 Generator Loss of Excitation Protection The loss-of-field protection protects a synchronous machine from asynchronous operation in the event of faulty excitation or regulation and from local overheating of the rotor. Furthermore, it avoids endangering network stability by underexcitation of large synchronous machines. To assess underexcitation the device processes all three terminal phase currents and all three terminal voltages for the stator circuit criterion. It also processes the excitation voltage for the rotor circuit criterion . For the stator circuit criterion the admittance is calculated from the positive sequence currents and voltages . The admittance measurement always produces the physically appropriate stability limit as the figure shows:

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The underexcitation protection in the 7UM62 makes available three independent,freely combinable characteristics. it is possible to model static machine stability by means of two partial characteristics with the same time delays (T CHAR. 1 = T CHAR 2). The partial characteristics are distinguished by the corresponding distance from the zero point (1/xd CHAR. 1) and (1/xd) CHAR. 2) as well as the corresponding inclination angle 1 and2. If the resulting characteristic (1/xd CHAR.1)/1; (1/xd CHAR.2)/ 2 is exceeded (in the following figure on the left), a delayed warning or a trip sign al is transmitted.A further characteristic (1/xd CHAR.3 /3 can be matched to the dynamic stability characteristic of the synchronous machine. Since steady operation is impossible if this characteristic is exceeded, immediate tripping is then required (time stage T CHAR 3).

2.19.11 Generator Back-up Overcurrent Protection(Voltage Controlled) The inverse-time overcurrent protection is used as back-up protection for the machine short-circuit protection (differential protection and/or impedance protection). In generators where the excitation voltage is taken from the machine terminals, the short-circuit current subsides quickly in the event of adjacent faults (i.e. in the generator or unit transformer region) due to the absence of excitation voltage. Within a few seconds it sinks below the pick-up value of the overcurrent time protection. In order to avoid a dropout of the pickup, the positive-sequence component is monitored additionally. This component can influence the overcurrent detection in this ways: If the value falls below a settable voltage threshold, an overcurrent stage with a lower pick-up value is enabled.

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2.19.12 Generator Unblanced Load Protection Unbalanced load protection detects unbalanced loads of three-phase induction motors. Unbalanced loads create a counter-rotating field which acts on the rotor at double frequency. Eddy currents are induced at the rotor surface leading to local overheating in rotor end zones and slot wedges. Another effect of unbalanced loads is overheating of the damper winding. The unbalanced load protection of 7UM62 uses numerical filters to dissect the phase currents into their symmetrical components. It evaluates the negative-phase sequence current I2. If the negative phase-sequence current exceeds a parameterized threshold value, the trip time starts. A trip command is transmitted as soon as this trip time has expired. Warning Stage: If the value of the continuously permissible, negative phase-sequence current I2> is exceeded, after expiry of a set time T WARN a warning message I2> Warn is issued Thermal Characteristic:The heating up of the object to be protected is calculated in the device as soon as the permissible unbalanced load I2> is exceeded. In this context, the current-time-area is calculated constantly to ensure a correct consideration of various load cases. As soon as the current-time-area ((I2/IN)2 t) has reached the K asymmetry factor, the thermal characteristic is tripped. Definite Time Tripping Stage:High negative phase sequence currents can only be caused by a two-pole power system short circuit which must be covered in accordance with the network grading plan. For this reason, the thermal characteristic is cut by a selectable, independent negative phase-sequence current stage. 2.19.13 Generator Pole Slipping Protection Depending on power network conditions and feeding generators, dynamic occurrences such as load jumps, short-circuits not disconnected quickly enough, auto-reclosure or switching actions, may cause system swings. Such power swings endanger power network stability. Stability problems often result from active power swings which can lead to pole-slipping and generator overloading. The out-of-step protection is based on the well-proven impedance measurement and evaluation of the complex impedance vector trajectory. The impedance is calculated from the positive sequence fundamental frequency components of the voltages and currents 2.19.14 Generator Interturn Protection The interturn protection detects faults between turns within a generator winding (phase). This situation may involve relatively high circulating currents that flow in the short-circuited turns and damage the winding and the stator. The protective function is characterized by a high sensitivity. The figure shows the basic principle of measurement. The displacement voltage is measured at the open delta winding by means of 3 two-phase isolated voltage transformers. So as to be insensitive towards earth faults, the isolated voltage transformer starpoint has to be connected to the generator starpoint by means of a high-voltage cable. In the event of an interturn fault, the voltage in the affected phase will be reduced

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causing a displacement voltage that is detected at the broken delta winding. The sensitivity is limited rather by the winding asymmetries than by the protection device. 2.19.15 Generator Rotor Earth Fault Protection Rotor earth fault protection is used to detect earth faults in the excitation circuit of synchronous machines. An earth fault in the rotor winding does not cause immediate damage; however, if a second earth fault occurs it constitutes a winding short-circuit of the excitation circuit. The resulting magnetic imbalances can cause extreme mechanical forces which may destroy the machine. The rotor earth fault protection in the 7UM62 uses an external system frequency auxiliary voltage of approximately 36 to 45 V AC, This voltage is symmetrically coupled to the excitation circuit and simultaneously connected to the measurement input UE of the device provided for this purpose. The coupled voltage drives a small charging current (normally a few mA) through the coupling unit, as the case may be the brush resistance and the capacitance to earth of the excitation circuit. This current IRE is measured by the device. The rotor earth fault calculation calculates the complex earth impedance from the auxiliary AC voltage URE and the current IRE. The earth resistance RE of the excitation circuit is then calculated from the earth impedance. The earth resistance supervision has two stages. Usually an alarm is issued if an initial stage is undershot. If the value falls below the second low-resistance stage, tripping will be initiated after a short time delay 2.19.16 Generator Cooling Water Loss 2.19.17 Generator Rortor Overload Protection The same as the generator overload protection. 2.19.18 Turbine Stearm Valve Closed 2.19.19 Generator Overexcitation Protection Overexcitation protection is used to detect inadmissibly high induction in generator. An increase in induction above the rated value very quickly saturates the iron core and causes large eddy current losses. The protection must intervene when the limit value for the protected object is exceeded. The overexcitation protection feature servers to measure the voltageU/frequency ratio f, which is proportional to the B induction and puts it in relation to the BN nominal induction. Overexcitation protection includes two staged characteristics,The first stage results alarm and excitation reduction,the second stage results trip. 2.20 Composition of Excitation Transformer Protections 2.20.1 Excitation Transformer Overcurrent Protection 2.20.2 Excitation Transformer Overload Protection

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Chapter Microcomputer Dynamic Recorder for Generator-transformer Unit 1. Introduction LBD-MGR-8000 is based on the hardware of original recorder. It is new generation of embedded dynamic recorder with independent intellectual property. They are mainly applied for recording voltage, current and relay protection devices action sequence under different fault states in power system, to help operators analyzing the failure cause correctly. 2. Technical Characteristics 2.1 High Performance Design with Embedded Hardware Platform It can accomplish calculations of kinds of initiate mode in a short time to judge the fault rapidly and accurately for the sample and calculations are performed by 32-bit floating DSP that is low consumptive and powerful in calculation. EXT embedded main board without fan is in charge of data processing. The main board is low consumptive, stabile, reliable and tailored arbitrarily according to actual demand to design kinds of I/O mode. The stability and reliability are improved greatly because of the application of large scale of programmable logic device, craft of SMD and 6 layers PCB. 2.2 Stabile and Efficient Design with Embedded Software Platform We adopt multitask real-time embedded operating system used by international military. The system has many efficient characteristics, such as simplify the program, tailor the program according to actual demand, run in junior embedded system and occupy less computer resource. The use of embedded system avoids computer virus and despiteful attack on the net, it ensures that user mistake or virus would not damage or paralyze the system. 2.3 High-speed Data Acquisition The maximum sampling frequency is up to 20 kHz and the resolution of digital event channels is 0.05ms. It provides high quality data source for analyzing fault, distance-measurement, monitoring operating state in detail; It is helpful discover the limitation of the new device and the hidden problems of the device operating for years for operators; It is useful to reoccur fidelity fault wave, reflect the quality of power support truly, discover the abnormality of operating device. 2.4 Humanity Visual Self-diagnostic Warning Function The self-check on main surface mount chip is necessary because of redundant design of hardware. The error display visually if chip is damaged, avoiding the defect that the serviceman can not maintain when the network interrupt or the back computer fail; It also can be reported by remote
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dispatching or transmitted to analyze station. 2.5 Independent Operation in Safe Mode The set adopts 6U panel design and has perfect ability to protect the set from disturbance. It is convenience to install, maintain and debug. Create running and operating log automatically and record the operation status in detail for reference. To output and display wave analysis, the set configures with large screen TFT liquid crystal display. 2.6 Transient, Steady-state Data Adopt Independent Double Channel Storage, Transmission Technology Transient data and steady-state data store and transmit independently. It has steady-state record function to record data in normal system, including electric parameters, such as voltage, current, active power, reactive power, frequency etc. The set begins to record consecutively when it starts normally, it goes on when something abnormal happen to the system or it records transient data because of fault start. It ensures that the data in the whole procedure of per disturbance can be recorded completely when long-time disturbance (pollution of system for example) happen to the power network consecutively for many times. 2.7 Security Storage of Large Volume Data The set adopts advanced hardware design to save record data directly to disk. For large capacity of storage medium have the ability to record consecutively, the volume of memory has no effect on the volume of the record data. Backup data dually ensure the security against the influence of network and power down. 2.8 Network Function Support TCP/IP communicate protocol; Support IEC 870-5-103 communicate protocol; Support Ethernet; Support multiple communicate modes such as double cord, coaxial cable, optic fiber, phone line. It is convenience to communicate and combine network with other management system. 2.9 Electrical Test Function Exciter no-load test: Generator short test; Generator no-load test; Main exciter load test while generator no-load ; Main exciter load test when generator short; Generator no-load excitation-loss test; Excitation system step response test; Generator zero-initial voltage boosting test; Main transformer zero-initial voltage boosting test; Network incorporated synchronically test; self-defined test etc. 3 Technical Parameters 3.1 Maximum Sampling Frequency: 20kHz
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Modular Transforming Precision: 16 bits; Resolution of Digital Event Channels: 0.05ms The Highest Harmonic Resolution Ratio: 99 times. 3.2 Data Recording Mode The mode is classified into steady record and transient record, the data is marked with absolute time. 3.2.1 Steady Record

It records electric parameters consecutively, such as voltage, current, active power, reactive power, frequency etc. The interval of the data can be set as 0.02s or 1s. 3.2.2 Dynamic Record

3.2.2.1 Mode of Dynamic record: Dynamic record was divided into A, B, C and D to record consecutively. The set starts to run automatically when disturbance happen to power network, it records as follow A : data before disturbance, the record time can be set as 40ms to 500ms. B : data after disturbance, the record time can be set as 100ms to 1000ms, the frequency can be set as 20/10/5/2kHz. C :data after disturbance, the record time can be set as 1s to 20s, the frequency can be set as 1/0.5 kHz. D: If concussion happen to the system, the record time can be set as 10 to 30 minutes, the sampling frequency can be set as 50/10/1Hz. 3.2.2 .2 Start Condition The first start: Start automatically and run sequentially as A-B-C when any start condition is satisfied. Repeat start: run repeatedly when new start conditions appears. Halt automatically when recording finishes. 3.3 Rated Parameters: AC voltage: Un=57.7V, 100V; 2*Un: Long time running; AC current: In=5A, 1A; 2*In: Long time running;
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Lasting 10s when 20 times overload; Lasting 1s when 40 times overload; High frequency signal:-10V+10V, -5V+5V; Non-electric parameters: sensor output such as temperature, pressure and so on; DigitalNormally open, normally closed passive dead contact. 3.4 Power Source: AC: 220V, accepted deviation: -20%~+10%; Frequency: 50Hz 0.5Hz, accepted deviation: -5%~+5%; DC: 220V or 110V, accepted deviation: -20%~+10% 3.5 Start Mode: It includes analog start, digital start and manual start mode. 3.5.1 Analog Start 1). Positive-sequence component start: It includes positive-sequence over-voltage start and low-voltage start 2). Negative-sequence component start: It includes negative-sequence voltage start and current start. 3). Zero-sequence component start: It includes zero-sequence voltage components start and zero-sequence current component start. 4). Oscillation start: It starts while the current fluctuates for 10% in 1.5s. 5). Frequency difference start and frequency change rate start: It monitor that the frequency bias normal range or not. 6). Stator winding earth-fault start: Fundamental wave zero-sequence voltage over limit start; The terminal third harmonic voltage start; The third harmonic voltage (between the terminal and the neutral) start rate. 7). Low-frequency over-current start: Set against the short fault of the units start processing. 8). Over-excitation start: Monitor the over-excitation of the generator-transformer unit. 9). Generator excitation-loss, low-excitation start: Voltage among rotor poles under amount start; Reactive power reverse start. 10). Reverse-power start: Start reverse-power criterion through judging the direction of
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active power from generator terminal. 11). Rotor winding earth-fault start: It includes rotor positive voltage to ground, negative voltage to ground and voltage between positive pole and negative pole. 12). Stator and rotor winding overload start: Take the current of generator terminal and DC excitation current of rotor winding as start mount to judge the fault. 13). Other starts: Any input analog can be used as start mount, the start mode includes abruption component start and over or under limit start. 3.5.2 Digital Start Any one or multiplex digital value can be set as start value. The mode includes switch-on start and switch-off start. 3.5.3 Manual Start 3.6 Warning Signal It includes power down warning signal, record start signal, error-warning signal. The signal output while providing relay connection, which can be connected to center signal circuit. 3.7 The set has perfect function of data analyzing, error distance-measurement adopts multiple algorithms to calculate synthetically and reach high precision of 2 percent error of metallic earth. 3.8 Realizing many timing modes including GPS module timing, impulse timing, serial port timing. Sampling synchronously all the net is realized through GPS satellite synchronous clocking, while record data with absolute time standard made the remote dynamic recorder realized data analyze synchronously. 3.9 Communication The set provides Ethernet port with standard TCP/IP protocol and adopt IEC 870-5-103 communicate protocol. The recorder can share data when connected to local MIS net and realize remote control through connecting Ethernet card to MIS net. It completes the function of data transfer, remote display, setting modification, manual start. 3.10 Work Environment Temperature: -5C+45C Relative humidity: 90 % 3.11 Size Standard PK-10 cupboard: 2260/2360(Height) mm 800(Width) mm 600(Depth) mm. It can be made for special.
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3.1 Hardware Illustration The set adopts 6U panel design and has perfect ability to protect the set from disturbance. It is convenience to install, maintain and debug. The board distribute from the left to the right as: X1 to X6: analog input boardX7: main board; X8: digital input board; X9: power board. 4.1 The Upper Layer Board It includes Indicator lights of power, run, start and error. Power indicator lightIt is on when the power source works well. Run indicator light: It flashes when units work well. When there is something wrong, it will always be on or off. Start indicator lightIt is on when units begin to record. Error indicator lightWhen something wrong occurs in the units, it is on. 4.2 Analog Input Board: It can accomplish data-collection and calculation of 12 analog channels and transient record start discrimination with 32-bit high-speed DSP and 16-bit A/D chip. To meet the demand of kinds of measure scale through regulating the secondary side of the isolated transformer, AC analog take high precision isolated transformer as transform device. 4.3 Main Board It is composed with ETX industrial computer as the core. It completes the task of monitoring management, saving the settings, storage and transfer of record data. It controls all boards and transfer data through the bus. 4.4 Digital Input Board The use of 32 bit high-speed DSP made it capable to accomplish data-collection of 128 digital channels and digital start discrimination of transient record. To eliminate Common Mode Interference caused by power and common ground wire, the internal bus thought optical isolator is isolated from input circuit absolutely. 4.5 Power Board There are 5V, 12V, 24V for the inside and start signal relay, error alarming relay, signal reset relay on the board.

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3.2 Recorder Monitor Software Illustrations The software mainly completes the task of running and adjusting management, setting values adjustment, recording datas storage and printing. Supply power to the set, it will start system, and go into the main interface of the software automatically. 5.1 Main Interface The running state of the set displayed on the page header. The recent 1000 data recording information list in the page. The information include data file name, start type, starting channel number and size of the file. Double clicking the item in the list box will open the analysis software automatically where you can analyze the data file.

5.2 Integrated Settings There are communication parameters, password and exit submenu in this menu. 5.2.1 Communication Parameters The default local IP address is 10.0.4.1; the communication parameters include port and IP address. You can communicate one or two sets through setting the port and IP address. Default port is 2404; Default IP address of set is 10.0.4.11(the other is 10.0.4.12). 5.2.2 Password Set or change the operating password.

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5.2.3 Exit After verifying the password, exit the program. 5. 3 1# settings (or 2# settings) There are manual start, run settings, system settings, channel attributes, RMS, digital state, proportion factor, digital output debug, analog zeroing, manual set time, printer select, print font select, analog settings print and digital settings print.

5.3.1 Manual Start Pressing the submenu, the sets will start record man-made and create data files. 5. 3.2 Run Settings The settings include over or under of analog, rate of change of analog, digital, sequence component and other, etc. If the value you set is 0, it will quit this start mode. Change the settings value through input by keyboard. Pressing the OK button or ENETER key, confirm the change and exit. Pressing CANCEL button, the value is invalid.

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5. 3.2.1 Over/Under and Abruption Settings Set the settings of the analog channels. For the over/under settings, upper limit settings must be more than the lower limit. The reference values: Upper limit settings: 110% of Un; Lower limit settings: 90% of Un; Upper limit settings of 3U0: 10% of Un or 8~10V; Upper limit settings of 3I0: 10% of In or 1A; Rate of change: 10% of rated value. 5.3.2.2 Digital Settings

To select channel enabled or disabled with mouse, if choose channel enabled, then select Digital

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start: closed-open, open-closed. Press the OK button or ENTER key to save the change and exit. Press CANCEL button to exit directly. 5.3.2.3 Sequence and Others Settings Set the DSP board type in the system parameter (reference 5.3.3.1) first. The settings of the generator terminal board include all of the settings. The settings of main transformer board include positive-sequence voltage upper limit settings, positive-sequence voltage lower limit settings, negative-sequence current over limit settings, negative-sequence over limit settings, over-excitation settings. The other board has no settings in the page.

The reference value: Positive-sequence voltage upper limit settings: 100%Un; Positive-sequence voltage lower limit settings: 90%Un; Negative-sequence current over limit settings: 10%Un; Negative-sequence voltage over limit settings: 10%Un; Over-excitation settings: 1.1 ~1.3; Reverse-power settings: 3% of rated power; The Third Harmonic of zero-sequence over limit settings: 0.5~10V; Ratio of third harmonic over limit settings: 1.1~1.3; Reactive power reverses settings: 3% of rated power; The current fluctuates for 10% in 1.5s: 10% of rated current.
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5.3.2.4 Debug Settings To facilitate debugging, set some commonly used parameters. When using, select by the mouse. For all settings, press OK button or ENTER key to pass the password authentication, the settings will be confirmed. The settings save in the hard disk that exchanges the Original settings. At the same time, the settings transmit to the record sets. If errors occur when saving the settings such as network communication error, the hint will be displayed on the screen. Since the settings are directly related to the operation of the device, we should ensure the value correct and preserve effectively. 5.3.3 System Settings 5.3.3.1 DSP Kind Double click the DSP item to select the type of the board: generator terminal board, main transformer board and the other board. 5.3.3.2 Other Settings Sampling frequency of period A and B: 20/10/5/2 kHz Optional, Default: 10 kHz Sampling frequency of period C1/0.5 kHz Optional Default: 1 kHz

Sampling frequency of period D50/10/1 Hz Optional Default: 1 Hz Sampling length of period A Sampling length of period B Sampling length of period C Sampling length of period D 40ms-50ms Optional Default: 40ms 100ms-10000ms OptionalDefault: 100ms 1s-20s Optional Default: 1s

10min-30min Optional Default: 1 min

Analog threshold voltage of start: 50V(DR is running)0V(Sets is testing); Settings of Frequency deviation: 0.5Hz; Settings of Frequency rate of change: 0.1Hz/s When complete setting, click the OK button to effect the settings and close the integrated settings dialog. Click the CANCEL button to exit the integrated settings dialog directly. 5.3.4 Channel Attributes Set the analog channel attributes which include analog channels name, signal frequency, phase sequence, units of the first and units of the second. Set the digital channel attributes that include digital channels name.
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5.3.5 RMS The RMS and phase angle of all of analog channels display real-time. 5.3.6 Proportion Factor

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To adjust the precision of the analog channel, input the actual value and the channel number that has the signal in corresponding location, then click compute button, the proportion factor will be computed automatically and hint you to save the right value. Note: the actual input signal must be integer. 5.3.7 Digital Output Debug

The function of this menu is to test the indicator lights on the upper layer board and the contact of digital output. It includes start indicator light, set error indicator light and Reset signal. 5.3.8 Analog Channels Zeroing

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In the analog channels zeroing dialog, you can adjust the zero of the sample board or single channel. Note: prudent use of this function for the DC channel. 5.3.9 Manual Set Time Transmit the time of the background computer to the sets. It is used for debugging the GPS. 5.3.10 Settings Print You can print the segment info, analog settings and digital settings.

3.3

Analysis Software

The analysis software is mainly applied to backstage unit, analysis substation or other manager. It can analyze the data file transmitted by the communication software, and help operators analyze the failure cause correctly. The function of the software includes file manager, view, system parameters, display control, analysis (phasor computation, sequence quantity computation, frequency computation, power computation, power angle analysis, synchronous, harmonic analysis, current fluctuates analysis, third harmonic computation, measured impedance computation, digital change table, fault report,

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distance-measurement), print etc. In the analysis software, all of the analysis and server function are based on the waveform. 6.1 Hardware and Installation Windows98/2000/XPMemory: 256M. Its a green software and no installation. There are 4 files in the folder that are wlbfx.exe, fushi.dll, mgr.dll and wtfx.exe. Double click the wlbfx.exe in the explorer or my computer to open the analysis software. 6.2 How-to-use 6.2.1 Start The software main interface will occur when startup the software. It includes 4 parts: menu and hot key tool bar, channel indication bar, state indication bar and channel waveform display zone. The menu and hot key tool bar can complete all kinds of functions provided by the program and all function is included in menu function.

Menu and Hot key tool bar


The function offered by the hot key tool bar is already included in the menu. Channel indication bar display the screen channel information. State indication bar indicates the time where is the time-mark line. Channel waveform display zone is used to display current channel waveform of screen channel.

6.2.2 Instruction of Menu Function 6.2.2.1 File In the file menu, there are submenus of open data file, open record database, open directory, import, export COMTRADE, print screen, option, exit etc.
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6.2.2.1.1 Open Data File Choose Open Data File of file. The Open Data File dialog will be view. Select the drive and the path that you want to get a file form, the list box will display the files corresponding to the format chosen. Use the mouse or the UP, DOWN key to select the data file, and in the right of the dialog, you can find the data file information such as user name, startup time, startup type, startup channel and fault time length etc. Select the data file that you want to analysis, press Open to get the Analysis window.

6.2.2.1.2 Open Record Database Recorder Monitor Software stores the data files in the default directory. Choose Open Record Database of file. The Records list of faults currently is available to your PC appears. Double click the selected record to open it, or select record first, press the open button to open it and close the dialog.

6.2.2.1.3 Open Directory Choose this submenu, open the explorer to view the default directory of data files. You can copy and find the useful data file conveniently. 6.2.2.1.4 Import Reserved to compatible other format of data file. 6.2.2.1.5 Export COMTRADE
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Change the opened data file to COMTRADE. 6.2.2.1.6 Communication Ethernet communication. Execute the ping + Ip address command in start menu to ensure that the net is communicated. It is used to transmit the data files and also can start record manually from remote. 6.2.2.1.7 Print Screen Copy the current screen to the clipboard. 6.2.2.1.8 Option This submenu is used for setting the operating parameters needed by the program. It includes analog channel display ratio and Directories setting. In the analog channel display ratio sheet, you can set each of the channel display ratio; In the directories setting sheet, you can set the directories used by Analysis center. 6.2.2.1.9 Exit To exit the analysis software, press Exit of File, or click the right-button of the mouse to popup the menu then select the exit submenu. 6.2.2.2 Display Control It includes many control functions for waveform displayed on channel, e.g. waveform compression and tension on time axis, coaxial display of all channels on the same time axis, waveform displayed on different time axis, mixed display of analog channel and digital channel waveform, all display of analog channel and digital channel waveform. You can click the shortcut on the hot key tool bar to control the waveform compression and tension. Program implies that all analog show in different time axis during the first running. Use Page Up Page Down and CTRL+ CTRL+ to choose different channels and input analog or digital on channel indication bar to choose waveform. There are channel name and value where the time-mark line is in the channel indication bar. Pressing the right button of the mouse on the channel name to popup the menu, in this menu you can change the channel to display, adjust the display ratio of Y axis. The button upon the channel indication bar is used to choose the amplitude or RMS. To change the display timeyou can drag the time-mark line to the place or double click the position where you want the time-mark line to be. To position precisely, press the LEFT, RIGTH key on the keyboard. In the state indication bar, the relative time and the absolute time of the current file is displayed. Right click the mouse to popup the menu, select the second time-mark line in the waveform display zone. The distance of the two time-mark line stands for time length. The distance
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of the two time-mark line can be fixed as half cycle, one cycle, two cycles frequently. Use the quick positioning function to set the main time-mark line to the start time of each period. 6.2.2.3 Analysis This menu includes all of the analysis function. 6.2.2.3.1 Power Angle Analysis Using unit value saturated reactance to compute the power angle and show the power angle curve. Moving the mouse or and to observe the value at different time. 6.2.2.3.2 Synchronous The function of the submenu is to analyze frequency different of the generator and transformer when the digital channels start. The window shows the frequency different curve of setting generator and transformer and amplitude, phase of setting analog channel. Moving the time cursor, it will display frequency different and amplitude, phase of analog channel at different times. 6.2.2.3.3 Harmonic analysis It is used to determine the content of harmonic component of any analog in any one time-interval. The highest harmonic frequency is up to 99 times. The compute result is list in the list box. It also lists the percentage of harmonic component to fundamental component. It can dispose four analog signals in the same time at most. The compute result can be printed. The result of one channel signal can be printed to 99 times, and multi channel signals can be printed to 49 times.

6.2.2.3.4 Current Fluctuates Analysis The user can compute four group of the current fluctuate value which is generator, transformer, and defined by the users. The channels which to be analyzed can be defined by the user.
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6.2.2.3.5 Phasor Computation It is used to compute the fundamental voltage or the amplitude and phase position of the three A, B and C phases and the amplitude at any time, it adopts Fourier algorithm. You can input number in the channel number column to analyze different channel. And you can change different time in the compute time combo box with click the up and down arrow of the combo box or fix the cursor in the combo box then press the UP, DOWN key in the keyboard to analyze the value at different time. Press Print button, to print the result at current time.

6.2.2.3.6 Sequence Quantity Computation It is used to compute the amplitude and phase position of the positive, negative and zero sequence components at any time. It adapts Fourier algorithm, the steps are similar to phasor computation.

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6.2.2.3.7 Power Computation In this menu, you can achieve the active power and reactive power, and the power curve display in the screen. The user can change the compute channel and time span.

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6.2.2.3.8 Measured Impedance Computation Compute the measured impedance value of the generator. 6.2.2.3.9 Third Harmonic Computation Compute the third harmonic value of the selected channel. The default is the fourth channel but the user can change it. 6.2.2.3.10 Digital Change Table The digital change table is used to analyze and print the digital change state in the current data file. If the digital is changed, the digital channel number, change time, change state will be list in the list box. 6.2.2.3.11 Distance-measurement You can analyze the distance-measurement in the data file of lines. Select the parameters saved in the file or input the parameters manually before compute. 6.2.2.3.12 Fault Report Before printing the user can select the channels and time span which to be printed freedom. 6.2.2.3.13 Steady Data This submenu is used for analyzing the steady record data file stored during running. 6.2.2.4 Users In this menu, you can view or hide the toolbar, status bar and display toolbar. 6.2.2.5 Help It includes About sub-menu which used to show the version number.

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Esp Control System

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Chapter ESP Control System

The control system is applied with upper & low order computer. The low order part is placed in the HV &LV panel and the communication cable is for duplexer and the communication principle is TCP/IP,MODBUS with the communication distance no more than 1500 meters.The control mode has two ways: remote and local, but the main control way is remote control. And the remote control part is placed in the dust-discharging control room. The two sets of upper order computer can be the back-up for each other, which mean if one set of upper order does not work; the other can control both two ESPs. The remote mode control can be alternated to the local control; either the local control can be switched to remote control. Here is a diagram of the control system for you to reference.

The core of the control system is the controller EPIK, so here is a detail introduction of the controller as follows. Zhejiang Sunyard environmental protection Engineering Co.,ltd has a great developing power and with the continuous innovation for which makes we lead a advanced place in the field of electrical control products and technology. The second generation controller for ESP of Zhejiang sunyard environmental protection Engineering Co.,Ltd is on the base of ALSTOM technology. The new feature of the controller is that each contains the EPOQ (Electrostatic Precipitator Optimizing Q algorithm) optimized software, PCR (Power Control Rapping) software and OpOpt(Opacity optimizing) software. The controller applied with the most advanced technology in the field of computer control, intellectual control, net communication and industrial field bus. The controlling mode Checking-Diagnosis-Control has greatly increased the capacity of the controller for ESPs. 1. The main features of EPIK series controller: The controller chip is DSP (digital signal processor) with high speed and accurate
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sampling process. It monitors the second current & voltage on real time. It applies with the Spark level follow function and by setting the parameters such as the spark step, spark rate limitation rising time & slop in advance, then supplying the average current & voltage to the field by a line rising voltage way to stabilized the dust discharging rate. Compared with the traditional controller for ESP, the EPIK controller has a higher efficiency of dust discharging, more obvious energy saving effect and lower frequency rapping way. Generally speaking, the power saved is more than 30%, the absolute dust emission decreased more than 10% and the rapping frequency reduced more than 30%. The unique feature for the EPIK controller is that the controlling of high voltage part controlled silicon was fixed together with the rapping part in order to carry out the PCR (power control rapping) function. Moreover, the system of EPIK controller can be connected with MIS system, DCS system, Remote terminal Unit easily. 1.1 The EPIK main functions: Control function a. Spark following control b. Peak value following control c. Flash frequency following control d. Phase recovery following control e. Use the auto intermission power supply and pulse power supply controlEPOQ f. Feed-back of dust concentration control g. Reduction power rapping control Communication web control function a. With standard industry Ethernet interface b. Transmit the signal of primary voltage & current, second voltage &current; spark rate, on-off, malfunction of the equipment, transformer or ESP problem signals under running mode to the master computer and DCS. c.The on-off function, voltage rising or reducing and adjusting could be operated through the CTR plate by the operator. Protect function a. Load cut off, short circuit protection b. Over current protection c. Oil temperature over limitation protection & excitation protection Function on the panel a. Primary voltage & current, second voltage & current displayed on the meter b. Main loop closed up, equipment problem, transformer problem, ESP problem warning There are also some special and unique measures that the EPIK controller can
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actualize. 1). The average spark level follows function.

2). PCR software by changing the field intension when rapping to attain the aim of reducing the dust grain conglutination and improve the dust discharging effect.

3). The advanced optimize software for ESP power supply running(EPOQ)

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The Computer controlled communication system The ESPs High voltage control, rapping control, dust discharging control, heater control can all be monitored and actualized by the computer. The manage system is windows 2000, and the programming software is Ifix or VB 6.0. The system absorbs the advanced technology of ALSTOM and Zhejiang sunyard improve the function to make it suitable for different conditions. 2.1 Displaying screen T/R running table. It includes the communication state of each high voltage silicon controlled rectifier; I2 setting value, running mode and start & stop state; V1 V2 I1 I2 spark rate and running state.

2.2T/R sketch map Simulate the running value of each meter (primary V & I, second V & I) on the panel.
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2.3 Comparing diagram of the Current Use the different color to show the difference between the setting value and real value of second current for each rectifier.

2.4 The record table of T/R state. Record the error occurred time and at this time the value of V1I1V2I2

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2.5 Rapping running Display the start time, stop time and running period of the rapping motor.

Protract the curve and display the power, opacity for each casing

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