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Contents

Introduction

How use this book

Part. 1 foundation

Chapter 1 why nails?

The advantages to the client

Nail extensions: some common names

The different nail systems

Acrylic nails

Fiberglass nails

Gel nails

Common techniques

Why be a nail technician?

Chapter 2. Introduction to home learn

Why home learn?

The practice problem

Your perfect model: the nail trainer.

Your perfect teacher: on video

Getting qualified

Chapter 3. Gel nails. Getting ready to learn

The products: what they are and what they do

Cuticle massage oil

Tip glue

Nail polishes

Top coat

Nail tips

Nail sanitizer and cleaner

Extender nozzles

Gel

Your tools: what they are and what they do.

UV light box

The buffer

The nylon brush

Files

Nail dippers

Cotton pads

Kitchen towels

Orange wood or birch wood sticks

Three way buffer

Chapter 4. The nail trainer

When to use the nail trainer

Parts of the nail trainer

Finger tip parts

Setting up to practice

The practice area

The desk clamp

Positioning the nail trainer

The natural nails

The different nail shapes

Fitting the natural nails

Positioning the natural nail

Adjusting the nail bed depth

Removing completed nail work

Separating nail from tip

Refitting the tip sheath

Working on the fingers

Working on the thumb

Care of your nail trainer

Cleaning

Replacement parts

Accessories

tips and ideas

simulate broken nails

electric files

progress cards

the essential techniques progress card

the whole hand practice card

how you learn: run, repeat, read & review

time management and practice regime

setting up to practice

answer tost paper 1, tools products & systems

chapter 5. salon skills

attitude and personal appearance

preparation and your surroundings

client consultation

manners and courtesy

your colleagues

ethics

retail sales

answer test paper 2, salon skills

chapter 6. chemicals, hazards and safety

procedures

understanding health hazards.

Safe use of nail tools

The file

The buffer block

The brush

Cuticle knives

The electric file

The UV lamp

Know your nail products and chemicals

Inhalation, absorption and ingestion

Extension tip remover

Acrylic primer

Nail polish remover

Gel prep and residue remover.

Accelerator

Acrylic liquid

Acrylic powder

Nail adhesive

Filing dust

A quick guide to understanding the risks!

A quick guide to working safely with nail products

Storage of chemicals

Disposal of chemicals

Extension tip remover

Nail polish remover

Gel prep and residue remover

The chemical reaction

The nail systems

Acrylics

Gels

Fiberglass

Answer test paper 3, chemicals

Health and safety procedures

Hygiene

Disease and bacteria

Infection

How infection occurs

Minimizing infection

Sanitation

Disinfection

Sterilization

Other nail tools

Chapter 7. the nail

The part of the nail

The matrix

The eponychium

The proximal nail fold

The cuticle

The lunula

The perionychium

The nail grooves

The distal grooves

The hyponychium

The nail bed

Different nail shapes

How the nail grows

Chapter 8 common nail diseases

Disorders and contra actions

Disorders of the nails

Disorders that must not be serviced by a nail technician

Bacterial infection

Paronychia (paro-nik-ia)

Onychia (oni-komi-ko-sis)

Onychia (on-nik-ia)

Onychogrypasis (oni-ko-grey-pasis)

Onycholysis (oni-kol-i-sis)

Onychocrptosis(oni-ko-krip-toh-sis)

Onyychomadesis (oni-ko-mad-esis)

Onychatrophia (oni-chat-troh-fee-ah)

Psoriosis (sa-ria-sis)

Disorders that may be serviced by a nail technician

Bruised nail

Corrugations

Discoloured nails

Eggshell nails

Habit tic

Hong nails

Koilonychia (kol-on-ik-ia)

Leukonychia (loo-kon-ik-ia)

Onychoclasis (oni-cho-klas-is)

Onychauxis (oni-kik-sis)

Onychophagy (oni-kof-aji)

Anychorrhexis (oni-kor-rek-sis)

Pterygium (te-rij-ium)

In case you are not sure!

Contra action

Pre-service checklist

Answer test paper 4, parts of the nail and the pre-service rules.

Part 2. Essential techniques

Chapter 9. basic techniques

Filina

Grips and positions

The file grips

The correct sequence

The corresponding finger positions

Combining positions and grips

Groove positions and grips

First joint position and shape grip

Side positions and grips

Free edge position and grip

Practising the positions and grip

Practice regime

Chaapter 10. Six steps to perfect gel nails

How you will learn

Initial speeds

Step 1. Removing nail polish

Acetone based polish remover

Step 2. Preparing the natural nail

Object of the exercise

The procedure

Equipment and product required

Clean the nail with gel preparation

Push back the cuticle

Removing the shine

To key or not to key?

Dust

Salon speed demonstration

Salon target speed

Practice regime

Answer test paper 5, basic techniques and preparing the nail.

Step 3. Nail tipping and blending

Object of the exercise

Nails tips

How are tips made?

How to choose a nail tip

Applying a tip

The procedure

Equipment and product required

Choosing the correct size of tip

Shaping the free edge

Sizing the tip`s width

Cleaning the tip`well

Tip adhesive

Applying adhesive to the tip

Judging the correct amount of glue

Burp the bottle

Placing the tip on the nail; the correct angle

Rotate the nail and look out for air pockets

Problems sticking on tips

Glue setting times

Cutting the tip

Streamlining the edges of the tip

Shoping the free edge

Free edge shpes

Thinning the free edge of the tip

Blending the seam

Blending the centre of the seam

Blending the left side

Blending the right side

Fine blending

Salon speed demonstration

Suggested practice regime

Answer test paper 6, nail tipping.

Step 4. The gel overlay

Object of the exercise

The procedure

Equipment and product required

Cleaning

Acetone problems

Application 1. The bonding layer

The power of light boxes

Cure application 1, the bonding layer

Remove the hand from the UV lamp

Application 2. The building layer

The correct shape

Cure the second layer

Checking the shape

Why is the cured gel still sticky?

Remove the sticky residue

Salon speed demonstration

Practice regime

Step 5. Finishing

The correct shape

To file or not to file?

The procedure

Equipment and product required

Tidy

Smoothing the nail

Smoothing the top

Smoothing the middle/left

Smoothing the middle/ right

Buffing

Dust the nail

The final application of gel

Cure the final layer

Remove the sticky residue

Streamlining the left edge of the nail

Sreamlining the right edge of the nail

Final check of the free edge shape

Clean your brush

Buffing to a high shine

Applying cuticle oil

Keys and money

Clean hands

Salon speed demonstration

Salon target time

Practice regime

Answer test paper 7, the UV gel overlay

Step 6, polishing

The object of the exercise

Base coats

Nail strengtheners/ hardeners

Ridge fillers

Nail polishes

Which colour?

Type 1 spring colouring

Type 2 summer colouring

Type 3 autumn colouring

Type 4 winter colouring

The procedure

Equipment and product required

Mix the polish

Lood the bursh with polish

Polish perfect nails

Topcoat

Interlocking

Other tips on polishing

Salon target speed

Suggested practice regime

Anwer test paper 8, finishing and polishing

Part 3. Working the whole hand

Chapter 11. creating your first set of 5 nail

The procedure

Using the light box on the whole hand

Time

Click the nails into the nail trainer

The maintenance nail

Working on the hand

Preparation

Tipping

Apply the bonding and building layer of gel

Finishing

Polish

Practice regime

Test results, your ENP certification and route to further skills

What happens if you fail?

Putting it all together

What to do next

Maintaining nail extensions

Acrylic tip and overlay nails

Acrylic sculpting

Fibreglass

Airbrush nails

Part 4. Maintaining gel nails

Chapter 12. defining the maintenance tasks

Rebalancing

What is rebalancing?

The procedure

Pre-service

Remove any lifted product

Re streamline the side walls left and right

Reshape and shorten the free edges

Smooth the re greowth ledges

Move the crown back

Clean awaythe debris

Apply antiseptic

Apply gel nail prep

Apply first thin layer in regrowth area and cure

Buikd the crown and cure

Shape the nail, if required

Buff nail

Dust away the debris

Apply final thin, sealing layer of gel

Apply cuticle oil

Clean nails

Polish, top coat or buff as required

Cracks in overlays

Some common causes

Tips stressed

Poor adhesion of product.

Repairing cracks

Lifting overlays

What is a lifting overlay?

Why do enhancements lift?

Cleaning

Remove cuticle and pterygium completely

Dehydroting

Avoid contamination by finger oil

Avoid product contamination

Make your first gel application thin

Avoid long immersion in water

Mechanical shock

Make the overlay thin at the cuticle

Keep the product off the sking

How to repair lifting overlays

When to start ofresh

Use of nippers to remove lifted product

Repairing chips in the free edge

Removing nail enhancements

Bad reaction

A fresh set

The latest thing in nails

Bad workmanship

How to remove gel enhancements

Soaking off. The tools and products you need

The procedure

Chapter 13. practical maintenance. Gels

Initial inspection

The procedure

Complete pre-service

Clean up re-tip the thumb and index finger

Rebalance the remaining three nails

Application of thin bonding layer to thumb and forefinger.

Introduction

Welcome to "Essential Nails, a practical guide to creating great nails". This is the companion book to the "Home Learn Gel Nails" course and will provide an invaluable reference as you work through the course as well as provide addittional information that is not covered in the video. although written specifically for the video based nail course, it provides a wealth of information about the art of nail enhancements whether you are a student, a professional or just curious.

a wealth of information about the art of nail enhancements whether you are a student, a

This book is split into four parts:

•Part 1, "Foundation", which provides you with general information on working in the nail industry, in a salon, from home or as o mobile Nail Technician. It'll tell you about the different nail systems, how they work and the tools ond products you'll be using to service your clients. You will learn about the natural nail and about same of the diseases and problems that affect it, you'll learn the correct way to deal with your clients and the importance of good hygiene.

•In Part 2, "Essential Techniques", you'll learn the basics of the Nail Technicians art:

how to file correctly, how to prepare the nail and apply and blend a tip. How to apply an cure the Gel ond finally how to finish and polish the nail.

•In Part 3, "Working the Whole Hand", you'll learn about practising for speed and efficiency in the salon and working on different shapes and sizes of nail.

•In part 4, "Maintaining Gel Nails”, you'll see how to provide the common maintenance tasks such as rebalancing and in-fills, as well as how to repair lifting, cracked and chipped enhancements.

Part 1. Foundation. In this part you will learn useful background information about the nail

Part 1. Foundation.

Part 1. Foundation. In this part you will learn useful background information about the nail industry,

In this part you will learn useful background information about the nail industry, nail physiology and diseases. You'll find out obout the salon environment, and how to

safely handle the tools products and chemicals

you'll encounter.

find out obout the salon environment, and how to safely handle the tools products and chemicals

Chapter 1 - Why nails?

Extending and decorating nails is not new, evidence exists proving that the oncient Egyptians adorning their nails centuries ago. Nails is one of the fastest growing beauty industries in Europe, it will not be long before 'having your nails done' is thought of in the some way as 'having your hair done', just like it is in the USA, where there is a Nail Bar on every street corner and there are 250,000 working Nail Technicians. There is a growing demand for the services provided by skilled Nail Technicians working either in the salon, from home of as a mobile, visiting clients in their own homes. This course will help you achieve the skills required to meet this demand and charge a premium for your expert services. If you provide a good service to your client, she will come back to you again and again and recommend you to her family and friends, in a few months you will have built a client base that will keep you fully employed.

The advantages to the client.

Nail enhancements started as a service for women with soft or easily broken nails and has now expanded to be a fashion statement for all women. Anyone can now have the nail style of their choice. Natural or outrageous, French manicured or airbrushed. Enhanced nails improve the beauty of your clients hands and help boost their overall confidence.

manicured or airbrushed. Enhanced nails improve the beauty of your clients hands and help boost their
manicured or airbrushed. Enhanced nails improve the beauty of your clients hands and help boost their

Nail extensions: some common names.

Set of nails.

Nail extensions.

Nail enhancements.

False nails.

Tipped nails.

Nail treatments.

All of the above are phrases used to describe what a Nail Technician does when she creates a set of nails, they all pretty much mean the same thing:

The clients natural nail is extended by gluing on a plastic tip or by sculpting an extended free edge with product. Then the extended nail is covered with more product (Gel, Acrylic or Fibreglass) and shaped with files and buffers. Finally the nail can be decorating with polish or other materials if required by the client.

For clarity we use the phrase 'nail enhancements' to mean any treatment to the nail to extend or cover the nail with product, this is then split into three sub treatments:

Natural nail overlay: where the natural nail is not artificially extended in length.

Product is applied over the natural nail to protect the natural nail or to correct a defect.

Tip and overlay: where the natural nail is mode longer by gluing on on extension Tip

and then both the natural nail and extension is covered with product.

sculpted nail: where the natural nail is made longer by sculpting an extension purely

using products such as Acrylic or Gel. A plastic tip is not used.

nail is made longer by sculpting an extension purely using products such as Acrylic or Gel.

The different nail systems.

There are three main nail systems: Acrylic, fibreglass and Gel. Although this book and the nail course you are undertaking is purely Gel, you will come across the other nail systems as you pursue your career. Indeed, at some stage it's a good idea to learn all the systems, so you never need turn a customer away.

Acrylic Nails.

Also commonly known as 'liquid and powder'. Acrylic Nails is the original nail system, the techniques emerged in ihe USA about 25 years ago and still the most popular system there. Acrylics come in two parts : a powder (called o polymer) and a liquid (called monomer) that you mix together on a small brush. The resulting paste con be applied over a nail extension or sculpted over a 'nail form' to extend the natural nail to the desired length and shape. After a few minutes the paste sets hard and files and buffers are used to finish and polish the Acrylic to a high shine. Acrylic powders come in different colors and a popular method of creating a dazzling 'French manicured' look is to apply pink and while Acrylic to the body and free edge of the nail respectively. The advantages of the system is that the nails are strong, thin and natural looking, the paste can be used to easily correct misshapen nails and repairs and maintenance are relatively straightforward. The disadvantages are that they have a strong odors that many people object to, they are the most difficult of the three systems to master and there is currently o debate within the EU os to whether one of the constituent chemicals is safe. This has effectively stifled the demand for acrylic nails in some EU

to whether one of the constituent chemicals is safe. This has effectively stifled the demand for
to whether one of the constituent chemicals is safe. This has effectively stifled the demand for
to whether one of the constituent chemicals is safe. This has effectively stifled the demand for
to whether one of the constituent chemicals is safe. This has effectively stifled the demand for

Fibreglass nails.

Fiberglass nails, are also known as 'silk nails' or 'wraps'. After lengthening the natural nails with a plastic tip, strips of fiberglass ore laid over the nail and bonded onto the nail using a fast setting resin. More layers of fiberglass ore added to increase the strength of the nail as required and more coats of resin are added to produce a perfect finish. The resin soaks into the weave of the fiberglass and makes It invisible. The advantages of fiberglass nails are that they are thin, light and natural looking, there is little odors (although, as with all nail enhancements, ventilation is required) and are easy to remove, leaving the natural nail almost completely untouched. The disadvantages are that it's fiddly for beginner’s and some products require a spray-on 'activator' which means masks must be worn by the Nail Technician and client.

Gel nails.

Gel nails are similar to Acrylic nails except that the paste is already mixed and cames in a single small pat. It's applied to the nail with a small brush just like Acrylics, but is hardened by exposure to ultra violet light. The advantages of Gel nails is that the Gel is easy to apply, has no odors (but you still need to work in a ventilated area), looks natural and has a high shine. Some of the disadvantages are that they are not as strong as Acrylics and are harder to remove and repair.

a high shine. Some of the disadvantages are that they are not as strong as Acrylics
a high shine. Some of the disadvantages are that they are not as strong as Acrylics
a high shine. Some of the disadvantages are that they are not as strong as Acrylics
a high shine. Some of the disadvantages are that they are not as strong as Acrylics

Common techniques.

It's too much to attempt to learn all three systems at once. There simply too much information to absorb. Most Nail Technicians start with one system and then learn the others later. Many of the techniques you learn for one system are common to all three, for example sanitation, preparation, tipping, blending and polishing. So, you'll be well on the way to learning all the systems by the time you've completed your initial course.

Why be a Nail Technician?

If you like working with people, are reasonable good with you hands and enjoy beauty and fashion then the Nail Industry is for you! The great thing is, once you are competent, you can work on many different levels, work as little as you like or as much as you like, for example, you can:

•Work from home, with clients visiting.

•Work in a nail salon, hair salon, sports or fitness centers, boutique, hotel or cruise liner.

•Work as a mobile Technician, visiting clients in their homes.

or f itness centers, boutique, hotel or cruise liner. •Work as a mobile Technician, visiting clients
or f itness centers, boutique, hotel or cruise liner. •Work as a mobile Technician, visiting clients

One thing is certain, every Nail Technician in the world, no matter how successful she is now, started by enrolling on o beginners nail course and went from there. Once you start doing nails, the sky is the limit, you can spend a lifetime learning new techniques and following or creating nail fashion.

You'll be surprised the amount of activity in the 'Nail world' once you've been along to see one of the Nail and Beauty shows. There you will find a constantly evolving range of new tools, products, demonstrations, competitions, designs and ideas. The next time there's a show in your area, go along and have a look, you'll be hooked.

Maybe you'll be one of those Nail Technicians who has their designs on the front of a magazine, or wins nail

hooked. Maybe you'll be one of those Nail Technicians who has their designs on the front
hooked. Maybe you'll be one of those Nail Technicians who has their designs on the front
hooked. Maybe you'll be one of those Nail Technicians who has their designs on the front

Chapter 2. Introduction to Home Learn

Why home learn?

Home learn has been made possible by a single significant development: The Nail Trainer practice hand. Until The Nail Trainer was invented, all nail techniques had to be demonstrated and practiced on live models.

The practice problem.

Relying on live models for practice meant that training was a unstructured and sometimes chaotic affair, completely dependent upon being able to find enough willing models to sit and be experimented on for free. There were many problems.

The student Technician would often be disappointed when their model cancelled.

on for free. There were many problems. The student Technician would often be disappointed when their

Most Technicians practiced on their family or friends, usually it's mum that helps out.

She would sit there all day as her daughter spent hours and hours fiddling with product, making painful filing errors, and gluing poor mum's fingers together!. Ultimately, mum would wisely refuse to be used as a model ever again.

mum would wisely refuse to be used as a model ever again. Maybe the local salon
mum would wisely refuse to be used as a model ever again. Maybe the local salon

Maybe the local salon would let Tracey do half-price treatments while she's learning. Well, customers can be very intimidating, especially if the student is making mistakes, which is inevitable while learning. Also salon clients, your friends and family are your first potential paying clients, the very people who should only see your best work, not your worst!

If you practice at home, the temptation to have the TV on to relieve the boredom for your model is overpowering. But how can you concentrate with such distractions?

But how can you concentrate with such distractions? People are happy to have their nails done

People are happy to have their nails done when you are “skilled”, but you can't get skilled because people won't let you practice on them Until The Nail Trainer was invented, most student Technicians could not practice enough and simply give up altogether, loosing all the time and money.

They had invested.

Technicians could not practice enough and simply give up altogether, loosing all the time and money.

Your perfect model: the nail trainer

The Nail Trainer now being used widely in the classroom to train absolute beginners. it mean that teacher has complete control over the pace and content of the learning process, the teacher is not constrained by the health and safety of the models, if necessary the student can practice on the same nail over and over and over again until she gets, it right, something that is complete impossible on a live model. Do you want to see how thickly you have applied the Gel? Simple, remove the nail trainer`s nail an cut it in half. Try doing that on a live model learning and experimenting using the nail trainer , the student only ever starts work on a live hand, after she is acquired the skills to successfully complete a full set.

, the student only ever starts work on a live hand, after she is acquired the

Chapter 3. Gel nails.

The Products:

When a Nail Technician talks about 'products' she is normally referring to the chemicals that form o particular system .For example the primer, liquid an powder used in acrylics, We prefer a wider definition that encompasses any items nail that are used up as you create nail enhancements. Here is a brief description of the products that you'll use during the gel course when they are used.

Cuticle massage oil.

This perfumed oil comes in a small bottle and is dispensed by squeezing the rubber bulb in the cap. it's rubbed into the nail and surrounding nail wall and cuticle to keep the skin soft and supple.

Tip glue.

Tip Glue is used to fix the nail tips to the natural nail. It's a fast setting cyanoacrylate resin, and you only need a tiny amount on each tip. There are various formulations of the glue, some runny some thick, some are applied form a tube, others come is a small bottle like this one.

Nail polishes.

Nail Polishes come in thousands of colures and finishes and usually the client will choose her own color. There is a small brush inside the bottle which used to apply the polish to the nail.

the client will choose her own color. There is a small brush inside the bottle which
the client will choose her own color. There is a small brush inside the bottle which
the client will choose her own color. There is a small brush inside the bottle which

Top coat.

Top coat is a clear sealer applied over the colored polish to seal and protect and to produce a high glass finish on the nail-

Nail tips.

Nail tips are used to lengthen the front - or free edae of the natural nail. They come in many shapes, le and sizes, you get a selection of tip with the gel course which have been chosen to fit The Nail Trc nail. There are many more sizes shapes and styles available . you'll get to know more about them ar their uses later in the course.

Nail sanitizer and cleaner.

This liquid does three jobs. It sanitizes and dehydrates the nail’s surface before application of tips and also removes the sticky residue left after curing the Gel. It has been supplied to work specifically with the Ego Gel and The Nail Trainer. This particular product is not recommended for use on real nails, as it works best on the plastic. When you have finished training you will need The Ego Edense, which is designed for use on real nails.

Some Gel systems have separate liquids for sanitation, dehydration and for removing the Gel residue after curing. If you swap brands, always check with the manufacturer or other Technicians using the products before assuming that the application is the same as you are used to.

manufacturer or other Technicians using the products before assuming that the application is the same as
manufacturer or other Technicians using the products before assuming that the application is the same as
manufacturer or other Technicians using the products before assuming that the application is the same as

Extender nozzles.

Extender nozzles are replaceable nozzles for your glue bottle. These are disposable items, as you dispense the glue they gradually get blocked. Use a new one for each client as the replacement cost is low.

Gel

The Gel supplied in the Home Learn course is a bonding, sculpting and finishing formula in one. It forms the hard protective and decorative shell over the extended nail. Do not expose the Gel to sunlight, or leave it near your UV light when its on or it will go stiff and useless.

You should be aware that other Gel systems may have three different Gel products to bond, build and coat. Always follow the manufacturers instructions if you swap brands.

three different Gel products to bond, build and coat. Always follow the manufacturers instructions if you

Your tools: What they are and what they do.

Here is brief description of the tools that come with the Gel course, each tool is discussed comprehensively later in the course when they are used. Some of them are disposable; some can be sanitised and used over and over. All of them are required to do a good, professional job. You should keep them in good condition, clean, and sanitized.

UV light box.

This box provides the source of Ultra Violet light required to cure the Gel. It plugs into your 220 volt power supply and has a switch to turn on the light.

The Buffer.

supply and has a switch to turn on the light. The Buffer. The Buffer is a

The Buffer is a block of foam coated on each side with various grades of abrasive. Some buffers have the same abrasive on each side, others have o coarse abrasive on one side, (which removes material quickly) and a finer abrasive on the other, which is used to buff and shine. Some are colour coded to help you identify the different abrasive grades.

coded to help you identify the different abrasive grades. Safety Advice The edges of the buffers

Safety Advice

The edges of the buffers are sharp, you must blunt the edges with a file before use, or you may well cut your client when you use them.

Hygiene Advice

To prevent spreading inflection between clients, either throw the buffers away after use or bag and label them for future use only on that client.

between clients, either throw the buffers away after use or bag and label them for future

The nylon brush.

The nylon brush is used to apply and shape the layers of Gel over The nail's surface. This is your no I look so take very good care of it,

The cuticle pusher.

The cuticle pusher is used to gently push back the cuticle off of the nail and to remove any cuticle adhering to the nail surface. You cannot apply product to the cuticle, only to the nail surface. Cuticle pushers are made of wood, plastic or metal.

surface. Cuticle pushers are made of wood, plastic or metal. Hygiene Advice To prevent spreading infection
surface. Cuticle pushers are made of wood, plastic or metal. Hygiene Advice To prevent spreading infection

Hygiene Advice

To prevent spreading infection from one client to another, either throw the cuticle pusher away after use if it's wooden, or sterilise it if it's metal or plastic.

wooden, or sterilise it if it's metal or plastic. Manicure brush. The manicure brush is used

Manicure brush.

The manicure brush is used to dear dust off of the fingers and nails after each filing process.

dust off of the fingers and nails after each filing process. Files. We supply three different

Files.

We supply three different files for Gel. The 'coarse' black file is 100 grit on one side and 180 on the other, the white 'medium' file is 180 / 180, and the yellow 'fine' file is 240 / 240. The lower the number, the more coarse the file or butter is, so 100 grit will file away material quickly, but leave big scratches on the surface, 250 will remove material slowly and leave the surface nice and smooth, you will see where to use the various files later.

250 will remove material slowly and leave the surface nice and smooth, you will see where

Safety Advice

The edges of files are sharp, you must blunt the edges with another file before use, or you may well cut your client when you use them.

Hygiene Advice

To prevent spreading infection between clients, either throw the files away after use or bag and label them for future use only on that client.

or bag and label them for future use only on that client. Nail clippers. Nail Clippers

Nail clippers.

Nail Clippers are used to shorten the tips after they are glued to the

nail.

Cotton pads.

Cotton pads are used to apply any liquid to the nail during the

enhancement process. You should always use 'lint free' pads that will

not leave fibers on the nail after use. The pads are used to apply

cleanser, alcohol, polish remover or antiseptic. You only ever use each

pad once and then throw is away.

Kitchen towels.

It's very useful to have a clean kitchen towel permanently on you work area. After each process of the nail build you can dispose of it and any dust or product on it, and replace with a new one. This drastically reduces the amount of dust and fumes in the atmosphere, keeps your work area clean and fosters a professional image. They do not cost much, so it's well worth it.

atmosphere, keeps your work area clean and fosters a professional image. They do not cost much,
atmosphere, keeps your work area clean and fosters a professional image. They do not cost much,
atmosphere, keeps your work area clean and fosters a professional image. They do not cost much,

Orange wood or birch wood sticks.

These thin, soft sticks are used to gently prise old product of the nails surface during maintenance.

Three way buffer

Although this looks face a file, it is actually a buffer .it is have three very fine grits, black being the coarsest, white being medium and grey being very fine indeed. It's only use is to bring up the surface shine on the nail.

only use is to bring up the surface shine on the nail. Hygiene Advice Throw orange
only use is to bring up the surface shine on the nail. Hygiene Advice Throw orange

Hygiene Advice

Throw orange wood, birch wood sticks and 3 way buffers away after use or bag and label them for use next time for that client. Never use an orange stick or three way buffer on more than one person, why not give them to yours as a gift for their own use

use an orange stick or three way buffer on more than one person, why not give

Chapter 4. The Nail Trainer.

With The Nail Trainer at the centre of your training program you have embarked upon the fastest route to becoming a highly skilled Nail Technician. By practicing on The Nail Trainer you have eliminated the biggest obstacle to becoming a professional Nail Technician • the requirement to find a group of willing models to practice on!

The Nail Trainer is all the models you will ever need. You can now practice when you want, for as long as you want. You can practice on the same size of nail over and over again until you have perfected a particular skill, you can practice any of the nail systems, even nail art, airbrush and nail adornment. The continuity of practice, the variation and realism of The Nail Trainer's finger tips, fingers and nails, will speed you to a lucrative career in the fast growing world of nail beauty.

When to use The Nail Trainer.

The Nail Trainer is featured throughout all Home Learn courses. All techniques are shown on The Nail Trainer. You can use The Nail Trainer on the course and for practice after the course at any lime to suit you. Even after you have mastered a particular system, you can continue to use The Nail Trainer to expand your skills into other areas. You can practice Acrylic Tip and Overlay, Acrylic Sculpting, Fiberglass, Gel, Airbrushing or Nail Art. Whatever the future holds for nail processes The Nail Trainer will provide the practical solution for your training requirements.

Finger tip parts.

Finger tip parts. Nail retaining frame, tip sheath, natural nail Setting up to practice. The practice

Nail retaining frame, tip sheath, natural nail

Setting up to practice.

The practice area.

You should find o comfortable chair and small table. Ideally the size of the table should be similar to the compact tables used in salons. position your chair on one side of the table.

The desk clamp.

On the end of The Nail Trainer flexible arm is the desk clamp .This will clamp to any desk edge with a maximum thickness of 50 mm (2 inches). Open the jaws of the desk clamp by rotating the thumb screw anticlockwise.

with a maximum thickness of 50 mm (2 inches). Open the jaws of the desk clamp
with a maximum thickness of 50 mm (2 inches). Open the jaws of the desk clamp

Positioning The Nail Trainer.

Clamp The Nail Trainer to the opposite Side of the table, slightly to your right (The Nail Trainer is a model of a left hand, so it should be presented to you slightly from the right). Tighten the clamp by rotating the thumb screw clockwise until it grips the desk securely. Make a curve in the flexible arm so that The Nail Trainer hand is located in front of you. Making a curve in the arm allows you to move The Nail Trainer hand towards you or away from you as necessary.

Nail Trainer hand towards you or away from you as necessary. The natural nails. The natural

The natural nails.

The natural nails mimic the different shapes and sizes of nails found on hands in real life. You choose the shape you want to work on and fit it to the finger of your choice. The Nail Trainer, when unpacked from the box is fitted with a selection of natural nail sizes, fitted in various positions and depths on the finger tips. During the first part of the Home Learn course you work on the easiest' of the natural nail shapes fitted on the easiest finger. This is the number 13 natural nail, which will not need too much preparation to take a tip. It is fitted to the ring finger, which is the easiest to work on. You should work on this finger, refitting the same size nail to the finger until you are happy with your work. Later on in the course you will work on the other nail shapes.

size nail to the finger until you are happy with your work. Later on in the

The different nail shapes.

There are five natural nail shapes included with The Nail Trainer. The shape and size of the nails have been chosen to present a variety of problems and difficulties to you during your practice sessions.

and difficulties to you during your practice sessions. no 6 no 9 no 13 no 18

no 6

no 9

no 13

no 18

no 8

4/10

4/10

3/10

7/10

8/10

Difficulty (1 = easy, 10 = hard):

The no 13 nail is the easiest; it does not need much filing and is nice and symmetrical.

The number 6 nail is slightly harder, the long free edge makes it ideal for practicing airbrush and nail art.

The number 9 is the widest nail, it is fitted to the thumb and is quite an easy nail to work on.

The no 18 'maintenance' nail has a 'regrawth' area at the cuticle and a chip on the free edge. You can practice filling the regrowth area, repositioning the crown, thinning and reshaping the free edge or repairing the chip.

The small number 8 nail can be embedded in a deep nail bed to mimic a chronic nail biters finger, this is a tricky nail to work on as file access is difficult.

Fitting the natural nails.

Any of the natural nails can be fitted to any of the fingers or the thumb. Obviously the larger nails look more realistic when fitted to the thumb and the smallest to the little finger, but there is nothing to stop you fitting the smallest nail on the thumb to imitate a chronic nail biter with fat fingers.

Positioning the natural nails.

position the natural nail over the aperture in the top of the tip sheath and click down one click (FIG1) and slide to the front or to the rear of the finger tip (fig2)

slide to the front or to the rear of the finger tip (fig2) do not have
slide to the front or to the rear of the finger tip (fig2) do not have

do not have too much “free edge” or the nail will pop out when you file.

much “free edge” or the nail will pop out when you file. Adjusting the nail bed

Adjusting the nail bed depth.

Click down once more for a shallow nail bed, continue to press and click down to form a deeper nail bed.

The easiest way to do this is to place the finger on the table surface and press the nail down from above. We suggest you practice on some nails at 2 clicks deep and some at 3 clicks, some at the front and some at the rear of the finger tip.

practice on some nails at 2 clicks deep and some at 3 clicks, some at the

Removing completed nail work.

When you hove finished your work on any particular finger, you remove the natural nail, the work done on it and the tip sheath together.

Pinch the tip sheath between your thumb and index finger, with your thumb pressing on the surface of the nail. Hold the nail retaining frame with your other hand (pinch the two white joint wheels with your thumb and forefinger) and pull the nail and tip sheath off the front of the nail retaining frame and initially you might find it quite hard to pull them off.

Continue to pull hard and it will eventually slide off.

Warning! Only remove nails by sliding the finger tip forward. Pulling the nail up out of the frame without sliding the finger tip forward may damage the nail retaining frames.

Separating nail from tip.

After sliding the finger tip off, remove the completed nail from the tip sheath by gently pulling the nail off the top of the finger tip. If you find there is excess resin adhering to the edge of the nail and the surrounding tip sheath, pull apart gently rocking the nail as you pull to break the resin seal, so as not to rip the surface of the tip sheath. Discard any unwanted nails, you cannot 'soak off' in acetone, as the acetone will dissolve the Nail Trainer’s nails as well as the extension lips. The finger tip sheaths are reusable.

the acetone will dissolve the Nail Trainer’s nails as well as the extension lips. The finger

Refitting the tip sheath

Refit the tip sheath on the nail retaining frame by sliding it back on the way it came off.

retaining frame by sliding it back on the way it came off. Working on the fingers.

Working on the fingers.

The fingers move in a similar way to the joints of a real hand. While you are working on a nail, hold the underside of the finger with your left hand (assuming you are right handed) and work on the nail with your right hand. Rotate the finger and hand as required to access different parts of the nail’s surface with you tools.

Working on the thumb.

Rotate The Nail Trainer about the wrist so the thumb nail is uppermost . Caution: you cannot rotate the hand at the wrist by twisting the thumb as you would with a live model, normally the model would rotate her hand herself lo follow the twisting. The Nail Trainer cannot do this!

Care of your Nail Trainer.

With appropriate care The Nail Trainer will give years of service, all parts are easily replaceable should they become damaged or scruffy.

care The Nail Trainer will give years of service, all parts are easily replaceable should they
care The Nail Trainer will give years of service, all parts are easily replaceable should they
care The Nail Trainer will give years of service, all parts are easily replaceable should they

Cleaning

We recommend that The nail Trainer is washed In warm soapy water at the end of each practice day. Acetone can be used to remove excess product from The Nail Trainers surface. The rubber tip sheaths can be wiped over with acetone of nail polish remover, but you should avoid total and continuous immersion as this will damage the surface.

Replacement parts.

All the fingers, the thumb. Nail Retaining frames and other parts can be removed and / or replaced. Should you require spare parts for The Nail Trainer please contact us.

Accessories

As you use The Nail Trainer you may need extra natural nail and possibly more adhesive, finger and thumb tips. The rate at which you use them it obviously dependent upon your own work rate and in the case of the finger tip sheaths, how accurate you are with your filing and application of resines. We have the following packs of parts available !

NTA3002 - Refit Nail Pack consisting of 100 natural nails (20 of each site).

NTA3003 • Standard Finger Tip pack (4 fingertips, 1 thumb tip).

• Standard Finger Tip pack (4 fingertips, 1 thumb tip). NTA3005 - Nail Trainer adhesive. AC

NTA3005 - Nail Trainer adhesive.

AC 102 ■ Nail Trainer Acrylic primer

ACIOI ■ Gel prep and residue remover(Nail Trainer use only).

PR029 - NaJ Trainer user manual.

Gel prep and residue remover(Nail Trainer use only). PR029 - NaJ Trainer user manual. PRO20 &

PRO20 & PR023 - Progress cards.

Tips and Ideas

Simulate broken nails.

There is nothing to stop you filing or cutting the natural nails into odd shapes. You can imitate cracked, broken and brittle nails by reshaping the larger natural nails with clippers or scissors.

Electric File

The Nail Trainer is the ideal aid to try out electric files. Use of powered tiles are discouraged until you have acquired a high degree of manual dexterity as it is very easy to damage the nail or nail bed with these tools. You can use them at an earlier stage in your training when practicing on The Nail Trainer as there is no possibility of hurting anyone.

Nail Trainer as there is no possibility of hurting anyone. Progress Cards There are two types
Nail Trainer as there is no possibility of hurting anyone. Progress Cards There are two types

Progress Cards

There are two types of progress cards supplied with The Nail Trainer or Home learns courses. The 'Essential Techniques progress card', which stores nails at different stages of the nail build, and the Whole Hand Practice card, which stores 'sets' of nails. As you work through the Home learn course, you save the nails on these cards. At the end of the course you send the filled cards to us so we can see the quality of your work. Let's have a look at the cards individually.

you send the filled cards to us so we can see the quality of your work.

The essential techniques progress card

You only use one nail shape on this card, in the home learn course it will be the number 13, but other training organizations may instruct using a different nail shape.

In the right hand top corner are some tick boxes where you should indicate which nail system you are learning. The cards can be used for any system

you are learning. The cards can be used for any system At the top is a

At the top is a place for your name and address and the training organisation you are enrolled with if you are using the nail trainer in a classroom

Across the top are the nail numbers you are working on, the card holds 10 nails.

Down the left side is the description of each step of the nail build. Step 2, preparation, through step 6, polishing.

Although there are 6 steps you go though to build a nail enhancement, we skip the first step (removing nail polish) as far as the card is concerned, only saving two nails at step 2 through 6. The steps are:

1. Removing nail polish (if there is any).

natural nail.

2. Preparing the

3.

Nail tipping.

4. Applying the

overlay.

S. Finishing.

6. Polishing.

This cord is used during part two of the Home Learn course 'Essential Techniques' where you are learning the basic skills of how to build nail enhancements, you are instructed on the video to prepare 10 number 13 nails.

You save two of them, the first and last nail, in position 1 and position 10 and you write down the amount of time it took you to prepare each of the saved nails.

You then have 8 nails left. You tip and blend them just as you see on the video, and again save two of them, the first and last, in positions 2 and 9, again noting the times.

The remaining 6 nails you overlay with gel and save them in position 3 and 8.

The next 4 nails, are finished with your files and buffers and are saved in positions 4 and 7.

The last two nails ore polished and saved in positions 5 and 6.

your files and buffers and are saved in positions 4 and 7. The last two nails

When the card is complete it provides a unique record of your competency at each stage of the nail build. When it is returned for examination we can see exactly how you have built the nail, how good you are and where you are making mistakes.

nail, how good you are and where you are making mistakes. This way of working is

This way of working is far superior to working on live models, where each step is covered up by subsequent layers of gel and polish and your nail work walks out the door on the end of a finger, or is soaked off, never to be seen again.

By working on The Nail Trainer and saving your work you will have a unique record of your competency and steadily improving standards as you gain experience through practice.

On the right hand side of the card are 10 boxes which our tutors will fill in when they mark the card Next to the boxes is a brief description of what the examiner is marking on any particular step, a maximum of two points con be allotted to each criteria. the highest possible mark for the card being 20 points.

step, a maximum of two points con be allotted to each criteria. the highest possible mark

The Whole Hand Practice card

This card is used when you are practicing on the whole hand, on different fingers and different nail shapes and sizes. Across the top you should enter your name and address, and nail system you are learning (Gel, fiberglass, Acrylic etc).

The card has positions for 30 nails in six sets of five nail shapes. The card's purpose is keep a record of your improving nail skills and quickening speed As you work through 60 sets of nails. In the Home Learn course it is used in part 3: 'Working the whole hand', where you are instructed to click in the five shapes to the five fingers of The Nail Trainer, size 9 nail in the thumb, size 6 in the index, size 13 in the middle, size 18 in the ring and size 8 in the pinky finger. You then work through the whole hand, just as you would on a live client and at the end save all five nails on the card, noting the time it took you to complete the set in the boxes on the left hand side of the card. You only save every tenth set you complete, and by the time you've completed 60 sets, and saved the

and by the time you've completed 60 sets, and saved the … on the card you

… on the card you will really see a difference in quality between the fist set and the last set you completed. You should see your times improving to about 45 minutes a set.

On the right hand side of the card are five boxes for each set of

On the right hand side of the card are five boxes for each set of nails, this is filled in by our tutors when they mark your work. They are looking for a high standard in the following five categories:

Thickness. The overlay should be the correct thickness at the crown, cuticle and free edge.

Apex. The apex of the nail (high point of the arch) should be in the right place and should form a nice curve back to the cuticle and forward to the free edge.

Free edge. The free edge should be nicely shaped and thin.

Consistency. The five nails should be o set, looking like brothers and sisters, having the same overall style and shape.

Surface. All the nails should have smooth, shiny and nicely curved surfaces.

Each of the above categories has o maximum possible mark of 2, or 10 marks per set, 60 for the card. 8oth cards are marked and returned to you with any comments the tutor have made about your work.

Setting up to practice.

It's ideal if you can set up your nail equipment in a separate room, away from the daily hustle and bustle of family life. Find a small table, camp The Nail Trainer on the opposite side of the table and position the hand in front of you. Arrange your product and tools to your right and your right box to your left. Have the TV opposite you and use a video player with a remote so you can easily pause and rewind and place a kitchen towel under The Nail Trainer. You'll also need a clock, so you can make a note of the time it lakes for you to complete each step, and a rubbish bin with a top that can be closed. The lid helps trap fumes from discarded towels and cotton pads.

Time management and practice regime.

Building nails looks easy. For a skilled Technician it is easy, purely because they have been practicing for years! As a beginner you are learning new skills which involve fine control of tools and products. The difference between producing a perfect nail as opposed to a horrible misshapen one can be a single wrongly placed stroke of the file. You have to acquire accurate eye to hand coordination and develop an eye for what looks 'right'. You may remember how difficult it seemed to drive a car, press the clutch in, select a gear, look in the mirror, accelerate, let the clutch up, release the Hand brake, steer……. It seemed overwhelming at first,but now you drive away without thinking about it at all. It took instruction, but mostly it took practice. You're teaching your muscles to move in a new way and they take time to learn. The good news is, if you persevere d they will learn, and in a few months you'll be chatting to your clients as you build their nails, almost automatically, without thought, Learning is hard work, most things that are worth doing require effort, but it is fun and you'll get a great sense of satisfaction when you see the standard of your work improving.

effort, but it is fun and you'll get a great sense of satisfaction when you see
effort, but it is fun and you'll get a great sense of satisfaction when you see
effort, but it is fun and you'll get a great sense of satisfaction when you see

You need to get into the frame of mind to learn. Each time you sit down have at least one hour put aside for uninterrupted practice. Work hard for that hour, then give yourself a break and come back to it later. Don't push yourself to the point of frustration.

Be critical of your work, because your customers will Work

at learning the correct techniques and in a few weeks you'll

be amazed at your improvement.

Answer test paper 1, tools products & systems.

Now is the time to test your comprehension of the subjects covered so far in the Home Learn course and this book.

Test paper 1, tools products and systems, contains a set of multiple choice questions based on these subjects.

Tick the box next to the phrase that you think correctly

complete the sentence. Please note that one, two or three answers may be correct, in which case tick them, or none

of them by be correct, in which case do not tick any. Your

answers are marked in the following way:

A tick in a correct box = 1 mark.

A tick in an incorrect box = lose a mark.

A tick missing from a correct box = no mark.

A tick in a correct box = 1 mark. A tick in an incorrect box =
A tick in a correct box = 1 mark. A tick in an incorrect box =

Chapter 5. Salon skills,

There is more to being a great Nail Technician than creating beautiful nails. To establish yourself as a successful, busy Technician you also need to understand how to deal with your clients and work colleagues in a positive professional manner. We call these wide ranging abilities 'salon skills' though they are also very relevant to mobile Technicians. Think of yourself as someone who is providing a service that includes nails, not just a nail service. Working to improve your salon skills will help you build your clientele and support the prices you charge

Attitude and personal appearance.

Even when you're practicing at home on the Nail Trainer, try view it as if it was a critical client, rather than a plastic hand.

Make sure everything is clean, tidy and well presented and bring out fresh kitchen towels, empty the waste bin and wipe down your work surfaces and tools with disinfectant every day. Then when you start working in a salon your good attitude, good hygiene, great appearonce and professionalism will already be second nature.

It may seem obvious that presenting yourself well goes a long way towards being successful but you would be amazed at the number of Nail Technicians that shower, do their hair, apply beautiful make up - and then get into a dirty uniform! Cleanliness and smart personal appearance tell your client that you are a competent professional that can be relied upon.

A dirty uniform suggests that your concern for high standards is somewhat superficial and that this may extend to the quality of your nail work. Remember you are in the beauty industry!

somewhat superficial and that this may extend to the quality of your nail work. Remember you

To charge premium rates, everything has to be perfect. So the following check list provides the minimum standards you should strive for:

Wear a clean uniform every day, you will feel better

and look great.

Shower or bathe daily and wear deodorant.

Your hair and make up should also be well presented

and long hair tied back so it won't dangle over the work area.

Jewellery is acceptable though it is not a good video

• Jewellery is acceptable though it is not a good video to wear a lot of

to wear a lot of rings as this looks untidy and the filing dust will get under the rings and irritate your skin.

Avoid eating spicy food or garlic and keep a toothbrush and mints with you so that you

can freshen your breath regularly.

Your nails must enhance your standing as a professional. You should wear beautifully

maintained extensions in a style that reflects the preferences of the majority of your clients, but wear them fairly short so they don't get in the way when you're working.

Never smoke whilst performing nail services. As well as being a big health and safety risk

it looks very unprofessional and many clients will object and not use your services again. This also applies to chewing gum which creates a casual impression, the suggestion being that this could extend to the standard of your services.

Preparation and your surroundings.

Always be on time and well prepared for your client's arrival. Have your work station smartly laid out and clean even for the last appointment of the day, this will go a long way towards making each client fell special. if you are late and disorganized it will appear that you are not that concerned about them, your work will suffer as you will be stressed and under pressure to catch up. Make sure your tools hove been sanitized and that there are sufficient product supplies on your desk.

Review the appointment book at the beginning of the day, recall the clients listed and consider if there is anything special they might need. Some clients will always require more work than others during maintenance treatments, due to their nails or their lifestyle. Have your maintenance tools, including warmed acetone ready in anticipation of this.

It can be useful to keep a copy of the days appointments to hand so you can review the

treatments coming up without having to go to the appointment book. Preparation and

planning are the keys to appearing confident and assured.

Client consultation

Opposite is a client consultation card that you might see in a salon, it is important to fill in the relevant sections for each client. It fosters a professional image, gives you valuable information on your clients, their treatment histories and possible allergic reactions. Get the clients name, telephone numbers, and address. Discuss the treatment she requires and establish the length, style and shape of nail she prefers.

Explain that extensions need care and maintenance to keep them looking good and this needs a commitment from the client. Every two to three weeks she will need to come back for maintenance. Explain about the possibilities of infection and what to look for. Show her the home care rules, and give

a copy of which you will give her.

possibilities of infection and what to look for. Show her the home care rules, and give

Manners and courtesy.

When you greet your client make them feel welcome, look them in the eye and smile. Hopefully you will gel to like most of your clients eventually so you won't have to act for long! Address them by name, using their title if you haven't met them before or their Christian name if they are regulars, people will always feel pleased that you have remembered their name. Offer to take their coat, show them to the waiting area or lo your work station.

Some of your clients will be shy, some will be having nail extensions for the first time, it's part of your job to learn how to greet your client in a way that is appropriate for them. Some clients visit a salon mainly for social reasons so these people will probably enjoy chatting, others just want their nails to look great and prefer to remain quiet during their treatment, they may be shy or could hove a lot on their mind. In any event an important part of becoming a successful Technician is judging the extent to which you engage in conversation. If you get this right you stand

o

much higher chance of your client becoming a regular.

It

is not uncommon to see Technicians with their head down,

hardly talking to their clients. This is because they are concentrating hard on building the extensions and do not have enough mental capacity left to engage in conversation at the same lime. This is far from ideal and indicates that the Technician's nail build techniques are not good enough. The result is that the client feels ignored and the Technician feels stressed.

nail build techniques are not good enough. The result is that the client feels ignored and

This is one very good reason to work at your technique until it is second nature, so you have time for your clients social needs as well!

Never complain to your client or argue with your her, the old adage; 'the customer is always right', still holds true, especially avoid talking about religion or politics, this inevitably ends up in a row!

Avoid taking phone calls whilst treating your clients, so switch your mobile off. Taking calls during a treatment simply tells your client that your personal life is more important than her time. She is effectively paying you while you chat on the phone.

Communicating.

In order to work harmoniously with your colleagues and clients it is important to know how to communicate. Certain guidelines will prove useful. Be clear and to the point when discussing work issues with colleagues. If your client has some concerns listen carefully and answer honestly. If your client wants to know more about her treatment, don't be shy of explaining the procedure, often inquisitive clients who express an interest in what you do are your most valuable clients.

The appointment book is the heart of any salon and is should be used as the starting point for building the relationships with your clients. Enter your client's full name, the treatment required, her telephone number and any other relevant details. There will be many occasions when your colleagues will need to communicate with a client in your absence.

details. There will be many occasions when your colleagues will need to communicate with a client
details. There will be many occasions when your colleagues will need to communicate with a client
details. There will be many occasions when your colleagues will need to communicate with a client
details. There will be many occasions when your colleagues will need to communicate with a client

Your collage

There are some simple guidelines that will ensure that you maintain good relations with your work colleagues. Always have time for their opinions even if you don't always agree, be willing to learn from them, whether you are the newest Technician in the salon or the most experienced. However don't be shy of offering advice, and try to help out if the opportunity arises. Inevitably they will be occasions when you will be asked to do extra shifts so a helpful attitude will be appreciated by all.

Avoid borrowing money from work colleagues, it's got to be paid back and if you get into difficulty with the repayment then the resulting tension between you and your colleagues will have an effect on the performance of the whole salon. If you have a problem of any sort, talk it over with your employer, this is always better than grumbling to your colleagues. Try not to take your personal problems to work, if you should have a bad situation and you are not in good shape for work it is best to explain the problem to your employed and take time off. The same goes for illness, struggling in with a cold may appear heroic but unfortunately the usual result is that more people are infected, including your clients.

ethics.

It is good to be ethical in your dealings with clients and colleagues. For example if a client has requested a certain treatment, carry it out fully without cutting corners, even if time is pressing. If a Technician is off sick and it's impossible to get the shift covered, phone the affected clients and explain the situation. Invite them to reschedule their appointment or, if they would rather keep the appointment, be sure they are aware that their appointment time may slip or that they may be treated by a different Technician. Do not favour any clients, even if they bring you gifts. This is not lair on other clients who are paying the same for your services.

Never instigate gossip as this will ultimately drive you away from your colleagues and clients. Stay neutral when you hear a client, or colleague, complain about another Technician. Rarely are things as straightforward as they seem. Never criticize other Technicians to your client, you are criticizing the whole salon if you do this.

When you are offered your first position in a salon make sure you understand the conditions of employment that you are signing up to. If you have a question ask it, don't just keep quiet to be sure of getting the job, once the reason for the condition has been explained hopefully you will understand why it is needed. If you find yourself agreeing to something that you are uncomfortable with, you are only storing up trouble for yourself in the future.

Retail sales

All clients require additional nail treatments and polishes to protect and maintain thier nails at home. These additional sales are a vital source of income so it's smart to learn how to become о good salesperson. This is easier than you think, in fact without realizing it you are selling yourself when you first meet your client, remember, people buy people first!

There are three keys to achieving regular retail sales in the salon. The first is to listen, the second is to make it happen, I'll come to the third in a moment. When chatting to your client learn about their lifestyle, not in an obtrusive way, just be aware of the clues they provide. You are not being nosey, you are being a true professional and establishing how you can best service their needs. Are they a keen swimmer? Does their work mean their hands are frequently dehydrated? What are their favorite polish colures? Are they the sort of person that loves trying something new? These are the clues telling you which products your client would probably buy.

Now for the difficult bit! You have to make the effort to suggest a certain product would be perfect for them. You don't need to rehearse a fancy sales script, just talk about the product enthusiastically. If it helps you be more natural, pretend to yourself it's free, then your enthusiasm will be infectious!

And the third key? You need to do this for every client, not just on an occasional basis. Then the laws of averages will start to work in your favors and you will accumulate significant additional retail sales.

Answer test paper 2, Salon skills.

Make yourself a cup of tea and have a go at the multichoise tests 2. For each question none, one, more than one or all the answers may be correct. You'll find the answers somewhere in this book or on the video.

one, more than one or all the answers may be correct. You'll find the answers somewhere

Chapter 6. Chemicals, hazards and safety procedures.

Nail products are chemicals, and if used properly they are safe. However, if nail products are used or handled without paying attention to correct procedure, adverse reactions can occur, and health can be affected.

For this reason it is very important that you learn how to deal with your tools and products in a safe and professional manner.

Health and safety for a Nail Technician means five things:

Safe use of nail tools.

Safe use of nail products and chemicals.

Safe storage of nail products.

Safe disposal of used and unwanted chemicals.

Effective application of health and safety procedures.

Use these 'five facets' as a mental checklist to help you develop an awareness of the health and safety issues that affect you and your client.

Trainees are naturally more likely to cause damage than a skilled Nail Technician. So by making all your early mistakes on The Nail Trainer you are already employing the best health and safety principles.

By learning and implementing the following principles you will have no cause to harm yourself or your client throughout your career.

Understanding health hazards

There are five main ways in which Nail Technicians or their clients can be harmed through

providing or receiving nail enhancements, these are:

Damage through misuse of nail tools.

Inhalation of vapour.

Inhalation of dust.

Absorption of liquids through the skin.

Ingestion of chemicals.

None of these need become a problem as long as they are kept under control. For example

it is inevitable that both client and Technician will be exposed to vapours and dust, indeed

this applies to us all in everyday life and it rarely gives cause for concern because our levels

of exposure are extremely low.

Problems occur when exposure levels rise to the point when overexposure occurs. As a

professional Nail Technician, a vital part of your job is to ensure that exposure levels are

kept at o low and manageable level by following sensible precautions and good workplace

procedures.

Safe use of nail tools.

Clumsy use of certain nail tools, in particular files, is the most immediate way damage can be caused. These tools are designed to remove and shape hardened nail products, and to do this they have to be sharp. Files and buffers may not appear sharp in the same sense as a knife, but in fact these tools are really thousands of tiny cutting blades working together and if allowed to wander on to the client`s skin can cut and cause bleeding!

The way to avoid harming your client is to develop good tool control technique, as shown on the Home Learn videos. By mastering these skills you will be able to work quickly and with precision. Your tools will be cutting the nail enhancement materials, and not your client's skin! Here is a list of the tools that have the potential to cause harm.

The file.

This is the tool most associated with harming clients and the damage is usually caused in one of two ways. Firstly, with Gel nails and to some extent Acrylic nails it is necessary to use the file to remove an old enhancement. As the hard nail product is filed away it is not uncommon for an unskilled Technician to continue filing even though all the product has been removed. The file is then cutting into the natural nail plate and if continued for too long, great damage will be done to the nail plate.

for too long, great damage will be done to the nail plate. Secondly, damage is caused

Secondly, damage is caused to the surrounding flesh by inaccurate filing during streamlining, shaping or blending the enhancement. The edges of files are extremely sharp (even after the edges have been blunted, see stripping files and buffers) and if allowed to rub over the surrounding skin can easily draw blood from the resulting v shareped cut or filing graze. Cutting your client in this way is potentially the most serious form of damage as open wounds are an invitation to disease and infection.

Both of these accidents are caused by lock of understanding and poor technique on the part of the Technician. Work hard at your file control technique by practicing on your Nail Trainer until your use of the file becomes accurate and effective, thus eliminating the possibility of harming your client.

until your use of the file becomes accurate and effective, thus eliminating the possibility of harming

The buffer block.

The buffer is less likely to cause damage as it has a finer abrasive surface than a file so the cutting action is gentler, although just like files the edges are sharp and need to be blunted before use. As the effect of the buffer is quite subtle, some technicians get in the habit of using it too vigorously, which in combination with inaccuracy can cause soreness and redness of the skin around the client`s nail. As with all of your tools accuracy is the key avoiding problems.

all of your tools accuracy is the key avoiding problems. The brush. Many different nail products

The brush.

Many different nail products are applied with a brush. You have to avoid letting these chemicals touch your clients skin. Most nail products are categorized as hazardous as they are usually either irritants or corrosive. Allowing your brush to contact your client's skin can cause irritation and pain and even start an allergic reaction. Therefore an important aspect of your technique training on The Nail Trainer is fine control of product application to the nail and extension only. A detailed explanation of the health and safety issues relating to the various nail products is provided in the next section.

Cuticle knives.

products is provided in the next section. Cuticle knives. These sharp knives are used for cutting

These sharp knives are used for cutting away excess cuticle during the nail preparation process prior to applying nail product.

We do not advocate the use of cuticle knives in the Home Learn course, our preferred tool being the cuticle pusher. However you will come across them during your career so it is important to mention them.

These knives are very sharp so care is needed not to let your hand slip during use. Should you decide to start using cuticle knives later in your career, here are a couple of tips to help minimize the chances of accidently cutting your client. Always work in a good light so that you have the best possible view of the blade and the cuticle. Whilst cutting, move your client's hand close to you so that you maintain an easy and relaxed grip on the knife. Don't work at an awkward angle. Before using the knife for the first time practice on your Nail Trainer by drawing cuticle shaped lines on The Nail Trainer's fingertips and then using a light pressure practice cutting along these lines. This will familiarize you with the feel and effect of the knife prior to working on a client.

feel and effect of the knife prior to working on a client. The Electric File. Electric

The Electric File.

Electric files ore controversial tools. Originally used as miniature drills for industry and hobby markets, their use has been adopted by Nail Technicians in many countries, particularly the United States. The drill bit rotates at high speed and the rate at which the nail product is removed is much greater than with a hand file. It is this efficiency, commonplace amongst all types of electric tools compared with hand tools, that gives the electric file the potential to do a great deal of damage in a short period of time.

with hand tools, that gives the electric file the potential to do a great deal of

There are two main ways that the electric file can cause harm in untrained hands. The friction of the spinning bit on the nail generates a lot of heal so the file must be used with a light pressure and constantly moved across the nail surface to avoid the risk of burning the client's nail. Secondly it's very easy for the drill to skip across the surface of the nail on to the client's skin, causing a bad cut or tear. It is problems like these that have lead to the electric file gaining a bad reputation, though this is somewhat unfair as only on unskilled Nail Technician will cause damage, not the tool!

unskilled Nail Technician will cause damage, not the tool! Electric files are safe, useful tools as

Electric files are safe, useful tools as long as two important rules are observed. Firstly, it is vital that full training is taken and this should be of a very high standard. The Nail Trainer is perfect tool for learning on as the techniques can be practiced to perfection.

Secondly, only use electric files recommended by nail companies or responsible beauty trade suppliers. There are many electric files available designed for the hobby market that ore too powerful and unsuited for safe use on nail extensions.

The UV lamp.

People sometimes assume that because the light boxes used to cure Gel emit ultra violet light they possess the same potential for harm as a high powered sun bed. This is not the case as the wavelength of light produced by the tubes in nail light boxes is UVA, which lakes a long while to burn or tan the skin.

is UVA, which lakes a long while to burn or tan the skin. Sun beds are

Sun beds are usually over a hundred times more powerful than nail light boxes, and they emit both UVA and UVB light. It is the UVB light in sun beds that accelerates the tanning process and this can be harmful if overexposure occurs. As long as a modem nail light box is used with 9 watt or lower power tubes your client is not at risk.

Know your nail products and chemicals.

Either when practicing at home or working in a salon, you have to know about the chemicals in the products you are using. By learning your art on The Nail Trainer you are already dealing with health and safety in the most responsible way possible. You cannot harm your client through inexperience and you are learning in an environment that enables you to acquire a great technique before working on real people. When we talk about nail products we are mainly referring to the liquids and substances that come in bottles, jars or other containers. Typical examples are acrylic primer, acrylic liquid and powder, Gel, tip remover, nail polish remover, extension tips and nail polish. These are all 'products' as opposed to 'tools'. Most nail products are termed 'hazardous' and they can enter the body in the three ways already identified: inhalation, absorption and Ingestion. Many are also flammable.

Inhalation, absorption and ingestion,

•Absorption is the action of a liquid being absorbed through the skin.

•Inhalation is the action of molecules of a liquid or other substance being inhaled through the nose or mouth as vapour or dust.

•Ingestion is the least likely route of entry as it happens as a consequence of tiny particles of product transferring from the Technician's fingers on to food and then swallowed. This can easily be prevented by washing the hands thoroughly before eating.

Some liquid products can enter the body through both absorption and inhalation. This most commonly occurs when liquid is spilled directly on the skin or when handling contaminated tissues or when sloppy brush control causing small amounts of liquid to contact the skin at the side of the nail. The following is a description of the common nail products capable of entering the body either as a consequence of the way in which they are used or due to the chemistry of the product.

Bear in mind that this list is not exhaustive and new products enter the market all the time so if you have a product that is not on this list, seek advice from the manufacturer.

When assessing the relative safely of a particular chemical and thinking about the health and safely implications of its use in your work place, we ask ourselves 'what is an acceptable level of exposure to this chemical?' Nail products are safe, as long as exposure is minimized through good working practices. Let`s look at some of the common products and chemicals used in the nail industry.

extension tip remover.

The most widespread chemical used to remove nail tips is acetone. This is a liquid which is also a solvent, i.e. it has the ability to dissolve certain materials, for example some plastics.

Absorption. Acrylic and fiberglass extension tips are commonly removed by either immersing the nail extensions in a bowl of acetone or soaking cotton wipes in acetone and then wrapping them around the finger tips. Inevitably the acetone comes into contact with the skin surrounding the nail and a small amount of absorption will take place. Al the same time the acetone is producing vapours that will be inhaled as it evaporates. Acetone is highly flammable and is closed as an irritant.

Acetone is highly flammable and is closed as an irritant. If you use a soak-off bowl

If you use a soak-off bowl fill it so that only the linger tips are immersed. Warm the acetone by placing the bowl in a larger bowl of worm water. This is the only sale way of warming acetone. Soak the nails for about.

By only filling the soak off bowl so that the finger tips are just covered you are minimizing the client's exposure level. As the client will only need her extensions to be soaked off once every 6 to 8 weeks this represents a low amount of exposure and is therefore considered to be safe. However, as acetone is an irritant it is possible that a client could develop an allergic reaction. This is rare but does occasionally happen. In this event the course of action is to recommend your client has extensions removed by filing only.

recommend your client has extensions removed by filing only. Inhalation. Acetone can also enter the body

Inhalation. Acetone can also enter the body through inhalation. As the acetone evapourates it`s molecules float in the air and are breathed in. With acetone you can smell these fumes, but be aware that some chemicals have no smell, but can still be harmful!. The way to minimise exposure is to remove the fumes from the work area as quickly as possible. Open a window and avoid using acetone in a sealed room, whether at home or in a salon. Be aware that using a fan does not improve ventilation, it simply circulates the air and the air boume fumes.

Acrylic primer.

circulates the air and the air boume fumes. Acrylic primer. This liquid is not used for

This liquid is not used for Gel nails, but is common in salons offering acrylic nails. The acrylic primer for use on The Nail Trainer is a very weak formulation of methacryfic acid and water and is suitable only for use on The Nail Trainer. However acrylic primers for use on human finger nails usually contain a high proportion of methacrylic acid. Once again this chemical has a very pungent smell.

This acid is corrosive and therefore an irritant if it comes into contact with skin. If left on the skin it will cause a mild burning sensation and will cause redness.

The primer is applied with a small brush (attached to the screw cap of the bottle) to the natural nail between the end of the extension tip and the cuticle. Acrylic primer is safe as long as it is only applied to the natural nail. This is an easy operation to perform so there is no reason to get the liquid on to the cuticle or skin. If this should happen wash the affected area several times with a cotton wad soaked with water. As long as this is done quickly there should be no harmful effects through absorption.

there should be no harmful effects through absorption. Inhalation. Methacrylic acid produces very strong vapours.

Inhalation. Methacrylic acid produces very strong vapours. This is one of the reasons why acrylic primer is always sold in tint bottles. The opening of the bottle is small allowing the minimum amount of vapour to escape when the lid is off.

Never lean directly over your brush when applying primer as this is the surest way to breathe in the vapour which can result in discomfort lo the nose and eyes. Should this happen move away from the vapour and breathe some fresh area. It is important to ensure adequate ventilation in your work area and as melhacrylic acid is also flammable do not allow any smoking.

Nail polish remover.

This is similar to acetone in that it is a solvent and therefore has the ability to dissolve another substance. Nail polish removers commonly contain ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol which is also often used to sanitise the nail.

Nail polish removers commonly contain ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol which is also often used to

Absorption. The polish is removed by pouring a small amount of remover on to a cotton pad which is then wiped across the surface of the polished nail. Some of the polish remover will touch the client's skin, however this is a very low level of exposure and is therefore considered to be safe.

Inhalation. There will be some inhalation of vapour, but this also be low as there is only a small amount of the liquid on a cotton pad. Nail polish remover is generally considered a safe product to use.

Adequate ventilation is advisable and it is highly flammable so do not allow smoking in your work area.

Gel prep and residue remover.

This product has three functions. It used to sanitise and dehydrate the natural nail prior to Gel product application and to remove the sticky residue from Gel after curing in a light box. It is similar to nail polish remover and acetone in that it is a solvent and it contains ¡sopropyl alcohol, ethyl acetate end acetone. The Gel prep and residue remover included in your Home Learn course contains only isopropyl alcohol so it is a weaker solvent than the full strength version used on human finger nails.

The method of application is the same for both versions and for both uses. It is applied by pouring a small amount on to a cotton pad which is then wiped over the natural nail to sanitise and dehydrate the nail. For removing the sticky Gel residue it is also applied to a cotton pad which is pressed firmly onto the nail and then pulled forward off the free edge. The residue is removed on the pad and the extension is left dry and shiny.

nail and then pulled forward off the free edge. The residue is removed on the pad

Absorption and Inhalation. As the method of application uses small amounts of the liquid, contact with the skin will be correspondingly low. So as long as it is used in a well ventilated area the risk to health through absorption and inhalation Is low.

Like most solvents Gel Prep is highly flammable so smoking must not be allowed in the work area.

Accelerator.

When building fiberglass extensions the resins are coated with an accelerator in order to cure and harden. Nowadays most accelerator liquids are brushed on to the resin, though 'spray on' accelerators used to be widespread. These were not as good from a health and safety standpoint as the spray would inevitably some land on the client's skin and is easily breathed in. Also if too much accelerator is used a lot of heat is generated as the curing process is over accelerated, causing discomfort to the client.

is over accelerated, causing discomfort to the client. Use in a well ventilated area, do not

Use in a well ventilated area, do not breathe in the fine mist generated.

accelerated, causing discomfort to the client. Use in a well ventilated area, do not breathe in

Acrylic liquid.

This is not used in Gel nails, only acrylics. When combined with acrylic powder this becomes a soft paste which is used to build acrylic nail extensions. As the name suggests acrylic liquids usually belong to the methacrylate family of chemicals.

Inhalation and absorption. The adour of acrylic liquid is the most common smell in the nail industry because in many countries acrylic is the most popular system. The acrylic paste is applied with a brush and like all nail products this should not be allowed to come into contact with the cuticle or the client's skin.

come into contact with the cuticle or the client's skin. It is the acrylic vapour which

It is the acrylic vapour which is considered the greater risk and inhalation is the most common way for it to enter the body. It is very important that the work area is well ventilated in order to disperse the vapour.

area is well ventilated in order to disperse the vapour. To use acrylic liquid safely a

To use acrylic liquid safely a small amount should be decanted from the bottle into a dappen dish. The bottle should then be immediately re-sealed. The dappen dish should have a lid so that it can also be sealed when the product is not being used. Sometimes it is necessary to clean the acrylic brush by immersing it in the liquid and then wiping it on a tissue. When this is done put the used tissue in a metal bin with the lid down. These measures limit the amount of vopour entering the work environment and so minimise the exposure for both Technician and client.

limit the amount of vopour entering the work environment and so minimise the exposure for both

Acrylic powder

This is the other component of the acrylic system, used in combination with acrylic liquid. Components of the powder include copolymer and bezal peroxide The liquid and powder come into contact on the brush and the paste is applied to the nail to create the extension. Once the liquid and powder mix the paste begins to harden and it is this hard acrylic plastic that forms the nail extension. Depending on the skill of the Technician, it is usually necessary to file the extension to refine the shape of the nail and of course this produces acrylc dust.

Inhalation. Dust is perhaps the Nail Technician's biggest enemy, it is harder to control than liquids as it is very light and can travel in the air. It will not enter the body through absorption but can easily enter through inhalation. This is not likely to cause a risk to health to the client as the exposure only occurs every two to three weeks.

client as the exposure only occurs every two to three weeks. It is also not a

It is also not a problem for the mobile Technician as the work environment is constantly changing thus avoiding exposure to a build up of dust over time.

It is the Technician working in a busy salon that should be aware of the correct way to deal with dust. She will be exposed to other Technicians dust as well as her own.

should be aware of the correct way to deal with dust. She will be exposed to

Technicians should consider wearing a face mask and consider the following advise:

Wipe down the work surface after every treatment with a damp cloth and then wash this out under a top.

with a damp cloth and then wash this out under a top. This will remove the

This will remove the dust on the work surface but not the dust in the air.

the dust on the work surface but not the dust in the air. The only way

The only way to do this is to use a clean air system that sucks the dust on to a filter as it is produced, these systems can be portable or built into the tap of a workstation.

Using a system such as this is the best way to minimise exposure to dust as it will collect around 80% of the dust produced as long as the filter is changed regularly.

minimise exposure to dust as it will collect around 80% of the dust produced as long

Nail adhesive.

The adhesives or tip glue used for fixing extension tips to the natural nail or building fiberglass extensions are from the cyanoacrylate family of chemicals.

extensions are from the cyanoacrylate family of chemicals. They are also referred to as 'resin' and

They are also referred to as 'resin' and give off harsh vapours which can cause irritation to the eyes. The Technician should therefore avoid leaning directly over the bottle as the adhesive is being applied. In terms of risk from contact with the skin it is very unlikely that cyanoacrylate will do any lasting harm though it will stick skin together very quickly.

harm though it will stick skin together very quickly. Should this happen, wash with soap and

Should this happen, wash with soap and water when the adhesive has softened and gently peel apart or soak and de-bond in acetone. The person most likely to be harmed by nail adhesive is the Technician. Some acquire the bad habit of biting off hardened adhesive from the nozzle, sometimes the Technician inadvertently squeezes the bottle at the same time and when the blockage is cleared, fresh adhesive squirts out of the nozzle and into the Technician's eye. As the adhesive hits the eye it comes into contact with the tears around the eye which acts as an accelerator and the eye is subject to the painful effects of the heat generated by the curing process as the adhesive bonds to the eye. Almost certainly the eye will shut a fraction after it is hit by the adhesive, thus trapping the adhesive and bonding the eye shut. If this occurs, do not attempt to force the eyelid open, bathe the eyelashes with warm water so that they can de-bond and release. Do not force the eye open, keep it covered, seek medical advice, and after a couple of days the adhesive will release from the eye and it will open.

Filing dust.

When building fiberglass extensions dust is produced as the shape of the nail is perfect with

the file. Follow similar rules to those explained for acrylic filing dust, i.e. make sure you

work in a well ventilated area and if possible use a dust extraction system

A quick guide to understanding the risks!

Product

chemical name

common routes of entry

other risks

Extension

Acetone

Absorption and

Inhalation

Fire

tip remover

Nail polish

Ethyl acetate Isopropyl alcohol

Absorption and

fire

remover

Inhalation

Gel prep & residue remover

Ethyl acetate Isopropyl alcohol Acetone

Absorption and

fire

Inhalation

Acrylic

Methacrylote

Absorption and

fire

liquid

Inhalation

Nail tip

Cyanoacrylote

 

Fire . The eyes are vulnerable.

Adhesive

Absorption, Inhalation and Ingestion.

Accelerator

Alcohol, Alkaline

Absorption and

fire

Inhalation

A quick guide to working safety with nail products.

• Always read the caution notes on the bottle or packaging.

• Always read the MSDS {materials safety data) sheets.

• Always be aware of the correct course of action in the event of an accident.

• Ensure your technique provides you with the dexterity and control of your products.

• Vapours can collect behind contact lenses so when treating clients wear glasses.

Storage of chemicals.

Nail products must be stored and disposed of in a way that minimises the risk of an accident. Many of the products are flammable, and the storage area will contain the highest concentration of products thus making it potentially the most dangerous part of the salon. All nail products should be stored in a lockable metal cupboard, they are quite heavy so make sure the wall and fixings can support the weight. Store the largest containers on the bottom shelf and ensure that all products are clearly labelled. Locate the store cupboard away from general access and direct sunlight and have a work surface nearby so that you can comfortably decant liquids from one container to another without the risk of spillage.

Keep the MSDS sheets and suppliers contact details nearby. Keep a first old kit and fire extinguisher in the storage area and learn how to use them! Like all areas of a nail salon adopt a strict no smoking policy.

in the storage area and learn how to use them! Like all areas of a nail
in the storage area and learn how to use them! Like all areas of a nail
in the storage area and learn how to use them! Like all areas of a nail

Disposal of chemicals.

Do not tip chemicals down sinks or drains as many chemicals will melt the plastic plumbing. Dispose of unwanted chemicals as follows:

Extension tip remover.

Tip remover is mostly acetone, so dispose of it tipping it onto an absorbent material. Place the contaminated material in a material bin outside and allow the liquid to evopourate. Used acetone from the 'soaking off' process is the only liquid waste product you need to dispose of. Do not pour it down a sink as the blobs of dissolved nail extension will block the waste pipe. if the pipes are plastic, they may well melt. This is not an environmentally acceptable method of disposal.

Nail polish remover.

Nail polish remover might contain acetone or Isopropyl alcohol, dispose of your used wipes in a metal pedal bin where any residual product will evaporate and store in a metal cupboard.

Gel prep and residue remover.

Used wipes should be put in a metal pedal bin where any residual product will evaporate.

Gel prep and residue remover. Used wipes should be put in a metal pedal bin where

The chemical reaction.

All the nail systems, be it Fiberglass, Gel or Acrylics use chemicals that come in a semiliquid form or as two products that have to be mixed together.

In every case the liquid is turned into a solid by initialing a chemical reaction, this process is called polymerisalion.

• For Gel, It's the exposure to UV light that initiates the reaction.

• For Fiberglass it's by spraying on or painting on an accelerator.

• For Acrylic the chemical reaction starts when the liquid and powder are mixed together and is accelerated by the heat from the surrounding air and from the finger.

The time taken for products to set is controlled by the amount of light, accelerator or heat. Too much and the product will set too fast, too little and the product takes too long to set, wasting time.

or heat. Too much and the product will set too fast, too little and the product
or heat. Too much and the product will set too fast, too little and the product
or heat. Too much and the product will set too fast, too little and the product

All of the chemicals used for building nail extensions come from the acrylic family of

chemicals. Acrylic is a common plastic which is used in thousands of consumer and industrial products around the world. One of the properties of acrylic plastic is that it is

hard yet retains some flexibility, and this makes

suitable for building nail extensions

The nail systems.

Let's recap. You now know there are three nail extension systems, their common names being acrylics, Gets and Fiberglass, and each system is applied in a liquid or semi liquid state and an initiator is used that causes the material to harden. Once the material is hardening a chemical within the product called a catalyst is used to control the speed of the hardening process.

Lets look at the chemical reaction whereby each nail system goes from a liquid or semi- liquid state to the solid plastic used as the overlay, or top layer, of the nail extension.

Acrylics.

This system is also called liquid and powder, the liquid is called 'monomer' which means one molecule. When the liquid monomer is mixed with the powder on the end of the brush the initiator contained within the powder starts a heat reaction. This causes the initiator to split in half creating two molecules called free radicals. Free radicals are molecules in an excited, fast moving state. Each free radical energises a monomer which then attaches itself to another monomer and so a chain is formed. This chain of monomers becomes very Long and is called a polymer. The action of converting monomers to polymers describes the process called polymerisation.

For polymerization to von to take place efficiently the room or product temperature must not be too low or a frostlike coating will appear on the surface of the product. Cool temperatures will slow down the polymerisation process allowing the monomer to evaporate before the chains are fully formed, leaving the surface soft and powdery .This problem is commonly called crystalisation, the surface looks white and frosted.

Gel

Gel may appear different to the liquid and powder system in that it consists of a one part Gel ready for application with a brush. However, Gel is similar in that the product is also formed fromed chains of molecules, but these are shorter and called oligomers and are formed during the manufacturing process. The initiator for Gel is ultra violet light that penetrates the Gel and provides the energy to convert the oligomers into polymers. The relitively low level of energy provided by the UV light is sufficient to cause polymerisation because it is only required to join the pre manufactured short chains together, rather than form long chains from scratch with individual molecules.

For perfect polymerisation to take place the Gel should not be applied too thickly or the UV light will not be able to fully penetrate causing only partial hardening of the product.

Fibreglass.

The Fiberglass system comprises of a lightweight glass weave impregnated by resin. Like Acrylics and Gels, the resin also comes from the acrylic family of chemicals. It is in fact similar to tip adhesive being a monomer called cyonoacrylate.

The resin is applied to the fiberglass strips by either the nozzle of the resin bottle or a brush and if left it will eventually harden in a few minutes. However in the solon, to speed up the process, an accelerator or activator is applied to the resin by spraying or brushing. This contains the initiator that 'kick star` the polymerisation process. As with the other systems, long chains of molecules are formed though they are not as strong as Gel or Acrylics which is why the fiberglass weave is needed to reinforce the overlay. The speed with which resin hardens is influenced by the amount of accelerator used. If too much accelerator is applied, polymerisation will happen too quickly resulting in a cloudy appearance. Low strength and a lot of heat.

is applied, polymerisation will happen too quickly resulting in a cloudy appearance. Low strength and a

Health and safety procedures.

Hygiene

In the course of providing nail treatments the Technician's hands and tools come into contact with many different clients. The Technician and client usually sit facing each other less than a metre apart and most salons are warm with the air being moved around by ventilation systems. This is the ideal environment for the proliferation of disease and infection.

For the Nail Technician, an infection can occur through hand to hand contact and this can be virtually eliminated by the implementation of good hygiene procedures. Airborne infection is a common risk we all face and is much harder to control.

Disease and bacteria.

All diseases are caused by bacteria and viruses. There are two types of bacteria - pathogenic and nonpathogenic. About 70% of all bacteria's are nonpathogenic, and these are harmless or even beneficial. A good example of beneficial nonpathogenic bacteria are those found in the gut to aid digestion. Viruses are smaller and simpler organisms than bacteria and are pathogenic.

pathogenic bacteria, or pathogens, are harmful. These are the microscopic organisms that cause disease and are commonly known as germs. They multiply incredibly quickly and are carried about in air, water, on tools and by bodily contact. Well known diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria include pneumonia, typhoid, tuberculosis and diphtheria.

Viruses cause many of the very common diseases such as colds, flu, mumps and measles.

tuberculosis and diphtheria. Viruses cause many of the very common diseases such as colds, flu, mumps
tuberculosis and diphtheria. Viruses cause many of the very common diseases such as colds, flu, mumps

The nail salon is potentially the pended breeding ground for pathogens. They like warmth, dark corners, dirt and dust, air movement and human contact! As a professional Nail Technician it is an important part of your job to keep them under control.

infection.

part of your job to keep them under control. infection. Disease is acquired through infection and

Disease is acquired through infection and there are six main sources:

•By air, for example via coughing or sneezing

•By contact with infected blood

•By bodily contact

•By eating or drinking

•By the transmission of semen

•By insect bite

The sources of primary concern to the Nail Technician are contact with infected blood and bodily contact. There are many diseases that affect the hands and nails and these can easily be passed from the client to the Technician and an again to another client. The common link is the Technician who is also the person most able lo limit transmission.

How infection occurs

The Nail Technician's tools and hands are the vehicles on which the bacteria that cause nail and other diseases hitch a ride to their next destination. For example, as the Technician pushes back the client's cuticle, bacteria is being transferred from the cuticle to the cuticle pusher. This bacteria will be passed to the next client if the same tool is used again. Similarly, as the file is used to blend an extension tip, it's unfortunately quite common for it lo come into contact with the skin surrounding the nail where there might be the beginnings of a sore that is too small lo see. The file will collect bacteria from the sore and pass these on to the client's other fingers or, as with the cuticle pusher, the next client. The bacteria will also contaminable the filing dust being produced, which is perfect for harboring and carrying pathogenic bacteria around the salon in the air.

Minimising infection.

In order to minimise the chances of cross infection, it is the Technician's duty to understand the principles behind good hygiene and to implement and maintain a sound hygiene policy. Broadly speaking hygiene means cleanliness in order to limit infection, and this cleanliness applies lo the Technician, the Technician's tools and the salon or worth place. There are three methods of achieving cleanliness, or decontamination, the aim off all is to eliminate pathogenic bacteria as for as is possible.

These methods are sanitation, disinfection and sterilization.

sanitation,

are sanitation, disinfection and sterilization. sanitation , this is the simplest form of decontamination, and will

this is the simplest form of decontamination, and will remove the lowest volume of pathogenic bacteria. The most common example of sanitation is washing your hands with soapy water. Sanitation also refers to the many common tasks and practices that must be carried out in the salon in order to maintain good hygiene .

carried out in the salon in order to maintain good hygiene . these are the main
carried out in the salon in order to maintain good hygiene . these are the main
carried out in the salon in order to maintain good hygiene . these are the main

these are the main practices to achieve good hygiene:

Retail shelving should be cleaned on an ongoing basis but remember that dusting is going to push dust about rather than remove it. Clean shelves with a clean cloth moistened with antibacterial cleaner.

Ensure you have enough uniforms so you can wear a clean one every day.

Towels should be washed daily

Each work station should have it`s own small, metal pedal bin. Remove and replace the dust bag daily as just tipping the debris into another bin will recycle dust back into the salon.

If you must have food on the premises, keep it in a clean fridge away from the nail products storage area.

Smoking must not be allowed in any part of the salon.

You should not eat at your workstation as the chance of ingesting dust is high. If drinking is allowed on the premises, then it should be in a separate area away from the treatment tables.

Both client and Technician should wash their hands before and after each treatment

The Technician's hair should be tied back

Other than guide dogs, animals should not be allowed in the salon.

Disinfection.

animals should not be allowed in the salon. Disinfection. This refers to the use of disinfectant

This refers to the use of disinfectant for the cleaning of non-living surfaces, but not skin or nails. Disinfectant is a substance capable of destroying a much higher volume of pathogenic bacteria than the simple sanitation procedures outlined earlier.

Disinfectants are designed to destroy harmful bacteria, viruses or fungus and a suitable disinfectant for the salon will be a single liquid capable of destroying all three. There are many brands available and it is important to carefully follow the manufacturer’s instructions regarding dilution and application. If the concentration is too weak the disinfectant can become ineffective.

Many disinfectants are irritants and it may be necessary to wear protective gloves. The areas of the solon that should be cleaned with disinfectants are furniture, walls, floors and doors. As dust travels to the most inaccessible places the furniture should be moved weekly to allow thorough cleaning.

Disinfectant can also be used to clean tools and implements by immersing them for around fifteen minutes. It is important to wash and dry the tools first or the disinfectant will become contaminated and less effective. Be sure lo select a disinfectant that contains a rust inhibitor or your metal tools could become blunt. This information will be on the label.

Sterilisation.

This is the process by which all living organisms on a non-living object such as tools are completely destroyed, leaving it sterile. Nowadays sterilisation of toots is more popular than disinfection. There are two ways of sterilising plastic and metal nail tools: by immersing them in chemicals or by placing them in a machine called an autoclave.

In the salon the most popular way of sterilising is to use a sterilisation tray. This is a plastic box which contains a perforated tray. The nail tools are washed with soapy water, rinsed and dried and laid out on the tray. The sterilizing solution, or agent, is poured into the botton of the box and the tray is lowered into the agent. The lid of the box is closed and the tools are left immersed in the agent for about twenty minutes. Sterilizing agent must be prepared according to the manufactured instructions and they can be used several times before needing replacement. The amount of usage pror to replacement will be indicated on the manufacturers instructions.

An autoclave is a sturdy, airtight container that sterilises the nail tools by exposing them to the extremely high temperatures of steam under pressure. Autoclaves suitable for salon use are electric and have a programmed cleaning cycle. The steam is produced by heating water stored in the autoclave and at the end of the cycle the pressure must be allowed to return to normal before opening the lid and removing the tools. Autoclaves are an effective way of sterilising tools but they are expensive and for this reason are not as popular as sterilisation trays in nail salons.

of sterilising tools but they are expensive and for this reason are not as popular as
of sterilising tools but they are expensive and for this reason are not as popular as

Bear in mind that freshly sterilised tools will start to accumulate new microorganisms as soon as they come bock into contact with the salon environment and so the process of sterilisation is ongoing.

Other nail tools.

Not all nail tools are made from metal or plastic, the obvious examples being files and buffers. There are several ways of minimising contamination of these tools. Washable files are available and these can be scrubbed with a manicure brush and washed at the end of each treatment with antibacterial soap.

An alterative approach is to set your fees at a high enough level so that you can afford to use new files and buffers an each client. This would cost about 1 euro. Per client though this is more than offset by the time saved in cleaning and the value in impressing your client by your highly professional approach.

Some people advocate having a set of files and buffers stored especially for each client. However this is not an ideal solution as they still need to be cleaned or they will just store contaminated dust to be released into the salon next time they're used. They are also clumsy to store in a file along with your client's record card.

the salon next time they're used. They are also clumsy to store in a file along
the salon next time they're used. They are also clumsy to store in a file along

The work station is perhaps the Nail Technician's most important asset, it's surface must be cleaned between each treatment and only the tools that are needed for the next client should be placed on top of the desk. Too much clutter on the work surface will slow down the treatment.

Wipe down the work surface with a clean wet cloth that is then washed out under the tap. Avoid using a duster as this will just simply push the dust off the side and on to the floor

just simply push the dust off the side and on to the floor If your work

If your work station contains a dust filtration system be sure to change the filter in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. If you clean the filter periodically prior to replacing it do this in a way avoids spilling the accumulated dust as this will just reintroduce it to the atmosphere.

to replacing it do this in a way avoids spilling the accumulated dust as this will

Chapter 7. The nail.

The parts of the nail.

You'll need to memorise the common names used for parts of the nail

need to memorise the common names used for parts of the nail The free edge this

The free edge this is White front edge of the nail extending post the end of the fingertip

The cuticle, is the fleshy ridge at the back of the nail.

The lúnula is the White crescent in front of the cuticle

The nail grooves at the side of the nail guide the nail plate down the finger

The nail walls these are the fleshy ridges that run down the left and right hand sides of the

The nail plate

The nail bed is directlyundermeath the nail plate

The smile line is the line formed between the pink of the nail and the White of the free edge

These medical names ate less common, but you may come across them

medical names ate less common, but you may come across them The matrix This is where

The matrix

This is where the nail is formed and the shape and thickness of the matrix determines the thickness of the resulting nail. The matrix is very soft and any damage to it will mean that the nail may not grow normally again.

The eponychium

Sometimes miss identified as the cuticle, this fold of skin resides of the back of the nail plate and forms o seal between the out side of the nail plate and the inside of the finger. if this is broken infection can set in, so be carefull with cuticle pushers, never push hard in this area as you can break the seal.

The proximal nail fold

This is where the nail root is anchored and it is a thick fold of skin. It should never be allowed to dry out, as cracking can occur. Keep it supple with cuticle oil.

The cuticle

The cuticle works with the eponychium to provide a watertight seal. It's the colourless layer of skin that forms out over the surface of the nail plate growing out from the eponychium and has to be removed to allow nail products to adhere to the nail plate. The amount of cuticle over the nail varies from person to person.

The lunula

Also known as the 'half moon', the lunula is under the thinnest part of the nail and is the visible part of the matrix which is coloured white, hence the lunula is white. Again, this is a soft area of the nail which is easily damaged.

The Pcrionychium.

Nail walls, lateral nail folds or Perionychium are all words for the fold of skin that runs down the left and right hand sides of the nail plate. The skin slightly covers the edges of the nail plate forming a watertight seal.

The Nail grooves.

These are not shown on the previous diagram but the point at which the nail meets the perionychium (down the sides of the nail) is often referred lo as the nail grooves.

The Distal grooves.

There is a dent or groove in the skin directly under the free edge known as the Distal groove.

The Hyponychlum.

Just behind the distal groove is the seal for the front of the nail. Similar in construction to the eponychium at the cuticle end of the nail, it keeps liquids and bacteria from getting under the nail plate.

The nail bed.

Where as the nail plate is essentially dead material, the nail bed is very much alive, crommed with blood vessels and nerve endings. Severe pain can be caused if this is damaged.

Different nail shapes.

When you work on people you will encounter many sizes and shapes of nail. Here are some pictures of the natural variation in nail shapes:

are some pictures of the natural variation in nail shapes: How the nail grows. Irrespective of

How the nail grows.

Irrespective of the final nail shape, the process of growth is the same in every case The cells that make up the nail begin their life in the matrix. These straight sided cells, filled with a tough protein called keratin, have the ability to lock together to form a hard protective layer that we know as the nail plate.

The nail bed, under the nail plate is constructed from two distinct layers that can slide over one another on tiny rails, allowing the nail to slide out as it grows. It's fed by thousands of blood vessels and, unlike the nail plate, has thousands of nerve endings which can transmit severe paid if damaged.

of blood vessels and, unlike the nail plate, has thousands of nerve endings which can transmit

Chapter 8, Common nails diseases

You have to know about the diseases that can affect client's nails. Some of them are quite common, others rare, but as a Nail Technician you will probably see a higher proportion of these problems than any one else, purely because many clients with this sort of problem will seek you out and request you disguise their problem by applying an overlay.

Deciding what to do when you are presented with a diseased looking nail can be problematical, so read this next section carefully.

Disorders and contra actions.

It is the responsibility of the Nail Technician to be sure that a client's nails are in a suitable

condition for receiving nail extensions. If there are any doubts, you must politely refuse to provide extensions, explain why and recommend that the client seeks medical advice. Applying extensions over an existing disease or disorder could worsen the condition, and could lead to a claim by the client that you, the Technician were the cause of the disorder. There are many disorders peculiar to nails and it is important that the Technician is familiar with these and can offer accurate guidance.

There are two areas of concern for the Nail Technician. Disorders of the nails and contra actions of the nails, which are the adverse conditions that can result from nail treatments.

Disorders of the nails.

A

disorder is o condition caused by either an imbalance or disease in the body or an injury

to

the nail. It is normal for nails to reflect a person's stale of health and a Nail Technician

should be able to identify these different conditions and respond accordingly.

Opinions vary as to which conditions con receive nail extensions without risk to the client. There are a few conditions that can be improved by a skilful Nail Technician but in the majority of cases it is best to identify the condition for the client and suggest they seek medical advice and undertake an appropriate course of treatment with thier doctor. This advice has particular relevance at a time when the number of negligence claims on a 'no win, no fee' basis are increasing.

Disorders that must not be serviced by a Nail Technician.

The following diseases of the nail should not be interfered with by a Nail Technician. Refer your client to her doctor and only agree to perform a nail service when the condition has disappeared. Offer her a discount voucher to encourage her to come back and as compensation for the disappointment.

Bacterial infection.

This condition is often wrongly referred to as mould or fungal infection. On a nail extension, the Infection can occur between the natural nail and a lifted section of the overlay which provides the ideal warm and moist conditions for the bacteria to thrive. It can occur with any nail system and appears green to yellow and block in colour.

Paronychia (paro-nlk-la).

This is a common infectious condition of the tissue surrounding the natural nail caused by many different types of bacteria and yeast such as Candida. The tissue will be swollen and red, quite hard to the touch and pus may be present. The nail can discolour red or black and it is usually very painful. There are several causes mostly relating to habits like picking, biting and tearing of the nails subsequently leading to infection. It is highly contagious.

to habits like picking, biting and tearing of the nails subsequently leading to infection. It is

Onychomycosis (onl-komi-ko-sls).

This is an infectious disease that is caused by a vegetable parasite. In it's mildest form, caused by the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophyies, it appears as white patches on top of the nail plate which is soft and powdery.

It can manifest itself in a more severe form where the fungus has broken through the proximal nail fold and cuticle and gets under the nail plate.

It appears as yellowish streaks in the substance of the nail. In it's most severe form the deepest layers of the nail are affected to the extent that the whole nail is discoloured and infected layers peel off and expose the diseased nail bed.

Onychia (on-nlk-ia).

This is an infection of the nail plate that can be caused by a Nail Technician or manicurist using unsanitary tools.

by a Nail Technician or manicurist using unsanitary tools. The base of the nail can appear
by a Nail Technician or manicurist using unsanitary tools. The base of the nail can appear

The base of the nail can appear red and pus may be present.

Clients with this condition must be advised to visit their doctor.

Onychogryposis (oni-ko-grey-posis).

This is a condition which causes the nail to thicken and curve and is also known as clawn nails. It Is more common on toe nails where the cause is often badly fitting shoes. If left the nail will grow and curve over the end of the finger or toe and if the nail grows back into the skin inflammation and pain will result. In finger nails the reason for this disorder is thought to be occidental damage to the nail, trauma and hereditary defect.

occidental damage to the nail, trauma and hereditary defect. Onycholysis (oni-koi-i-sis). This condition can be caused

Onycholysis (oni-koi-i-sis).

This condition can be caused by damage to the free edge, allergy to drug treatments or nail products, trauma or internal infection. The nail separates from the nail bed, starting at the free edge back towards the lunula, but does not come off . Nail will appear white to grey in colour due to the air under the nail, or may be appear colored by a

yeast that can grow between the nail bed and the nail plate.

that can grow between the nail bed and the nail plate. Onychoptosis (oni-kop-toh-sis) This is a

Onychoptosis (oni-kop-toh-sis)

This is a condition where part or all of the nail is shed and comes off the finger. Occurrences are periodic and it can affect more than one nail at a time. Common causes are drug allergy, trauma or reaction to a disease of the body.

Onychocryptosis (oni-ko-hrip-toh-sis).

This condition is more commonly known as in growing nail whereby the nail grows into the tissue at the sides of the nail. It occurs most frequently on the toe nails due to incorrect cutting or badly fitting shoes. It can become extremely painful, infected and can even require remedial surgery.

Onychomadesis (oni-ko-mad-esis).

require remedial surgery. Onychomadesis (oni-ko-mad-esis). Most of us have experienced this condition, it describes the

Most of us have experienced this condition, it describes the reaction of the nail when it has received a hard blow, perhaps by being caught in a door or hit with a hammer! The nail will probably bruise and blacken, it may lift from the base and fall off as the new nail grows out from behind.

Onychatrophia (oni-chat-troh-fee-ah).

This condition is also known as atrophy and it is the wasting away of the nail. The nail becomes dull and starts to break down. The nail looks like it's crumbling away and eventually the remnants of the nail will fall off, it is usually caused by internal disease or injury to the nail matrix.

Psoriasis (sa-ria-sis)

This is a skin disorder caused by excessive cell proliferation. Areas of the skin appear rough and pitted and this also applies to the nail's surface, sometime clients will not be aware that this a medical problem, simply thinking they have rough nails. Other effects are discoloration and extreme pitting Normally the condition is hereditary though it can be brought on by stress and may involve other conditions that cannot be seen.

the condition is hereditary though it can be brought on by stress and may involve other

Disorders that may be serviced by a Nail Technician.

The following conditions, in most mild cases are such that you will be able to offer a service, but be on the look out for extreme cases where it would still be advisable to refuse treatment and refer the client to her doctor. It's your decision but always err on the side of caution and safety.

bruised nails.

The medical term for this is subungual haematoma and although in rare cases it can be caused by blood vessel disease, in most instances it's caused by a blow to the nail. The nail bed is damage and bleeds which leads to maroon discoloration beneoth the nail. The bruise will darken with time and move towards the free edge as the nail grows. Sometimes the nail will fall off as part of the healing process. In mild cases it's OK to apply an overlay, but if the damaged area is large, only offer a basic manicure as the nail is likely to become detached from the nail bed if any other treatment is attempted.

from the nail bed if any other treatment is attempted. Corrugations. These are ridges or furrows

Corrugations.

These are ridges or furrows which run either along the length of the nail or across the width. Ridges which run along the length of the nail are usually a normal sign of ageing however those that run widthways can indicate poor circulation or other illness. The nails are usually fragile, so great care must be token when treating them. Extensions are not recommended but o gentle manicure is acceptable. The high points of the ridges may be lowered by careful filing with a fine grit file and the volleys between the ridges may be filled with ridge filler The nail can then be polished.

Discoloured nails.

This can be caused by poor circulation, a heart condition or the side effects of medication. The nail can turn many different colours including yellow, blue, green, grey and purple. Discoloration can also be an indication of a more serious illness, in any case the curious appearance of the nails can be hidden by polish or extensions.

Eggsshell nails.

These are very thin nails curved at the free edge, that are very fragile and easily broken. The condition can be caused by poor diet, a reaction to medication or a disease of the body. Nail extensions must not be applied though a very gentle manicure is acceptable.

Habit tic.

though a very gentle manicure is acceptable. Habit tic. This condition is caused by the sufferer

This condition is caused by the sufferer constantly picking at the soft surface of the nail near the cuticle. The picking causes permanent ridges across the which then travel towards the free edge as the nail grows out. Continued picking will cause the entire nail to be covered with ridges. Often only one nail will be picked, usually on the thumb and you can extension in only if the condition is very mild. Be aware though that the extension is likely to be picked off as the habit will continue.

Hang nails

This is a common condition in which the cuticle or pat of the skin around the nail is split. It is usually caused by dryness or excessive trimming of the cuticle. Regular manicures including application of cuticle oil will improve the condition.

or excessive trimming of the cuticle. Regular manicures including application of cuticle oil will improve the
or excessive trimming of the cuticle. Regular manicures including application of cuticle oil will improve the

Koilon (kol-on-ik-ia)

This condition describes a nail that is the shape of a concave dish and is also known as 'spoon-nails'. it can be caused by over exposure to certain chemicals such as oils or soaps or by on iron deficiency in the body. In these cases if is possible to effect a cure by stopping the contact with soap or oil or by correcting the person's iron deficiency. However it can also be hereditary in which case a cure is not possible. Given that the concave shape curves in the opposite direction to the well at an extension tip it is not recommended that this type of extension be applied, however a sculpted extension can be applied as a tip is not required.

Leukonychla (loo-kon-ik-la).

This condition is also called white spot and is bruising of the nail plate. It can result from aggressive pushing back of the cuticle during a manicure causing damage to the soft new nail growth. Extensions can be worn.

Onychoclasis (onl-cho-klos-lt).

Extensions can be worn. Onychoclasis (onl-cho-klos-lt). This is a common condition caused by damage to the

This is a common condition caused by damage to the nail plate. It's a split at the free edge which may travel past the free edge and over the nail bed. If the split is restricted to the free edge, then the split area can be gently filed away and an extension applied. If the split has travelled past the free edge, there is a danger of the nail bed becoming infected through the crack and extensions must nail be applied.

Onychauxis (oni-kik-sis).

This is the opposite condition to Onychatrophia. The nail is thick and overgrown, which is caused by infection, an internal imbalance or genetic problem. As long as the nail is clear of infection the Technician can treat this condition by gently filing away the excess nail. Suitability for wearing extensions will depend on the severity of the condition and the shape of the affected nail.

Onychophagy (oni-kof-aji).

This is probably the most common condition a Nail Technician will encounter. Commonly known as nail biters, clients with this problem subconsciously chew the free edges and sides of the nail. In severe cases the free edge may be bitten back so severely that the residual nail may be only 25% of it's natural size.

the residual nail may be only 25% of it's natural size. Many sufferers see nail extensions

Many sufferers see nail extensions as a good way to hide or stop their habit and often this is successful. However the Technician must carefully consider whether the nails are suitable for wearing extensions.

If the skin surrounding the nail is in good condition and not infected, and if there is enough nail remaining on which to attach an extension, then the Technician may provide a set of extensions. However working on badly bitten nails requires great skill from the Technician who must possess sound technique and understanding of the problem. If you are unsure whether to treat bitten nails seek the advice of a more experienced Technician or help the client by recommending another Technician who you know to possess the appropriate skill and experience.

or help the client by recommending another Technician who you know to possess the appropriate skill

onychorrhexis

This condition describes a lengthwise split along the nails which could be caused by injury,

overuse of cuticle treatments or poor filing. it is acceptable to apply nail extensions as long

as the split does not extend further into the nail than the free edge.

Pterygium (te-rij-ium}.

This is a mild disorder whereby the cuticle grows forward towards the free edge. it is

acceptable for a Nail Technician to help a client with this condition by careful removal of

excess culicle.

In case you are not sure!

Should you be unable to accurately identify a condition and are in doubt as to the best

course of action, the following guidelines should be followed:

If the nail or the skin surrounding the nail is broken, inflamed, infected or swollen the

Technician must not provide a nail treatment and must refer the client to her doctor.

Broken means a tear, cut or crack in the nail or surrounding skin, that exposes and

provides access to deeper layers of the tissue.

Inflamed means the skin around the nail is red and sore.

Infected skin is red and sore and in addition there will be evidence of pus or weeping.

Swollen is when the skin surrounding the nail looks fat and bloated.

Contra actions.

A contra action is a reaction to a nail extension treatment. This could occur during the

treatment, or appear some time afterwards and may be caused by an allergic reaction to a

particular chemical or through the misuse of tools. It is possible for the same contra action

to

be caused by different chemicals.

It

is the duty of the Nail Technician to understand and know how to recognise contra

actions, so that thier clients can be given accurate advice and guidance.

Pre-service checklist .

Before you carry out any treatment, you should follow a pre-service routine. You will find this routine invaluable in the salon environment.

Pre sterilise. Every day, pre-sterilise your tools by soaking in disinfectant.

Wash. You and your client should wash your hand with an antibacterial disinfectant soap.

Sanitise. Sanitise each of your clients nails.

Client consultation card. Fill out client consultation and or client history card, it will help you to remember the following key items:

Establish the service. Ask her what sort of service she requires, explain each service you offer.

Nail disorders. Check for nail disorders and ask if she has had any problems with her nails.

Allergies. Ask if she has allergies or sensitive skin.

Client history. Find out if she has had nail extensions in the past and if she had any problems.

or sensitive skin. • Client history . Find out if she has had nail extensions in
or sensitive skin. • Client history . Find out if she has had nail extensions in
or sensitive skin. • Client history . Find out if she has had nail extensions in
or sensitive skin. • Client history . Find out if she has had nail extensions in

Home core rules. Inform her of the home care rules, explain that

extensions do not last forever and that they have to be looked after and maintained. Give her a copy of the home care guide to take home at the end of the service.

Problems. Explain about possible fungal problems and how to

avoid them and encourage her to see you within 24 hours if she breaks

a nail or has any other problem.

problems and how to avoid them and encourage her to see you within 24 hours if
In this section you'll learn the practical skills you need to be able to create

In this section you'll learn the practical skills you need to be able to create a fantastic set of Gel nails. take is slowly* and methodically and you'll be amazed how quickly you acquire professional nail skills.

of Gel nails. take is slowly* and methodically and you'll be amazed how quickly you acquire

Chapter 9. Basic techniques.

Filing.

Ninety percent of nail treatments involve filing and to file efficiently and effortlessly you need to hold the clients fingers and the files correctly, so this is the first skill to master. Please note that all the pictures are of a right handed person, left handed students should use mirror images of the grips and positions shown.

Grips and Positions.

There are five ways of holding the clients fingers, we call these 'Positions'. Each position has a corresponding special way to hold the file, we call these 'Grips'. So you 'Position' your client’s fingers and 'Grip' the file.

You need the different Positions and Grips to enable you to file different areas of the nails surface without filing the fleshy nail wall, damaging the natural nail or filing into the cuticle. You need to be able to effortlessly swap between the Positions and Grips as you work. By the end of the course these ways of controlling the file and holding the clients fingers should feel very natural and comfortable

The file grips

there are five basic way of gripping the file:

file grips there are five basic way of gripping the file: Each grip is used when

Each grip is used when you file a different area of the nails surface. Used in sequence, you can effortlessly file the entire surface of the nail.

The correct sequence

It's important to note the order which you use these grips when you file the surface: 1. left

Edge, 2. Right Edge. 3. Centre,

which the areas of the nail are filed. Doing it in this sequence ensures that the nail's shape is well balanced and symmetrical.

A. Left side

5. Right side. This is the order in

ensures that the nail's shape is well balanced and symmetrical. A. Left side 5. Right side.

You file the left edge first, then when you file the right edge you can copy the completed left edge, so hopefully the same amount of filing and the same shape has been achieved on the left and right. It's the same for the left and right sides. A common mistake is to work across the nail from left to right, during which you'll file more heavily on one side than the other and thus produce a lopsided nail.

The corresponding finger Positions.

Let's look at how you hold the clients lingers when you ore using the different file Grips.

finger Positions. Let's look at how you hold the clients lingers when you ore using the

Combining Positions and Grips.

Now we'll look at how you combine these Grips and Positions when you are filing different areas of the nail. It's really important that you get used to holding the files and fingers the same way each time you work on a nail. Alter a while it becomes second nature and you will be producing consistently good looking nails.

Groove Positions and Grips.

Why do we do it? Alter slicking a tip onto a natural nail there will be a 'step' at the left and right hand side of the nail where the plastic extension tip overlaps the natural nail. The Groove Positions and Grips are used to file it away as well as remove any product that might be trapped between the nail wall and the nail-This process is called 'streamlining'.

Left Groove Position and Grip.

'streamlining'. Left Groove Position and Grip. Position: You cradle the clients finger with your thumb and

Position: You cradle the clients finger with your thumb and index finger and use your thumb as a guide for the fife.

Grip: Hold the file almost vertically so as not to cut your client's cuticle. Apply pressure to the side of the file to press it against the tip. Only one or two strokes are required, just enough to remove the step in the tip. Do not file into the natural nail.

tip. Only one or two strokes are required, just enough to remove the step in the

Right Groove Posilion and Grip.

This is an identical process to remove the step between tip and natural nail on the right

hand side of the nail.

position: You cradle the clients finger with your thumb and index finger as before, but

this time use your index or middle finger as a guide for the file.

Grip: Hold the file almost vertically as before, but this lime apply pressure to the right

hand side of the file, press it in against the tip to streamline the right hand side of the tip.

Right Groove finger position, your indexor middle finger guides the file

Right Groove finger position and file grip

guides the file Right Groove finger position and file grip The file is always held almost

The file is always held almost vertically so there is no possibility of filing into the side of the natural nail near the cuticle

is always held almost vertically so there is no possibility of filing into the side of

First joint Position and Shape Grip.

Why do we do it? When the tip is stuck onto the nail

there is a step , formed by the end of the tip. This needs

to be filed away so it is not visible and so that the tip is

blended nicely and naturally into the natural nail.

You would also use this Position and Grip if you need

to reshape the overlay in any way.

Position: The First Joint Position allows access to the

Position : The First Joint Position allows access to the centre of the nail from top

centre of the nail from top to bottom and allows you to

rotate the clients finger from left to right while filing to

prevent flat spots'. You place your thumb, index and

middle finger along side of the first joint, which keeps your fingertips clear of the file.

Shape Grip: grip the right side of the file between your index and middle fingers and

let the left side press up under your thumb. This Grip ensures there is even pressure

across the centre of the file.

there is even pressure across the centre of the file. Hold the fingers along side the

Hold the fingers along

side the first joint

Rotate the finger left

and right

When shaping the centre of the nail

finger left and right When shaping the centre of the nail As you move the file

As you move the file over the nails surface you angle it down of the cuticle

Flat on the top

And angled up at the free edge

Side Positions and Grips.

Why do we do It? After blending the centre of the tip there will be two 'steps' left. One on the left side and one on the right. Also if there are lumps in the Gel you may want to shape and smooth the left and right sides of the overlay.

to shape and smooth the left and right sides of the overlay. Left side Position: Hold

Left side Position: Hold the clients finger tip between your thumb and crooked index finger. You rotate the client's finger sideways to the right and use your thumb to pull down the skin of the left nail wall. This keeps the clients skin clear of the file.

Left Grip: Hold the file towards the end and angle it back across the nail. This is the easiest way to get to the left side of the nail. It's also a great grip to use when thinning the tip's free edge.

a great grip to use when thinning the tip's free edge. Rotate finger tip to the

Rotate finger tip to the right

And pull down nail wall with your thumb

File using the left grip

Right Side Position: Hold the clients finger tip between the side of your thumb and your

index or middle fingers. Rotate the client's finger sideways to the left and use either your

index finger or middle finger to pull the flesh of the nail wall down, out of the file's way

Right Grip: Hold the file at the bottom and place your index finger flat on the file at the

top to apply pressure at the contact area.

the file at the top to apply pressure at the contact area. Rotate fingestip to the

Rotate fingestip to the left

And pull down nail wall with your index or middle finger

Free Edge Position and Grip.

Why do we do it? You need to shape the free edge of the natural nail before you apply a tip, and you need to shape the free edge of the tip after it's been applied.

File using the right grip

tip after it's been applied. File using the right grip Position : You hold the clients

Position: You hold the clients finger quite firmly at the side of the nail. As you file the free edge there is a lot of sideways stress applied to the nail and tip, supporting the sides of the nail in this way helps reduce the likelihood of the tip tearing or popping off. You might find it helpful to hook your ring finger under the clients finger tip for even more support and control.

Free Edge Grip: Hold the file at the end between thumb, index and middle fingers.

Hold the file at the end so you can use the centre section of the file. Move the file back

and forth across the free edge

the file. Move the file back and forth across the free edge Support the finger tip

Support the finger tip with your ring finger

Use the shape grip shaping the free edge

Practising the Positions and Grips.

The sooner you get used to the different Positions and Grips the better. It's well worth just sitting

in front of The Nail Trainer with your file and swapping between the various Positions and Grips

until you're comfortable with them.

A great exercise that will show you how these file Grips and

finger positions allow you to accurately cover the whole nail surface can be seen in the video. Watch the section and copy what you see on your own nail trainer; Select a number 6 nail, this nail shape is similar to a nail with an overlay already applied. Using a permanent marker pen, cover the nail with colored ink. This will show you exactly where the file makes contact with the nail. Click it into The Nail Trainer and run through the sequence of positions and Grips in the following

order:

with the nail. Click it into The Nail Trainer and run through the sequence of positions

1. Use the Left Groove Position and Grip to

streamline the left edge of the nail.

2. The Right Groove Position and Grip to

streamline the right edge. Make the same number of file strokes and use the same

pressure as you did on the left side.

3. Use the First Joint Position and shape

Grip to file a thick line down the centre of

the nail.

4. Make sure this is nice and central, as you

use the sides of the line as a guide when

you file the next areas.

5. Use the left Position and pull the nail

wall clear with your thumb. Hold the file in the left side Grip. Using the left hand side of the central filed line' as a guide, file down the left hand side of the nail.

6. swap over to the Right Position and

Grip and smooth down the right hand side of the nail, using your index or middle finger to pull the nail wall dear

7. When you have finished, you should

have no ink left on the nail, and you should have only used the five Positions and Grips

as defined above.

you should have no ink left on the nail, and you should have only used the

The best way to learn is to restrict yourself to one step at a time, and for each of those steps:

Run the video and watch step all the way through.

Repeat the technique on The Nail Trainer while the video is still fresh in your mind and save the nails you have produced on the Essential Techniques Progress card

Read further details about the technique in this book.

Review your progress by answering the test questions supplied with the Home learn course.

Initial speeds

When you first start, you will feel very clumsy, everything is new and feels strange, don't worry, this is normal.

Every Nail Technician feels like this to start with so initially, expect your own times to be 10 to 20 times slower than the 'Salon Speed Demonstrations' and target speeds on the video.

Simply accept that this is going to be your speeds to start with and relax, learn the correct techniques and the speed will follow as a matter of course.

to be your speeds to start with and relax, learn the correct techniques and the speed

STEP I. Removing nail polish.

You do not have to remove nail polish from The Nail Trainer's nails. In the real world it ¡s simply a matter of applying a little polish remover to a cotton pad and with a side to side, and down motion to remove the polish.

If you wish to practice this simple process, then apply some polish to a Nail Trainer's nail, let it dry for 5 minutes then wipe it off with cotton wipes and nail polish remover.

It's best not use cotton wool to remove polish as no matter how careful you are. there will always be fibres left in the nail groove or an the surface that can reappear in the overlay later. It's best to use lint-free pads similar to those supplied in the Home Learn course.

pads similar to those supplied in the Home Learn course. Removing nail polish from real nails

Removing nail polish from real nails

the Home Learn course. Removing nail polish from real nails And from the nail trainer`s nail

And from the nail trainer`s nail

Nail polish remover is either alcohol or acetone based, both of which will dry out your and your client's skin. As a Nail Technician, it's you that is at most risk to the possibility of developing a reaction or allergy to these products purely because you'll come into contact with them day in, day out. It's a good idea, especially when you are servicing clients on a regular basis to either use pads with a tab on the back for you to hold, or wear surgical gloves which will minimises the contact you have with chemicals and therefore reduces the likely hood of you developing an allergy

reduces the likely hood of you developing an allergy A cotton pad is better tan cotton

A cotton pad is better tan cotton wool

through over expo- sure.

Acetone based polish remover.

Acetone is a solvent that will dissolve lots of different types of plastics, it's used a lot in the nail industry for removing nail enhancements. (See more about acetone in 'Chemicals, hazards and safety procedures').

in 'Chemicals, hazards and safety procedures'). Some nail polish removers contain acetone. These are

Some nail polish removers contain acetone. These are designed to remove polish that is applied directly to the natural nail where an extension or overlay has not been applied.

Never use these acetone based polish removers when removing polish from either real nails or The Nail Trainers Nails as this will dissolve the nails, tips, glue and acrylic.

as this will dissolve the nails, tips, glue and acrylic. The nail polish remover supplied in

The nail polish remover supplied in some Home Learn courses is Isopropyl Alcohol, which will remove the polish just as well.

STEP 2. Preparing the natural nail,

Object of the exercise.

The object of this step is to provide a clean. sanitazed and 'keyed' surface that the Gel can stick to. This is one of the most important steps in creating any nail enhancement, it's also the one step that gets rushed by a lot of Nail Technicians. If you do not pay meticulous attention to this step then you are likely to have customers coming back with lifting overlays after only a few days. proper preparation is the key to producing long lasting nail enhancements.

The procedure.

•You clean and sanitise the surface of the nail with the Gel prep solution.

•Then push back and remove any cuticle growing over the nail's surface.

•Then remove any shine with the buffer block.

•Finally etch the surface of the nail with your file to provide a key for the Gel.

Equipment and product required.

You will need your coarse grit file (black), cotton pods, nail prep / residue remover solution, buffer block, cuticle pusher and duster brush.

grit file (black), cotton pods, nail prep / residue remover solution, buffer block, cuticle pusher and

Clean the nail with Gel Preparation

Deposit a few drops of nail prep solution onto the cotton pad support the underside of your clients finger tip and stroke the surface of the nail with the pad, press quite hard to get into the corners of the nail and nail walls. This will sanitize the nail and remove some surface oil.

Do not use nail 'Primer' as a substitute for the Gel Prep solution provided in the course as this may contain chemicals that will melt The Nail Trainer's nail.

Discard the used cotton pad into your waste bin and close the top.

Push back the cuticle.

Next, with the hoof end (coloured red) of the cuticle pusher, push back the cuticle and lift up slightly from the nail´s surface. Then, only if necessary, gently use the blade edge of the cuticle pusher to remove all bits of dried cuticle or other detritus off of the nail. Pay a grat deal of attention, because if you apply gel to the cuticle, dried cuticle, or anything else sticking on the nail, then the gel will not stick to the nail and your client will come back with a lifting overlay within two or three days.

then the gel will not stick to the nail and your client will come back with

Removing the shine.

Next you must remove every trace of the surface shine to ensure that the Gel will stick. The easiet way to do this is to use the coarse grit side of a clean buffer block (black).

Before you use the block, make sure the edges have been blunted by stripping them with a file.

the edges have been blunted by stripping them with a file. Select the fine abrasive side

Select the fine abrasive side and holding it end to end, rotate the block over the nail surface from left to right, then down on both sides. Make sure you get right up the cuticle and into the sides and comers of the nail.

up the cuticle and into the sides and comers of the nail. Key the nail Keying

Key the nail

Keying (or etching) is the process of making tiny scratches in the nail's surface, this provides a series of grooves in the surface which the molecules of Gel can grab onto. Use gentle pressure fro the medium side of your black file and make sure you get right into the corners and sides of the nail.

gentle pressure fro the medium side of your black file and make sure you get right

This process also removes any remaining traces of material from the corners and sides of the nail.

To key or not to key?

There is some controversy over whether you need to key the nail like this, There is no doubt that modern Gels and Acrylics stick better than may ever have, and that therefore it may not be necessary to etch the nail at all, thus avoiding the damage and thinning to the natural nail that keying inevitably causes. Our advice is that it's better to gently etch the surface of the nail with a file to ensure there is no shine or cuticle is left on the nail.

However if you swap branch, check with the manufacturer in case they offer different advice.

Dust .

Finally, dust the nail with the duster brush to remove the Debris, again any dust left on the nails surface will stop the Gel adhering and be visible under the finished Overlay, ruining the look of the nail

Salon speed demonstration.

This is the part of the video where the 'step by step approach' is replaced by the continuous series of operations that would lake place in a salon.

• Using a cotton pad and nail prep solution, the nail surface is cleaned.

• The cuticle is pushed back and any dried cuticle or pterygium is removed from the nail’s surface.

cuticle or pterygium is removed from the nail’s surface. •The buffer block is used to remove

•The buffer block is used to remove the shine and then the nail's surface is keyed with the medium grit file.

• Finally, the nail's surface is dusted to remove all the debris.

Salon target speed.

When your working in a salon, the time taken for preparing each nail is about 1 minute, that s 10 minutes total for both bonds. Remember, you're a beginner so take your time, take 5 or ten minutes the first time you do it .You will speed up later

Practice regime.

This is where the practice begins and the fun starts! Select 10 number 13 nails and click them one at a time into The Nail Trainer. Prepare them all just as described above.

When you have finished, you'll probably find that the time you take to prepare the 10th nail is half that taken for the first. Already you are speeding up.

Don't throw the nails away, you will use them all later So we can see the standard of your preparation, save two of the nails, the first one you did and the last one in the slots marked nail 1 and nail 10 on your essential techniques progress card. Make a note of the time taken to complete each nail on the card.

1 and nail 10 on your essential techniques progress card. Make a note of the time

Step 3. Nail tipping and blending.

Object of the exercise

The object of step 3 is to extend the length of the natural nail by gluing on an appropriate tip and then blending it into natural nail. The free edge of the extended nail is shaped as required by the client.

Nails tips.

Before applying a tip, lets have a look at the humble nail lip in some detail.

How are tips made?

Tips are made from a plastic called ABS which stands for Acrylonitrile Butadine Styrene.

Lots of common household items are made from this plastic, it comes in lots of different colours and can be moulded into complex shapes in a process called 'injection moulding'.

This process involves melting the plastic and injecting it into a cavity mould under great pressure and heat using what amounts to a giant syringe. The shape of the cavity in the mould determines the shape of the final product .The molten plastic cools inside the mould, which is eventually opened and the finished item ejected. In the case of nail tips, the mould has lots of small identical cavities, all shaped like nails, so that lots of tips can be moulded at the same time. Some tips are made from virgin ABS, other tips have 'reground' ABS added that is melted for a second time during the moulding process.

This 'reground' material is scrap ABS being recycled. Although the recycling of waste material is generally a good idea, if too much old ABS is added, the resultant product is of poor quality, but it will be cheaper.

is generally a good idea, if too much old ABS is added, the resultant product is

how to choose a nail tip.

You will see lots of different nail tips in all shapes andsizes, the selection we supply with the Home learn course is a high Qualify virgin ABS tip, with a 'middle of the range' shape in a set of sizes from small to large. Be aware that this range of tips will not be suitable for the vast diversity of shapes and sizes of finger and nails you will come across in a career doing nails. As a beginner, all you need to know at the moment is that there is a tip made to fit almost every conceivable shape and to satisfy every taste in style.

every conceivable shape and to satisfy every taste in style. Obviously you will have to have

Obviously you will have to have a wide range of tips on hand when you start to work professionally. Let's have a quick look at some of the issues involved In choosing a tip.

material. Always choose a tip manufactured form virgin ABS. They will be slightly; more expensive than tips that contain a high quantity of regrind. but these cheaper tips will be more brittle and tend to turn a yellowish colour after a while.

Length. All tips are moulded with an very long free edge. The reason is obvious, you simply cut them back to the length required by the client. She chooses how long she wants to wear her nails.

client. She chooses how long she wants to wear her nails. Width . You will need

Width. You will need the standard range of tip widths to fit nails from a thumb through to the pinkie. Tips generally have a tiny number stamped on the underside which indicates the size. 0 being a large tip and 10 being a small tip.

have a tiny number stamped on the underside which indicates the size. 0 being a large

Be aware that this is not a universal numbering system. A 'number 4' tip from one manufacture will not necessarily be the same size as a 'number 4' from an alternate supplier.

They will be roughly the same size, but not exactly. This goes for all the other attributes of the tip as well. You may occasionally come across a large nail for which even the number 0 tip is too small, the only way you can offer this client a treatment is to sculpt the free edge over a form. If you fit a tip that is too wide, the edges will press down into the flesh of your client, causing discomfort. if the tip is too narrow, then the tip will look horrible and be weak at the sides.

Side walls. Some tips have straight side walls and others are tapered. Choose the one that best matched the side wall shape of your clients nails.

Shape of the contact area. You will see nail tips with differently shaped contact areas. There are three main reasons for the different shapes:

1. Those with a cutout have been designed to minimize the time

taken during blending by reducing the amount a material that has to

be removed.

by reducing the amount a material that has to be removed. 2. The contact area should

2. The contact area should cover no more than 30% of the natural

nail, so different sized contact areas are required.

3. The popular white French tip has a small strip-like contact area

which is also forms the smile line. You do not blend these tips and the contact area is very small.

contact area which is also forms the smile line. You do not blend these tips and
contact area which is also forms the smile line. You do not blend these tips and

Do not press down a deep C curve tip onto a flat nail as this will set up a stress in the tip which may crack later and will feel uncomfortable to the client, as the tip is always trying to 'spring oft' of the nail. Like wise trying to push the sides of a shallow tip onto a deep curved nail risks a problem with poor adhesion and air pockets at the side.

If you find that you have a good match of the 'C´ curve, but that the tip is too narrow, simply reduce the width of the tip with your file before application.

Stress area. Have a look at the apex of the tip (the highest point on the tip, where the top of the 'C´ curve and the upper arch intersect). The thickness of the plastic tip should be greatest here, this is point of maximum stress on a correctly applied tip, so therefore needs to be strong. Some cheaper tips save costs by leaving this area thin.

on a correctly applied tip, so therefore needs to be strong. Some cheaper tips save costs
on a correctly applied tip, so therefore needs to be strong. Some cheaper tips save costs

Applying a tip.

Now let's look at the practical aspects of applying a tip. Run the section on video.

The procedure.

First you select the correct size tip to fit the nail.

Then shape the free edge of the natural nail to fit the well in the tip.

And reduce the width of the tip if it´s too big.

Then clean the natural nail.

Glue the tip onto the nail.

Cut the tip to length.

Blend the top and sides of the tip into the nail.

Finally shape the free edge of the tip to the desires of the client

Equipment and product required.

You'll need a manicure brush, tissue pad, tip adhesive, the box of tips, the coarse file

(black) and your buffer block (black).

need a manicure brush, tissue pad, tip adhesive, the box of tips, the coarse file (black)

Choosing the correct size of tip

The primary requirement is to match the 'C curve' of the tip to the curve of the natural nail. The width of the tip has to be the same, or wider than the width of the natural nail and the arch has to follow the lines of the natural nail.

and the arch has to follow the lines of the natural nail. Match the “c” curves

Match the “c” curves

Remember you don't a full range of tip sizes supplied in the Home Learn course, just a selection that will fit The Nail Trainer. We have deliberately chosen lips that are NOT a perfect fit as this will imitate what it is like in the real world, you rarely find a tip that is a perfect fit in every way.

you rarely find a tip that is a perfect fit in every way. pick a tip

pick a tip that the same width or wider

So choose a tip that looks about the right shape, we've chosen not to tell you which tip fits which nail as this would be too easy, it's your job to make the decision.

Shaping the free edge.

Now you have to shape the free edge of the natural nail so its the same shape as the well in the underside of the tip. You must get a good fit for a strong joint. If there is a gap between the step and the free edge, dirt and moisture can get trapped which is unhygienic and will spoil the look of the smile line. Also a good fit here means that the tip will be really strong as the adhesive will bond the tip and nail together between the front of the free edge and the step in the tip.

between the front of the free edge and the step in the tip. Shape the free

Shape the free edge to match the curve at the stop point

A gap appears as a grey line

File the nail until there is no gap

4.

This click is important, it Tells you that the step in the tip's well is located on the free

edge of the natural nail.

well is located on the free edge of the natural nail. Rotate the nail and look

Rotate the nail and look out for air pockets

5. Next, gently rotate the tip upwards, to a

horizontal position, and push down firmly.

6. Keep pushing and hold still. For 15 seconds or

so.

Rotating the tip in this way pushes air pockets out

from under the tip.

Air pockets are visible, white areas under the nail

tip.

the tip in this way pushes air pockets out from under the tip. Air pockets are
the tip in this way pushes air pockets out from under the tip. Air pockets are
the tip in this way pushes air pockets out from under the tip. Air pockets are

Problems sticking on tips.

Applying tips properly, without air pockets, takes practice. Please don't get discouraged If the tip doesn't stick perfectly the first time you try, simply try again. Here are some common mistakes made by beginners and how to avoid them:

1. A common mistake is to keep the bottle tilted down when you are spreading the glue in

the tip's well. so all the time more and more glue is coming out. When you came to put the

tip on the nail there's far too much and the tip will not stack.

2. Your hand is moving slightly when you're holding the tip on the nail. Perhaps you are pressing down really hard and you're really tense which makes me muscles in your hand and arm jitter. You must hold the tip still for ten seconds, count it out slowly, and try and relax.

3.You are using old glue. Cynoacrylate tip glues lose about half of their gluing strength in about three months (it depends upon temperature, humidity etc.), so if you've got an old glue, it may not stick at all. We buy in glues in small weekly batches so as not to store them on the shelf for a long time, so hopefully they arrive to you still at full strength.

But we know that some students delay starting their course for a few months after receiving the course and then find that the glue will not stick, because it's now out of date.

4.Cynoacylote glues set much quicker in a moist environment than a dry one. So the humidity of the air can drastically affect the setting time. You might find one day when the weather is warm and wet, that the glue works really well, another day when it's been dry for a while, or the central heating has dried out the air. the glue takes a lot longer to set.

Placing a glass of water on the table sometimes helps under these circumstances.

5- The tips will stick easier to real people than The Nail trainer. This is because The Nail Trainer's nails are cold and dry relative to red nails. So, master the gluing technique on The Nail Trainer and when you move onto real clients you will find it a little easier.

6.Insieod of locating the free edge up against the stop point in the tip's well, the step is sitting on top of the free edge. This leaves a gap under the tip that the glue cannot possibly fill, the tip falls off when you let go.

7.The other common fault is to leave a gap between the free edge of the nail and the back stop in the tip. This makes for a weak tip and allows dirt to accumulate in the gap Practice positioning the tip up against the free edge and pulling down, listening for the click as the free edge locates in the step. Then rotate, keeping the tip located.

locates in the step. Then rotate, keeping the tip located. 8. Can't get rid of air

8. Can't get rid of air bubbles. This is due to not quite enough adhesive being applied, or too much pressure being applied so that the adhesive is squeezed out the side of the tip.

We sometimes advise our students to practice the gluing operation using cuticle oil. Put a drop in the well of the tip, apply the tip as normal and then try applying different pressures to the tip. You can see the oil moving under tip, if there is an air bubble you can practice applying the correct amount of pressure to squeeze it out. Without the time pressure of having the glue set in 1O seconds. You can play with the oil for as long as you wish.

Glue setting nails

The Nail Trainer tip glue has been specially formulated to mimic the setting times of glues designed for warm hands where heat and moisture makes the glue set quicker. So do not use normal glues on The Nail Trainer as it would take 30 or more seconds to set. The tip adhesive supplied with the Home Learn course sets in about 15 seconds on the cold and dry Nail trainer nails.

set. The tip adhesive supplied with the Home Learn course sets in about 15 seconds on

Cutting the tip

You should have discussed the length and style of the nail required with your client, if it's her first set of enhancements advise her to have them fairly short. Cut the tip to the de- sired length using the clippers, clip the left side and the right side and twist the excess off.

Do not worry too much about the shape at this stage, the final shape of the free edge is created with your file later.

shape of the free edge is created with your file later. There are clippers available that

There are clippers available that shear the tip of in one go, however we do not advise beginners to use these as it is possible to exert a lot of leverage onto the tip while cutting. Using the clippers to cut each side separately transmits for less shock and stress to the tip.

separately transmits for less shock and stress to the tip. Streamlining the edges of the tip.

Streamlining the edges of the tip.

The object of the exercise. After the tip is glued on there will be a step at the right and left sides of the nail at the end of the tip contact area, there might also be some tip adhesive that has run into the groove between nail and side wall.

Streamlining removes the step, clears any adhesive and also gives you a opportunity to straighten up the sides of the tip if they are not parallel.

step, clears any adhesive and also gives you a opportunity to straighten up the sides of

Free edge shapes.

The shape of the free edge is chosen by the client with advice and guidance from you, the nail technician. If the client is happy to leave the choice to you, a good rule of thumb which always produces a well balanced looking nail is to copy the shape of the clients cuticle.

looking nail is to copy the shape of the clients cuticle. Other than this there are

Other than this there are only a few basic shapes you need to learn: square, squoval (a mix of square and oval) or oval. Obviously you can then modify these basic shapes, for example by slightly rounding the edges of the square shape.

The shape of the nail simply depends upon the angle you hold the file.

For a square nail hold the vertically.

For a squoval nail, hold the top of the file slightly towards you.

For a squoval nail, hold the top of the file slightly towards you. And for an
For a squoval nail, hold the top of the file slightly towards you. And for an

And for an oval nail hold the file almost horizontally.

For a squoval nail, hold the top of the file slightly towards you. And for an

The trick here is to keep the file square to the nail. In other words the file should always be 90 degrees (a right angle) to the centre line of the nail. As you are holding the file at one end, it is quite easy to be accidentally filing at an angle, which produces a lop sided free edge shape.

at an angle, which produces a lop sided free edge shape. The other advice is to

The other advice is to try and keep the pressure, angle of the file, and number of strokes constant from one nail to the next, in this way you are learning 'repeatability'. Your muscles, eyes and hands will start to memorise the actions required to produce the same shaped free edge time and time again. It's just like a guitarist playing a song, at first he learns the chords slowly, and by practicing the chord changes over on over, at some point he can forget what his hands are doing, they have 'learnt' how to form the shapes needed for a particular song and can be repeated at will to form new songs, This leaves lots of brain power left for singing, jumping around, posing, drinking beer and sleeping with girls.

Thinning the free edge of the tip.

One at the things that makes nail enhancements look false is the thickness of the lip when viewed end on, they always look thick and unnatural. This is because the tips are moulded to be thinnest at the extreme end of the long free edge, most of which will have been cut off.

By trimming the lips back like this, you get closer and closer to the stress area, which you have already learned is the thickest and strongest part of the tip.

get closer and closer to the stress area, which you have already learned is the thickest

So to make them look more natural we reduce the thickness of the tip at the free edge.

Hold the clients finger using the First Joint Position and the file using the left side grip and use the coarse side of the file.

Lift the finger so you can look directly down the barrel of the nail. You want to halve the thickness of the tip, so beginning at the right side, hold the file at a slight upward angle off the back of the nail and file the edge of the tip using gentle, circular movements.

Rotate the finger from the right to the left and continue to file until the whole of the edge is pleasantly thin to the eye.

Do not 'over file' and make it wafer thin.

Blending the seam.

file' and make it wafer thin. Blending the seam. The seam line {or contact area) is

The seam line {or contact area) is the overtop portion where the tip has been glued to the natural nail. At the moment there is a huge step at the back of the tip and the tip looks as though if s simply stuck onto the top of the natural nail, which of course it has! By blending the tip into the natural nail you are trying to create the illusion that the nail and tip is a single item, not two parts stuck together. You want the pink of the natural nail to show through the tip and then the nail to turn while at a nicely defined and natural looking smile line.

Do not file further, or you will be damaging the natural nail. Use most pressure on the upward strokes, as down ward strokes have a tendency to pull the tip up off the nail at the featherd edge.

to pull the tip up off the nail at the featherd edge. Blending the left side.

Blending the left side.

off the nail at the featherd edge. Blending the left side. Remember the exercise you carried

Remember the exercise you carried out with the number 6 nail and the permanent marker pen? You filed down the centre of the nail, this gave you a 'line' down the centre. Look for that line now, it won't be so easy to see as the inked nails, but it is there. You follow the left and right sides of this line when blending the left and right sides of the seam. Hold the finger in the Left Side Position, pull the side wall down with your thumb and hold the file with the Left Side Grip. Using the medium grit side of the file, blend the middle to the left hand portion of the nail tip into a feather edge where it meets the natural nail.

the file, blend the middle to the left hand portion of the nail tip into a

Use most pressure on the upward strokes, and hardly any pressure on the downward strokes. This makes the best feathered edge.

Blending the right side.

Swap over to the right side position and right side grip, use your index or middle finger crooked to pull the client's flesh clear of the file.

Rotate the finger to the left and blend with the medium side of the file. Using pressure on the upward strokes, blend the tip into a feather edge just as it meets the natural nail.

tip into a feather edge just as it meets the natural nail. Don't forget to look
tip into a feather edge just as it meets the natural nail. Don't forget to look

Don't forget to look between each stroke when the tip starts to thin out, you want to stop filing when a feather edge is achieved.

Fine blending.

You use quite a coarse file to blend the tip because you want to remove the tip material quickly, but this leaves lots of tiny scratch marks which if left will make the final nail look cloudy.

the tip material quickly, but this leaves lots of tiny scratch marks which if left will

You now need to buff these out using the medium side of the buffet block. The buffet will also help to smooth out any ridges or flat spots creates by your file.

Buff the top, buff the tight side and the left side until all the scratches disappear

Finally, using the manicure brush, sweep away the filing debris, ready for the first application of Gel.

Salon speed demonstration.

for the first application of Gel. Salon speed demonstration. This is the part of the video

This is the part of the video where the 'step by step approach' is replaced by the continuous

series of operations that would take place in a salon. Watch the video as Gino runs through

the tipping and blending process at normal speed.

Choose the correct sized tip.

Shape the free edge of the natural nail.

Size the tip's width.

Brush off the debris.

Apply glue to tip.

Place the tip on the nail at the correct angle, pull down, click to locate the free edge in the step

Rotate the tip, beware of air pockets.

Wait for glue lo set 10 to 20 seconds.

Cut the tip lo length.

Streamline the left edge.

Streamline the right edge.

Shape the free edge.

Thin the free edge.

Blend the centre seam.

Blend the left side.

Blend the right side.

fine blending.

Dust.

Suggested practice regime.

When you try out tipping, take as much time as you need and work through the eight remaining nails that you prepared in step two (remember two nails were saved at the end of step 2).

Concentrate on maintaining the correct grips and doing a good job, rather than speed, but note the start and end time for as you tip and blend each nail.

When you have finished all 8, save the first and last one you did (nails 2 and 9) on your 'Essential Techniques Progress card' in the step 3 position.

Fill in how long it took you to complete each nail, and keep the remaining six nails for the next step.

step 3 position. Fill in how long it took you to complete each nail, and keep

STEP 4. The Gel overlay.

Object of the exercise.

Gel is used to strengthen the join between tip and natural nail, to strengthen the entire nail and provide o blemish free natural looking surface.

The procedure.

First, you sanitise and dehydrate the nail with the Gel prep and residue remover.

Then you apply the first thin, coating layer of Gel.

You then cure the first layer of Gel in the light box.

You then apply a second 'building layer' of Gel to add body, shape and strength

Cure the second layer.

Check the shape for lumps and bumps

Decide whether to correct the shape by filing

Equipment and product required.

You'll need Gel prep liquid, lint free cotton pads. Gel, the light box, Gel brush, a kitchen towel, manicure brush and the remaining 6 nails from step 3. You'll also need a power socket close by for your light box.

manicure brush and the remaining 6 nails from step 3. You'll also need a power socket

cleaning

Clean any debris away from the nail's surface with a quick wipe of the brush and sanitize and dehydrate the nail plate by tipping a little Gel prep onto a cotton pad and rub into the surface of the nail. Make sure you get right into the corners and that no dust is left on the nail. Do not use soap and water, the nail surface must be completely dry before application.

The Gel prep liquid sanitizes, dehydrates and removes any sticky residue all in one. Check with the manufacturer if you are using different Gel products than those supplied with the Home learn course, you may have separate products for sanitation, dehydration, and cleaning, plus they may require a separate primer.

and cleaning, plus they may require a separate primer. Acetone problems. Some 3 in one products

Acetone problems.

Some 3 in one products contain acetone. Look what happens if you put too much onto The Nail Trainer's nail. Acetone is used to soak off tips, Acrylics, Gels and Fiberglass off real nails, so it's designed to attack plastics. The Nail Trainers nails are plastic, use it sparingly on them.

The Gel prep and residue remover supplied in the Home Learn course does not contain acetone, so it's fine for use on The Nail Trainer. If you swap brands check the ingredients of the Gel prep to see if it contains acetone.

fine for use on The Nail Trainer. If you swap brands check the ingredients of the

The power of light boxes.

Light boxes come in various shapes, sizes and power.

Some are expensive, being high power, 18 to 35 watts, with multiple lights and a timer.

power, 18 to 35 watts, with multiple lights and a timer. Some are cheaper, with a

Some are cheaper, with a single 6 or 9 watt light. It's a trade-off, the low power units will take longer to cure, but are safer. The high power units, designed for rapid cure in the salon may cause the client to feel discomfort so you need to have some experience to use these. So while you are learning, where you don't need to Cure fast as in a salon. it's best to have a medium power light.

The one supplied in the Home Learn course is a high Quality 9 watts unit. It will cure the Gel in about 2 minutes, but we advise you, as beginners to let the Gel cure for a longer period. You cannot 'over cure' Gel, but if you do not cure it enough, then the nails are ruined and the non cured Gel can cause irritation for the client. It's better to over cure than under cure.