Land Warfare Conference 2012

Melbourne Oct/Nov 2012

The Massive-yet-Tiny Engine: A comparison of OEM claims
LTCOL BRETT LABOO Senior Military Officer, DSTO

ABSTRACT
Firepower, mobility and protection have not been the sole considerations for modern military platforms for some time now. Auxiliary power generation for an ever increasing range of integrated systems required for the effective and adaptive conduct of network enabled warfare in a connected yet expansive battle space is an additional prime consideration. So too are the through life costs together with the logistic burden for its operation. In order to effectively address these considerations holistically and systematically a new or greatly improved technology is required. The scope of this work is to compare some COTS/MOTS power packs with a selected new break-through technology for internal-combustion piston engines—the Massive-yet-Tiny (MyT) engine [1] using only Original Equipment Manufacture (OEM) product specification data. The engines are compared on several criteria, dry weight (kg), gross volume (m³), claimed max power output, both (kW) and torque (Nm), specific power (kW/kg) and gross power density (MW/m³). Procurement costs and fuel consumption (l/hr) are not considered as they are not universally listed in the OEM product specification literature or websites. Additionally the technology of the MyT engine is described along with an outline of some research and development issues. Finally a number of applications for the MyT engine are discussed briefly. The MyT engine clearly outperforms and outclasses all of the COTS/MOTS power packs considered. The 14” MyT engine weighing 68 kg, occupying 0.035 m³ and with a claimed output of 2238 kW has a minimum specific power of 32.91 kW/kg and a power density of 63.156 MW/m³.[2] The levels of internal-combustion piston engine efficiency, specific power and power density for the current Australian Defence Force (ADF) inventory are clearly sub-par in comparison to the MyT engine. Notwithstanding any other benefits, there is no valid or logical justification for the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) to ignore the MyT engine any longer. As a matter of priority the MyT engine needs to be investigated to ratify the claims and verify its reliability so that its output characteristics and general dimensions may be the default essential specifications for power packs across multiple platforms in either block upgrades or initial acquisitions. The Australian Defence Industry has a brilliant opportunity to pre-empt the ADF in the uptake of this technological black swan [3] to the mutual benefit of all parties.

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specific power (kW/kg) and gross power density (MW/m³). Introduction Firepower.91 kW/kg and a power density of 63. at annex A. In 2005 it was entered in the NASA Create The Future Contest in the Automotive Category.1 Pistons and Gears A general approximation of the MyT piston could be conceptualised as the joining of two regular pistons back to back which have been cut through in the vicinity of the oil ring. In order to effectively address the power related considerations holistically and systematically a new or greatly improved technology is required. Description Unlike other internal combustion piston engines. mechanically controlled by a gear and crank assembly. Additionally the technology of the MyT engine is described along with an outline of some research and development issues. Finally a number of applications for the MyT engine are discussed briefly. A whole range of considerations are depicted graphically in a diagram referred to as Quinn’s Quilt [4]. it was judged as the best entry from all categories that year. gross volume (m³). Not only did it win that category. Gross power density is reported in MW/m³ so as not to potentially confuse a common metric of kW/l which uses engine capacity.2 General History The MyT engine has been known in the public domain for almost a decade now. The two 116 . There are eight doubleheaded pistons separately linked into two sets of four permanently fixed and equally spaced interleaved rotors. Auxiliary power generation for an ever increasing range of integrated systems required for the effective and adaptive conduct of network enabled warfare in a connected yet expansive battle space is an additional prime consideration. [5]. It is expected that a reader knowledgeable in the field would identify many additional applications—and that is encouraged. Moreover they move around the toroidal “bore” in a staccato motion. [7] The prototype of the 14” MyT engine weighs only 68 kg. Other form-factors include a 6” diameter version. It was publicly displayed at the both the 2005 SEMA Show [6] and the 2006 Los Angeles Auto Show. Thus there are no piston skirts and therefore friction losses are minimised.1 Scope of Work The scope of this work is to compare some COTS/MOTS power packs with a selected new break-through technology for internalcombustion piston engines—MyT engine using only open source / publically available OEM product specification data. occupies 0.035 m³ and has a claimed output of 2238 kW. the MyT engine pistons do not reciprocate. [9] 1.156 MW/m³. both (kW) and torque (Nm). 1.Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne Oct/Nov 2012 1. Procurement costs and fuel consumption (l/hr) are not considered as they are not universally listed in the OEM product specification literature or websites. 2. [8] This means that it has a specific power of 32. claimed max power output. 11] 2. So too are the through life costs together with the logistic burden for its operation. dry weight (kg). So too are the inertial losses because of the continuous unidirectional motion. mobility and protection have not been the sole considerations for modern military platforms for some time now. The engines are compared on several criteria. Engine capacity is not considered as it is of limited utility for a comparative analysis of turbine and piston engines. [10.

regardless of fuel type consumed it is expected that it would be very efficient. yet a logical and rational development path would include various forms of forced induction. [16] sun and planetary gearing the dwell time at the equivalent of top dead centre is in the order of 12° of crank rotation. There are two sets of each type of port and for every two rotations of the crank there are 32 power “strokes”. 15] The relative motion of the two rotors and gear mechanism is depicted in a spread sheet animation of a stylised model published by the OEM. And. Secondly.e. reliability and maintainability (RAM) and fuel consumption etc. The lack of a valve train reduces the parasitic losses incurred by other four stroke internal combustion engines. the next logical step in the development of the MyT engine is to have the gears drive two sets of eight pistons. 2. astride the centrally mounted gears. Thus when one rotor is moving the other is stationary and visa versa.4 Driven versus Driving Not only can the MyT engine operate as an internal combustion engine. 21. [20. Given the external diameter of the toroidal bore is about 13”. Although these modalities have not yet been fully explored. Thus as part of any rational development programme they and other issues must be successfully addressed in order fully realise and capitalise on this technological advance. the claims of the MyT engine seem extraordinary. In the basic configuration. but due to its inherent design it can operate very well as a driven device. The MyT engine uses ports for both intake and exhaust and as in normal internal combustion piston engines the ports are “opened” and “closed” as the pistons transit past them. [12. Such high power outputs [23] necessarily imply that there would be extreme internal stresses. the compression ration is variable—it ranges from 25:1 up to about 60:1. Hence the only cooling required is that resulting from the incoming charge and conventional fins on the exterior of the engine. 19] 2. i. one at each end of the crank shaft. that makes the stroke length roughly 8” which is remarkably long – albeit in an arc. and pressures. two toroidal bores. [17. 18.5 Development Issues Taken at face value. 22] 2.Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne October 2012 interleaved rotors are driven by a very remarkable and inventive sun and planetary gear arrangement. the two rotors. In a V8 engine there are just eight in the same 720°. First. it can operate as an air driven motor delivering high torque at low rpm from minimal inputs. initial investigations indicate that the MyT engine shows as much promise in them as it does when operating as an internal combustion engine.2 Internal Motion As the planetary gears rotate around the sun gear the offset linkage point traces out a cycloid. thus permitting the use of an unusually diverse range of fuels. This exceptionally long period not only permits but virtually assures almost complete combustion and maximises the transfer of heat into kinetic energy. Logically this leads to questions about high strength materials. This is the origin of the staccato motion. Furthermore. 13] 2. when used as a compressor or pump it will deliver both high fluid volumes at high pressure from the one stage. [14.e. The planetary gears are permanently linked to be exactly out of phase with each other. The driven modes are somewhat similar. However.3 Other Characteristics There are several other novel features of the MyT engine that are of note. In the default configuration the MyT engine is naturally aspirated. one set of gears drives one set of eight pistons i. Due to the utilisation of the 117 .

below. Figure 1.6 Description Summary The MyT engine is a highly compact device with a considerably large output and a minimum of moving parts. Figure 1: Graphic of MyT internals 3. both the 14” version and the 6” version are compared with 60 other military or defence related engines – listed in table 1. gross volume (m³). As at quarter two of 2012 it is estimated that the MyT engine is at Technology Readiness Level (TRL) [24] of around 4 – 5 [25]. This is achieved through the maximisation of dwell time. Gross power density is reported in MW/m³ so as 118 . claimed max power output. thermal and chemical signatures of the MyT engine would also assist in it’s uptake in the market place—especially if it conferred significant benefits with respect to emission control legislation. Although endnotes for the tables and graphs are omitted due the large number of them. primarily from OEM product literature. dry weight (kg). some topics to consider in the development process could include the utilisation of the CSIRO TiRO additive manufacturing process for Titanium machine parts which would deliver a wide range of benefits. In doing that. is a stylised graphical representation of the MyT engine with the engine body removed. both (kW) and torque (Nm). How can multiple toroidal bores and “daisy chaining” be configured for even more power. For it to be considered viable option for use in the platforms operated by ADO it would need to be brought TRL 8 – 9. The six comparisons used to establish a more specific class comparison for the MyT engine are.Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne Oct/Nov 2012 There are many areas to investigate to further develop the MyT engine. What sort of output (and engine life) is possible if the 14” MyT engine was build with two toroidal bores fitted with a supercharger and fuelled with nitro-methane? Obviously. Independent RAM analysis and profiling is essential–especially if the MyT engine was to be certified for use in aeronautical applications. injection moulding. specific power (kW/kg) and gross power density (MW/m³). below. [26] What are other suitable production methods – casting. much work must be completed before the MyT engine can be assessed as TRL 8 – 9. stroke length and compression ratio combined with the minimisation of both parasitic and friction losses along with reducing inertial stresses. These comparisons are solely based on publicly available data. Both miniaturisation and up-scaling are required for extending the range of applications. Initial Comparisons To establish the class or classes in which the MyT engine can be grouped for comparative analysis. This field of investigation may naturally extend into exploring and optimising ignition systems and port aerodynamics for various fuel types and induction modes. Investigation of acoustic. 2. It is expected that there is significant potential opportunity for members of the Australian Defence Industry to participate in the development of the MyT engine to the benefit of both themselves and the ADO. all source documents and/or websites are listed in the References section. or billet machining.

3-liter V-8 GE T700-710D Hatz 4L41C Honeywell AGT-1500C Honeywell 55-GA-714A Isuzu 4BD1T 3300 Aero Engine MP8 US07 485M MAN D0834 MAN D2066 V12-1800 Marinediesel V8 Diesel Martin Aircraft V4 engine OEM (b) Caterpillar Caterpillar Caterpillar Caterpillar Caterpillar Caterpillar Caterpillar Caterpillar Cosworth Cummins Cummins Cummins Cummins Cummins Delta Hawk Detroit Fairbanks Morse Ford General Electric HATZ Honeywell Honeywell Isuzu Jabiru Mack MAN MAN MAN Marinediesel Martin Jetpack Engine (c) Mercedes-Benz OM612 2.Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne October 2012 not to potentially confuse a common metric of kW/l which uses engine capacity rather than gross external dimensions as used in this comparative analysis. Figures 2 – 7 show the graphs of each criterion for the six initial comparisons. which are not always easily understood. These truncations are noted at each instance.7L 5cly Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6 MTU Diesel Engine 4R 106 MTU Diesel Engine 6R 107 MTU Diesel Engine 6V 199 TE20 MTU 8V 199 TE20 MTU 8V 199 TE21 MTU MT 881 Ka-500 MTU 10V 890 MTU 16V M70 MTU MT 883 Napier Lion II Napier Sabre H-24 VA Perkins 1100 Series Perkins 1200 Series Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 Schrick SR350i Schrick Hurricane DID 600 Sea Tek 950Plus Electronico BI-Turbo Steyr Motors M12 Steyr Motors M14 VTI Steyr Motors SE286E40 Steyr Motors M16 SCI Arrius 2B2 AR741-1101 AR801R D13-900 Yanmar L48AE-DE Yanmar L70AE-DE MTR 390 OEM (d) Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU Napier & Son Napier & Son Perkins Perkins Roll Royce Schrick Schrick Sea Tek Steyr Motors Steyr Motors Steyr Motors Steyr Motors Turbomeca UAV Engines Ltd UAV Engines Ltd Volvo Yanmar Yanmar Turbomeca Rolls-Royce 119 .4 Caterpillar 3126E Caterpillar C 6.6 Caterpillar C 7 Caterpillar C 9 Caterpillar C-18 Caterpillar C-16 Caterpillar C32 ACERT Lightweight Heavy Fuel Engine ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck ISBe 6 Cyl. Table 1: The list of the 60 engines compared with the MyT Engine Engine (a) Caterpillar C 4. 6. Engine capacity is not considered as it is of limited utility for a comparative analysis of turbine and piston engines. Rather than use logarithmic plots. as are omitted data points due to the lack of some data in some of the OEM product specification literature or websites. some of the data points are truncated for several entries so as to not skew the image and render the remainder of the graph of no use to the reader.7l Euro 3 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach V903 (Vee8) DH200A4/V4/R4 Detroit Diesel 6V-53T FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) Power Stroke 7. Procurement costs and fuel consumption (l/hr) are not considered as they are not universally listed in the OEM product specification literature or websites.

2.0 0.kg m³ 4. Figure 2: A plot of dry weight Gross external engine volume Figure 3: A plot of gross volume 1. The Fairbanks Morse FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) occupies in excess of 61 m³.3-liter V-8 VGT500 ISBe 6 cyl.4 ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck Honeywell 55-GA-714A 4R 106 TD21 Hatz 4L41C Napier Lion II Power Stroke 7.stroke) Yanmar L70AE-DE STEYR MOTORS M12 GE T700-710D 3300 Aero Engine Arrius 2B2 STEYR MOTORS M14 VTI DH200A4/V4/R4 MTR 390 GE T700-710D Mercedes-Benz OM612 2.2 cyl Schrick SR350i AR801R MyT 14" Yanmar L48AE-DE Hurricane DID 600 V4 (2.0 8.stroke) Yanmar L70AE-DE Yanmar L48AE-DE Hurricane DID 600 AR801R MyT 6" AR741-1101 Schrick SR350i Cosworth LHFE. 6.7l Euro 3 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck MAN D0834 Caterpillar C 6.7L 5cly Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6 Land Warfare Conference 2012 Dry Weight Note: The Fairbanks Morse FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) weights almost 12 tonne.2 cyl were inferred from the OEM website and the patents listed thereon. Ford or Mercedes Benz engines.0 6.3-liter V-8 Mercedes-Benz OM612 2. 120 Engine Engine Melbourne October 2012 . The gross engine dimensions for the Cosworth LHFE.0 2.7L 5cly Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6 RTM322-01/9A 1103C-33 STEYR MOTORS M16 SCI STEYR MOTORS SE286E40 Isuzu 4BD1T Caterpillar C 4.6 6R106 TD21 Caterpillar 3126E Caterpillar C 7 Caterpillar C 9 ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach Detroit Diesel 6V-53T MTU 10V 890 6V 199 TE20 MAN D2066 950 Plus Napier Sabre H-24 VA AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine MTU 8V 199 TE20 MTU 8V 199 TE21 MP8 US07 485M 1206E-E70TTA Caterpillar C-16 Caterpillar C-18 V903 (Vee8) MTU MT 881 Ka-500 D13-900 MTU MT 883 V12-1800 Caterpillar C32 ACERT MTU 16V M70 FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) STEYR MOTORS M12 3300 Aero Engine MyT 14" V4 (2.0 Notes: 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0 MyT 6" AR741-1101 Cosworth LHFE.2 cyl DH200A4/V4/R4 1103C-33 STEYR MOTORS M14 VTI Arrius 2B2 Caterpillar C 4. 6.7l Euro 3 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach V903 (Vee8) Power Stroke 7.6 MTR 390 VGT500 6R106 TD21 Caterpillar 3126E MAN D0834 MTU 10V 890 MTU MT 881 Ka-500 Caterpillar C 7 Caterpillar C 9 6V 199 TE20 MTU MT 883 Detroit Diesel 6V-53T MTU 8V 199 TE20 MTU 8V 199 TE21 AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine MP8 US07 485M MAN D2066 Caterpillar C-18 950 Plus Napier Lion II Caterpillar C-16 D13-900 Napier Sabre H-24 VA 1206E-E70TTA V12-1800 Caterpillar C32 ACERT MTU 16V M70 FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck ISBe 6 cyl. 3. No data was publicly available for the Cummins.4 Honeywell 55-GA-714A RTM322-01/9A Isuzu 4BD1T 4R 106 TD21 STEYR MOTORS M16 SCI Hatz 4L41C STEYR MOTORS SE286E40 Caterpillar C 6.

3-liter V-8 MAN D2066 Caterpillar C 9 6V 199 TE20 Napier Lion II VGT500 Arrius 2B2 MP8 US07 485M Caterpillar C-18 MTU 8V 199 TE20 V903 (Vee8) Caterpillar C-16 MTU 8V 199 TE21 D13-900 950 Plus MTU MT 881 Ka-500 MTU 10V 890 Caterpillar C32 ACERT MTU 16V M70 MTR 390 AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine MTU MT 883 FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) V12-1800 GE T700-710D RTM322-01/9A Napier Sabre H-24 VA MyT 14" Honeywell 55-GA-714A Melbourne Oct/Nov 2012 .kW 2000 1000 3000 4000 0 Nm 4000 2000 6000 8000 STEYR MOTORS M12 1103C-33 V4 (2.3-liter V-8 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck Detroit Diesel 6V-53T Caterpillar C 6.6 Caterpillar C 7 1206E-E70TTA 6R106 TD21 ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach Caterpillar C 9 MAN D2066 6V 199 TE20 MP8 US07 485M MTU 8V 199 TE20 V903 (Vee8) 950 Plus MTU 10V 890 Caterpillar C-16 MTU 8V 199 TE21 Caterpillar C-18 D13-900 MTU MT 881 Ka-500 AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine MTU MT 883 MyT 14" Caterpillar C32 ACERT V12-1800 Yanmar L48AE-DE Yanmar L70AE-DE Cosworth LHFE. Figure 4: A plot of maximum power Figure 5: A plot of maximum torque 121 Engine Engine Caterpillar C 4.4 ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck 4R 106 TD21 MAN D0834 Caterpillar 3126E ISBe 6 cyl.2 cyl Schrick SR350i AR741-1101 Hurricane DID 600 AR801R Hatz 4L41C MyT 6" DH200A4/V4/R4 Napier Lion II Arrius 2B2 MTU 16V M70 MTR 390 FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) GE T700-710D RTM322-01/9A Napier Sabre H-24 VA Honeywell 55-GA-714A Land Warfare Conference 2012 0 Yanmar L48AE-DE Yanmar L70AE-DE Cosworth LHFE.7L 5cly 3300 Aero Engine Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6 STEYR MOTORS SE286E40 STEYR MOTORS M16 SCI Caterpillar C 4.4 Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6 Caterpillar 3126E STEYR MOTORS M16 SCI 1206E-E70TTA STEYR MOTORS SE286E40 ISBe 6 cyl.6 Caterpillar C 7 ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach Detroit Diesel 6V-53T Power Stroke 7. 6.stroke) STEYR MOTORS M14 VTI Isuzu 4BD1T Mercedes-Benz OM612 2.7l Euro 3 VGT500 Power Stroke 7.stroke) ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck 4R 106 TD21 MAN D0834 Power Torque Note: No torque figures were listed for the engines to the right of the MAN V12-1800.7L 5cly DH200A4/V4/R4 V4 (2.7l Euro 3 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck 6R106 TD21 Caterpillar C 6. 6.2 cyl Schrick SR350i STEYR MOTORS M12 AR741-1101 Hurricane DID 600 1103C-33 AR801R Hatz 4L41C MyT 6" 3300 Aero Engine STEYR MOTORS M14 VTI Isuzu 4BD1T Mercedes-Benz OM612 2.

e.7l Euro 3 6R106 TD21 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck Caterpillar C 4.2 cyl Caterpillar C 6. Ford or Mercedes Benz engines. 6. it is plainly obvious that the MyT engine is grouped with the best of those in each of the comparison sets. More information is conveyed through the use of the compound metrics.7L 5cly STEYR MOTORS SE286E40 Power Stroke 7.4 MTU 8V 199 TE21 Hurricane DID 600 3300 Aero Engine DH200A4/V4/R4 VGT500 AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine Napier Sabre H-24 VA MTU MT 881 Ka-500 Schrick SR350i MTU MT 883 Arrius 2B2 MTU 10V 890 AR741-1101 AR801R MTR 390 V4 (2.7L 5cly Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6 ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck ISBe 6 cyl.1 Identification of “Classes” From the figures above it is clearly evident that the MyT can be classified by a variety of means. Regardless of classification.6 MTU 8V 199 TE21 V12-1800 MTU MT 881 Ka-500 Mercedes-Benz OM612 2. 6.3-liter V-8 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach V903 (Vee8) 4R 106 TD21 6R106 TD21 Caterpillar C 9 STEYR MOTORS SE286E40 V12-1800 950 Plus STEYR MOTORS M16 SCI MTU 8V 199 TE20 Cosworth LHFE. Specific Power Power Density Figure 6: A plot of specific power Figure 7: A plot of power density Note: Power density can not be calculated for those engines with no volumes listed.stroke) RTM322-01/9A GE T700-710D Honeywell 55-GA-714A MyT 6" MyT 14" Mercedes-Benz OM612 2.stroke) Schrick SR350i AR741-1101 Arrius 2B2 MyT 6" MTR 390 GE T700-710D RTM322-01/9A Honeywell 55-GA-714A MyT 14" Melbourne October 2012 The singular metrics are considered briefly after the detailed comparisons arising from the compound metrics. the Cummins. i. . the detailed class comparisons are progressed using just specific power and power density as the two primary metrics.3-liter V-8 MTU MT 883 STEYR MOTORS M16 SCI 950 Plus STEYR MOTORS M14 VTI Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6 Napier Lion II VGT500 AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine DH200A4/V4/R4 3300 Aero Engine MTU 10V 890 Cosworth LHFE. 122 Engine Caterpillar C 4.2 cyl Hurricane DID 600 Napier Sabre H-24 VA AR801R V4 (2.kW / kg MW / m³ 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) Yanmar L48AE-DE Hatz 4L41C Yanmar L70AE-DE 1103C-33 1206E-E70TTA MTU 16V M70 Isuzu 4BD1T STEYR MOTORS M12 Caterpillar 3126E MAN D0834 MAN D2066 Caterpillar C32 ACERT 6V 199 TE20 Detroit Diesel 6V-53T ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck 4R 106 TD21 ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach Caterpillar C 7 MP8 US07 485M D13-900 Caterpillar C-18 ISBe 6 cyl. However.7l Euro 3 Power Stroke 7.6 MTU 8V 199 TE20 Caterpillar C 6. It is acknowledged that additional classes can be considered. The two selected metrics for establishing each class are the only two compound metrics.4 V903 (Vee8) Caterpillar C-16 Caterpillar C 9 Engine 20 30 40 50 60 70 FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) Yanmar L48AE-DE Yanmar L70AE-DE 1206E-E70TTA Hatz 4L41C 1103C-33 MTU 16V M70 STEYR MOTORS M12 Napier Lion II MAN D0834 MAN D2066 Isuzu 4BD1T Caterpillar 3126E Caterpillar C32 ACERT Detroit Diesel 6V-53T D13-900 Caterpillar C-16 MP8 US07 485M Caterpillar C 7 6V 199 TE20 STEYR MOTORS M14 VTI Caterpillar C-18 Land Warfare Conference 2012 0 3.

08 5.0 GE T700-710D Honeywell 55-GA-714A MTR 390 Schrick SR350i MyT 6" AR741-1101 MyT 14" Arrius 2B2 Interestingly.08 32.e.6 0. below. gross volume.91 GE T700-710D 0 MTR 390 Martin Aircraft V4 engine MyT 6" MyT 14" Schrick SR350i AR741-1101 Arrius 2B2 Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 Engine Figure 8: Specific Power Top 10 – Weight Gross external engine volume 0. above. even the Honeywell engines for the M1 tank and the CH47 helicopter. It is not until about a third of the way through the entire list in figure 6. except for the MyT engines are for aircraft of some description and most are not piston engines.66 3.23 8. power and torque are compared for each of the top 10 engines for both classes.53 7.2 0. the MTR 10V 890 for the Puma. Detailed Comparisons The detailed comparisons examine the top 10 engines in both specific power and power density.83 5. i. The weight. all of these engines.1 Specific Power Class The top 10 engines in terms of specific power as per figure 6.3 0. Thus the 14” MyT engine appears to outclass all engines in specific power. that the first dedicated land platform application is rated.Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne October 2012 4.5 m³ 0. Figure 9: Specific Power Top 10 – Volume 123 Martin Aircraft V4 engine Engine Honeywell 55-GA-714A .32 10. The detailed comparisons of these 10 engines across the four criteria are depicted in figures 8 – 11 below. are listed in table 2. Dry Weight 400 300 kg 200 100 4. Table 2: Specific Power: Top 10 Engines Ser (a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Engine (b) Martin Aircraft V4 engine Schrick SR350i AR741-1101 Arrius 2B2 MyT 6" MTR 390 GE T700-710D Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 Honeywell 55-GA-714A MyT 14" Specific Power (kW / kg) (c) 2.50 2.55 2.

306 1. Thus the MyT engine may be a suitable power pack candidate for Again.639 1. Also the MyT engines appear to outclass all engines in power density.stroke) RTM32201/9A MTR 390 MyT 14" MyT 6" Honeywell 55GA-714A AR741-1101 Arrius 2B2 Schrick SR350i Engine Figure 11: Specific Power Top 10 – Torque From the four graphs above.2 Power Density Class GE T700-710D MTR 390 Martin Aircraft V4 engine Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 Schrick SR350i AR741-1101 Arrius 2B2 MyT 14" MyT 6" Honeywell 55-GA-714A 0 The top 10 engines in terms of power density are listed in table 3 below. 124 .823 1. kW 2000 1000 4. except for the MyT engines and the MTU 10V 890 are for aircraft. and powerful and has an enormous amount of torque. the claim of ~5000Nm for the MyT engines rather substantial. even the Honeywell engines for the M1 tank and the CH47 helicopter.665 10.157 Figure 10: Specific Power Top 10 – Power Torque 6000 4500 Nm 3000 1500 0 GE T700-710D V4 (2. a visual inspection reveals that the MyT engine is small.886 10.915 2. only one of the aircraft engines had any torque figures listed in the OEM product specification literature or websites. The detailed comparisons of these 10 engines across the four criteria are depicted in figures 12 – 15 below.Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne Oct/Nov 2012 Power 4000 3000 future aircraft both occupied and remotely piloted as well as the full range of land borne platforms and possibly even a selection of marine vessels.222 4. Table 3: Power Density: Top 10 Engines Power Ser (a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Engine Engine (b) MTU 10V 890 AR741-1101 AR801R MTR 390 Martin Aircraft V4 engine Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 GE T700-710D Honeywell 55-GA-714A MyT 6" MyT 14" Density (MW / m³) (c) 1. all of these engines.878 63.399 10. It weighs about the least and occupies about the least space in the engine bay yet is only out powered by the Honeywell 55 GA-714A used in large helicopters. light. Although.

Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne October 2012 Dry Weight 1000 750 kg 500 4000 Power 3000 kW 2000 1000 250 0 MTR 390 Martin Aircraft V4 engine MyT 6" AR741-1101 MyT 14" AR801R GE T700-710D Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 Honeywell 55-GA-714A MTU 10V 890 0 GE T700-710D MTU 10V 890 MTR 390 Martin Aircraft V4 engine Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 AR741-1101 AR801R MyT 14" MyT 6" Engine Engine Figure 12: Power Density Top 10 – Weight Figure 14: Power Density Top 10 – Power Gross external engine volume 0.8 0.0 Nm 3000 Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 GE T700-710D MTR 390 Martin Aircraft V4 engine Honeywell 55-GA-714A MTU 10V 890 MyT 6" AR741-1101 AR801R MyT 14" 1500 0 GE T700-710D MTU 10V 890 V4 (2. 125 Honeywell 55-GA-714A .4 0. Again. And although is it considered a modern engine it still lags the 14” MyT engine by a significant margin. it appears that the MyT engine may be a suitable power pack candidate for future aircraft both occupied and remotely piloted as well as the full range of land borne platforms and possibly even a selection of marine vessels.6 Torque 6000 4500 m³ 0. which as almost twice the torque and twice the power for about a 10th of the weight and about a 20th of the gross volume.stroke) RTM32201/9A MTR 390 MyT 14" AR801R MyT 6" Honeywell 55GA-714A AR741-1101 Engine Engine Figure 13: Power Density Top 10 – Volume Figure 15: Power Density Top 10 – Torque From the four graphs above a visual inspection reveals that the MTU 10V 890 is the largest and heaviest of the top ten.2 0.

it is clearly evident from the data in figures 2 – 7 that the MyT engine may be a suitable power pack candidate for other military platforms. In terms of using the MyT engine in ground vehicles. Aircraft OEMs have the opportunity to offer platforms in current form factors with greatly enhanced characteristics such as transit range and speed. Powered hand tools would also benefit from the use of the MyT engine in various small form factors.Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne Oct/Nov 2012 4. This could be 5. It would simultaneously enable the competing demands of protection and mobility of modern combat vehicles to be met without detriment to either factor. Possibly even the carriage of additional troops and/or equipment. time on station. then there are a number of benefits which may accrue and be realised. manned vehicle fleets the expected payoffs would be substantial. Fundamental redesign of power trains is possible because of the small sized of the MyT engine. and other aircraftfor example self-powered remotely-piloted air cargo pallets. From a cursory analysis it could be used in maritime vessels up to and including Armadale class patrol boats. air-conditioner units and ground servicing equipment and emergency control and support equipment. greater firepower or any situationally or tactically optimised combination. namely size and weight. pumps. jet packs-both manned and unmanned.3 Other Classes Considering two other classes in which the MyT engine can be categorised. Micro / nano / pico UAVs could be powered with user refillable compressed air containers thus greatly reducing their entire emissive signatures. all types of ground vehicles. 6. plant and equipment. lighter. pumps and air-conditioner units. air-cushion vehicles – both for the propulsion and for the generation and maintenance of the air-cushion. Even if it was just confined to the 126 . the better fuel economy [27]. These include but are not limited to future plant and equipment such as generators. Potential Applications The range of potential applications for the MyT engine is extensive. the characteristics of it open up many new possibilities. This could lead to faster. This would then give scope for it to be used in large ocean going vessels. endurance and/or protection A miniaturised form factor opens up many possibilities. Furthermore. Examples are powered bogies for both road trains and railway cars. plant and equipment such as generators. helicopters. This then translates into a reduction in the overall risk profile of an operation as there is less demand for logistic support personnel to be either in or transiting through the contested combat areas. improved RAM. and more powerful yet still air transportable ground mobility vehicles with greater payloads. Also it could be used for large electrical generation plants in remote localities which do not have access to a suitable electricity grid. pursuit speed or payload. and fleet commonality would contribute directly to a reduction of the logistic support footprint and the demands on the supply chain. Potential Benefits Should the ADF take up the MyT engine once it matures to a suitable TRL. The MyT engine provides a means for the ADF to move towards a single engine type for all of its land vehicles. It is expected that the efforts required to develop large scale variants of the MyT engine would also be worth the cost. It could be considered a better replacement for dental drills and other air tools. The weight and space savings could enable additional stores for extended range.

org/wiki/Turbomeca_Ar rius http://martinjetpack.aspx http://pesn.com/2006-0213%20LA%20Auto_photo. http://www.html 127 . smaller. 8. Notwithstanding any other benefits. Where-ever there in an internal combustion engine. As a matter of priority the MyT engine needs to be investigated and the claims ratified so that its output characteristics and general dimensions may be the default essential specifications for power packs across multiple platforms in either block upgrades or initial acquisitions.com/defense/light weight-heavy-fuel-engines/ http://en. L400 S&T Support. A.org/wiki/Napier Sabre http://en.wikipedia.156 MW/m³. Much more work remains to be done. with hydrothermal energy being the power source in the second case. The 14” MyT engine weighing 68 kg. Even current hybrid systems would stand to benefit of such advances as may be realised by the MyT engine.Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne October 2012 in either the driving or driven modes of operation.. there is no valid or logical justification for the ADO to ignore the MyT engine any longer. [29] The levels specific power and power density for internal-combustion piston engines within the current ADF inventory are clearly sub-par in comparison to the MyT engine.4btswaps.com/2011/04/23/9501814_Russi an_firm_claims_MYT_engine_design_its_ own/ http://pesn. pump. lighter and more efficient option to be employed using the MyT engine design.php?7348-Isuzu-4BD1T-Introduction. Quinn’s Quilt [30] 9. compressor or air powered motor currently in use there is scope for a more powerful. occupying 0.org/wiki/Napier Lion http://en.com/technicalinformation/v4-engine. DSTO Internal Presentation. [28] 7.wikipedia.com/2010/04/08/9501634_MYT _Engine_6inch_version_could_go_into_production_so on/ http://pesn. Conclusion The MyT clearly outperforms and outclasses all of the COTS/MOTS power packs considered.wikipedia. References Bender. The Australian Defence Industry has a brilliant opportunity to pre-empt the ADF in the uptake of this technological breakthrough to the mutual benefit.91 kW/kg and a power density of 63. to ratify the initial claims.035 m³ and with a claimed output of 2238 kW has a minimum specific power of 32. then bring this new engine design to maturity and finally to market it—legally.com/forum/showthrea d. Annex A. 30 Jul 2012 http://americas.angellabsllc.cosworth.com/2011/05/20/9501830_MYT 6_Engine_Signed_for_Strategic_Commerci alization/ http://www.

com/news_nasa. 2006 OEM Product Brochure – CAT C18 Military Diesel Engine.internationalpowerstroke.angellabsllc.com/object00 .org/wiki/Ford_Power_ Stroke_engine OEM Product Brochure .com/specs.html http://www.com/cda/files/285876/7 /1103A-33G+ElectropaK+PN1780.com/cda/files/2484142/ 7/1206E-E70TTA+IOPU+PN1962.com/AirMotoringR esearch.perkins.mil/adl/enUS/25811/file/3206/TRL%20Calc%202_2.fairbanksmorse.perkins.csiro.net/MercedesBenz_OM612_engine http://www.com/Images/MTR390_tcm926709.com/engines/en gine_fm_alco_251.com/news2.pdf http://www.html http://www.au/science/TiRO http://www.angellabsllc.No.com/6 7psd. page 19.html http://www.asp x?id=25811 https://en.html http://www.Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne October 2012 http://www.deltahawkengines.pdf http://www.com/automotive/engines/dieselengine-6-cylinder-3200-cm3-m16/ http://www.deltahawkengines.html http://www.pdf http://www.xls http://www.dau.com/cda/files/285897/7 /1103C-33+Engine+PN1700.dau.angellabsllc.com/econom 00.com/4x4/pix/OM642.com/mtu/products/engineprogram/diesel-engines-for-wheeled-andtracked-armored-vehicles/engines-for-lightand-medium-weightvehicles/detail/product/975/cHash/fd3c89d 1beb26a6e0724d108e2296c63/?L=pmhwhv enqzrqht http://www.com/2006-0213%20Sema%20Show_photo.mil/CommunityBrowser.6 Military Diesel Engine OEM Product Brochure – CAT C9 Military Diesel Engine. zip https://acc.3.com/engines/militar y/t700/t700-701d.rtbot. Seatek – Marine (medium boat) applications.ht ml http://www.4 Military Diesel Engine OEM Product Brochure – CAT C6.shtml.angellabsllc.whnet. et al http://www.html http://www.html http://www.angellabsllc.rollsroyce.shtml http://www.angellabsllc.steyrmotors. 2011 OEM Product Brochure – CAT C4. 2011 OEM Product Brochure – CAT Industrial Engine Ratings Guide.pdf https://acc.php http://www.angellabsllc.pdf http://www.com/video/animati on.mtuonline.perkins. diesel OEM Product Brochure – CAT 6757877.com/specs. LECH3874-11 (2-11) 128 .wikipedia.geaviation.

[Marine engine series .51 bhp OEM Product Brochure – VCOMB 0636 May 2009 129 . UK.mtu-online. ENG139 1001519_9B 04/04/2008 OEM Product Brochure – MAN D 114.FOR HEAVY DUTY DEMANDS OEM Product Brochure – UAV Engines Ltd: AR741 .Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne Oct/Nov 2012 OEM Product Brochure – CAT LEHT9326 (8-99) OEM Product Brochure – Cummins Bulletin 4087195. July 2010 OEM Product Brochure – Detroit 3SA402 0010. VMD 2010-09 OEM Product Brochure – MTU 3231111. D114567/E OEM Product Brochure – Marine Diesel: Marine (medium boat) applications.MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH brochure. 3300 Aero Engine OEM Product Brochure – LEDT7014-01.mu 11092 OEM Product Brochure – MAN D 114. VMD 2010-09 OEM Product Brochure . diesel OEM Product Brochure – MTU 3230991. 7/10 OEM Product Brochure – Cummins Bulletin 4951352. www. 2/10. 2000 OEM Product Brochure – HATZ Deisel L Series.38 bhp OEM Product Brochure – UAV Engines Ltd: AR801 . 2007 OEM Product Brochure – Mack: A Sales Engineering Publication.com OEM Product Brochure – MTU Marine Diesel Engines 12V/16V 2000 M70 for Vessels with High Load Factors (1B) OEM Product Brochure – Schrick: diesel/Kerosene for UAVs OEM Product Brochure – Schrick: lightweight gasoline engine for UAVs OEM Product Brochure – Steyr Motors: 25kW Diesel Electric Generator.mu 11092 OEM Product Brochure – MAN. August 2011 OEM Product Brochure – Steyr Motors: MONOBLOCK DIESEL.1 OEM Product Brochure – Honeywell: PA00-2613. UK. 5/569 ENG . 2/10. UK. 2/10. 7/10 OEM Product Brochure – Cummins Bulletin 4951351.08 .483/E .02. 7/10 OEM Product Brochure – Cummins Bulletin 4971323.SE 6 cylinder] OEM Product Brochure – Steyr Motors: STEYR MONOBLOCK DIESEL . Aug 2011 OEM Product Brochure – Cummins Bulletin 4951351. May 2000 OEM Product Brochure – Honeywell: PA02-2993B. VMD 2010-09 OEM Product Brochure – MTU 3232171. April 2002 OEM Product Brochure – Jabiru. 2/10. VMD 2010-09 OEM Product Brochure – MTU 3231131.482/E .

47701285 OEM Product Brochure – Yanmar Service Manual. Model: L—A Series Taleb N.739.seatek-spa.schrick.marinediesel. Random House. 2010 US Patent 7438044 B2 US Patent: 6. N. The Black Swan: Second Edition: The Impact of the Highly Improbable. USA.Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne October 2012 OEM Product Brochure – VOLVO PENTA.com http://www.. Industrial Diesel Engine.se http://www.307 B2 http://www.com 130 .

Annex A Figure A-1: Quinn’s Quilt [31] 131 .Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne Oct/Nov 2012 10.

2012 5 http://www.com/specs.307 B2 11 http://www.angellabsllc.angellabsllc.angellabsllc.angellabsllc.html 6 http://www.xls 17 US Patent: 6.307 B2 21 http://www.com/news2.html 8 http://www.angellabsllc.html 7 http://www.dau.angellabsllc.com/ 2 http://www.com/AirMotoringRe search.angellabsllc.739.angellabsllc.angellabsllc.com/specs.739.angellabsllc.angellabsllc.angellabsllc.com/2006-0213%20LA%20Auto_photo.com/2010/04/08/9501634_MYT_E ngine_6-inch_version_could_go_into_productio n_soon/ 10 US Patent: 6.angellabsllc.com/news2.html 3 Taleb.com/ 22 http://www.zip 26 http://www.mil/adl/en-US/25811/file/320 6/TRL%20Calc%202_2.Land Warfare Conference 2012 Melbourne Oct/Nov 2012 11.com/news_nasa.aspx ?id=25811 25 https://acc.html 28 http://pesn.com/ 14 US Patent: 6.739.307 B2 15 http://www.307 B2 13 http://www.739.com/2011/04/23/9501814_Russia n_firm_claims_MYT_engine_design_its_own/ 29 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 19 http://www.com/2006-0213%20Sema%20Show_photo.739.dau. Endnotes 1 http://www.mil/CommunityBrowser.html 20 US Patent: 6.html 24 https://acc.csiro.307 B2 18 http://www.com/video/animatio n.com/ 16 http://www.com/specs.html 30 Bender ibid 31 Bender ibid 132 .com/ 12 US Patent: 6. 2010 4 Bender.angellabsllc.angellabsllc.html 23 http://www.com/ 9 http://pesn.angellabsllc.au/science/TiRO 27 http://www.