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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO- MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH- 13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

[TEXT BOOK: BASIC-BIO-MECHANICS BY SUSAN-J HALL , 3rd EDITION ]; 6/20/2013 BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING GUIDE.INC
[TEXT BOOK: BASIC-BIO-MECHANICS BY SUSAN-J HALL ,
3rd EDITION ];
6/20/2013
BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING GUIDE.INC
MUHAMMAD-SIKANDAR-KHAN-LODHI

[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Table of Contents EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT:

Table of Contents

EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT:

3

1.

TORQUE :-

3

DIAGRAM: [ fig # 13.1 ( a )] [ Moment-Arm ]

4

Fig # 13.2 [ b and c ]

5

DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.3 ] :-

6

DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.4 ] [ stage-a ] : 7 DIAGRAM [ fig #
DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.4 ] [ stage-a ] :
7
DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.5 ] [ stage-b and c ] :
8
COUPLING-FORCE-NUMERICAL [ SAMPLE-PROBLEM # 1 ]:-
9
DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.6 ] :-
10
LEVERS :-
12
HUMAN-SYSTEM ACT AS A LEVER’S SYSTEM:-
12
DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.7 ] First Class of Lever :
14
Example : [ fig # 13.8 ]
15
DIAGRAM [ Fig # 13.9 ]
16
Fig # 13.10 [ a ]:
17
Fig # 13.10 [ b ]
18
3 rd CLASS OF LEVER:-
18
Fig # 13.11 :
19
Fig # 13.13 :
21
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE:-
21
[
Fig # 13.15 ]
24
EQUATION OF STATIC EQUILIBRIUM :-
25
Diagram: [ Fig # 13.16 ] [ Bicep work out ]
26
[ Fig # 13.17 (a ) ]
27

FIG # 13.17 (b)

28

SYSTAMATIC DIAGRAM: [ Fig # 13.19 ( a) ]

31

Fig # 13.20 (b)

32

Diagram : [ Fig # 13.21 ]

34

Fig # 13.22

35

Fig # 13.2

36

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] [ Fig # 13.26 ] 40 DYNAMIC-EQULIBRIUM

[ Fig # 13.26 ]

40

DYNAMIC-EQULIBRIUM :-

43

Fig # 13.29

44

Fig # 13.28

45

EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT: EQUILIBRIUM: 1. TORQUE :- a. TORQUE [ DEFINITION # a ]:-
EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT:
EQUILIBRIUM:
1. TORQUE :-
a. TORQUE [ DEFINITION # a ]:-
The torque [
] is the product of force [ F ] which act
on the body and the moment-arm .
MOMENT-ARM [d ] :
Its the perpendicular distance from the force [or
force’s ] line of action to the axis of Rotation is called “Moment-Arm” .
FORMULA:
[
];

Where :

F

= Applied Force .

d

= Moment-Arm.

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] DIAGRAM: [ fig # 13.1 ( a

DIAGRAM: [ fig # 13.1 ( a )] [ Moment-Arm ]

TORQUE : The Rotary effect created by the applied force is known as “torque” .
TORQUE : The Rotary effect created by the applied force is known as
“torque” .

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Fig # 13.2 [ b and c

Fig # 13.2 [ b and c ]

[ ]; [ ]; b. TORQUE [ DEFINITION # b ] :-
[
];
[
];
b. TORQUE [ DEFINITION # b ] :-

The length of moment-arm and the magnitude of applied force cause to effect the amount of torque , if we increasing or decreasing the value of moment-arm and magnitude of applied force so it cause to change the value of torque .

c. TORQUE [ DEFINITION # c ]:-

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] In this case we applied force on

In this case we applied force on the point of “axis of rotation” , so then the “moment-arm” become zero [ d = 0 ] so, then there is no torque ( Turning effect ) will be produced on that rotator object .

That is :

DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.3 ] :-

on that rotator object . That is : DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.3 ] :- Mathematically

Mathematically :

[

];

{:.

[ moment arm = d = 0 ]

}

[

];

---------finished-here------

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] EXAMPLE : Q) There is a task

EXAMPLE :

Q) There is a task we have if a person take bicep exercise so, its torque will be change in each condition , so what we do to maintain some torque in each complete cycle event of bicep curl?

SOLUTION:

DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.4 ] [ stage-a ] :
DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.4 ] [ stage-a ] :

[

];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.5 ] [

DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.5 ] [ stage-b and c ] :

 In the complete bicep curl the torque will be change because the moment-arm [
 In the complete bicep curl the torque will be change because the
moment-arm [ moment arm : the perpendicular distance from
line of action of force to the axis of rotation [ d ]], .
 In each position , if moment-arm will be change so, then the
torque will also be changed so if we want to produce the same

torque in each above three stage [a,b,c ] so, we want to prevent

] AS

compared to force [ F 1 ] in stage-a because , we do this because in

stage b and c the moment-arm [ d ] will be decreased.

more force “F” on the stage [ b,c ] where , [

[

];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] ---------------------FINISHED-HERE---------------

---------------------FINISHED-HERE---------------

COUPLE-FORCE:-

coupling force are those forces in which the two forces which are placed on both side of the “center-of-rotation”, and one of these forces act in the clock-wise direction while the other force act on the anti [or counter ]-clock wise direction, and it produced the same effect is known as “Coupling-Forces”.

--------------------- COUPLING-FORCE-NUMERICAL [ SAMPLE-PROBLEM # 1 ]:- Q ) The two children sit on a
---------------------
COUPLING-FORCE-NUMERICAL [ SAMPLE-PROBLEM # 1 ]:-
Q ) The two children sit on a opposite side of a play-ground see-saw. If
joey weight = 200N, is 1.5m from the see-saw’s axis-of-rotation, and if
Susie weight = 190N, is 1.6m away from the “axis-of-rotation” so,
which end of the see-saw will drop down towards ground surface?

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.6 ] :-

DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.6 ] :-

SOLUTION: {:. Clock wise direction = negative direction } {:. Counter [ anti ]-clock wise
SOLUTION:
{:. Clock wise direction = negative direction }
{:. Counter [ anti ]-clock wise direction = Positive direction }
DATA :

FOR Joey :-

[

];

[

];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] FOR Susie :- [ ]; [ ];

FOR Susie :-

[

];

[

];

DISCRIPTION: As we see in the above diagram that there are coupling force’s that is
DISCRIPTION:
As we see in the above diagram that there are coupling force’s that is [
F j = W j = 200N ] and [ F s = W s = 190 N ] act on the “Axis of rotation” but
in opposite in direction, so, the [ F s = W s = 190 N ] act in the “counter
[anti ] clock wise [Positive ] direction” , also the [ F j = W j = 200N ] act in
the “clock-wise negative direction” , we just sum-up the both torque’s
produced by the both bodies to find the resulting torque .
1. TORQUE GIVE BY JOEY :-
It’s a clock-wise direction so, torque is negative
[
];
2. TORQUE GIVE BY THE SUSIE :-
It’s a counter-clock wise direction so the torque is positive .
[
];

Now we compare both torque

with

, so if the magnitude of any

torque is greater than the other one so then as the result of it the see saw move on that direction’s , now by adding the eq-i with eq [ ii ] , we get , the resulting torque we sum-up both torque then we get,

[

];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] [ CONCLUSION: The torque the joey ,

[

CONCLUSION:

The torque

the joey , so, as the result of it the torque

to rotate the see-saw on the “counter-clock wise [ positive ] direction” .

which give by Susie cause

];

give by the Susie is greater than the torque

give by

--------------finished-here----- LEVERS :- The liver is a “Rigid-bar” , which can rotated around its axis
--------------finished-here-----
LEVERS :-
The liver is a “Rigid-bar” , which can rotated around its axis under the
action of some external forces.
HUMAN-SYSTEM ACT AS A LEVER’S SYSTEM:-
 In the human body there are the some biological liver are present
specially occurs in the “limbs”.
 In the Biological system the both “limbs” act as a “Liver’s” .
 so as we consider the upper-limbs, in the “Upper-Limbs” the
“Humerious [bone of arm ]”
and the “ radius + ulna [ both bones
of fore-arm ] ” act as a rigid bar and the joint is act as the “axis-of-
rotation” and the “bi-cep” and “tri-cep” act as a applied force on
the “rigid-bars” of the Lever’s.

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] there are three types of “Lever’s” which

there are three types of “Lever’s” which are given below.

That is :

1. 1 st Class of Lever’s:

2. 2 nd Class of lever’s.

3. 3 rd Class of Lever’s.

1. 1 st CLASS OF LEVER’S :-  In the 1 st class of lever’s
1. 1 st CLASS OF LEVER’S :-
 In the 1 st class of lever’s , the applied force [ F ] and the resistance
force [ R ] are located on opposite site of lever’s .
 This applied force [ F ] and Resistance force [ R ] are both in the
opposite in direction one force is in the clockwise [ negative ]
direction and the other 2 nd force is in the counter-clock wise in the
positive direction.
 There is an another possibility is that the both forces Applied
force [ F ] and the resistance force [ R ] in equal in distance with
respect to the Axis of rotation, with each other .
 Or , its also be a possibility that the one force is approximately
near [ or far away ] with respect to the axis as compared to the 2 nd
force.

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.7 ] First

DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.7 ] First Class of Lever :

MOVEMENT : ] DIAGRAM [ fig # 13.7 ] First Class of Lever : [ W

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Example : [ fig # 13.8 ]

Example : [ fig # 13.8 ]

2. 2 nd CLASS OF LEVER’S :- The applied force [ F ] and resistance
2. 2 nd CLASS OF LEVER’S :-
The applied force [ F ] and resistance force [ R ] on same side of liver in
which the resistance [ R ] is lie near to the “Axis-of-rotation” .

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] DIAGRAM [ Fig # 13.9 ] [

DIAGRAM [ Fig # 13.9 ]

, EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] DIAGRAM [ Fig # 13.9 ] [ W W

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Fig # 13.10 [ a ]: [

Fig # 13.10 [ a ]:

, EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Fig # 13.10 [ a ]: [ W W

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Fig # 13.10 [ b ] 3

Fig # 13.10 [ b ]

3 rd CLASS OF LEVER:- In the 3 rd class of lever the applied force
3 rd CLASS OF LEVER:-
In the 3 rd class of lever the applied force [ F ] and resistance [ R ] are lie
on same side of lever where force [F ] lie too near to the “Axis-of-
Rotation”.

Example:

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Fig # 13.11 : Diagram: [ fig

Fig # 13.11 :

Diagram: [ fig # 13.12 ]
Diagram: [ fig # 13.12 ]

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] -------------finished here ---------- Example : [ W
-------------finished here ---------- Example :
-------------finished here ----------
Example :

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Fig # 13.13 : When ever the

Fig # 13.13 :

When ever the moment arm of applied force is greater then the moment arm of
When ever the moment arm of applied force is greater then the
moment arm of resistance [ R ] so, the magnitude of applied force [ F ]
is smallest then the magnitude of resistance [ R ].
--------------finished here ------------

MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE:- The mechanical advantage is the ratio of moment arm of applied force [F ] over the moment arm of resistance [ R ].

FORMULA :

[ -> Mechanical-Advantage = moment arm [ F ] / moment arm [ R ] ];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] [ ]; [ ]; {:. its mean

[

];

[

];

{:.

its mean much less then, or vice verca };

Fig # 13.14 [ MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE ]:

then, or vice verca }; Fig # 13.14 [ MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE ]: Example : [ Mechanical-Advantage

Example : [ Mechanical-Advantage

1 ]:

When the “moment-Arm” of force [ F ] is greater then the “moment-Arm” of the resistance [ R ] , then the “mechanical- advantage” is equal to “greater then one”.

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]  Because , this value of mechanical

Because , this value of mechanical advantage shows us that which

. We cause to applied less magnitude of force [ F ] then as compared to the force of the resistance , because this greater moment arm of the force [ F ] give the greater amount of torque which cause to pull the heavy resistance force [ R ] so, it’s the mechanical advantage for the Applied force [ F ] .

is a greater then “one” [ Mechanical advantage

1 ]

----------------finished --- EXAMPLE-2 : [ MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE ] : [ ]; [ ]; Condition =>
----------------finished ---
EXAMPLE-2 : [ MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE ] :
[
];
[
];
Condition => [ Mechanical Advantage
1 ];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] [ Fig # 13.15 ]  In

[ Fig # 13.15 ]

 In the above condition when the moment arm [ ] is smaller then the
 In the above condition when the moment arm [
] is smaller
then the moment arm [
] , then , if we want to move the lever
so, we should be provided to more forces [ greater force ] , Then
the resistance so the Mechanical advantage is
“much less than [
]”
1 .

This value of mechanical advantage “much less than one” indicate that this arrangement is less effective in the sense we provided greater external applied force to move the lever , [ as we compare to the previous example].

---------------------finished here -------------

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] EQUATION OF STATIC EQUILIBRIUM :- When ever

EQUATION OF STATIC EQUILIBRIUM :- When ever the body is in the state of motion less or in rest state [ or its in the state of static ] , so then this body in the state of “Static- Equilibrium” , also , there are three condition to set the body in the state of “Static-Equilibrium” , that is .

1. The sum of all “Vertical-forces” act on that body is equal to zero .
1. The sum of all “Vertical-forces” act on that body is equal to zero .
2. The sum of all “horizontal forces” act on that body is equal to
zero .
3. The sum of all torque acting on the body is equal to zero.
[
];
[
];
[
];
Key point => if any one of above these three condition is not equal to
zero , so then this body is in the state of “Motion” .
------------finished here------------
SAMPLE PROBLEM-2 [ STATIC-EQULIBRIUM ] :-

Q ) how much force must be produced by the bicep brachii , attaching at 90 degree to the radius at 3cm from the center of rotation at the elbow joint to support a weight of 70N held in the hand at a distance of 30cm from the elbow joint ?

Note : we neglect the weight of the fore arm and hand , and neglected any action of other muscle ( Triceps).

Solution:

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Diagram: [ Fig # 13.16 ] [

Diagram: [ Fig # 13.16 ] [ Bicep work out ]

DATA : 
DATA :

It’s the 2 nd class of lever, in which the bicep muscle act as a resistance against the external applied force [ F ] . Where , this condition is the static condition , so all the sum of torque forces acting on that body is equal to zero .

[

];

[

];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] R = ? F = external applied

R

= ?

F

= external applied force = 70 N ;

[

];

SYSTAMATIC-DIAGRAM:-

[ Fig # 13.17 (a ) ].
[ Fig # 13.17 (a ) ].

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] FIG # 13.17 (b) Req : R=?

FIG # 13.17 (b)

Req : R=? SOLUTION:
Req :
R=?
SOLUTION:

As we know that given in the question that the body segment in the state of “Static-Equilibrium”, so all the sum of torque forces which acting on that body segment is equal to zero.

[

];

Formula:

[ W W W . M E D I C A L - I M A G E - P R O C E S S N G . B L O G S P O T . C A

B Y

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] [ ]; FOR R :- [ ];

[

];

FOR

R :-

[

];

[

];

[ ]; [ ]; … R = 700 N . Answer . --------------finished-here-------- Sample –Problem
[
];
[
];
R = 700 N . Answer .
--------------finished-here--------
Sample –Problem 3 [ Static-Equilibrium ]
Q ) Two individuals apply force to opposite side of a frictionless
swinging door .if “A” applied a 30N force at a 40 degree 45 cm from
the door’s hinge and “B” applied force at a 90 degree angle 38cm from
the door’s hinge, what amount of force is applied by “B” if the door
remains in a static position?
Diagram : [ Fig # 13.18 ]

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] SOLUTION: [ W W W . M
SOLUTION:
SOLUTION:

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B Y

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] SYSTAMATIC DIAGRAM: [ Fig # 13.19 (

SYSTAMATIC DIAGRAM: [ Fig # 13.19 ( a) ]

[ ]; Required : [ ];
[
];
Required :
[
];

[ W W W . M E D I C A L - I M A G E - P R O C E S S N G . B L O G S P O T . C A

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Fig # 13.20 (b) [ ]; So,

Fig # 13.20 (b)

[ ]; So, Key point: As we know that the body segment is in the
[
];
So,
Key point: As we know that the body segment is in the “static-position”
, so the sum of all the “Equivalent torque [
]” forces is equal to zero,

[

];

Formula:

[

];

Where :

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] [ ]; [ ]; -------------- Plus sign

[

];[

[

];[

--------------

Plus
Plus

sign shows that the counter-Clock wise [ Positive ] direction .

And Minus sign shows that the clock wise direction. ------------ Now placing the above value
And
Minus
sign shows that the clock wise direction.
------------
Now placing the above value in eq-A, then we get.
[
];
[
];
[
];
[
];
[
];
[
]; Answer . [ it’s the Force applied by the “B” by
which the body segment stay in the static-position.

CONCLUSION:

We want to provide the F B = 35.52 N to the perpendicular to the door so, then the door will stay in the static position.

---------------finished-here------------

[ W W W . M E D I C A L - I M A G E - P R O C E S S N G . B L O G S P O T . C A

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Sample-problem [ STATIC-EQULIBRIUM]: Q) The quadriceps

Sample-problem [ STATIC-EQULIBRIUM]:

Q) The quadriceps tendon attaches to tibia at a 30 degree angle 4cm from the joint center at the knee , when an 80N weight is attached to the ankle 28cm from the knee joint , how much force is required of the quadriceps to maintain the leg in a horizontal position ( or in static- position) ?

a. what is the magnitude and direction of the reaction force , exerted by the
a. what is the magnitude and direction of the reaction force , exerted
by the femur on tibia?
Note: Neglected the weight of the leg and the action of other muscles.
Diagram : [ Fig # 13.21 ]

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] SOLUTION: Fig # 13.22 FORMULA: [ ];

SOLUTION:

Fig # 13.22

FORMULA: [ ];
FORMULA:
[
];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Fig # 13.2 [ ]; [ ];

Fig # 13.2

[ ]; [ ];
[
];
[
];

[

];

So,

SOLUTION:

[ W W W . M E D I C A L - I M A G E - P R O C E S S N G . B L O G S P O T . C A

B Y

M O H A M M A D - S I K A N D A R - K H A N - L O D H I ]

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] SCHEMATIC-DIAGRAM: [ Fig # 13.24 ] REQUIRED

SCHEMATIC-DIAGRAM: [ Fig # 13.24 ]

REQUIRED :- PART (a) : [ ];
REQUIRED :-
PART (a) :
[
];

PART (b) :

Magnitude and direction of force by the femer on the tibia => R = ? , Q R =? .

Part (a) :-

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] For F Q : FREE- BODY DIAGRAM

For F Q :

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF “ F Q “ :- [ Fig # 13.25 ]

So, this body segment is in the state of static-equilibrium, so, sum of all forces
So, this body segment is in the state of static-equilibrium, so, sum of all
forces torque are equal to zero.
[
];

Part-a :

For F Q :-

[

];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] [ ]; {:. } [ ]; [

[

];

{:.

}

[

];

[

[ ];

];

…. [ = 1120 ] ; it’s the required torque force for the “static-condition” .
….
[
= 1120 ] ; it’s the required torque force for the “static-condition”
.
PART b :
FOR MAGNITUDE AND DIRECTION OF FORCE [ R ] BY THE “femer” ON
“tibia” Q R
:-
FOR R :-
FREE BODY DIAGRAM OF FEMER EXERTING FORCE ON THE TIBIA:

[ W W W . M E D I C A L - I M A G E - P R O C E S S N G . B L O G S P O T . C A

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] [ Fig # 13.26 ] FOR R

[ Fig # 13.26 ]

FOR R x :- ACCORDING TO THE STATIC-EQUILIBRIUM : [ ]; sum of all forces
FOR R x :-
ACCORDING TO THE STATIC-EQUILIBRIUM :
[
]; sum of all forces in the x-component is zero.
[
];

[

];

[

];

[

];

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] FOR R y :- According to static

FOR R y :-

According to static equilibrium

[

]; sum of all forces in the y-component is zero.

 

[

];

[ ]; [ ]; Pythagoreous theorem: [ ]; [ ]; [ ]; [ ]; [
[
];
[
];
Pythagoreous theorem:
[
];
[
];
[
];
[
];
[
]; Answer-1 , it’s the magnitude of the resultant
force.
FOR-DIRECTION-OF-“R” :-

Fig # 13.26

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] [ ]; [ ]; [ ]; So,
[ ]; [ ]; [ ];
[
];
[
];
[
];

So,

[

];

[

]; it’s the direction of R , Answer-2.

---------finished-here---

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] DYNAMIC-EQULIBRIUM :- when any body in the

DYNAMIC-EQULIBRIUM :- when any body in the state of motion is known as “Dynamic- equilibrium”

so, in the dynamic equilibrium there are all types of the forces act in the body that is ,

[ sum of all forces acting in a body in x-axis ]; [ sum of
[
sum of all forces acting in a body in x-axis
];
[
sum of all forces acting in a body in y-axis
];
[
];
----finished-here--------
CENTER-OF-GRAVITY:-
[ OR CENTER-OF-MASS = CENTER-OF-GRAVITY ]:
CENTER-OF-MASS :-
There is a point in every body where the body mass are equally
distributed in all direction, this point is known as “center-of-mass” or
“Mass-centroid”.
CENTER-OF-GRAVITY:-

If we analysis this body in the gravitation forces , so, the “center-of- mass” of the body is also known as center of gravity,

Key-point=> the center-of-gravity is that point on the body where sum of all the torque produced by weight of the body segment is equal to zero.

[ W W W . M E D I C A L - I M A G E - P R O C E S S N G . B L O G S P O T . C A

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Fig # 13.29 [ ]; [ ];

Fig # 13.29

[ ]; [ ]; [ ]; [ ]; net torque is zero.
[
];
[
];
[
];
[
]; net torque is zero.

[ W W W . M E D I C A L - I M A G E - P R O C E S S N G . B L O G S P O T . C A

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] Fig # 13.28 -------------finished here---------

Fig # 13.28

-------------finished here--------- ----------CH-13 ON BIO-MECHANICE IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING
-------------finished here---------
----------CH-13 ON BIO-MECHANICE IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING
FINISHED-HERE----------------

X

MUHAMMAD-SIKANDER-KHAN-LODHI OWNER-OF-MY-PERSONAL NOTES

Thursday, June 20, 2013

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] [ W W W . M E
ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] [ W W W . M E

[ W W W . M E D I C A L - I M A G E - P R O C E S S N G . B L O G S P O T . C A

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[BIO-MECHANICS IN BIO-MEDICAL ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ]

ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] [ W W W . M E
ENGINEERING, CH-13 , EQUILIBRIUM AND HUMAN MOVEMENT : ] [ W W W . M E

[ W W W . M E D I C A L - I M A G E - P R O C E S S N G . B L O G S P O T . C A

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