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ENGINEERING TOOLS, TECHNIQUES AND TABLES

WIND TUNNELS: AERODYNAMICS, MODELS AND EXPERIMENTS

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ENGINEERING TOOLS, TECHNIQUES AND TABLES

WIND TUNNELS: AERODYNAMICS, MODELS AND EXPERIMENTS

JUSTIN D. PEREIRA

EDITOR

T UNNELS : A ERODYNAMICS , M ODELS AND E XPERIMENTS J USTIN D. P EREIRA

Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

New York

Copyright © 2011 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA

Wind tunnels : aerodynamics, models, and experiments / editors, Justin D. Pereira. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-1-61942-329-9 (eBook)

1. Wind tunnels. I. Pereira, Justin D. TL567.W5W58 2011

629.134'52--dc22

2010047058

Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York

CONTENTS

Preface

vii

Chapter 1

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction Experiment in a Plasma Wind Tunnel M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci, S. Di Benedetto and M. Marini

1

Chapter 2

The Mainz Vertical Wind Tunnel Facility– A Review of 25 Years of Laboratory Experiments on Cloud Physics and Chemistry Karoline Diehl, Subir K. Mitra, Miklós Szakáll, Nadine von Blohn, Stephan Borrmann and Hans R. Pruppacher

69

Chapter 3

Modeling and Experimental Study of Variation of Droplet Cloud Characteristics in a Low-Speed Horizontal Icing Wind Tunnel László E. Kollár and Masoud Farzaneh

93

Chapter 4

An Air-Conditioned Wind Tunnel Environment for the Study of Mass and Heat Flux Due to Condensation of Humid Air Akhilesh Tiwari, Pascal Lafon, Alain Kondjoyan and Jean-Pierre Fontaine

129

Chapter 5

In-Situ Evaluation for Drag Coefficients of Tree Crowns Akio Koizumi

147

Chapter 6

The Pre-X Lifting Body Computational Fluid Dynamics and Wind Tunnel Test Campaign Paolo Baiocco, Sylvain Guedron, Jean Oswald, Marc Dormieux, Emmanuel Cosson, Jean-Pierre Tribot and Alain Bugeau

167

Chapter 7

Low-Speed Wind Tunnel: Design and Build S. Brusca, R. Lanzafame and M. Messina

189

Index

221

PREFACE

This new book presents current research in the study of wind tunnels, including the design, execution and numerical rebuilding of a plasma wind tunnel with the aim to analyze shock wave boundary layer interaction phenomena; the Mainz vertical wind tunnel facility experimenting on cloud physics and chemistry; an air-conditioned wind tunnel environment for the study of mass and heat flux; using wind tunnel studies to evaluate the drag coefficient of the tree crown and Pre-X aerodynamic/aerothermal characterization through computational fluid dynamics and wind tunnels. Chapter 1 - The present chapter reports the design, execution and numerical rebuilding of a plasma wind tunnel experimental campaign with the aim to analyse shock wave boundary layer interaction phenomena in high enthalpy conditions. This particular flow pattern could arise in proximity of a deflected control surface, thus generally causing a separation of the boundary layer and a loss of efficiency of the control surface itself; moreover, high mechanical and thermal loads are generally induced at the flow reattachment over the flap. Therefore, the analysis of this problem is crucial for the design and development of the class of hypersonic re-entry vehicles, considering that, even though it has been widely analyzed in the past, both from an experimental and theoretical point of view, by describing its physical features, only few studies have been carried to analyse the phenomenon in high enthalpy real gas and reacting flow conditions. The activity has been developed by analysing the flow phenomenon of interest in different conditions: i) hypersonic re-entry conditions considering the ESA EXPERT capsule as a workbench, and ii) ground-based facility conditions considering the CIRA Plasma Wind Tunnel “Scirocco”. The aim has been the correlation of the results predicted, by means of a CFD code, and then measured through specific experiments suitably designed, in these two different environments. To this effect, a flight experiment has been designed to be flown on the EXPERT capsule along the re-entry trajectory in order to collect flight data (pressure, temperature and heat flux) on the shock wave boundary layer interaction phenomenon to be used for CFD validation and, additionally, as a reference point for the extrapolation-from-flight methodology developed accordingly. Requirements for the experimental campaign to be performed in the “Scirocco” facility have been derived considering the most critical and interesting points along the EXPERT trajectory. A suitable model, representative of the EXPERT geometry in the zone of interest, i.e. the flap region, has been conceived by defining the main design parameters (nose radius, length, width, flap deflection angle) and an

viii

Justin D. Pereira

experimental campaign has been delineated, the aim being to reproduce on this model the same mechanical and thermal loads experienced ahead and over the EXPERT full- scale flap during the re-entry trajectory. Suitable facility operating conditions have been determined through the developed extrapolation-from-flight methodology; the design and the analysis of shock wave boundary layer interaction phenomenon has been done by focusing the attention mainly to the catalytic effects over the interaction induced by the different behaviour in terms of recombination coefficient of the materials involved in the problem under investigation. Once defined the design loads, the model has been realized and tested in the Plasma Wind Tunnel Scirocco under the selected conditions. The numerical rebuilding, showing a reasonable good level of reproduction, has been also carried out, even though the validation of the entire extrapolation-from-flight and to-flight developed methodology could be completed only after the EXPERT flight currently planned in mid 2011. Chapter 2 - The Mainz vertical wind tunnel is so far a worldwide unique facility to investigate cloud and precipitation elements under conditions close to the real atmosphere. Hydrometeors such as water drops, ice crystals, snow flakes, and graupels are freely suspended at their terminal velocities in a vertical air stream under controlled conditions regarding temperature (between -30°C and +30°C), humidity (up to the level of water saturation), and laminarity (with a residual turbulence level below 0.5%) of the air stream. Cloud processes in warm, cold, and mixed phase clouds have been investigated in the fields of cloud physics and chemistry, aerosol–cloud interactions, and the influence of turbulence. The experiments include the behaviour of cloud and rain drops, ice and snow crystals, snow flakes, graupel grains and hail stones and the simulation of basic cloud processes such as collisional growth, scavenging, heterogeneous drop freezing, riming, and drop-to-particle conversion. Atmospheric processes have been investigated under both laminar and turbulent conditions in order to understand and quantify the influence of turbulence. The results are essential for applications in cloud chemistry models to estimate the atmospheric pathway of trace gases, in cloud and precipitation models to improve the description of the formation of precipitation (growth and melting rates), and in now- and forecasting of precipitation to improve the evaluation of radar and satellite data. Chapter 3 - Variation of the characteristics of aerosol clouds created in icing wind tunnels is studied theoretically and experimentally. The characteristics of interest are the droplet size distribution, liquid water content, temperature, velocity, and air humidity, which are among the most important factors affecting atmospheric icing. Several processes influence the trajectory, velocity, size and temperature of the droplets, such as collision, evaporation and cooling, gravitational settling, and turbulent dispersion. The authors have developed a two- dimensional theoretical model that takes these processes into account, and predicts how they influence the changes in the characteristics of the droplet cloud during its movement in the tunnel. The most recent development pays special attention to two of the possible collision outcomes, i.e. coalescence after minor deformation and bounce, together with the transition between them. Indeed, these outcomes are frequent when the relative velocity of the droplets is small, as is the case for a cloud formed after the injection of water droplets in the direction of air flow. An experimental study is also carried out with different thermodynamic parameters at different positions in the test section of the tunnel, which makes it possible to observe the evolution of cloud characteristics under different ambient conditions. The droplet size distribution and liquid water content of the aerosol clouds were measured using an integrated system for icing studies, which comprises two probes for droplet size

Preface

ix

measurements and a hotwire liquid water content sensor. Droplet trajectories were observed using particle image velocimetry. The experimental results are also used to validate the model

by comparing them to model predictions. Satisfactory agreement between the experimental and calculated results establishes the applicability of the model to determine the evolution of droplet size distribution and liquid water content in an aerosol cloud in the streamwise direction, together with their vertical variation. Chapter 4 - The development of an artificial ecosystem inside a closed environment is one of the future challenging problems, which is mandatory for the long duration manned space missions like lunar base or mission to Mars. Plants will be essential companion life forms for such space missions, where human habitats must mimic the cycles of life on earth to generate and recycle food, oxygen and water. Thus the optimized growth of higher plants inside the closed environment is required to obtain efficient biological life support systems. The stability and success of such systems lie on the control of the hydrodynamics and on an accurate characterisation of the coupled heat and mass transfer that develop at interfaces

within the space habitat. However, very few data can be found on the precise

characterization / prediction of the mass transfer at interfaces, and more particularly in space.

In most studies the mass flux is deduced from the measured / calculated heat flux by a heat and mass transfer analogy. Hence, the authors have developed a ground based experimental set-up to measure the air flow velocities and concomitant mass transfer on specific geometries under controlled air flow conditions (flow regime, hygrometry, temperature). The final goal is to derive a theoretical model that could help for the prediction of the hydrodynamics and coupled heat/mass transfer on earth, and eventually in reduced gravity. The authors have used a closed-circuit wind tunnel for our experiments, which can produce very laminar to turbulent flows with controlled temperature and hygrometric parameters inside the test cell. The initial experiments have been performed in dry air with an average velocity between 0.5-2.5 m.s -1 . The velocity profiles near a clean aluminium flat plate in horizontal or vertical positions have been studied for low Reynolds number flows by hot wire anemometry. The measurements with the horizontal plate showed a boundary layer thickness in agreement with the Blasius’ solutions. Condensation of humid air was induced on an isothermal flat plate, which was cooled by thermoelectricity. The mass transfer on the plate was controlled and recorded with a precise balance. The obtained results are analyzed, and compared to the available data on condensation. Chapter 5 - In order to make a hazard prediction of trees against wind damage, such as stem breakage or uprooting, it is essential to quantitatively estimate the wind force acting on a tree. The drag coefficient of the tree crown, which is necessary to estimate wind force, has been evaluated using wind tunnel studies. Most of the specimens used for wind tunnel studies were dwarf trees, because of the restrictions due to wind tunnel size. However, with regard to the wind-force response, the similarity rule is not applicable to the relationship between dwarf trees and actual-sized trees. In fact, the drag coefficients of small trees were found to be considerably greater than those of actual-sized trees. To estimate the drag coefficients of actual-sized trees accurately and easily, a field test method was developed. Using this method, wind speed and stem deflection were monitored simultaneously. The wind force acting on the tree crown was calculated from the stem deflection; the stem stiffness was evaluated by conducting tree-bending tests. The field tests were conducted on black poplars and a Norway maple; the results showed that the drag coefficients decreased with an increase in wind speed.

(solids, plants,

)

x

Justin D. Pereira

This decrease can be explained mainly by the decrease in the projected area of the crown, because of the swaying movement of the leaves and branches. Although the variation in the drag coefficients was large at low wind speeds because of the swaying behavior of the stem subjected to a variable wind force, the variation at wind speeds above 10 m/s was small. The average drag coefficient for black poplars at a wind speed of 30 m/s was estimated by the curve fitting of a power function to the wind velocity-drag coefficient relationship, and this value was found to be not greater than that of actual-sized conifers previously studied in wind tunnel experiments. These results suggest that the wind permeability of poplar crowns is greater than that of conifer crowns due to the difference in leaf flexibility. Although the drag coefficients in the defoliation season were smaller than those measured in the leaved season at low wind speeds, the difference in drag coefficients became less pronounced at high wind speeds. Chapter 6 - Pre-X was the CNES proposal for demonstrating the maturity of European technology for gliding re-entry spacecraft. The program finished in year 2007 with the end of the phase B and a successful PDR. Then it was stopped with the aim of joining the ESA project IXV. The main goal of this experience is to demonstrate the implementation of reusable thermal protections, perform aero thermo dynamics experiments and efficiency of a suitable guidance navigation and control system. The attitude control is realised by elevons and reaction thrusters overall the hypersonic flight, with a functional and experimental objective. This paper presents the Pre-X aerodynamic / aerothermal characterisation through computational fluid dynamics and wind tunnels tests performed during the phases A and B of the programme. The tests permitted to cover the Mach range from 0.8 to 14 and to investigate the main effects of aerodynamic and aerothermal phenomena. In the preceding phases the aerodynamic shape and centring had been defined. The logic and main results of this activity are presented in this paper. Chapter 7 - In this chapter the authors deal with a procedure for the design and build of a low speed wind tunnel for airfoil aerodynamic analyses and micro wind turbine studies. The designed closed-circuit wind tunnel has a test chamber with a square cross section (500 mm x 500 mm) with a design average flow velocity of about 30 m/s along its axis. The designed wind tunnel has a square test chamber, two diffusers (one adjacent to the test section and one adjacent to the fan to slow the flow), four corners (with turning vanes) to guide the flow around the 90° corners, an axial fan to guarantee the mass flow rate and balance any pressure loss throughout the circuit, a settling chamber with a honeycomb (to eliminate any transverse flow), a series of ever-finer mesh screens (to reduce turbulence) and a nozzle to accelerate flow and provide constant velocity over the whole test chamber. The pressure losses of single components were evaluated as well as the global pressure loss (the sum of pressure losses of all the single components). Once the pressure losses were evaluated, the axial fan was chosen to guarantee the design’s volumetric flow, balance pressure losses and above all maximise its performance. The definitive dimensions of the wind tunnel are 10.49 m x 3.65 m. Once the design targets were defined, the test chamber dimensions, maximum wind speed and Reynolds numbers were calculated. At the end of the design process, the wind tunnel energy consumption was estimated and on-design and off-design performance was evaluated to obtain the wind tunnel circuit characteristics for a defined velocity range (0 – 50 m/s).

Preface

xi

The best circuit and axial fan matches were performed in both the open and closed test section configurations. Using the matching procedure between the fan and wind tunnel’s mechanical characteristics (global pressure loss as a function of wind velocity), the fan operating parameters were set up for optimum energy conservation.

In: Wind Tunnels: Aerodynamics, Models and Experiments

Editor: Justin D. Pereira

ISBN 978-1-61209-204-1

© 2011 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 1

DESIGN, EXECUTION AND NUMERICAL REBUILDING OF SHOCK WAVE BOUNDARY LAYER INTERACTION EXPERIMENT IN A PLASMA WIND TUNNEL

M. Di Clemente 1 , E. Trifoni 1 , A. Martucci 1 , S. Di Benedetto 1 and M. Marini 1

1 Italian Aerospace Research Centre Via Maiorise – 81043 Capua (CE), Italy

ABSTRACT

The present chapter reports the design, execution and numerical rebuilding of a plasma wind tunnel experimental campaign with the aim to analyse shock wave boundary layer interaction phenomena in high enthalpy conditions. This particular flow pattern could arise in proximity of a deflected control surface, thus generally causing a separation of the boundary layer and a loss of efficiency of the control surface itself; moreover, high mechanical and thermal loads are generally induced at the flow reattachment over the flap. Therefore, the analysis of this problem is crucial for the design and development of the class of hypersonic re-entry vehicles, considering that, even though it has been widely analyzed in the past, both from an experimental and theoretical point of view, by describing its physical features, only few studies have been carried to analyse the phenomenon in high enthalpy real gas and reacting flow conditions. The activity has been developed by analysing the flow phenomenon of interest in different conditions: i) hypersonic re-entry conditions considering the ESA EXPERT capsule as a workbench, and ii) ground-based facility conditions considering the CIRA Plasma Wind Tunnel “Scirocco”. The aim has been the correlation of the results predicted, by means of a CFD code, and then measured through specific experiments suitably designed, in these two different environments. To this effect, a flight experiment has been designed to be flown on the EXPERT capsule along the re-entry trajectory in order to collect flight data (pressure, temperature

1 Phone : +39 0823 623577, Fax : +39 0823 623700 Email: m.diclemente@cira.it, e.trifoni@cira.it, a.martucci@cira.it, s.dibenedetto@cira.it, m.marini@cira.it

2

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

and heat flux) on the shock wave boundary layer interaction phenomenon to be used for CFD validation and, additionally, as a reference point for the extrapolation-from-flight methodology developed accordingly. Requirements for the experimental campaign to be performed in the “Scirocco” facility have been derived considering the most critical and interesting points along the EXPERT trajectory. A suitable model, representative of the EXPERT geometry in the zone of interest, i.e. the flap region, has been conceived by defining the main design parameters (nose radius, length, width, flap deflection angle) and an experimental campaign has been delineated, the aim being to reproduce on this

model the same mechanical and thermal loads experienced ahead and over the EXPERT full- scale flap during the re-entry trajectory. Suitable facility operating conditions have been determined through the developed extrapolation-from-flight methodology; the design and the analysis of shock wave boundary layer interaction phenomenon has been done by focusing the attention mainly to the catalytic effects over the interaction induced by the different behaviour in terms of recombination coefficient of the materials involved

in the problem under investigation.

Once defined the design loads, the model has been realized and tested in the Plasma Wind Tunnel Scirocco under the selected conditions. The numerical rebuilding, showing

a reasonable good level of reproduction, has been also carried out, even though the

validation of the entire extrapolation-from-flight and to-flight developed methodology could be completed only after the EXPERT flight currently planned in mid 2011.

1. INTRODUCTION

The high cost of access to space is the main limitation to scientific research and space commercialization, and for this reason all the countries in Europe are thinking how design advanced spacecrafts in order to achieve low launch costs in the near future (Ref. [4],[12]). Spacecrafts like the US Space Shuttle Orbiter represent the first generation of reusable launch systems but several system studies have been conducted during the 80’s to investigate possible future concepts for the next generation of RLVs. In the frame of the ESA-FESTIP Program in late 90’s, system concept studies were carried out and an extensive investigation of a wide range of RLV concepts (more than 10 configurations) was performed (ref. [37]). In the following decade several programmes, at European and national level, were launched to promote the development of some of the identified enabling technologies required for the future generation of reusable space transportation systems that shall be safer and less expensive with respect to the US Space Shuttle. Enabling technologies for such vehicles and derived systems must be inherently reliable, functionally redundant, wherever practical and designed to minimize or eliminate catastrophic failure modes. Reliability could be improved through performance margin that translates to robust design, and this presupposes the maturation of some specific macro-technologies:

Re-entry heating. the aerospace vehicles have to handle the typical large thermal loads encountered during re-entry to Earth from LEO, due to the necessity of reducing the vehicle speed before landing;

Hypersonic flight navigation. the future space vehicles will have to fly for large part of their mission to speed much greater that the speed of the sound, and will have to maneuver safely in such conditions;

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

3

Reusability. the most important characteristic from the operational point of view is the tendency to be as much like current airplanes thus translating into the reusability concept.

Starting from the necessity of a proper level of maturity of these high level technologies, some guidelines and critical points to be developed at lower level, in order to match the particular requirements for the RLV design, were identified by past space systems and technological programs. Among the others, can be identified:

Configuration Design

Extrapolation to Flight

Transition Prediction

Control Surface Aerothermodynamics

It is clear that many other technological areas are being involved and ask for other significant developments (propulsion, flight mechanics, stability and control, guide and navigation, configuration optimization, etc.) but, in any case, to develop the future space transportation system a considerable work should be devoted to the aeroshape definition in order to improve performance, flyability and controllability, propulsion integration, heat load reduction, stage separation, coupling between forebody aeroelasticity and propulsion system, coupling between viscous drag and heat loads. The aerodynamic efficiency (E=C L /C D ) should be increased since they will experiment large part of flight at moderate altitude at high Mach number, strongly asking for more efficient aerodynamic design. Also the transition process from laminar to turbulent boundary layer should be predicted with greater accuracy since it plays an important role in the design of aerospace planes thermal protection system, and the currently available theoretical know-how (i.e. the stability theory) could not yet guarantee for a safe and reliable transition prediction (Ref. [18], [19], [20]). Among the others, the study of aerodynamic efficiency of control surfaces plays a role of primary importance (Ref. [17]). In fact, the necessity of manoeuvrability and high cross-range during ascent or re-entry phase requires the capacity to increase control surfaces aerodynamic efficiency whose analysis is strictly connected to the study of shock wave boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) occurring around them. The increase of knowledge must regard, especially in the SWBLI phenomenon in high enthalpy conditions, the prediction, with a good level of approximation, of its behaviour in flight conditions. In a classical approach, the design of space vehicles (e.g. the Space Shuttle) is based heavily upon experimental data although, due to the inherent limitations of similarity laws, ground based facilities cannot simulate completely the physics of flows experienced by such vehicles during re-entry. To overcome these limitations different strategies could be adopted:

in US data obtained from in-flight experiments, particularly with the X-series vehicles, have been used to complement the test data obtained from ground-based facilities; on the other hand, since the times of Hermes Program, Europe chose to complement the knowledge available from the cold wind tunnels, which are not able to model the high-temperature and real gas effects typical for higher speeds and altitudes, by means of high enthalpy or hot-flow facilities. ESA, therefore, supported the updated of existing cold flow wind tunnels, and also the construction of facilities with new capabilities, as for example the PWT Scirocco of

4

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

CIRA, to investigate the heat loads and gas surface interactions on materials and large size structures (ref. [10], [38]). In any case, the prediction of hypersonic flows, both for the complexity of the required physical modelling and for the impossibility to duplicate in wind tunnels real flight conditions due to the high energy required, is still one of the main problem related to the development of the new class of space vehicles. Moreover, high efficiency space vehicles require complex investigations because of the large contribution of the viscous effects to the aerodynamic forces and heating, while the effects of the gas modelling are important since the small blunt nose, necessary to increase the aerodynamic efficiency, does not shield the rest of the vehicle, thus implying the presence of large chemical effects on most of the vehicle surface. The main data sources for the aerothermodynamic design of a space vehicle are computational fluid dynamics, wind tunnel tests and flight experiments, generally on simplified geometries:

wind tunnel tests are important because they allow carrying on “controlled” simulations and therefore to better understanding the flow-physics phenomena; although ground-based facilities provide fundamental information for flight, no one facility can provide all of the aerothermodynamic information required for the design of a vehicle. As today it is well recognised, duplication of all flight characteristic parameters (Mach, Reynolds, Damkhöler, state of the gas) in a ground facility is not possible, particularly flight Reynolds number and high enthalpy effects are critical and difficult to be reproduced at ground;

flight experiments data represent the “truth” to be predicted, i.e. they show the real performance of the vehicle in representative conditions and, therefore, they are unique for vehicle qualification although they are quite costly, require considerable time and have uncertain repeatability and accuracy. Many phenomena can not be directly measured and de-coupling of effects is not always an easy task;

numerical simulations still play a fundamental role in the study of aerot- hermodynamics; moreover, the highest confidence in any ground-based or flight data set occurs when the results obtained with CFD are in agreement with them, the so- called extrapolation-to-flight technique. Even if today CFD is contributing significantly to the aerothermodynamic design of advanced vehicles, it still suffers from lack of physical modelling, robustness and accuracy of the mathematical algorithms, grid generation flexibility and hardware limitations; thus good wind- tunnel and flight data are still necessary for validation and/or calibration of CFD codes used to predict surface and flow field variables for the full-scale vehicle at re- entry flight conditions.

The best approach for improving confidence in aerothermodynamic design tools, from a computational and ground-based experimental point of view, is to validate those tools and design approaches with respect to flight experiments. As matter of fact, although in the last years Europe has dedicated significant effort to improve the quality and reliability of aerothermodynamic predictions, due to their key importance in the design and development of any hypersonic space vehicle, and a considerable effort has been devoted to the realization of ground based plasma facilities and development of advanced numerical tools with the state

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

5

of the art physical model, in-flight experimentation is still needed to validate the computational codes and to establish meaningful and reliable ground-to-flight extrapolation methodology. Above Mach 10, where in particular high-temperature effects become dominant, CFD represents the only prediction tool, and therefore the appropriate validation of numerical codes is a great concern. Generally it is achieved, by comparing data measured in high- temperature facilities with those obtained by numerical prediction and in many cases a numerical approach is used to define the experimental test cases and for the interpretation of the measured data. CFD codes are subsequently being used for flight simulations above Mach 10 even if this ‘extrapolation method’ assumes that the physical models enabling good results for the simulation of the experimental test cases, provide good results also for free flight. Therefore, free-flight data are required to remove any doubt about the validity and accuracy of the CFD predictions, and to confirm the extrapolation methodology as well. The main argument for the in-flight experimentation is therefore the need for realistic and combined loads levels which are representative for the operational environment of a RLV. Such tests must be performed complementarily to on-ground testing for validating critical enabling technologies of the reference RLV concept. The analysis of this phenomenology is complicated by the fact that, in hypersonic regime, scaling laws have not yet been found. Plasma Wind Tunnels, which allow the same energy levels of the real flight, are in fact characterized by the test chamber flow rather dissociated conditions, and this has a large influence on the flow-field around the test article, while cold hypersonic wind tunnels, where the simulation is focused on the duplication of Mach and Reynolds numbers, permit only to reproduce the classical aerodynamic forces and the related coefficients even though with strong limitations. The influence of real gas effects and viscous interaction effects on control flap efficiency and heating is one of the main aerothermodynamic issues for the next generation RLV design, together with the qualification testing of the thermal protection system in ground-based facility and the consequent extrapolation to flight for experimental results. In order to assess these issues, a numerical approach has been followed to define a wind- tunnel experimental campaign on a representative model to reproduce the in-flight expected values of mechanical and thermal loads acting on a typical control device, in interpreting the measured data and finally for the extrapolation to the flight conditions of the experimental results, as the local conditions in the wind tunnel facility only partially duplicate those in flight. Moreover, a flight experiment whose results could be used as point of reference for such phenomena has been also designed. As matter of fact, aerothermodynamic design issues, as the analysis of flap efficiency for control and navigation, has been addressed using advanced numerical codes, ground-based facilities and flight testing. Following the previous considerations, it arises the need to develop an extrapolation- from-flight and to-flight methodology able to combine and mutually validate the flight and ground data on the problem of interest. Even though the prediction of mechanical and thermal loads acting on the control surfaces of hypersonic vehicles is crucial for the design of their aerodynamic shapes and thermal protection system, at the moment the lack of hypersonic flight data that can serve as a point of reference for the validation process, makes it impossible, especially for some of the most challenging hypersonic problems.

6

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

6 M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al. Figure 1. Extrapolation from flight and

Figure 1. Extrapolation from flight and to flight procedure.

The issue of an extrapolation-to-flight methodology for high enthalpy flow must be in the light of a progressive building up of confidence in the design of a space vehicle. The development of such methodology, whose rationale is shown in Figure 1, has been carried out referring to the ESA EXPERT capsule (ref. [40]), which has the indubitable advantage to be a simple geometry, conceived as an experimental test-bed for in-flight experimentation and designed to avoid degradation and flow contamination. In order to develop the methodology and to extrapolate plasma facility results to real flight conditions, it is necessary, first of all, to characterize by means of CFD simulations the flight conditions in the flap region and design a flight experiment in order to instrument the vehicle and to collect flight data during the re- entry mission, to be used for the post-flight analysis to validate the entire procedure. On the other hand it is necessary to design, perform and numerically rebuild a number of experimental tests in a plasma wind tunnel facility that can be representative of the flight conditions with respect to the SWBLI phenomenon over the flap. Finally, plasma wind tunnel results must be correlated, by means of the relevant parameters of the interaction as viscous interaction parameter and rarefaction parameter, with those predicted (and then measured) during the flight, the goal being to understand the test conditions necessary to reproduce (simultaneously or separately) the mechanical (pressure) and thermal (heat flux, temperature) loads acting on the control surface device.

1.1. EXPERT Capsule

The development of the extrapolation to flight methodology has been carried out referring to the ESA EXPERT capsule whose in-flight test program focuses on a generic capsule-like configuration designed in such a way to enhance the most interesting aerothermodynamic phenomena of a typical re-entry vehicle performing a sub-orbital ballistic hypersonic flight. The main objective of the project is to collect in-flight data on the most critical aerothermodynamic phenomena via dedicated classical and advanced flight test measurement assemblies (i.e. EXPERT Scientific Payloads), and this in order to improve the knowledge about the differences between ground experiments and real flight conditions; each particular phenomenon related with the high energy re-entry mission (gas-surface interaction, induced and natural laminar-to-turbulence transition, real gas effects on shock wave boundary

D esign, Execu tion and Num erical Rebui lding of Shoc k Wave…

7

a specific

the Technica l Research

P rogram relate d to the capsu le developme nt. The scien tific data will then be used to validate

st ate-of-the-art

e xtrapolation p rocedures (Re f. [39]).

relevant As sembly, Integ ration and

V erification P lan; in para llel a num ber of expe rimental acti vities in th e field of a erothermodyn amics are car ried out to acq uire all neces sary pre-fligh t information on specific

p henomena all owing for an optimized po st-flight phas e. Among the others, speci al attention

h as been given to the Shock Wave / Bou ndary Layer I nteraction ph enomenon wh ose effects o n the open fla ps are being i nvestigated w ith two differ ent Scientific Payloads, i.e. Payload 6,

th rough instru mentation of

sensors, and Payload 7,

th rough the ch aracterization of the bound ary layer appr oaching the f lap, whose de velopment h as been carrie d out in the fr ame of the pr esent research activity. The refere nce geometry of the EXPE RT capsule is a body of re volution with an ellipse- cl othoid-cone t wo-dimensio nal longitudin al profile cut by 4 planes a nd equipped w ith 4 fixed

tagnation po int and an

and an x-

e ccentricity of 2.5. The fixe d flaps have a deflection of 20 deg, a wi dth of 400 mm

o pen flaps. Th e elliptical n ose has a ra dius of 600

la yer interacti on, shock la yer chemistry ) has been

e xperiment ha s been desig ned for each

separately a nalyzed, and

of them in t he frame of

numerical t ools for aero thermodynam ic applicatio ns and grou nd-to-flight

qualified acc ording to the

Each Payl oad will be

flaps and cav ities with ma inly classical

mm at the

a xis projected l ength of 300 mm (see Figu re 2).

at the a xis projected l ength of 300 mm (see Figu r e 2). F

F igure 2. EXPE RT capsule.

2. MATHE MATICAL MODEL

The analy sis of shock

H3NS

which

wave bound ary layer inte raction, for

for

the

ae rothermodyn amic

suitable to

analysi

the developm ent of the

numerical

over comp lex three-

e xtrapolation-f rom-flight me thodology, ha s been carrie d out consider ing the CIRA

allows

d imensional g eometries and [2 8]).

c ode

simulate com pressible flo w at high ent halpy (ref.

One of the main charact eristics of hy personic flow s is that, due to the high te mperatures

e xperienced b ehind the bo w shock, the

c ommonly ass umed for low

st art to vibrate

b egin whereas for higher te mperature als o nitrogen m olecules disso ciate. The m odelling of

difficult

the

speed flows ; air molecule s at tempera tures higher t han 800 K

gas cannot

be consider ed as a perf ect gas as

the dissociati on of oxygen

of

the

difference

molecules

among

and for tem peratures aro und 1500 K

h igh temperat ure phenome na is quite

bec ause

8

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

characteristic time of fluid-dynamics and that of chemical reactions and vibration. This situation generally leads to the thermochemical non-equilibrium. In fact, there are many

problems in high-speed gas dynamics where the gas doesn’t reach the equilibrium state; a typical example is the flow across a shock wave, where the pressure and temperature are rapidly increased within the shock front. By the time equilibrium properties have been approached, the fluid element has moved a certain distance downstream of the shock front. The modelling of these phenomena cannot be limited to a calculation of equilibrium conditions at a certain temperature and pressure, but a number of equations must be added to the classical Navier-Stokes formulation, one for each vibrating or dissociated species.

In the code considered for numerical computations, governing equations have been

discretized using a finite volume technique with a centred formulation over structured multi- block meshes. This approach is particularly suitable to the integral form of the equations; in fact, in a first order approximation, it is simply obtained by integrating the equations for each cell and considering the variables constant inside each volume. The integral formulation

ensures that mass, momentum and energy are conserved at the discrete level. Suitable models have to be taken into account to define the thermodynamics, the transport coefficients and turbulent variables as reported in detail in Appendix 1. The inviscid fluxes at cell interfaces are computed using a Finite Difference Splitting (FDS) Riemann solver, which is especially suitable for high speed problems (Ref.[3]). This method solves for every mesh interval the one-dimensional Riemann problem for discontinuous neighboring states (the states at both sides of the cell face). The second order approximation for FDS is obtained by means of a higher order ENO (Essentially Non Oscillatory) reconstruction of interface values. The viscous fluxes are calculated by central differencing, i.e. computing the gradients of flow variables at cell interfaces by means of Gauss theorem. Time integration is performed by using an Euler forward scheme with a semi-implicit pre conditioner based on the derivative of the source chemical and vibrational terms.

3. PWT SCIROCCO EXPERIMENT PRELIMINARY DESIGN

A number of experiments to be performed in the CIRA Plasma Wind Tunnel “Scirocco”, representative of the capsule flight conditions with respect to the shock wave boundary layer interaction phenomenon occurring around the 20 deg flap, has been designed: PWT driving conditions, model configuration and attitude and model instrumentation have been defined, by means of a massive CFD activity performed by using the CIRA code H3NS. These experiments have been designed in order to allow for the duplication of characteristic

parameters (viscous interaction parameter, rarefaction parameter, reference pressure and heat flux) of the interaction to reproduce on a full-scale flap model both pressure and heat flux levels estimated in critical re-entry flight conditions. The final goal has been to develop an extrapolation-to-flight methodology for such flows since the full duplication of flow characteristic numbers (Mach, Reynolds, Damkhöler) and state of the gas is not feasible in ground facilities.

A parametric analysis of the facility operating conditions and model characteristic

dimensions (nose radius, length, flap dimensions, etc.) has been carried out in order to define

the operating conditions and experimental set up that permit a simultaneous reproduction of

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

9

mechanical and thermal loads acting on flap in flight conditions over the selected model. The rest of the activity has been devoted mainly to the choice of the different protection materials, its equipment (sensors distribution) and the experimental tests at the selected flow conditions. The final model configuration reproduces the full-scale EXPERT 20 deg flap, mounted on a holder composed by a flat plate with a rounded leading edge (made of copper and actively cooled) and lateral edges. The flap has been realized in C-SiC, which is the same material foreseen for the realization of the EXPERT capsule flap, whereas for the flat plate it has been used Haynes 25 whose main thermo-mechanical characteristics are quite similar to PM1000 which is the material foreseen on the capsule. The effects of catalysis jump, due to the coupling of different materials, have been analysed by considering the available recombination coefficients for the materials of interest, or modelling the different parts as fully or not catalytic.

3.1. PWT “Scirocco” Facility Description

The CIRA Plasma Wind Tunnel “Scirocco” is devoted to aerothermodynamic tests on components of aerospace vehicles; its primary mission is to simulate (in full scale) the thermo-fluid-dynamic conditions suffered by the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of space vehicles re-entering the Earth atmosphere. “Scirocco” is a very large size facility, whose hypersonic jet has a diameter size up to 2 m when impacts the test article and reaches Mach number values up to 11. The jet is then collected by a long diffuser (50 m) and cooled by an heat exchanger. Seventy MW electrical power is used to heat the compressed air that expands along a convergent-divergent conical nozzle. Four different nozzle exit diameters are available: 0.9, 1.15, 1.35 and 1.95 m, respectively named C, D, E and F. The overall performance of “Scirocco” in terms of reservoir conditions is the following: total pressure (P 0 ) varies from 1 to 17 bar and total enthalpy (H 0 ) varies from 2.5 to 45 MJ/kg. Facility theoretical performance map in terms of reservoir conditions produced by the arc heater is shown in Figure 3. Lower enthalpy values are obtained by using a plenum chamber between the arc heater column exit and the nozzle inlet convergent part, which allows transverse injection of high pressure ambient air to reduce the flow total enthalpy.

jection of high pressure ambient air to reduce the flow total enthalpy. Figure 3. Arc heater

Figure 3. Arc heater theoretical performance map.

10

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

The energetic heart of the facility is the segmented constricted arc heater, a column with a maximum length of 5.5 m and a bore diameter of 0.11 m. At the extremities of this column there are the cathode and the anode between which the electrical arc is generated. A power supply feeds the electrical DC power to the electrodes for the discharge. A compressed air supply distributes dry compressed air to the various segments of the arc heater column, being able to supply a mass flow rate ranging from 0.1 to 3.5 kg/s, heated up to 10000 K. The last important subsystem of “Scirocco” is the vacuum system, which generates the vacuum conditions in test chamber required by each test. The system consists of ejectors that make use of high pressure water steam as motor fluid (30 bar and 250 °C). The achievement of the operating conditions (P 0 , H 0 ) in test chamber is assured by the presence, before the insertion of the model, of a 100mm-diameter hemi-spherical calibration probe made of copper, cooled, that measures radial profiles of stagnation pressure (P s ) and stagnation heat flux (Q s ) at a section 0.375 m downstream of the conical nozzle exit section, by means of high precision pressure transducers and Gardon-Gage heat flux sensors, respectively. Facility regulations (mass flow, current) are tuned in order to measure on the calibration probe a certain couple of values (P s , Q s ) which correspond to the desired set point in terms of the couple (P 0 , H 0 ).

3.2. Facility Performance Evaluation

The definition of a representative experiment in the CIRA Plasma Wind Tunnel “Scirocco” has been done by considering the most interesting points of the EXPERT reference trajectory, i.e. point P1, that is the point characterized by the highest stagnation point heat flux, and point P2, characterized by high heat flux and a relatively low pressure, potentially critical for passive/active oxidation transition of the C-SiC, which is the material of the nose and the flaps of the capsule. A preliminary analysis of PWT Scirocco capabilities for the duplication of SWBLI flows has been carried out, the aim being to understand what it is possible to reproduce in this plasma facility in terms of the characteristic parameters of the interaction as pressure and heat flux (peak values and reference values, upstream of the separation), viscous interaction

/ Re ) , separation

parameter, (

3 ≈ M ∞ / Re χ L ∞ L
3
≈ M ∞
/
Re
χ L
L

) , rarefaction parameter, (

V ≈ M L ∞ ∞ L
V
≈ M
L
L

length experienced during the flight that has been preliminary predicted through CFD simulations. Even if in this phase preliminary flight values have been used, it was important only to develop an extrapolation from flight methodology that allowed to set the facility operating parameters necessary to duplicate assigned flight values, that have been then updated through three-dimensional non equilibrium computations. Starting from the nominal operating envelope of PWT facility, considering the conical nozzle D (length 3.1 m from the throat section, exit diameter 1.15 m) and assuming fully laminar flows, a certain number of numerical simulations has been performed, basing on the currently explored region of the envelope, where qualification and validation tests have been already executed in order to have a clear idea of what can be simulated in terms of SWBLI interesting parameters inside the facility; in particular, the effects of total pressure (at low, medium and high total enthalpy) and total enthalpy (at low, medium and high total pressure) have been investigated. Then, additional computations have been performed in order to

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

11

duplicate the estimated flight values of the interesting parameters of the interaction around the body-flap. The complete CFD test matrix, for this preliminary phase, is reported in Table 1 in terms of total pressure (P 0 ) and total enthalpy (H 0 ), while in Figure 4 these points have been shown inside the PWT Scirocco theoretical envelope.

Table 1. CFD Matrix for preliminary computations

 

P 0 (bar)

H 0 (MJ/kg)

PWT-1

2.45

11.90

PWT-2

2.45

15.00

PWT-3

2.40

18.80

PWT-4

4.70

10.40

PWT-5

5.20

15.00

PWT-6

5.20

18.80

PWT-7 2

7.90

11.00

PWT-8

7.90

15.00

PWT-9

7.90

18.80

PWT-10

13.00

11.00

PWT-11 1

12.00

15.00

PWT-12 1

10.00

15.00

PWT-13

7.90

17.90

PWT-14

10.00

11.00

45 40 35 PWT Operating Envelope Preliminary Computations 30 Additional Computations 25 20 15 10
45
40
35
PWT Operating Envelope
Preliminary Computations
30
Additional Computations
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
H0, MJ/kg

P0, bar

Figure 4. PWT envelope and operating conditions.

For each of the considered points, the PWT nozzle flow has been simulated in the hypothesis of fully laminar thermo-chemical non equilibrium flow, then the centreline conditions at X = X nozzle exit + 0.15m (= 3.25 m) have been taken as free stream conditions to perform the simulation of flow around the model (located preliminarily 0.15 m downstream of the nozzle exit section).

2 For these conditions an angle of attack of the model equal to 10 deg has been also considered

12

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

This CFD-based procedure was also successfully applied to previous experiments design, where it was clearly shown that the same test chamber flow is predicted by means of the uncoupled (single simulation of nozzle flow with geometrical extension to the model stagnation point section) as done in this work and coupled (complete simulation of flow through PWT facility, with test chamber details) simulations, thus assessing the accuracy of the overall experimental test design. The preliminary geometry, which can be considered representative of the EXPERT geometry around the body-flap region (scale 1:2), was a 0.60 m long blunted flat plate with a 0.15 m long flap forming a 20 deg angle with the plane and a cylindrical nose whose radius was equal to 0.25 m as schematically reported in Figure 5.

was equal to 0.25 m as schematically reported in Figure 5. Figure 5. Preliminary shape of

Figure 5. Preliminary shape of the test article.

All the computations have been performed in non-equilibrium fully laminar conditions, assuming a fully catalytic wall with a fixed temperature equal to 300 K or the radiative equilibrium condition, considering the symmetry plane of the model with a two dimensional approach. For numerical reasons a horizontal plate has been considered at the flap trailing edge; the effect of this plate, that could fix the reattachment at the end of the flap, has been analyzed for the conditions PWT-7 and PWT-3 of Table 1, that are the conditions, respectively, characterized by the highest and the lowest Reynolds number. This effect seems to be negligible (see Figure 6 and Figure 7) being the reattachment mechanism not “driven” by the expansion at the flap trailing edge, but it occurs on the flap “far enough” from its trailing edge. From the computed results of the present analysis, and from considerations about the complexity of baseflow (useless) prediction, it can be concluded that the geometry model with the flat plate extension behind the flap can be always employed for present simulations.

mach 7.5 0.4 7 1.4 6.5 6 0.3 5.5 5 1.2 4.5 0.2 4 3.5
mach
7.5
0.4
7
1.4
6.5
6
0.3
5.5
5
1.2
4.5
0.2
4
3.5
1
3
0.1
2.5
2
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
X (m)
1.5
0.8
1
0.5
0
0.6
-0.5
0.4
0.2
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
X (m)
Y (m)
Y (m)

Figure 6. Mach contours for the condition PWT-7 with base flow.

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

13

1200 200000 Pressure 180000 Pressure - Base 1000 Heat Flux Heat Flux - Base 160000
1200
200000
Pressure
180000
Pressure - Base
1000
Heat Flux
Heat Flux - Base
160000
140000
800
120000
600
100000
80000
400
60000
40000
200
20000
0
0
0.4
0.6
0.8
X (m)
Pressure (Pa)
Heat Flux (W/m2)
1200 200000 180000 1000 Pressure 160000 Pressure - Base Heat Flux 140000 Heat Flux -
1200
200000
180000
1000
Pressure
160000
Pressure - Base
Heat Flux
140000
Heat Flux - Base
800
120000
600
100000
80000
400
60000
40000
200
20000
0
0
0.4
0.6
0.8
X (m)
Pressure (Pa)
Heat Flux (W/m2)

Figure 7. Pressure and Heat Flux distribution for PWT-7 (left) and PWT-3 (right).

The pressure distribution along the wall for all the computations is reported in Figure 8 (left); after the rapid expansion starting from the stagnation point, a quasi-constant pressure region is observed along the flat plate up to the zone of shock wave boundary layer interaction induced by the presence of the flap; at the separation location there is a pressure jump due to the separation shock, then pressure reaches a plateau in the recirculation region and a peak after the reattachment on the flap followed by a sharp expansion at the end of the flap. The overall distribution is typical of such SWBLI interaction. Pressure levels on the model are mainly influenced by the value of the total pressure being negligible the effect of the total enthalpy; therefore, it is clear that higher values of the pressure in the interaction zone can be achieved with higher values of the total pressure (or additionally giving an incidence to the model in the test chamber). In the same figure (right) it is reported the wall heat flux distribution for the same computations; in this case both the total pressure and total enthalpy influence wall heat transfer, that increases as these two variables increase (following roughly the dependency

upon the product p H ). 0 0 8000 H0=11.90 P0=2.45 6000 H0=15.00 P0=2.45 H0=18.80
upon the product
p H ).
0
0
8000
H0=11.90 P0=2.45
6000
H0=15.00 P0=2.45
H0=18.80 P0=2.40
H0=10.40 P0=4.70
H0=15.00 P0=5.20
H0=18.80 P0=5.20
H0=11.00 P0=7.90
H0=15.00 P0=7.90
4000
H0=18.80 P0=7.90
2000
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
X (m)
Pressure (Pa)
2000 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 X (m) Pressure (Pa) 1E+06 800000 H0=11.90 P0=2.45 H0=15.00
1E+06 800000 H0=11.90 P0=2.45 H0=15.00 P0=2.45 H0=18.80 P0=2.40 H0=10.40 P0=4.70 H0=15.00 P0=5.20 600000 H0=18.80
1E+06
800000
H0=11.90 P0=2.45
H0=15.00 P0=2.45
H0=18.80 P0=2.40
H0=10.40 P0=4.70
H0=15.00 P0=5.20
600000
H0=18.80 P0=5.20
H0=11.00 P0=7.90
H0=15.00 P0=7.90
H0=18.80 P0=7.90
400000
200000
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
X (m)
Heat Flux (W/m2)

Figure 8. Wall pressure (left) and heat flux (right) distributions in PWT operating conditions.

In the recirculation region there is a decrease of the heat flux, typical of fully laminar interactions, followed by an increase on the flap and a peak just immediately after the reattachment point, where boundary layer thickness reaches the minimum value.

14

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

For some of the computations, the effect of the wall temperature has been estimated by considering the radiative equilibrium condition. The results of these computations are reported in Figure 9 for pressure (left) and heat flux (right) wall distribution. As general trend, with the radiative equilibrium temperature at the wall, the separation bubble is larger (except for the condition PWT-3 where the effect is negligible) and the peak loads over the flap (both thermal and mechanical) are lower than those predicted with a fixed wall temperature equal to

300K.

This is due to the higher temperatures in the boundary layer in the case of the radiative equilibrium condition, and then to the lower values of density causing an increase of the boundary layer thickness; the upstream propagation of pressure disturbances is enhanced in the case of radiative equilibrium and, consequently, an early separation is predicted. The effects on mechanical loads is a reduction of 4% with the condition of equilibrium radiative wall whereas is 3% for thermal loads as reported also in Table 2. It can be concluded that in these conditions surface temperature has only a small effect on thermal and mechanical loads acting on the flap.

1600 H0=11.90 P0=2.45 T=300K 1400 H0=11.90 P0=2.45 T=Tradeq H0=18.80 P0=2.40 T=300K H0=18.80 P0=2.40 T=Tradeq 1200
1600
H0=11.90 P0=2.45 T=300K
1400
H0=11.90 P0=2.45 T=Tradeq
H0=18.80 P0=2.40 T=300K
H0=18.80 P0=2.40 T=Tradeq
1200
H0=15.00 P0=5.20 T=300K
H0=15.00 P0=5.20 T=Tradeq
H0=11.00 P0=7.90 T=300K
H0=11.00 P0=7.90 T=Tradeq
1000
H0=18.80 P0=7.90 T=300K
H0=18.80 P0=7.90 T=Tradeq
800
600
400
200
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
X (m)
Pressure (Pa)
400000 H0=11.90 P0=2.45 T=300K H0=11.90 P0=2.45 T=Tradeq H0=18.80 P0=2.40 T=300K H0=18.80 P0=2.40 T=Tradeq 300000
400000
H0=11.90 P0=2.45 T=300K
H0=11.90 P0=2.45 T=Tradeq
H0=18.80 P0=2.40 T=300K
H0=18.80 P0=2.40 T=Tradeq
300000
H0=15.00 P0=5.20 T=300K
H0=15.00 P0=5.20 T=Tradeq
H0=11.00 P0=7.90 T=300K
H0=11.00 P0=7.90 T=Tradeq
H0=18.80 P0=7.90 T=300K
H0=18.80 P0=7.90 T=Tradeq
200000
100000
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
X (m)
Heat Flux (W/m2)

Figure 9. T wall effects on wall pressure (left) and heat flux (right) distributions.

Table 2. T w effects: comparison of the peak values on the flap

 

T

w =300K

T

w =T rad.eq.

P

pk

q

pk

P

pk

q

pk

(Pa)

(kW/m 2 )

(Pa)

(kW/m 2 )

PWT – 1

331.7

78.8

306.5

72.9

PWT – 3

328.8

131.6

328.7

129.7

PWT – 5

680.4

171.2

639.8

167.0

PWT – 7

1093.7

146.9

1054.3

142.8

PWT – 9

949.0

293.2

907.2

286.5

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

15

3.3. Definition of PWT Model

The wide amount of CFD results obtained in different PWT conditions has permitted the

development of the extrapolation-from-flight procedure: it allows to determine the experimental test conditions (P 0 , H 0 and model attitude) able to duplicate the representative mechanical and thermal loads ahead and over the flap. However, in order to give the final requirements for the detailed model design and then for the execution of the tests, it has been necessary to consider also different aspects of the problem, not only the aerothermodynamic ones.

A detailed numerical analysis has been carried out to analyse the effects of geometric

variation of the model on the flow variables, in particular, the effects of the nose radius, the flap dimension and the model’s finite span have been considered. Sensitivity analysis has

been carried out considering the PWT operating condition characterized by a reservoir enthalpy H 0 =15MJ/kg and a reservoir pressure P 0 =10 bar, being this condition the one determined for the duplication of the point P1 flight conditions over the model as it will be described hereinafter.

3.3.1. Nose Radius

Computations with the radiative equilibrium wall assumption have shown that

temperature in the nose region could reach 2000 K. If there will be the possibility to have an active cooling system (at least in the nose region) the size of the nose could be decreased in order to not exceed the model weight limit for the “Scirocco” Model Support System (MSS).

A sensitivity analysis to the nose radius has been then carried out for one of the selected

operating conditions inside the PWT operating envelope, by considering three different models with the same length of the plate ahead the flap and three different nose radii, equal to 0.25 m (the first hypothesis), 0.1 m and 0.05 m; it has been found that the influence of nose radius is small in terms of mechanical loads (see Figure 10, left) even if a slight decreases of about 5% is predicted in the reference and peak values whereas, for what concerns the thermal loads (see Figure 10, right ), a slight increase of the values in front of the flap and a small decrease of the peak values is predicted as also reported in Table 3.

H0=15 MJ/kg P0=10 bar AoA=12 deg 8000 6000 Rnose = 25 cm Rnose = 10
H0=15 MJ/kg P0=10 bar AoA=12 deg
8000
6000
Rnose = 25 cm
Rnose = 10 cm
Rnose = 5 cm
4000
2000
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
X (m)
Pressure (Pa)
H0=15 MJ/kg P0=10 bar AoA=12 deg 1.5E+06 Rnose = 25 cm Rnose = 10 cm
H0=15 MJ/kg P0=10 bar AoA=12 deg
1.5E+06
Rnose = 25 cm
Rnose = 10 cm
Rnose = 5 cm
1E+06
500000
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
X (m)
Heat Flux (W/m2)

Figure 10. Effects of nose radius on wall pressure and heat flux.

16

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

Table 3. Nose radius effects: mechanical and thermal loads ahead and over the flap

R

nose

P

ref

Q

ref

P

pk

q

pk

(m)

(Pa)

(kW/m 2 )

(Pa)

(kW/m 2 )

0.25

1024.91

120.85

2226.34

266.34

0.10

1002.02

152.36

2095.86

252.26

0.05

890.92

167.18

2004.07

239.16

The reduction of the nose radius causes a decrease of the separated region mainly due to the movement towards the flap hinge line of the separation point whereas the reattachment point is located more or less in the same position for all the analyzed configurations (see Figure 11).

Skin Friction Coefficient

H0=15 MJ/kg P0=10 bar AoA=12 deg 0.03 Rnose = 25 cm 0.02 Rnose = 10
H0=15 MJ/kg P0=10 bar AoA=12 deg
0.03
Rnose = 25 cm
0.02
Rnose = 10 cm
Rnose = 5 cm
0.01
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
X (m)

Figure 11. Nose radius effects: skin friction distribution.

From this analysis it results that the model with the nose radius equal to 0.1m seems to be the best solution for the model configuration, also considering the fact that a lower value of the radius could make difficult the handling and positioning of model instrumentation whereas the model with the biggest value of the nose radius could result in a too heavy model difficult to sustain during the test execution with the MSS.

3.3.2. Flap Dimensions

Another variation that has been considered with respect to the preliminarily selected model has been done by considering the full scale flap dimensions, thus exploring the possibility to test in PWT “Scirocco” the actual EXPERT open flap before the flight, whose overall dimensions are 0.30 m in length and 0.40 m in width. The effect of this variation has been examined with respect to the model with the nose radius of 0.10 m, considering the same total length of the previous one since the extension of the flat plate has been decreased from 0.35 m to 0.20 m. The results are shown in Figure 12; considering the full scale EXPERT flap the size of the separation bubble decreases and the thermal and mechanical loads over the flap increase. The effects in terms of wall pressure are evident (P pk increases of 24%) whereas are modest in terms of heat flux (q pk increases of

5%).

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

17

H0=15 MJ/kg P0=10 bar AoA=12 deg

8000 1200 Flap 1:2 1000 6000 Flap 1:1 800 pressure Flap 1:1 pressure Flap 1:2
8000
1200
Flap 1:2
1000
6000
Flap 1:1
800
pressure Flap 1:1
pressure Flap 1:2
600
tot. wall flux Flap 1:1
4000
tot. wall flux Flap 1:2
Geometry
400
200
2000
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
X [m]
Pressure [Pa]
Heat Flux [kW/m 2 ]

Figure 12. Effects of flap dimensions.

3.4. Final Configuration and Materials

The final configuration of the model, whose characteristic dimensions are R nose = 0.10 m, L plate = 0.20 m (the flap hinge is located at X=0.30m starting from the nose), L flap = 0.30 m (projection on the X-axis), corresponding to the full scale 1:1 flap and flap deflection angle = 20 deg is shown in Figure 13.

MATERIALS 0.4 Nose : TBD Plate : PM1000 Flap : C-SiC 0.3 L plate =
MATERIALS
0.4
Nose : TBD
Plate : PM1000
Flap : C-SiC
0.3
L plate = 0.20 m
= 0.30 m (scale 1:1)
L flap
0.2
δ flap = 20 deg
0.1
R nose = 0.10 m
0
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Y (m)

X (m)

Figure 13. Final model configuration.

The final geometrical configuration of the model to be tested in the plasma wind tunnel “Scirocco” is a trade-off between the aerothermodynamic requirements necessary to reproduce the flight characteristic parameters of the interaction in PWT conditions, and the thermo-mechanical design issues that have taken under consideration also different aspects of the problem. The model reproduces the EXPERT capsule flap (scale 1:1) characterized by 20 deg deflection angle; it is mounted on an holder with a flat plate ahead the flap with rounded leading and lateral edges. In Figure 14 it is reported a schematic representation of the model. To be consistent with the EXPERT capsule, the model will be built by using as much as possible the same materials to manufacture its different parts: the leading edge is a GLIDCOP AL-15 copper cylinder with an active cooling system; the upper part is covered by a flat plate of PM1000 equipped with pressure taps, thermocouples and combined heat flux/pressure

18

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

sensors; the flap is covered by a 4mm thick plate of C-SiC with a deflection angle of 20 deg with respect to the flat plate, and it is equipped with pressure taps and thermocouples. The lateral rounded panels, the entire lower panel and the parts below the PM1000 flat plate will be realized in PROMASIL 1100; the wedge underlying the C-SiC flap will be realized in amorphous carbon. For what concerns the dimensions of the model, the cylinder leading edge has a radius of 100mm and a length of 400mm, the flat plate is 400m wide and 200mm long, the flap is 400mm wide and 300mm long. All the lateral edges are rounded with a radius of 50mm in order to avoid localized over heating, whereas the flap plate has a radius of curvature at the lateral edges equal to 4mm (i.e. its thickness). The model will be installed on the PWT Model Support System (MMS) by means of a proper interface that consists of a commercial steel circular beam built with AISI 316L; the interface is covered by proper thermal insulator of PROMASIL 1100 to avoid any critical solicitation due to the plasma interaction with the model surface. Such a covering has a cylindrical shape for the proper alignment of the upper and lower parts of the test article with the MSS body surface. It is realised to avoid the presence of gaps between the surfaces and the possibility of any peak heating occurrence.

and the possibility of any peak heating occurrence. Figure 14. Model for PWT tests. 4. E

Figure 14. Model for PWT tests.

4. EXTRAPOLATION FROM FLIGHT PROCEDURE

The definition of representative experiments in PWT has been done by considering the most interesting points of the EXPERT reference trajectory: point P1 (M =13.40, h=37Km), characterized by the highest stagnation point heat flux, and point P2 (M =18, h=50Km) characterized by high heat flux and a relatively low pressure, potentially critical for passive/active oxidation transition of the C-SiC.

4.1. Facility Operating Conditions

In par. 0, requirements for the execution of the PWT test campaign will be shown:

according to the extrapolation from flight procedure, those requirements must be duplicated

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

19

Pref (Pa)

inside the facility on the representative model that has been defined and dimensioned. To this purpose, it is necessary to define the facility operating conditions and model positioning and attitude within the test chamber to achieve the goal. The wide amount of CFD results obtained in different operating conditions has permitted the development of the extrapolation-from-flight procedure, in such a way to determine the experimental test conditions (P 0 , H 0 and model angle of attack) that allow for the duplication of the representative mechanical and thermal loads ahead and over the flap of the model. For each of the computations carried out in PWT conditions, considering the effect of facility operating conditions, of the angle of attack of the model, wall temperature, radius of the nose and length of the flap, different variables of interest have been analyzed:

Boundary layer edge variables at the separation location: M, Re, V and ρ

Reference values at the separation location: χ, V, P ref and q ref

The comparison between the characteristic SWBLI parameters estimated in flight conditions and the results obtained in PWT for the selected test conditions, is shown, in terms of reference pressure (P ref ) and heat flux (q ref ), in Figure 15 and Figure 16, respectively. For the range of trajectory around the maximum stagnation point heat flux (Point P1, H013.2 MJ/kg), it seems not possible to duplicate the reference values of pressure and heat flux which instead could be well enough duplicated for points at higher enthalpy, that it clearly means at higher altitudes (Point P2, H018 MJ/Kg, h50 Km).

2.50E+05 CFD Flight 2D Qref Flight 2D Qref Flight 3D Point P1 2.00E+05 Point P2
2.50E+05
CFD Flight 2D
Qref Flight 2D
Qref Flight 3D
Point P1
2.00E+05
Point P2
Qref - PWT
Qref - PWT Additional Runs
1.50E+05
1.00E+05
5.00E+04
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
2.00E+06
4.00E+06
6.00E+06
8.00E+06
1.00E+07
1.20E+07
1.40E+07
1.60E+07
1.80E+07
2.00E+07
H0 (J/Kg)
Qref (W/m2)

Figure 15. Comparison between q w ahead the flap in flight and PWT conditions.

1.00E+05 CFD Flight 2D Pref - FLIGHT 2D Pref FLIGHT 3D Point P1 Point P2
1.00E+05
CFD Flight 2D
Pref - FLIGHT 2D
Pref FLIGHT 3D
Point P1
Point P2
1.00E+04
Pref - PWT
Pref - PWT Additional Runs
1.00E+03
1.00E+02
1.00E+01
8.00E+06
1.00E+07
1.20E+07
1.40E+07
1.60E+07
1.80E+07
2.00E+07
H0 (J/Kg)

Figure 16. Comparison between P w ahead the flap in flight and PWT conditions.

20

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

As it is clear from the comparison between the estimated reference values in flight conditions and the computed values on the selected model in PWT conditions, there is still a difference in the range of trajectory around the point with the maximum stagnation point heat flux (a factor 10 for the pressure, 1.5 for the heat flux), but the “Scirocco” facility seems to be able to duplicate the reference values (P ref and q ref ) at an higher value of the altitude (h50 Km, M18).

4.1.1. Pressure and Heat Flux Reference Values

In Figure 17 it is reported the variation of P ref as function of the reservoir pressure P 0 ; as it is expected the dependence is linear, and it has been found that the reference pressure is slightly affected by the reservoir enthalpy. The best approximation (obtained by a least square method) is reported in Equation 2. 3

1200 1000 800 600 Pref 400 Eq. 25 200 0 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00
1200
1000
800
600
Pref
400
Eq. 25
200
0
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
P
[Pa]ref

P 0 [bar]

Figure 17. P ref variation as function of P 0.

P

ref

=

4.44

H

0

+

51.81

P

0

38.24

(1)

The variation of the reference heat flux (for a fixed wall temperature equal to 300 K) is reported in Figure 18; in this case it has been found that the reference heat flux is a linear

function of the parameter

p 0
p
0

H ; the best approximation is reported in Equation 2.

0

2 ]

[W/mref

q

50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 Qref 15000 Eq. 26 10000 5000 0 10.00
50000
45000
40000
35000
30000
25000
20000
Qref
15000
Eq. 26
10000
5000
0
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00

(P 0 ) 1/2 H 0

Figure 18. q ref variation as function of

P H . 0 0
P H
.
0
0

3 In all the curve-fits reported in the present paragraph the following units are used: H 0 in MJ/kg and P 0 in bar, whereas the results are expressed in Pa and W/m 2 respectively for pressure and heat flux (both reference and peak values).

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

21

q ref

=

791.54

0
0

P H

0

+

2443 .5

(2)

In Figure 19 and Figure 20 are reported, respectively, the iso-lines of reference pressure and reference heat flux inside the PWT envelope.

45 40 SCIROCCO-PWT Envelope Map Numerical Computations 35 30 25 20 P ref 15 10
45
40
SCIROCCO-PWT Envelope Map
Numerical Computations
35
30
25
20
P ref
15
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
H 0 (MJ/kg)

P 0 (bar)

Figure 19. Iso-P ref lines inside the PWT envelope.

45 40 SCIROCCO-PWT Envelope Map Numerical Computations 35 30 25 20 q 15 ref 10
45
40
SCIROCCO-PWT Envelope Map
Numerical Computations
35
30
25
20
q
15
ref
10
5
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
P 0 (bar)
H 0 (MJ/kg)

Figure 20. Iso-q ref lines inside the PWT envelope.

4.1.2. Pressure and Heat Flux Peak Values

The same procedure described in the previous paragraph has been repeated for the peak values of pressure and heat flux reported, for all the performed computations, in Figure 21 and Figure 22. In Figure 21 it is reported the variation of P peak as function of the reservoir pressure P 0 ; the best approximation in terms of reservoir pressure and enthalpy is reported in Equation 3.

22

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

2500 2000 1500 1000 Ppeak Eq. 29 500 0 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00
2500
2000
1500
1000
Ppeak
Eq. 29
500
0
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
P
[Pa]peak

P 0 [bar]

Figure 21. P peak variation as function of P 0.

P

peak

=

175.91

P

0

+

8.2711

H

0

3.3385

P H

0

0

90.476

(3)

The variation of the peak value of heat flux (for a fixed wall temperature equal to 300 K) is reported in Figure 22; in this case it has been found that the reference heat flux is a linear

function of the parameter p H ; the best approximation is reported in Equation 4.
function of the parameter
p
H ; the best approximation is reported in Equation 4.
0
0
250000
200000
150000
Qpeak
100000
Eq. 30
50000
0
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
(P 0 ) 1/2 H 0
Figure 22. q peak variation as function of
P H
4
0
0
=
4529.9
P H
34262
q peak
0
0
2 ]
q
[W/mpeak

(4)

In Figure 23 and Figure 24 it is reported, respectively, the variation inside the PWT envelope of the peak values of pressure and heat flux.

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

23

45 40 SCIROCCO-PWT Envelope Map Numerical Computations 35 30 25 20 p 15 peak 10
45
40
SCIROCCO-PWT Envelope Map
Numerical Computations
35
30
25
20
p
15
peak
10
5
0
0 5
10
15
20
25
P 0 (bar)
H 0 (MJ/kg)

Figure 23. Iso-P peak lines inside the PWT envelope.

45 40 SCIROCCO-PWT Envelope Map Numerical Computations 35 30 25 q peak 20 15 10
45
40
SCIROCCO-PWT Envelope Map
Numerical Computations
35
30
25
q
peak
20
15
10
5
0
0 5
10
15
20
25
P 0 (bar)
H 0 (MJ/kg)

Figure 24. Iso-q peak lines inside the PWT envelope.

4.1.3. Angle of Attack

The reported curve-fits allow to determine the values of reference and peak values of pressure and heat flux on the model starting from the reservoir conditions of the PWT facility; these relationships refer to the case of the model attitude α=0 deg. In order to consider also the effect of the angle of attack on these parameters, it is possible to take into account the conditions reported in Table 1 with α0 deg, and to determine the ratios of p ref , q ref , p peak and q peak with respect to the case of α=0 deg. The ratios, which have been considered to be independent from the reservoir conditions, have been expressed as linear function of the angle of attack; they are reported in Equations 5,6, 7 and 8, respectively for the reference and peak values of pressure and heat flux:

Rp

ref

Rp

peak

=

=

p

ref

|

α

0

°

p

p

ref

peak

|

α

=

|

α

0

°

0

°

p

peak

|

α

=

0

°

=

=

0.0842

0.0641

α

+

α

+

1

1

(5)

(6)

24

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

Rq

ref

Rq

peak

=

=

q

ref

|

α

0

°

q

ref

|

α

=

0

°

=

0.0483

α

q

peak

|

α

0

°

q

peak

|

α

=

0

°

=

0.0382

α

+

+

1

1

(7)

(8)

4.2. Definition of the Experimental Conditions

The analysis of shock wave boundary layer interaction in flight conditions, along the EXPERT capsule re-entry trajectory, has been done in order to derive the requirements for the design of the experimental campaign to be performed in the CIRA PWT Scirocco (ref. [32]). In particular, two characteristics points along the EXPERT reference trajectory have been taken into account:

Point P1 (M =13.4, h=37km) that is the point when the capsule experiences the highest stagnation point heat flux along the re-entry;

Point P2 (M =18, h=50km) that is a high altitude point potentially critical for the passive/active oxidation of the C-SiC, which is the material used of the nose cap and the flap, characterized by high heat flux and a relatively low pressure.

The requirements for the design of the experimental campaign have been determined considering three-dimensional numerical computations performed along the re-entry trajectory in thermo-chemical non-equilibrium conditions (ref. [34]). In Figure 25 wall heat flux contours over the capsule surface are shown; wall temperature is fixed over the nose and the PM1000 cone (extracted from a thermal analysis of the TPS) whereas it has been considered in radiative equilibrium conditions over the flaps. It is evident, by the skin-friction pattern, the highly three-dimensional separation of the boundary layer ahead the flap and the consequent reattachment. In Figure 26 heat flux and pressure distribution along the symmetry plane of the capsule for the point P1 is shown whereas in Figure 27 the same plot for point P2 is shown.

whereas in Figure 27 the same plot for point P2 is shown. Figure 25. Heat flux

Figure 25. Heat flux over the EXPERT capsule: M =13.99, AoA=0 deg.

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

25

Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave… 25 Figure 26. Point P1 heat flux and pressure

Figure 26. Point P1 heat flux and pressure distribution.

25 Figure 26. Point P1 heat flux and pressure distribution. Figure 27. Point P2 heat flux

Figure 27. Point P2 heat flux and pressure distribution.

According to the precious results, requirements for the PWT experimental campaign are extracted in the following Table 4:

Table 4. PWT experiment requirements

   

Flight

condition

Variable

Estimation

Target P1

P flap (Pa)

19573.7

Q flap (kW/m 2 )

250.0

Target P2

P ref (Pa)

511.9

Q ref (kW/m 2 )

80.8

In order to determine the facility operating conditions that guarantee the achievement of a certain value of the couple (P ref ,q ref ) or (P peak ,q peak ) it is necessary to solve, respectively the system of Equations 1, 2, 3, and 4 in terms of P 0 and H 0 . As already said these relationships refer to the case of α=0 deg but, if the solution the couple (H 0 ,P 0 ) falls outside of the operating envelope of the facility is it necessary also to take into account the possibility to have an incidence of the model different from zero and then to consider also Equations 5, 6,

26

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

7 and 8. In particular, for point P1 the operating conditions of the facility have been determined in order to duplicate the peak values of pressure and heat flux over the flap estimated in flight conditions whereas for the point P2 the reference values ahead of the flap of pressure and heat flux have been considered as target of the experimental test.

4.2.1. Point P1-PWT

Concerning point P1 (M =13.4, h=37Km), the selected PWT condition is H 0 =15 MJ/Kg and P 0 =10 bar, and the model is set with a 12 deg angle of attack (the flap is in the wind side part), as graphically shown in Figure 28. As it will be clarified hereinafter, for this point, it is not possible to duplicate inside the PWT facility the peak value of pressure over the flap therefore the operating conditions have been determined to duplicate only the peak value of heat flux with a degradation of the test objectives.

45 SCIROCCO-PWT Envelope Map 40 Numerical Computations Iso-qpeak=250 kW/m2 35 P1-PWT 30 25 20 15
45
SCIROCCO-PWT Envelope Map
40
Numerical Computations
Iso-qpeak=250 kW/m2
35
P1-PWT
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0 5
10
15
20
25
H (MJ/kg0

P 0 (bar)

Figure 28. Definition of point P1-PWT.

4.2.2. Point P2-PWT

Regarding the duplication of the reference values of pressure and heat flux estimated at the trajectory point P2 (M =18, h=50Km), the following PWT test condition has been determined: H 0 =11 MJ/kg, P 0 =10 bar, α=5 deg, as graphically shown in Figure 29.

45 SCIROCCO-PWT Envelope Map 40 Numerical Computations Iso-Pref=511.9 Pa 35 Iso-qref=80.8 kW/m2 Point P2-PWT 30
45
SCIROCCO-PWT Envelope Map
40
Numerical Computations
Iso-Pref=511.9 Pa
35
Iso-qref=80.8 kW/m2
Point
P2-PWT
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0 5
10
15
20
25
H (MJ/kg0

P 0 (bar)

Figure 29. Definition of point P2-PWT.

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

27

5. MODEL THERMO-STRUCTURAL DESIGN

Test article conceived in the preliminary phase consists of a steel frame covered by thermal protection panels: the leading edge is a water cooled copper alloy cylinder, the upper part of the model is covered by a metallic panel of PM1000 whereas the flap is covered by a C/SiC panel and it is installed with a deflection angle equal to 20 deg with respect the PM1000 panel. Hence, the model is mounted on the facility MSS by means of a proper interface. Such a model is conceived to be applied for several types of tests. All the components of the test article are easily removable, in order to be replaced by others, with different characteristics (in terms for example of surface properties as catalysis and emissivity). Each part of the model has been analyzed through thermal and structural analysis to define thickness and insulator to keep temperature in the internal part of the model below certain limits.

5.1. Flat Plate

The flat plate in front of the flap has an overall thickness equal to 25 mm: it is formed by an upper panel made of PM1000, whose thickness is 2.5 mm (as on the EXPERT capsule), and a lower insulator made of PROMASIL of 22.5 mm thickness. For what concerns the mechanical interface between PM1000 panel and the insulator, different hypotheses have been analyzed in the design phase: the best solution has been identified considering the possibility of PM1000 panel to expand without any constrains with the insulator and by avoiding only the detachment of the panel from the model. In this way it has been possible to reduce the generation of critical thermal stresses on the surface and, therefore, to preserve the structural integrity of the panel under high heat flux conditions.

5.1.1. Thermal Analysis

To avoid the establishing of the reported dangerous stress field, the lesson learned is to let the PM1000 expand freely with respect to the underlying PROMASIL insulator; flat plate has been conceived as a 2.5 mm thick PM1000 panel jointed to the 22.5 mm thick PROMASIL 1100 panel through six PM1000 M3 bolts free to move; the sandwich was bonded to the metal frame by a 0.5 mm layer of high temperature commercial silicone rubber. Two dimensional ANSYS transient thermo-structural analyses have been performed to assess this concept design considering the most stressed section. The PM1000 panel was sketched as a semi-infinite panel at an initial temperature equal to 323 K, subjected, on the upper face, to the heat flux distribution numerically determined (fully catalytic wall, total hemispherical emissivity equal to 0.85), and adiabatic on the lower face; an unsteady thermal simulation has been carried out assuming a test duration equal to 150 sec. Temperature distribution, after 150 sec, in the PM1000 and PROMASIL panels is reported in Figure 30.

28

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

28 M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al. Figure 30 . PM1000 panel thermal

Figure 30. PM1000 panel thermal transient.

In Figure 31 the temperature transient is shown for different points of the model according to the following legenda:

TEMP_2 is PM1000 leading edge surface temperature; TEMP_3 is PM1000 trailing edge surface temperature; TEMP_4 is PM1000-PROMASIL leading edge interface temperature; TEMP_5 is PM1000-PROMASIL trailing edge interface temperature; TEMP_6 is PROMASIL-frame leading edge interface temperature; TEMP_7 is PROMASIL-frame trailing edge interface temperature

TEMP_7 is PROMASIL-frame trailing edge interface temperature Figure 31 . PM1000 panel thermal transient. At the

Figure 31. PM1000 panel thermal transient.

At the end of the test PM1000 panel maximum temperature (TEMP_2) is lower than 1500 K, that is its melting temperature, while promasil-frame maximum interface temperature (TEMP_6) is lower than 500 K that is suitable with the maximum service temperature of the model internal components.

5.1.2. Structural Analysis

With the last thermal transient analysis as input, a two-dimensional structural transient analysis was performed on the PM1000 panel considered unbound. At the end of the test the longitudinal free expansions of the panel, indifferently at the upper surface and at the

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

29

PM1000-PROMASIL interface, result in the order of ± 2 mm, while the vertical movements are negligible; consequently, longitudinal and transversal gaps of 2 mm were imposed to the borders of the panel flat plate in order to avoid thermal stress occurrence.

flat plate in order to avoid thermal stress occurrence. Figure 32 . PM1000 panel longitudinal expansion

Figure 32. PM1000 panel longitudinal expansion field at t=150 sec.

5.2. Deflected Flap

The flap has been conceived as a closed flap with the same dimensions of the flaps installed on the EXPERT capsule. In order to identify the best solution, different concepts have been analyzed through thermal analysis:

massive flap made of SiC, directly connected to the metal frame;

self-sustaining flap, a 4 mm thick SiC structure, directly connected to the frame;

composite flap, a 4 mm thick C-SiC panel supported by an insulating wedge having a trapezoidal section.

The final concept has been selected and analyzed more in detail through thermal and structural analysis. The plate is made of Keraman C/SiC panel bonded through 0.15 mm layer of ceramic adhesive to an amorphous Carbon wedge which is connected to the frame.

5.2.1. Thermal Analysis

Thermal analysis has been carried out under two dimensional hypothesis considering the most loaded section of the model; temperature distribution, after 150 sec, is shown in Figure 33 whereas thermal transient is shown in Figure 34.

30

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

30 M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al. Figure 33 . Keraman C/SiC and

Figure 33. Keraman C/SiC and amorphous Carbon wedge temperature field at t=150 sec.

and amorphous Carbon wedge temperature field at t=150 sec. Figure 34 . Keraman C/SiC and amorphous

Figure 34. Keraman C/SiC and amorphous Carbon wedge temperature transient.

In Figure 34:

TEMP_2 is leading edge C/SiC surface temperature; TEMP_3 is leading edge C/SiC-Amorphous Carbon interface temperature; TEMP_4 is leading edge Amorphous Carbon-frame interface temperature; TEMP_5 is trailing edge C/SiC surface temperature; TEMP_6 is trailing edge C/SiC-Amorphous Carbon interface temperature; TEMP_7 is trailing edge Amorphous Carbon -frame interface temperature. TEMP 8 is Amorphous Carbon-frame interface temperature, 110 mm downstream the leading edge

At the end of the test amorphous Carbon-frame interface temperature attains about 800 K at the leading edge (TEMP_4), about 400 K at 110 mm downstream the leading edge (TEMP_8) and remains practically cold at the trailing edge (TEMP_7); the highest Keraman C/SiC temperature (TEMP_5) exceeds 85% of temperature transient, not achieving radiative equilibrium. Being the frame designed as a cold structure, it is necessary to limit its temperature to at least 420 K; finally, the wedge leading edge will be 110 mm cantilever respect to the frame and the frame area between the wedge leading edge and 110 mm downstream will be thermally protected by PROMASIL insulating material at least 10 mm thick. Two-dimensional ANSYS transient thermal analysis carried out in this condition

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

31

confirmed the protective effect of the additional PROMASIL insulator with respect to the metallic frame.

5.2.2. Structural Analysis

With the last thermal transient analysis as input, a two dimensional structural transient analysis was performed and the conservative hypothesis of C/SiC-amorphous Carbon perfect interface has been made. At the end of the test, after 150 sec, von Mises stress fields in C/SiC and amorphous Carbon result both lower than their ultimate strength (see Figure 35); in detail, stress field in the bonding area is in the order of 10 MPa, that is critical for the ceramic adhesive but anyway of the same order of magnitude of the flexural strength reported (10÷15 MPa).

magnitude of th e flexural strength re ported (10÷15 MPa). Figure 35 . Keraman C/SiC von

Figure 35. Keraman C/SiC von Mises stresses at t=150 sec.

The maximum longitudinal and vertical expansions of the panel resulted respectively in the order of +0.3/-0.4 mm and +0.2/-0.4 mm as shown in

in the order of +0.3/-0.4 mm and +0.2/-0.4 mm as shown in Figure 36 . Keraman
in the order of +0.3/-0.4 mm and +0.2/-0.4 mm as shown in Figure 36 . Keraman

Figure 36. Keraman C/SiC flap longitudinal (left) and vertical (right) expansion field x20 at t=150s.

32

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

5.3. Lower and Lateral Panels

These parts of the test article, shown in Figure 37, are realised with PROMASIL. The lower panel has rectangular shape of 399 mm wide, 480.5 mm long and 25 mm thickness. It is stuck by a proper thermal resistant stick to the lower part of the frame, in order to protect the frame itself and the instrumentation installed on the test article from the very high thermal fluxes coming from the surrounding plasma during the development of the test run. The thickness of 25 mm of the lower panel has been evaluated in a conservative way by considering the highest value of the heat flux generated during the test runs. Thus, such a thickness is larger than necessary, because it is considered that the surface is not directly exposed to the plasma, but it is in the shadow region of the test article where the aerothermal loads are lower. Some little gaps of 0.5 mm between the lower panel and laterals are maintained on both the sides of the panel in order to permit the free thermal expansion of the material during the test. Such gaps will be full of proper thermal resistant stick such as silicones, in order to avoid any critical penetration of hot plasma fluid into the model.

any critical penetration of hot plasma fluid into the model. Figure 37. Lower and lateral panels.

Figure 37. Lower and lateral panels.

The laterals are also stuck to the frame of the test article. They are sized to resist to the high heat flux transferred to the model due to its geometry. In fact, at the extremities of the PM1000 panel, the heat flux value increases due to the finite size of the model. In order to reduce the aerothermal load at the extremities, a radius of 50 mm has been considered and such lateral panels of the model are sized to resist to that heat flux value. Panels have a length of 480.5 mm, a flat part of 100 mm and two radiuses at the top and the bottom of 50 mm for each one. By this way, the frame of the model and its instrumentation are well protected by thermal loads coming from the plasma.

5.4. Water Cooled Leading Edge

This component, shown in Figure 38, is the most critical of the test article. It was chosen, during the design phase, to realize this component with copper in order to avoid any contamination of the boundary layer in the downstream part of the model, where the shock wave boundary layer interaction experiment takes place. The high temperatures foreseen on this part make it necessary to consider also a water cooling system. The geometry of the leading edge is very complex. It consists of inner and outer parts of copper. About the outer

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

33

part its thickness is 5 mm. It is cylindrical for the main length of the body, with a diameter of 200 mm and a length of 400 mm. At the extremities the body has two shoulders to guarantee the geometrical connection to the main cylindrical body surface. On this component, very high values of heat flux are foreseen.

this component, very high values of heat flux are foreseen. Figure 38 . Water cooled leading

Figure 38. Water cooled leading edge.

The inner part of the leading edge is a massive solid of copper with the same geometrical components of the outer part. Its overall length is 490 mm, and the diameter of the cylindrical body is 182 mm. On its back, a flat surface of copper with a thickness of 4 mm allows to fix the body to the outer part of the leading edge, by means of proper welding. Thus between these parts a cooling jacket is realised, with a thickness of 4 mm and cooling water is introduced into the jacket, then it flows through the cooled jacket along the length of the leading edge body, from a shoulder to the other and viceversa, and it is driven by means of proper copper dams which are properly realized on the surface of the inner body.

5.5. Model Frame

The frame is a cage made by a plurality of 30 x 30 x 3 mm L-beams AISI 316L (see Figure 39). The ends of the horizontal anglers are welded together at 45°, in order to obtain a continue surface without steps. On the upper and lower vertical parts of the front cage anglers, 8 holes M13 will be applied at a horizontal and vertical distance of 16.5 mm from the frame edge.

holes M13 will be applied at a horizontal and vertical distance of 16.5 mm from the

Figure 39. Model frame.

34

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

At the back of the cage, two vertical beams are welded to the upper and lower anglers to bolt the MSS interface. Such an interface will be installed by proper bolts and nuts M12. In fact, the two vertical beams and anglers at the back part of the cage will be drilled for the realization of the 8 holes with a diameter of 13 mm. Thus, 8 nuts M12 will be welded at the inside part of the beams and anglers, in order to permit the screwing of the corresponding bolts of the interface. The frame can be outlined in a conservative way as a structure of just 8 cantilever L- beams (I =1,40×10 -8 m 4 , =0.456 m) loaded on the edge by a transverse load F of 1979 N at 20° angle of attack. Under these assumptions the structure constitutes a system of 8 stiffeners acting in parallel, each cantilever having the same deflection of the others and being loaded by 1/8 of the transverse load F; the frame edge deflection results of 2.9×10 -3 m while the normal stress at the joint is 174 MPa, the yield safety factor is 1.18.

5.6. Final Material Selection

As described in the present section, the material selected for the realization of the flat plate is PM1000 that is the same material foreseen for the TPS of the EXPERT capsule. In any case, due to some problem in the provision of this material, whose production has been suspended during the development of the design phase, it has been replaced by Haynes 25 which has been selected due to the fact that its thermo-mechanical properties are very similar to those of PM1000. The same thermal and structural analysis have been carried out considering this material and they provided practically the same results already presented.

6. PWT SCIROCCO EXPERIMENT DETAILED DESIGN

Once the model dimensions and the materials have been defined, and the test operating conditions allowing for the duplication ahead and over the flap of the mechanical and thermal loads estimated along the EXPERT re-entry flight trajectory have been defined accordingly to the developed extrapolation-from-flight procedure, detailed two- and three- dimensional numerical analyses have been carried out to analyse, mainly, the effects of the finite spanwise dimension of the model itself.

6.1. Computational Grids

Computational grids for the simulations of the flow over the model have been generated by means of the grid generator commercial software package ICEMCFD ® . Numerical simulations have been made by neglecting the presence of the MMS of the facility, thus avoiding to simulate the base flow region. However, it has been verified with a 2D simulation that this assumption has no significant impact on the predicted values over the model, and results will be shown in Sec. 0. An O-grid topology turning around the body and projected on the symmetry and outlet planes has been built around the model, while a quarter O-grid topology has been created on the flap lateral part. The block decomposition is shown in Figure 40. Due to the symmetry of the flow (inside the PWT test chamber) with respect to the

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35

longitudinal symmetry plane of the model, the computational grid has been generated only for a half of the model. It is composed of hexahedral elements obtained with a block-structured approach; the total number of blocks is 62 and the total number of cells is about 1.5 millions for the finest grid level.

of cells is about 1.5 millions for the finest grid level. Figure 40. Block decomposition. Figure

Figure 40. Block decomposition.

for the finest grid level. Figure 40. Block decomposition. Figure 41. Computational grid. Computational grid over

Figure 41. Computational grid.

Computational grid over model surface and in the symmetry and outlet planes is shown in Figure 41. The mesh has been stretched in correspondence of the flap hinge line (i.e. the interface between Haynes 25 and C-SiC, where flow separation takes place), and normally to the model surfaces in order to properly predict the different boundary layers developing around the geometric configuration. The minimum spacing normal to the wall for the fine grid level is 5.910 -6 m at the geometrical stagnation point (with a correspondent aspect ratio of about 1200), and is 410 -6 m at the hinge line (with an aspect ratio of 2.5). A factor 8 exists between the number of cells of the fine grid level and that of the coarse grid level: each edge of the coarse grid level has been split in two parts to obtain the fine grid level, while a medium grid level has been properly created to verify the grid independence of the computed results on the fine grid. Table 5 reports the total number of cells, blocks and faces of the mesh for the three different grid levels employed for the computations.

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M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

Table 5. Computational grid characteristics

GRID LEVEL

CELLS

BLOCKS

FACES

coarse

189088

   

medium

771803

62

234

fine

1512704

6.2. Two-Dimensional Numerical Results

In order to analyze different aspects of the problem, in particular the effects of some assumptions that have been made in the 3D calculations, several 2D flow simulations have been made by considering the flow in the centreline of the model. Even though this is a rather good approximation for plane surfaces for which the flow exhibits a quasi-two-dimensional structure, these computations have been used only for parametric and qualitative analysis, considering the 3D computations as dimensioning cases. This approximation allowed us to perform a wide amount of computations with a reasonable CPU-time consuming. The symmetry plane of the full 3D grid around the model has been extracted and used for the two-dimensional computations. This grid is composed by about 20000 cells (fine level). The complete CFD matrix considered for the 2D computations is shown in Table 6. The following effects on the SWBLI over the model have been analyzed:

1)

the effects of the Haynes 25 and C-SiC catalytic recombination coefficients;

2)

the effects of the nose wall temperature assumption;

3)

the effects of the base flow.

Table 6. 2D CFD Matrix 4

 

Wall Temperature

 

Catalytic Recombination Coefficients

   

# ID

Nose

Plate/Flap

 

Haynes 25

   

C-SiC

Notes

γ

O

γ

Ν

γ

O

γ

Ν

 

1 Rad.Eq.1

373

     

1

 

1

1

 
 

2 Rad.Eq.1

373

     

1

 

0

0

 
 

3 Rad.Eq.1

Rad.Eq.

     

1

 

0

0

 
 

4 Rad.Eq.

373

   

0

 

0

0.05

0.015

 
 

5 Rad.Eq.

373

 

0.001

0.001

0.05

0.015

 
 

6 Rad.Eq.

373

 

0.01

0.01

0.05

0.015

 
 

7 Rad.Eq.

373

 

0.1

0.1

0.05

0.015

 
 

8 Rad.Eq.

373

   

1

 

1

0.05

0.015

 
 

9 Rad.Eq.

373

   

1

 

1

 

1

 

1Base Flow

Regarding points 1) and 2) of the present analysis, it is useful to remind that when the preliminary requirements have been given, the model surface was assumed to be fully catalytic and in radiative equilibrium without any interface between different materials. For

4 The conditions of run #9 have been applied for two computations whose model differs for the geometry of the flap trailing edge, as it will be shown when the effects of the base flow region on the model will be discussed.

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all these computations the nose and the lower part of the model have been always considered as fully catalytic.

6.2.1. Wall Catalycity Effects

Several 2D computations have been performed to analyze the effects of the catalytic recombination coefficients of both Haynes 25 and C-SiC over the characteristic parameters of the SWBLI flow. For what concerns the effects of Haynes 25 recombination coefficients over the interaction, the analysis has been performed considering a parametric variation of γ O and γ N , between 0 and 1, and keeping constant the recombination coefficients of C-SiC (γ O =0.05, γ N =0.015, from ref. [30]). The analysis and comparison of results can be done considering the computations #4, #5, #6, #7 and #8 of Table 6, for which the nose temperature has been imposed equal to 373K whereas on the Haynes 25 flat plate and the C-SiC flap the wall radiative equilibrium temperature has been considered. The effect of Haynes 25 catalytic behaviour on the results over the flap is negligible, the peak values of pressure and heat flux are almost the same for all the conditions that have been considered, as it results from Figure 42 and Figure 43 where, respectively, the wall distributions of pressure and heat flux are reported. Of course, the main effect has been found on the flat plate especially for what concerns heat flux and temperature distributions that increase as the recombination coefficients increase (see, respectively, Figure 43 and Figure 44). Note that computation #4 corresponds to a Haynes 25 non catalytic and computation #8 to a Haynes 25 fully catalytic. Finally, the effect of catalysis on the size of the flow separation, induced by the presence of the SWBLI around the hinge-line, is to slightly enlarge the separation region in the case of non-catalytic Haynes 25 as can be seen in Figure 45 where the skin friction coefficient distribution is reported. As a general remark, the catalytic effect seems to be more important with respect to the influence estimated on the EXPERT capsule, due to the fact that in PWT conditions the flow is more dissociated (either due to the expansion nozzle flow either due to the lower pressure levels) therefore the effects of wall catalycity are more evident.

therefore the effects of wall catalycity are more evident. Figure 42. Haynes 25 catalysis effects: wall

Figure 42. Haynes 25 catalysis effects: wall pressure distribution.

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M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

38 M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al. Figure 43. Haynes 25 catalysis effects:

Figure 43. Haynes 25 catalysis effects: heat flux distribution.

43. Haynes 25 catalysis effects: heat flux distribution. Figure 44. Haynes 25 catalysis effects: wall temperature

Figure 44. Haynes 25 catalysis effects: wall temperature distribution.

Haynes 25 catalysis effects: wall temperature distribution. Figure 45. Haynes 25 catalysis effects: skin friction

Figure 45. Haynes 25 catalysis effects: skin friction distribution.

In the same way, the effect of the C-SiC recombination coefficients over the SWBLI flow has been analyzed. This analysis has been done considering the Haynes 25 as a fully catalytic material and by changing the recombination coefficients of C-SiC. Wall temperature has been considered equal to 373 K for the nose and equal to the radiative equilibrium temperature for the flat plate and the flap as done in the previous analysis. The simulations used for this

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39

comparison correspond to the computations #1, #2 and #8 of Table 6; computation #1 corresponds to a fully catalytic flap, computation #2 corresponds to a non catalytic flap, while computation #8 corresponds to a partially catalytic flap with constant recombination coefficients (γ O =0.05, γ N =0.015). For all these computations the Haynes 25 has been considered as fully catalytic. As already found for the analysis of Haynes 25 catalysis effects on the predicted interaction flow, pressure distribution over the model is not significantly affected by the catalytic behavior of C-SiC flap as it results from the wall pressure distribution shown in Figure 46.

from the wall pressure distribution shown in Figure 46. Figure 46. C-SiC catalysis effects: wall pressure

Figure 46. C-SiC catalysis effects: wall pressure distribution.

The effects of C-SiC catalysis on heat flux and temperature distribution over the model are much more evident, as shown, respectively, in Figure 47 and Figure 48. It is interesting to note that the catalytic recombination coefficients of C-SiC do not affect the results only over the flap itself but also on the Haynes 25 flat plate. In particular, when the C-SiC is considered as a non-catalytic material (i.e. no recombination at the wall is forced), a strong increase of the heating on Haynes 25 has been found: following the flow direction inside the separation bubble, the particles composing the air mixture “feel” a discontinuity at the hinge-line, between a low and a high catalytic material, thus forcing a sudden recombination with a strong energy release and a consequent heat flux (and temperature) increase. Of course, this effect is more evident when the flap is non catalytic rather than in partially catalytic conditions, when a certain recombination of the atomic oxygen and nitrogen over the C-SiC is allowed. This effect will be also treated when analyzing the 3D computations because the phenomenon is highly influenced by the three-dimensional effects of the interaction around the flap, as it will be described in sec. 0. It is also interesting to note that the partially catalytic condition over the flap, assuming the coefficients γ O =0.05 and γ N =0.015, causes a little reduction of the heat flux (see Figure 47) and temperature (see Figure 48) over the flap with respect to the fully catalytic condition.

40

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

40 M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al. Figure 47. C-SiC catalysis effects: heat

Figure 47. C-SiC catalysis effects: heat flux distribution.

Figure 47. C-SiC catalysis effects: heat flux distribution. Figure 48. C-SiC catalysis effects: wall temperature

Figure 48. C-SiC catalysis effects: wall temperature distribution.

The effects of C-SiC catalysis over the size of the separation bubble are negligible (as well as those of the Haynes 25 catalysis) as it results from Figure 49, where the skin-friction coefficient distribution over the model is reported.

coefficient distribution over the model is reported. Figure 49. C-SiC catalysis effects: skin friction

Figure 49. C-SiC catalysis effects: skin friction distribution.

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41

6.2.2. Nose Temperature Effects

The preliminary requirements for the design of the model for SWBLI experiments were given considering the radiative equilibrium temperature at wall for all the parts of the model. However, the design phase of the model itself highlighted the necessity to cool the copper cylindrical leading edge whose surface temperature has to be maintained lower than 2000 K thus, during the experimental tests, it will be used a demineralised water active cooling system to keep the temperature constant at a value of about 373 K (100 °C). Since the aim of the experimental activities is to duplicate in PWT conditions some characteristic parameters of the interaction encountered in EXPERT flight conditions, it is necessary to verify that: 1) the nose wall temperature does not affect the estimated values of pressure and heat flux over the flat plate and the flap and 2) that the operating conditions determined, in the preliminary activity, to duplicate these parameters, considering the wall radiative equilibrium temperature, are still valid. The nose wall temperature effects over the flat plate and the flap can be analyzed by comparing the computations #2 and #3 of Table 6 where the Haynes 25 has been considered as fully catalytic and the C-SiC flap as non catalytic. The results have been reported in terms of wall pressure, wall heat flux and wall temperature distributions, respectively, in Figure 50, Figure 51 and Figure 52. As it is clear, the effects over the pressure are negligible along the entire geometry (Figure 50), whereas nose temperature has an effect on the heat flux (Figure 51) and temperature (Figure 52) distributions over the flat plate whereas the influence over the flap is negligible. It must be noted that the effect of the cooled nose is positive for the nose/Haynes 25 interface (see Figure 52): in fact, a decrease of about 100 °C is predicted at the beginning of the Haynes 25 flat plate, whose estimated temperature, in the case of radiative equilibrium wall temperature on the nose, was too much close to the maximum allowable temperature for this material. Note, in Figure 51 and Figure 52, the phenomenon described in the previous paragraph of peak heating at the Haynes 25 plate/C-SiC flap catalytic interface due to the re-circulating flow inside the separation bubble. Another effect of the nose temperature is the influence on the size of the flow separation; in particular, the separation point moves slightly upstream whereas the reattachment point is almost the same, as it is possible to see from the skin friction coefficient distribution reported in Figure 53.

10000 0.7 8000 0.6 6000 RUN #2 - T nose =373 K RUN #3 -
10000
0.7
8000
0.6
6000
RUN #2 - T nose =373 K
RUN
#3 - T nose =T rad.eq.
0.5
4000
Geometry
0.4
2000
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
X [m]
Pressure [Pa]
y [m]

Figure 50. T nose effects: wall pressure distribution.

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M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

1500 0.7 0.6 RUN #2 - T nose =373 K 0.5 RUN #3 - T
1500
0.7
0.6
RUN #2 - T nose =373 K
0.5
RUN #3 - T nose =T rad.eq.
1000
Geometry
0.4
0.3
500
0.2
0.1
0
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
X
[m]
Heat Flux [kW/m 2 ]
y [m]

Figure 51. T nose effects: wall heat flux distribution.

2200 RUN #2 - T nose =373 K 0.7 RUN #3 - T nose =T
2200
RUN #2 - T nose =373 K
0.7
RUN
#3 - T nose =T rad.eq.
2000
Geometry
0.6
1800
1600
0.5
1400
0.4
1200
1000
0.3
800
0.2
600
400
0.1
200
0
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
Temperature [K]
y [m]

X [m]

Figure 52. T nose effects: wall temperature distribution.

Skin Friction Coefficient

0.05

0.7

0.6

RUN #2 - T nose =373 K 0.5 RUN #3 - T nose =T rad.eq.
RUN #2 - T nose =373 K
0.5
RUN #3 - T nose =T rad.eq.
Geometry
0.4
0.3
0.2
0
0.1
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
y [m]

0.03

0.02

0.01

-0.01

0.04

X [m]

Figure 53. T nose effects: skin friction coefficient distribution.

6.2.3. Base Flow Effects

Three-dimensional numerical computations have been made avoiding to consider the presence of the base flow region in order to reduce the number of points and speed up the convergence (see Figure 41). Also the majority of the two-dimensional computations, whose grid has been extracted from the 3D mesh, have been performed without the base flow. Even if the effect of the base flow region on the results over the model has been already analyzed

Design, Execution and Numerical Rebuilding of Shock Wave…

43

for the preliminary configuration of the model (see par.0) it is important to verify also in this case that the assumption to neglect the simulation of this region does not affect significantly the numerical predictions over the model, therefore a couple of computations with the base flow region has also been performed (run #9 of Table 6). The grid used for this comparison is showed in Figure 54. In the forward part it is exactly the same grid used for the computations without the base; at flap trailing edge three blocks have been added to simulate the base flow region whose length is equal to 1.5 L flap , that has been estimated sufficient to allow for the closure of the base vortex.

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 X [m] Y
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
X [m]
Y [m]

Figure 54. Grid for 2D base flow computations.

Two different flap trailing edge shapes have been considered and are shown in Figure 55:

the sharp and the rounded one, the latter with a 2mm radius of curvature. Computations have been performed in the hypothesis of radiative equilibrium temperature and fully catalytic base. Mach number contours of simulation with sharp flap trailing edge are reported in Figure 56, showing clearly that the selected length of the computational domain in the base region is sufficient to allow for the closure of the vortex.

0.215 Sharp 0.21 0.205 0.2 Rounded R=2 mm 0.195 0.19 0.565 0.57 0.575 0.58 0.585
0.215
Sharp
0.21
0.205
0.2
Rounded R=2 mm
0.195
0.19
0.565
0.57
0.575
0.58
0.585
0.59
0.595
X
(m)
Y (m)

Figure 55. Sharp and rounded flap trailing edge.

44

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

0.7 Mach_number: 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5
0.7
Mach_number:
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
X [m]
Y [m]

Figure 56. Base flow effects: Mach number contours.

In Figure 57 wall pressure distribution for the computation without the base flow region (run #1 of Table 6) is compared with the results obtained considering the base flow region; as it is clear, the presence of the base region, independently from the shape of the flap trailing edge, causes a reduction of the separation length and a slight decrease of the pressure load over the flap. For what concerns the thermal loads, the reduction of the separation length causes an increase over the flap as shown in terms of wall heat flux and temperature distributions, respectively, in Figure 58 and Figure 59. For a quantitative estimation, the values at the reattachment point of heat flux and temperature have been reported in Table 7: the increase is equal to 5% in terms of wall heat flux and 1% in terms of wall temperature. The effect of the trailing edge geometry is negligible for the values of heat flux and temperature over the flap being important only very close to the trailing edge itself; the maximum temperature, in the case of base flow calculation, is 25 K higher in the case of the

sharp trailing edge with respect to the case with a rounded trailing edge, as reported in Figure

59.

In Figure 60 the skin-friction coefficient distribution over the model is reported; it is clear from this figure the reduction of the separation length in the case of base flow calculations; the effect of the base flow affects both the separation point location and the reattachment point one. The exact positions of separation and reattachment in the cases with or without the presence of the base region are reported in Table 7, and show a reduction of about 15% of the separation length due to base flow effects, independently of the shape of the flap trailing edge.

Table 7. Base flow effects: thermal loads and separation

# ID

 

T

flap

q

flap

T

max

X

sep

X reat

L

sep

Geometry

[K]

[kW/m 2 ]

[K]

[m]

[m]

[m]

1

No base

1367

171

1367

0.1504

0.4857

0.3353

9

Sharp TE

1386

180

1605

0.1639

0.4467

0.2828

9

Rounded TE

1387

181

1580

0.1637

0.4459

0.2822

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45

3000 RUN #1 - No Base RUN #9 - Baseflow - Rounded flap trailing edge
3000
RUN #1 - No Base
RUN #9 - Baseflow - Rounded flap trailing edge
RUN #9 - Baseflow - Sharp flap trailing edge
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
X [m]
Pressure [Pa]

Figure 57. Base flow effects: wall pressure distribution.

600 RUN #1 - No Base RUN #9 - Baseflow - Rounded flap trailing edge
600
RUN #1 - No Base
RUN #9 - Baseflow - Rounded flap trailing edge
RUN #9 - Baseflow - Sharp flap trailing edge
500
400
300
200
100
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
X [m]
Heat Flux [kW/m 2 ]

Figure 58. Base flow effects: wall heat flux distribution.

1800 RUN #1 - No Base RUN #9 - Baseflow - Rounded flap trailing edge
1800
RUN #1 - No Base
RUN #9 - Baseflow - Rounded flap trailing edge
RUN #9 - Baseflow - Sharp flap trailing edge
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
X [m]
Temperature [K]

Figure 59. Base flow effects: wall temperature distribution.

46

M. Di Clemente, E. Trifoni, A. Martucci et al.

Skin Friction Coefficient

0.04 RUN #1 - No Base RUN #9 - Baseflow - Rounded flap trailing edge
0.04
RUN #1 - No Base
RUN #9 - Baseflow - Rounded flap trailing edge
RUN #9 - Baseflow - Sharp flap trailing edge
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
-0.01
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
X [m]

Figure 60. Base flow effects: skin friction coefficient distribution.

6.3. Three-Dimensional Numerical Results

The complete CFD matrix for 3D computations is reported in Tab. 8. The computations have been performed for the two test chamber conditions, defined in sec. 0, that allow for the duplication in PWT of characteristic parameters of the shock wave boundary layer interaction ahead and over the flap estimated during the EXPERT capsule re-entry trajectory.

Tab. 8. 3D CFD Matrix

 

P

0

H

0

AoA

 

Temperature

   

Catalysis

 
 

[bar]

[MJ/kg]

[deg]

nose

plate

lateral/bottom

flap

nose

plate

lateral/bottom

flap

P1-PWT

10

15

12

373

K

rad. eq.

rad. eq.

rad. eq.

FC

FC

FC

FC

NC

P2-PWT

10

11

5

373

K

rad. eq.

rad. eq.

rad. eq.

FC

FC

FC

FC

NC

Note that, as reported in Table 4, for point P1 the peak loads acting on the flap are reported as targets (to be duplicated in PWT experiments), while for point P2 the targets are represented by the reference values ahead of the flap, upstream of the boundary layer separation front. Temperature at the cylindrical leading edge of the model has been imposed for all the computations equal to 373 K (100°C) due to the presence of the active cooling system, whereas for all the other parts of the model the hypothesis of wall radiative equilibrium has been made. For what concerns the catalytic behaviour of the different materials, all the parts have been considered as fully catalytic, in order to provide a conservative estimation of the heat flux, whereas for the C-SiC flap the two limit conditions of fully catalytic and non catalytic wall have been considered. This latter condition has been chosen since the two- dimensional sensitivity analysis of Sec. 0 has shown that assuming a non catalytic flap causes an unexpected overheating at the Haynes 25 plate/C-SiC flap interface, i.e. at the hinge line. In order to completely describe the predicted results on the test article, a series of planes cutting the model have been defined, along which the surface distributions of the interesting aerothermodynamic variables as pressure, heat flux and temperature have been plotted. These cutting planes are shown in Figure 61. The extraction of the numerical surface results will be performed on three longitudinal planes corresponding to the symmetry plane

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(Z=0 m), to a middle plane in the spanwise direction (Z=0.1 m) and to a plane near the model lateral edge (Z=0.195 m), and six transversal planes located on the Haynes 25 flat plate (X=0.125 m, X=0.200 m and X=0.275 m) and on the C-SiC flap (X=0.350 m, X=0.450 m and X=0.550 m). Moreover, the predicted flow features will be described in detail also by means of contour maps on the model surface (pressure, temperature, heat flux) and skin-friction lines.

temp erature, heat flux) a nd skin-friction lines. Figure 61. Cutting planes for surface data extraction.

Figure 61. Cutting planes for surface data extraction.

6.3.1. Condition P2-PWT

In this paragraph, only the numerical results related to the conditions PWT-P2 are reported being the condition realized during the first test of the experimental campaign whose results will be shown in sec. 0. The condition P2-PWT has been determined to reproduce the reference values (ahead of the separation point) of pressure and heat flux experienced by the EXPERT capsule flap during the re-entry trajectory at the so-called point P2, a flight condition where the transition between passive and active oxidation of the C-SiC could take place. The facility operating conditions able to duplicate such values correspond to a reservoir enthalpy H 0 =11 MJ/kg and a reservoir pressure P 0 =10 bar, with the model positioned at an angle of attack equal to 5 deg (flap is in the windside part), and 0.375 m behind the PWT conical nozzle D exit section. Pressure contours are shown in Figure 62 whereas in Figure 63 and Figure 64 the skin- friction lines over the model are shown. It is clear the presence of the bow shock in front of the model; the pressure is maximum on the cylinder leading edge then it decreases regularly on the model; furthermore, pressure field seems largely two-dimensional on the cylindrical leading edge, the flat plate and the region around the hinge line (where a flow recirculation occurs), whilst evident spanwise effects are present on the flap surface with a clear flow expansion at the flap lateral edge. A separation of the boundary layer in front of the flap is predicted, followed by a recirculation bubble and a flow reattachment over the flap, as clear from the skin friction lines shown in Figure 63; it is clear the three-dimensionality of the flow around the model, that is stresses in Figure 64 by the view from the top of the model. Longitudinal extent of the separated area decreases moving from model centreplane to the lateral edge due to the effect of the finite spanwise dimension: the flow expansion at the model edge causes a strong spanwise flow inside the recirculation bubble with consequent boundary layer thinning. A certain two-dimensionality of the flow on the cylindrical leading

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edge and the flat plate is predicted whereas it is almost completely lost over the flap, where finite span effects are larger due to the stronger flow expansion at flap lateral edge (transversal pressure gradient is stronger over the flap, behind the reattachment shock).

is stronger over the flap, behind the reattachment shock). Figure 62. P2-PWT: pressure contours. Figure 63.

Figure 62. P2-PWT: pressure contours.

reattachment shock). Figure 62. P2-PWT: pressure contours. Figure 63. P2-PWT: skin-friction lines. Figure 64. P2-PWT:

Figure 63. P2-PWT: skin-friction lines.

pressure contours. Figure 63. P2-PWT: skin-friction lines. Figure 64. P2-PWT: skin-friction lines (top view).

Figure 64. P2-PWT: skin-friction lines (top view).

Temperature contours in the case of fully catalytic C-SiC flap are shown in Figure 65, whereas in Figure 66 it is reported an enlargement of the flap region. Temperature on the

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leading edge is imposed at 373 K whereas on the rest of the model the radiative equilibrium is assumed. On the flap, temperature reaches values of about 1200 K on the symmetry plane with an increase at the lateral edge due to the thinning of the boundary layer caused by the flow expansion. In Figure 66 an enlargement of the flap region is shown; in the same figure is also visible the pattern of the skin-friction lines in the lateral flap region. Separation vortex in front of the flap turns around the flap itself, and a double-vortex structure on the lateral part of the model takes place. Two separation lines and two attachment lines are clearly visible, thus evidencing a typical corner flow structure with a inner vortex and a outer main vortex, this latter separating just below the flap lateral edge and attaching on the rounded lateral protection of the model. In particular, along the attachment line of the main vortex an local peak of temperature up to values of about 1300 K has been predicted.

temperature up to values of about 1300 K has been predicted. Figure 65. P2-PWT, FC flap:

Figure 65. P2-PWT, FC flap: skin-friction lines and temperature contours.

FC flap: skin-friction lines and temperature contours. Figure 66. P2-PWT, FC flap: skin-friction lines and

Figure 66. P2-PWT, FC flap: skin-friction lines and temperature contours in the flap region.

In Figure 67 pressure transversals distribution on the Haynes 25 flat plate are reported at the three different X=const planes selected for analysis purposes. Pressure decreases moving along the plate up to the separation location where a sharp increase due to the separation shock is predicted, and finite span effects are again evident at all X=const sections. Heat flux distributions over the plate are shown in Figure 68; in the zone of attached flow (sections X=0.125 m and X=0.200 m), a rather constant distribution in the central part of the model is predicted, then it decreases moving towards the lateral edge up to a sharp increase

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due to the rounded lateral edge of the model. At the section X=0.275 m, that is inside the separation bubble, heat flux distribution is almost constant on the plate up to the lateral edge where a sudden increase is predicted. The same behaviour is found, of course, in terms of wall temperature whose transversal distributions are shown in Figure 69. The three- dimensional effects over the plate are enhanced in the separation bubble as it results from the increase of heat flux and temperature at the lateral edge of the model with respect to the values on the model symmetry plane predicted at X=0.275 m, rather than the same increase at the location X=0.125 m and X=0.200 m.

the same increase at the location X=0.125 m and X=0.200 m. Figure 67. P2-PWT: pressure distributions

Figure 67. P2-PWT: pressure distributions along Z axis on the Haynes 25 flat plate.

Pressure distribution over the flap is not affected by the catalytic behaviour of the material as shown clearly from Figure 70, where pressure transversal distributions at three different X=const planes over the flap itself are plotted. Two-dimensionality of the flow in terms of pressure seems better moving towards the flap trailing edge, where pressure levels