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Land Warfare Conference 2012

Melbourne Oct/Nov 2012

The Massive-yet-Tiny Engine: A comparison of OEM claims


LTCOL BRETT LABOO Senior Military Officer, DSTO

ABSTRACT
Firepower, mobility and protection have not been the sole considerations for modern military platforms for some time now. Auxiliary power generation for an ever increasing range of integrated systems required for the effective and adaptive conduct of network enabled warfare in a connected yet expansive battle space is an additional prime consideration. So too are the through life costs together with the logistic burden for its operation. In order to effectively address these considerations holistically and systematically a new or greatly improved technology is required. The scope of this work is to compare some COTS/MOTS power packs with a selected new break-through technology for internal-combustion piston enginesthe Massive-yet-Tiny (MyT) engine [1] using only Original Equipment Manufacture (OEM) product specification data. The engines are compared on several criteria, dry weight (kg), gross volume (m), claimed max power output, both (kW) and torque (Nm), specific power (kW/kg) and gross power density (MW/m). Procurement costs and fuel consumption (l/hr) are not considered as they are not universally listed in the OEM product specification literature or websites. Additionally the technology of the MyT engine is described along with an outline of some research and development issues. Finally a number of applications for the MyT engine are discussed briefly. The MyT engine clearly outperforms and outclasses all of the COTS/MOTS power packs considered. The 14 MyT engine weighing 68 kg, occupying 0.035 m and with a claimed output of 2238 kW has a minimum specific power of 32.91 kW/kg and a power density of 63.156 MW/m.[2] The levels of internal-combustion piston engine efficiency, specific power and power density for the current Australian Defence Force (ADF) inventory are clearly sub-par in comparison to the MyT engine. Notwithstanding any other benefits, there is no valid or logical justification for the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) to ignore the MyT engine any longer. As a matter of priority the MyT engine needs to be investigated to ratify the claims and verify its reliability so that its output characteristics and general dimensions may be the default essential specifications for power packs across multiple platforms in either block upgrades or initial acquisitions. The Australian Defence Industry has a brilliant opportunity to pre-empt the ADF in the uptake of this technological black swan [3] to the mutual benefit of all parties.

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1. Introduction
Firepower, mobility and protection have not been the sole considerations for modern military platforms for some time now. Auxiliary power generation for an ever increasing range of integrated systems required for the effective and adaptive conduct of network enabled warfare in a connected yet expansive battle space is an additional prime consideration. So too are the through life costs together with the logistic burden for its operation. A whole range of considerations are depicted graphically in a diagram referred to as Quinns Quilt [4], at annex A. In order to effectively address the power related considerations holistically and systematically a new or greatly improved technology is required.

Finally a number of applications for the MyT engine are discussed briefly. It is expected that a reader knowledgeable in the field would identify many additional applicationsand that is encouraged.

1.2 General History


The MyT engine has been known in the public domain for almost a decade now. In 2005 it was entered in the NASA Create The Future Contest in the Automotive Category. Not only did it win that category, it was judged as the best entry from all categories that year. [5]. It was publicly displayed at the both the 2005 SEMA Show [6] and the 2006 Los Angeles Auto Show. [7] The prototype of the 14 MyT engine weighs only 68 kg, occupies 0.035 m and has a claimed output of 2238 kW. [8] This means that it has a specific power of 32.91 kW/kg and a power density of 63.156 MW/m. Other form-factors include a 6 diameter version. [9]

1.1 Scope of Work


The scope of this work is to compare some COTS/MOTS power packs with a selected new break-through technology for internalcombustion piston enginesMyT engine using only open source / publically available OEM product specification data. The engines are compared on several criteria, dry weight (kg), gross volume (m), claimed max power output, both (kW) and torque (Nm), specific power (kW/kg) and gross power density (MW/m). Gross power density is reported in MW/m so as not to potentially confuse a common metric of kW/l which uses engine capacity. Engine capacity is not considered as it is of limited utility for a comparative analysis of turbine and piston engines. Procurement costs and fuel consumption (l/hr) are not considered as they are not universally listed in the OEM product specification literature or websites. Additionally the technology of the MyT engine is described along with an outline of some research and development issues.

2. Description
Unlike other internal combustion piston engines, the MyT engine pistons do not reciprocate. Moreover they move around the toroidal bore in a staccato motion, mechanically controlled by a gear and crank assembly. There are eight doubleheaded pistons separately linked into two sets of four permanently fixed and equally spaced interleaved rotors. [10, 11]

2.1 Pistons and Gears


A general approximation of the MyT piston could be conceptualised as the joining of two regular pistons back to back which have been cut through in the vicinity of the oil ring. Thus there are no piston skirts and therefore friction losses are minimised. So too are the inertial losses because of the continuous unidirectional motion. The two

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interleaved rotors are driven by a very remarkable and inventive sun and planetary gear arrangement. In the basic configuration, one set of gears drives one set of eight pistons i.e. the two rotors. However, the next logical step in the development of the MyT engine is to have the gears drive two sets of eight pistons, i.e. two toroidal bores, one at each end of the crank shaft, astride the centrally mounted gears. [12, 13]

2.2 Internal Motion


As the planetary gears rotate around the sun gear the offset linkage point traces out a cycloid. The planetary gears are permanently linked to be exactly out of phase with each other. Thus when one rotor is moving the other is stationary and visa versa. This is the origin of the staccato motion. The MyT engine uses ports for both intake and exhaust and as in normal internal combustion piston engines the ports are opened and closed as the pistons transit past them. In the default configuration the MyT engine is naturally aspirated, yet a logical and rational development path would include various forms of forced induction. The lack of a valve train reduces the parasitic losses incurred by other four stroke internal combustion engines. There are two sets of each type of port and for every two rotations of the crank there are 32 power strokes. In a V8 engine there are just eight in the same 720. [14, 15] The relative motion of the two rotors and gear mechanism is depicted in a spread sheet animation of a stylised model published by the OEM. [16]

sun and planetary gearing the dwell time at the equivalent of top dead centre is in the order of 12 of crank rotation. This exceptionally long period not only permits but virtually assures almost complete combustion and maximises the transfer of heat into kinetic energy. Hence the only cooling required is that resulting from the incoming charge and conventional fins on the exterior of the engine. Furthermore, the compression ration is variableit ranges from 25:1 up to about 60:1, thus permitting the use of an unusually diverse range of fuels. And, regardless of fuel type consumed it is expected that it would be very efficient. [17, 18, 19]

2.4 Driven versus Driving


Not only can the MyT engine operate as an internal combustion engine, but due to its inherent design it can operate very well as a driven device. Although these modalities have not yet been fully explored, initial investigations indicate that the MyT engine shows as much promise in them as it does when operating as an internal combustion engine. The driven modes are somewhat similar. First, when used as a compressor or pump it will deliver both high fluid volumes at high pressure from the one stage. Secondly, it can operate as an air driven motor delivering high torque at low rpm from minimal inputs. [20, 21, 22]

2.5 Development Issues


Taken at face value, the claims of the MyT engine seem extraordinary. Thus as part of any rational development programme they and other issues must be successfully addressed in order fully realise and capitalise on this technological advance. Such high power outputs [23] necessarily imply that there would be extreme internal stresses, and pressures. Logically this leads to questions about high strength materials, reliability and maintainability (RAM) and fuel consumption etc.

2.3 Other Characteristics


There are several other novel features of the MyT engine that are of note. Given the external diameter of the toroidal bore is about 13, that makes the stroke length roughly 8 which is remarkably long albeit in an arc. Due to the utilisation of the

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There are many areas to investigate to further develop the MyT engine. As at quarter two of 2012 it is estimated that the MyT engine is at Technology Readiness Level (TRL) [24] of around 4 5 [25]. For it to be considered viable option for use in the platforms operated by ADO it would need to be brought TRL 8 9. In doing that, some topics to consider in the development process could include the utilisation of the CSIRO TiRO additive manufacturing process for Titanium machine parts which would deliver a wide range of benefits. [26] What are other suitable production methods casting, injection moulding, or billet machining. Independent RAM analysis and profiling is essentialespecially if the MyT engine was to be certified for use in aeronautical applications. How can multiple toroidal bores and daisy chaining be configured for even more power. Both miniaturisation and up-scaling are required for extending the range of applications. Investigation of acoustic, thermal and chemical signatures of the MyT engine would also assist in its uptake in the market placeespecially if it conferred significant benefits with respect to emission control legislation. This field of investigation may naturally extend into exploring and optimising ignition systems and port aerodynamics for various fuel types and induction modes. What sort of output (and engine life) is possible if the 14 MyT engine was build with two toroidal bores fitted with a supercharger and fuelled with nitro-methane? Obviously, much work must be completed before the MyT engine can be assessed as TRL 8 9. It is expected that there is significant potential opportunity for members of the Australian Defence Industry to participate in the development of the MyT engine to the benefit of both themselves and the ADO.

2.6 Description Summary


The MyT engine is a highly compact device with a considerably large output and a minimum of moving parts. This is achieved through the maximisation of dwell time, stroke length and compression ratio combined with the minimisation of both parasitic and friction losses along with reducing inertial stresses. Figure 1, below, is a stylised graphical representation of the MyT engine with the engine body removed.

Figure 1: Graphic of MyT internals

3. Initial Comparisons
To establish the class or classes in which the MyT engine can be grouped for comparative analysis, both the 14 version and the 6 version are compared with 60 other military or defence related engines listed in table 1, below. These comparisons are solely based on publicly available data, primarily from OEM product literature. Although endnotes for the tables and graphs are omitted due the large number of them, all source documents and/or websites are listed in the References section. The six comparisons used to establish a more specific class comparison for the MyT engine are, dry weight (kg), gross volume (m), claimed max power output, both (kW) and torque (Nm), specific power (kW/kg) and gross power density (MW/m). Gross power density is reported in MW/m so as

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not to potentially confuse a common metric of kW/l which uses engine capacity rather than gross external dimensions as used in this comparative analysis. Engine capacity is not considered as it is of limited utility for a comparative analysis of turbine and piston engines. Procurement costs and fuel consumption (l/hr) are not considered as they are not universally listed in the OEM product specification literature or websites. Figures 2 7 show the graphs of each criterion for the six initial comparisons. Rather than use logarithmic plots, which are

not always easily understood, some of the data points are truncated for several entries so as to not skew the image and render the remainder of the graph of no use to the reader. These truncations are noted at each instance, as are omitted data points due to the lack of some data in some of the OEM product specification literature or websites.

Table 1: The list of the 60 engines compared with the MyT Engine
Engine (a) Caterpillar C 4.4 Caterpillar 3126E Caterpillar C 6.6 Caterpillar C 7 Caterpillar C 9 Caterpillar C-18 Caterpillar C-16 Caterpillar C32 ACERT Lightweight Heavy Fuel Engine ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck ISBe 6 Cyl, 6.7l Euro 3 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach V903 (Vee8) DH200A4/V4/R4 Detroit Diesel 6V-53T FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) Power Stroke 7.3-liter V-8 GE T700-710D Hatz 4L41C Honeywell AGT-1500C Honeywell 55-GA-714A Isuzu 4BD1T 3300 Aero Engine MP8 US07 485M MAN D0834 MAN D2066 V12-1800 Marinediesel V8 Diesel Martin Aircraft V4 engine OEM (b) Caterpillar Caterpillar Caterpillar Caterpillar Caterpillar Caterpillar Caterpillar Caterpillar Cosworth Cummins Cummins Cummins Cummins Cummins Delta Hawk Detroit Fairbanks Morse Ford General Electric HATZ Honeywell Honeywell Isuzu Jabiru Mack MAN MAN MAN Marinediesel Martin Jetpack Engine (c) Mercedes-Benz OM612 2.7L 5cly Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6 MTU Diesel Engine 4R 106 MTU Diesel Engine 6R 107 MTU Diesel Engine 6V 199 TE20 MTU 8V 199 TE20 MTU 8V 199 TE21 MTU MT 881 Ka-500 MTU 10V 890 MTU 16V M70 MTU MT 883 Napier Lion II Napier Sabre H-24 VA Perkins 1100 Series Perkins 1200 Series Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 Schrick SR350i Schrick Hurricane DID 600 Sea Tek 950Plus Electronico BI-Turbo Steyr Motors M12 Steyr Motors M14 VTI Steyr Motors SE286E40 Steyr Motors M16 SCI Arrius 2B2 AR741-1101 AR801R D13-900 Yanmar L48AE-DE Yanmar L70AE-DE MTR 390 OEM (d) Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU MTU Napier & Son Napier & Son Perkins Perkins Roll Royce Schrick Schrick Sea Tek Steyr Motors Steyr Motors Steyr Motors Steyr Motors Turbomeca UAV Engines Ltd UAV Engines Ltd Volvo Yanmar Yanmar Turbomeca Rolls-Royce

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kg

m 4.0

0.0

2.0

6.0

8.0

Notes:
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0
MyT 6" AR741-1101 Cosworth LHFE- 2 cyl Schrick SR350i AR801R MyT 14" Yanmar L48AE-DE Hurricane DID 600 V4 (2- stroke) Yanmar L70AE-DE STEYR MOTORS M12 GE T700-710D 3300 Aero Engine
Arrius 2B2 STEYR MOTORS M14 VTI DH200A4/V4/R4 MTR 390 GE T700-710D Mercedes-Benz OM612 2.7L 5cly Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6 RTM322-01/9A 1103C-33 STEYR MOTORS M16 SCI STEYR MOTORS SE286E40 Isuzu 4BD1T Caterpillar C 4.4 ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck Honeywell 55-GA-714A 4R 106 TD21 Hatz 4L41C Napier Lion II Power Stroke 7.3-liter V-8 VGT500 ISBe 6 cyl, 6.7l Euro 3 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck MAN D0834 Caterpillar C 6.6 6R106 TD21 Caterpillar 3126E Caterpillar C 7 Caterpillar C 9 ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach Detroit Diesel 6V-53T MTU 10V 890 6V 199 TE20 MAN D2066 950 Plus Napier Sabre H-24 VA AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine MTU 8V 199 TE20 MTU 8V 199 TE21 MP8 US07 485M 1206E-E70TTA Caterpillar C-16 Caterpillar C-18 V903 (Vee8) MTU MT 881 Ka-500 D13-900 MTU MT 883 V12-1800 Caterpillar C32 ACERT MTU 16V M70 FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) STEYR MOTORS M12 3300 Aero Engine MyT 14" V4 (2- stroke) Yanmar L70AE-DE Yanmar L48AE-DE Hurricane DID 600 AR801R MyT 6" AR741-1101 Schrick SR350i Cosworth LHFE- 2 cyl

DH200A4/V4/R4 1103C-33 STEYR MOTORS M14 VTI Arrius 2B2 Caterpillar C 4.4 Honeywell 55-GA-714A RTM322-01/9A Isuzu 4BD1T 4R 106 TD21 STEYR MOTORS M16 SCI Hatz 4L41C STEYR MOTORS SE286E40 Caterpillar C 6.6 MTR 390 VGT500 6R106 TD21 Caterpillar 3126E MAN D0834 MTU 10V 890 MTU MT 881 Ka-500 Caterpillar C 7 Caterpillar C 9 6V 199 TE20 MTU MT 883 Detroit Diesel 6V-53T MTU 8V 199 TE20 MTU 8V 199 TE21 AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine MP8 US07 485M MAN D2066 Caterpillar C-18 950 Plus Napier Lion II Caterpillar C-16 D13-900 Napier Sabre H-24 VA 1206E-E70TTA V12-1800 Caterpillar C32 ACERT MTU 16V M70 FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck ISBe 6 cyl, 6.7l Euro 3 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach V903 (Vee8) Power Stroke 7.3-liter V-8 Mercedes-Benz OM612 2.7L 5cly Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6

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Dry Weight

Note: The Fairbanks Morse FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) weights almost 12 tonne.

Figure 2: A plot of dry weight

Gross external engine volume

Figure 3: A plot of gross volume

1. The Fairbanks Morse FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) occupies in excess of 61 m. 2. No data was publicly available for the Cummins, Ford or Mercedes Benz engines. 3. The gross engine dimensions for the Cosworth LHFE- 2 cyl were inferred from the OEM website and the patents listed thereon.

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Engine
Engine

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kW 2000

1000

3000

4000

Nm 4000

2000

6000

8000

STEYR MOTORS M12 1103C-33 V4 (2- stroke) STEYR MOTORS M14 VTI Isuzu 4BD1T Mercedes-Benz OM612 2.7L 5cly 3300 Aero Engine Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6 STEYR MOTORS SE286E40 STEYR MOTORS M16 SCI Caterpillar C 4.4 ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck 4R 106 TD21 MAN D0834 Caterpillar 3126E ISBe 6 cyl, 6.7l Euro 3 VGT500 Power Stroke 7.3-liter V-8 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck Detroit Diesel 6V-53T Caterpillar C 6.6 Caterpillar C 7 1206E-E70TTA 6R106 TD21 ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach Caterpillar C 9 MAN D2066 6V 199 TE20 MP8 US07 485M MTU 8V 199 TE20 V903 (Vee8) 950 Plus MTU 10V 890 Caterpillar C-16 MTU 8V 199 TE21 Caterpillar C-18 D13-900 MTU MT 881 Ka-500 AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine MTU MT 883 MyT 14" Caterpillar C32 ACERT V12-1800 Yanmar L48AE-DE Yanmar L70AE-DE Cosworth LHFE- 2 cyl Schrick SR350i AR741-1101 Hurricane DID 600 AR801R Hatz 4L41C MyT 6" DH200A4/V4/R4 Napier Lion II Arrius 2B2 MTU 16V M70 MTR 390 FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) GE T700-710D RTM322-01/9A Napier Sabre H-24 VA Honeywell 55-GA-714A

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0
Yanmar L48AE-DE Yanmar L70AE-DE Cosworth LHFE- 2 cyl Schrick SR350i STEYR MOTORS M12 AR741-1101 Hurricane DID 600 1103C-33 AR801R Hatz 4L41C MyT 6" 3300 Aero Engine STEYR MOTORS M14 VTI Isuzu 4BD1T Mercedes-Benz OM612 2.7L 5cly DH200A4/V4/R4 V4 (2- stroke) ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck 4R 106 TD21 MAN D0834

Power

Torque

Note: No torque figures were listed for the engines to the right of the MAN V12-1800.

Figure 4: A plot of maximum power

Figure 5: A plot of maximum torque

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Engine

Engine

Caterpillar C 4.4 Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6 Caterpillar 3126E STEYR MOTORS M16 SCI 1206E-E70TTA STEYR MOTORS SE286E40 ISBe 6 cyl, 6.7l Euro 3 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck 6R106 TD21 Caterpillar C 6.6 Caterpillar C 7 ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach Detroit Diesel 6V-53T Power Stroke 7.3-liter V-8 MAN D2066 Caterpillar C 9 6V 199 TE20 Napier Lion II VGT500 Arrius 2B2 MP8 US07 485M Caterpillar C-18 MTU 8V 199 TE20 V903 (Vee8) Caterpillar C-16 MTU 8V 199 TE21 D13-900 950 Plus MTU MT 881 Ka-500 MTU 10V 890 Caterpillar C32 ACERT MTU 16V M70 MTR 390 AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine MTU MT 883 FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) V12-1800 GE T700-710D RTM322-01/9A Napier Sabre H-24 VA MyT 14" Honeywell 55-GA-714A

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kW / kg

MW / m

10

15

20

25

30

35

10
FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) Yanmar L48AE-DE Hatz 4L41C Yanmar L70AE-DE 1103C-33 1206E-E70TTA MTU 16V M70 Isuzu 4BD1T STEYR MOTORS M12 Caterpillar 3126E MAN D0834 MAN D2066 Caterpillar C32 ACERT 6V 199 TE20 Detroit Diesel 6V-53T ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck 4R 106 TD21 ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach Caterpillar C 7 MP8 US07 485M D13-900 Caterpillar C-18 ISBe 6 cyl, 6.7l Euro 3 6R106 TD21 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck Caterpillar C 4.4 V903 (Vee8) Caterpillar C-16 Caterpillar C 9 Engine

20

30

40

50

60

70

FM/ALCO 251 F (8 cyl) Yanmar L48AE-DE Yanmar L70AE-DE 1206E-E70TTA Hatz 4L41C 1103C-33 MTU 16V M70 STEYR MOTORS M12 Napier Lion II MAN D0834 MAN D2066 Isuzu 4BD1T Caterpillar 3126E Caterpillar C32 ACERT Detroit Diesel 6V-53T D13-900 Caterpillar C-16 MP8 US07 485M Caterpillar C 7 6V 199 TE20 STEYR MOTORS M14 VTI Caterpillar C-18

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3.1 Identification of Classes

From the figures above it is clearly evident that the MyT can be classified by a variety of means. Regardless of classification, it is plainly obvious that the MyT engine is grouped with the best of those in each of the comparison sets. However, the detailed class comparisons are progressed using just specific power and power density as the two primary metrics.

Specific Power

Power Density

Figure 6: A plot of specific power

Figure 7: A plot of power density

Note: Power density can not be calculated for those engines with no volumes listed, i.e. the Cummins, Ford or Mercedes Benz engines.

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Engine
Caterpillar C 4.4 MTU 8V 199 TE21 Hurricane DID 600 3300 Aero Engine DH200A4/V4/R4 VGT500 AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine Napier Sabre H-24 VA MTU MT 881 Ka-500 Schrick SR350i MTU MT 883 Arrius 2B2 MTU 10V 890 AR741-1101 AR801R MTR 390 V4 (2- stroke) RTM322-01/9A GE T700-710D Honeywell 55-GA-714A MyT 6" MyT 14" Mercedes-Benz OM612 2.7L 5cly Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6 ISBe 4 Cyl Euro 5 Truck ISBe 6 cyl, 6.7l Euro 3 Power Stroke 7.3-liter V-8 ISBe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck ISLe 6 Cyl Euro 5 Truck/Coach V903 (Vee8)

4R 106 TD21 6R106 TD21 Caterpillar C 9 STEYR MOTORS SE286E40 V12-1800 950 Plus STEYR MOTORS M16 SCI MTU 8V 199 TE20 Cosworth LHFE- 2 cyl Caterpillar C 6.6

MTU 8V 199 TE20 Caterpillar C 6.6 MTU 8V 199 TE21 V12-1800 MTU MT 881 Ka-500 Mercedes-Benz OM612 2.7L 5cly STEYR MOTORS SE286E40 Power Stroke 7.3-liter V-8 MTU MT 883 STEYR MOTORS M16 SCI 950 Plus STEYR MOTORS M14 VTI Mercedes-Benz OM642 3L V6 Napier Lion II VGT500 AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine DH200A4/V4/R4 3300 Aero Engine MTU 10V 890 Cosworth LHFE- 2 cyl Hurricane DID 600 Napier Sabre H-24 VA AR801R V4 (2- stroke) Schrick SR350i AR741-1101 Arrius 2B2 MyT 6" MTR 390 GE T700-710D RTM322-01/9A Honeywell 55-GA-714A MyT 14"

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The singular metrics are considered briefly after the detailed comparisons arising from the compound metrics.

It is acknowledged that additional classes can be considered. The two selected metrics for establishing each class are the only two compound metrics. More information is conveyed through the use of the compound metrics.

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4. Detailed Comparisons
The detailed comparisons examine the top 10 engines in both specific power and power density. The weight, gross volume, power and torque are compared for each of the top 10 engines for both classes.

The detailed comparisons of these 10 engines across the four criteria are depicted in figures 8 11 below.
Dry Weight
400 300 kg 200 100

4.1 Specific Power Class


The top 10 engines in terms of specific power as per figure 6, are listed in table 2, below. Table 2: Specific Power: Top 10 Engines Ser (a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Engine (b) Martin Aircraft V4 engine Schrick SR350i AR741-1101 Arrius 2B2 MyT 6" MTR 390 GE T700-710D Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 Honeywell 55-GA-714A MyT 14" Specific Power (kW / kg) (c) 2.50 2.55 2.66 3.83 5.08 5.53 7.23 8.32 10.08 32.91

GE T700-710D

0
MTR 390 Martin Aircraft V4 engine MyT 6" MyT 14" Schrick SR350i AR741-1101 Arrius 2B2

Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322


Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322

Engine

Figure 8: Specific Power Top 10 Weight

Gross external engine volume


0.6 0.5 m 0.3 0.2 0.0

GE T700-710D

Honeywell 55-GA-714A
MTR 390

Schrick SR350i

MyT 6"

AR741-1101

MyT 14"

Arrius 2B2

Interestingly, all of these engines, except for the MyT engines are for aircraft of some description and most are not piston engines. It is not until about a third of the way through the entire list in figure 6, above, that the first dedicated land platform application is rated, i.e. the MTR 10V 890 for the Puma. Thus the 14 MyT engine appears to outclass all engines in specific power, even the Honeywell engines for the M1 tank and the CH47 helicopter.

Figure 9: Specific Power Top 10 Volume

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Martin Aircraft V4 engine

Engine

Honeywell 55-GA-714A

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Power
4000

3000

future aircraft both occupied and remotely piloted as well as the full range of land borne platforms and possibly even a selection of marine vessels.

kW 2000
1000

4.2 Power Density Class


GE T700-710D MTR 390 Martin Aircraft V4 engine Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 Schrick SR350i AR741-1101 Arrius 2B2 MyT 14" MyT 6" Honeywell 55-GA-714A

The top 10 engines in terms of power density are listed in table 3 below. Table 3: Power Density: Top 10 Engines Power Ser
(a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Engine

Engine
(b) MTU 10V 890 AR741-1101 AR801R MTR 390 Martin Aircraft V4 engine Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 GE T700-710D Honeywell 55-GA-714A MyT 6" MyT 14"

Density (MW / m)
(c) 1.306 1.639 1.823 1.915 2.222 4.886 10.399 10.665 10.878 63.157

Figure 10: Specific Power Top 10 Power

Torque
6000

4500

Nm 3000

1500

0 GE T700-710D V4 (2- stroke) RTM32201/9A MTR 390 MyT 14" MyT 6" Honeywell 55GA-714A AR741-1101 Arrius 2B2 Schrick SR350i

Engine

Figure 11: Specific Power Top 10 Torque From the four graphs above, a visual inspection reveals that the MyT engine is small, light, and powerful and has an enormous amount of torque. It weighs about the least and occupies about the least space in the engine bay yet is only out powered by the Honeywell 55 GA-714A used in large helicopters. Although, only one of the aircraft engines had any torque figures listed in the OEM product specification literature or websites, the claim of ~5000Nm for the MyT engines rather substantial. Thus the MyT engine may be a suitable power pack candidate for

Again, all of these engines, except for the MyT engines and the MTU 10V 890 are for aircraft. Also the MyT engines appear to outclass all engines in power density, even the Honeywell engines for the M1 tank and the CH47 helicopter. The detailed comparisons of these 10 engines across the four criteria are depicted in figures 12 15 below.

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Dry Weight
1000 750
kg 500
4000

Power

3000

kW 2000
1000

250 0
MTR 390 Martin Aircraft V4 engine MyT 6" AR741-1101 MyT 14" AR801R

GE T700-710D

Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322

Honeywell 55-GA-714A

MTU 10V 890

GE T700-710D

MTU 10V 890

MTR 390

Martin Aircraft V4 engine

Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322

AR741-1101

AR801R

MyT 14"

MyT 6"

Engine

Engine

Figure 12: Power Density Top 10 Weight

Figure 14: Power Density Top 10 Power

Gross external engine volume


0.8 0.6

Torque
6000

4500
m 0.4 0.2 0.0

Nm 3000

Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322

GE T700-710D

MTR 390

Martin Aircraft V4 engine

Honeywell 55-GA-714A

MTU 10V 890

MyT 6"

AR741-1101

AR801R

MyT 14"

1500

0 GE T700-710D MTU 10V 890 V4 (2- stroke) RTM32201/9A MTR 390 MyT 14" AR801R MyT 6" Honeywell 55GA-714A AR741-1101

Engine

Engine

Figure 13: Power Density Top 10 Volume

Figure 15: Power Density Top 10 Torque From the four graphs above a visual inspection reveals that the MTU 10V 890 is the largest and heaviest of the top ten. And although is it considered a modern engine it still lags the 14 MyT engine by a significant margin; which as almost twice the torque and twice the power for about a 10th of the weight and about a 20th of the gross volume. Again, it appears that the MyT engine may be a suitable power pack candidate for future aircraft both occupied and remotely piloted as well as the full range of land borne platforms and possibly even a selection of marine vessels.

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4.3 Other Classes


Considering two other classes in which the MyT engine can be categorised, namely size and weight, it is clearly evident from the data in figures 2 7 that the MyT engine may be a suitable power pack candidate for other military platforms. These include but are not limited to future plant and equipment such as generators, pumps and air-conditioner units.

manned vehicle fleets the expected payoffs would be substantial.

6. Potential Applications
The range of potential applications for the MyT engine is extensive. From a cursory analysis it could be used in maritime vessels up to and including Armadale class patrol boats; air-cushion vehicles both for the propulsion and for the generation and maintenance of the air-cushion, helicopters; all types of ground vehicles; jet packs-both manned and unmanned, and other aircraftfor example self-powered remotely-piloted air cargo pallets; plant and equipment such as generators, pumps, air-conditioner units and ground servicing equipment and emergency control and support equipment. In terms of using the MyT engine in ground vehicles, the characteristics of it open up many new possibilities. Examples are powered bogies for both road trains and railway cars. Fundamental redesign of power trains is possible because of the small sized of the MyT engine. This could lead to faster, lighter, and more powerful yet still air transportable ground mobility vehicles with greater payloads, endurance and/or protection A miniaturised form factor opens up many possibilities. It could be considered a better replacement for dental drills and other air tools. Micro / nano / pico UAVs could be powered with user refillable compressed air containers thus greatly reducing their entire emissive signatures. Powered hand tools would also benefit from the use of the MyT engine in various small form factors. It is expected that the efforts required to develop large scale variants of the MyT engine would also be worth the cost. This would then give scope for it to be used in large ocean going vessels. Also it could be used for large electrical generation plants in remote localities which do not have access to a suitable electricity grid. This could be

5. Potential Benefits
Should the ADF take up the MyT engine once it matures to a suitable TRL, then there are a number of benefits which may accrue and be realised. It would simultaneously enable the competing demands of protection and mobility of modern combat vehicles to be met without detriment to either factor. The weight and space savings could enable additional stores for extended range, greater firepower or any situationally or tactically optimised combination. Possibly even the carriage of additional troops and/or equipment. Furthermore, the better fuel economy [27], improved RAM, and fleet commonality would contribute directly to a reduction of the logistic support footprint and the demands on the supply chain. This then translates into a reduction in the overall risk profile of an operation as there is less demand for logistic support personnel to be either in or transiting through the contested combat areas. The MyT engine provides a means for the ADF to move towards a single engine type for all of its land vehicles, plant and equipment. Aircraft OEMs have the opportunity to offer platforms in current form factors with greatly enhanced characteristics such as transit range and speed, time on station, pursuit speed or payload. Even if it was just confined to the

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in either the driving or driven modes of operation, with hydrothermal energy being the power source in the second case. Where-ever there in an internal combustion engine, pump, compressor or air powered motor currently in use there is scope for a more powerful, smaller, lighter and more efficient option to be employed using the MyT engine design. Even current hybrid systems would stand to benefit of such advances as may be realised by the MyT engine. Much more work remains to be done, to ratify the initial claims, then bring this new engine design to maturity and finally to market itlegally. [28]

7. Conclusion
The MyT clearly outperforms and outclasses all of the COTS/MOTS power packs considered. The 14 MyT engine weighing 68 kg, occupying 0.035 m and with a claimed output of 2238 kW has a minimum specific power of 32.91 kW/kg and a power density of 63.156 MW/m. [29]

The levels specific power and power density for internal-combustion piston engines within the current ADF inventory are clearly sub-par in comparison to the MyT engine. Notwithstanding any other benefits, there is no valid or logical justification for the ADO to ignore the MyT engine any longer. As a matter of priority the MyT engine needs to be investigated and the claims ratified so that its output characteristics and general dimensions may be the default essential specifications for power packs across multiple platforms in either block upgrades or initial acquisitions. The Australian Defence Industry has a brilliant opportunity to pre-empt the ADF in the uptake of this technological breakthrough to the mutual benefit.

8. Annex
A. Quinns Quilt [30]

9. References
Bender, A., L400 S&T Support, DSTO Internal Presentation, 30 Jul 2012 http://americas.cosworth.com/defense/light weight-heavy-fuel-engines/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napier Lion http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napier Sabre http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turbomeca_Ar rius http://martinjetpack.com/technicalinformation/v4-engine.aspx

http://pesn.com/2010/04/08/9501634_MYT _Engine_6inch_version_could_go_into_production_so on/ http://pesn.com/2011/04/23/9501814_Russi an_firm_claims_MYT_engine_design_its_ own/ http://pesn.com/2011/05/20/9501830_MYT 6_Engine_Signed_for_Strategic_Commerci alization/ http://www.4btswaps.com/forum/showthrea d.php?7348-Isuzu-4BD1T-Introduction. http://www.angellabsllc.com/2006-0213%20LA%20Auto_photo.html

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http://www.angellabsllc.com/2006-0213%20Sema%20Show_photo.html http://www.angellabsllc.com/AirMotoringR esearch.html http://www.angellabsllc.com/news_nasa.ht ml http://www.angellabsllc.com/news2.html http://www.angellabsllc.com/specs.html http://www.angellabsllc.com/specs.html http://www.angellabsllc.com/video/animati on.xls http://www.csiro.au/science/TiRO http://www.deltahawkengines.com/econom 00.shtml, et al http://www.deltahawkengines.com/object00 .shtml http://www.fairbanksmorse.com/engines/en gine_fm_alco_251.php http://www.geaviation.com/engines/militar y/t700/t700-701d.html http://www.internationalpowerstroke.com/6 7psd.html http://www.mtuonline.com/mtu/products/engineprogram/diesel-engines-for-wheeled-andtracked-armored-vehicles/engines-for-lightand-medium-weightvehicles/detail/product/975/cHash/fd3c89d 1beb26a6e0724d108e2296c63/?L=pmhwhv enqzrqht http://www.perkins.com/cda/files/2484142/ 7/1206E-E70TTA+IOPU+PN1962.pdf http://www.perkins.com/cda/files/285876/7 /1103A-33G+ElectropaK+PN1780.pdf

http://www.perkins.com/cda/files/285897/7 /1103C-33+Engine+PN1700.pdf http://www.rollsroyce.com/Images/MTR390_tcm926709.pdf http://www.rtbot.net/MercedesBenz_OM612_engine http://www.steyrmotors.com/automotive/engines/dieselengine-6-cylinder-3200-cm3-m16/ http://www.whnet.com/4x4/pix/OM642.pdf https://acc.dau.mil/adl/enUS/25811/file/3206/TRL%20Calc%202_2. zip https://acc.dau.mil/CommunityBrowser.asp x?id=25811 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Power_ Stroke_engine OEM Product Brochure - No.3, Seatek Marine (medium boat) applications, diesel OEM Product Brochure CAT 6757877, 2006 OEM Product Brochure CAT C18 Military Diesel Engine, 2011 OEM Product Brochure CAT C4.4 Military Diesel Engine OEM Product Brochure CAT C6.6 Military Diesel Engine OEM Product Brochure CAT C9 Military Diesel Engine, 2011 OEM Product Brochure CAT Industrial Engine Ratings Guide, page 19, LECH3874-11 (2-11)

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OEM Product Brochure CAT LEHT9326 (8-99) OEM Product Brochure Cummins Bulletin 4087195, Aug 2011 OEM Product Brochure Cummins Bulletin 4951351, UK, 7/10 OEM Product Brochure Cummins Bulletin 4951351, UK, 7/10 OEM Product Brochure Cummins Bulletin 4951352, UK, 7/10 OEM Product Brochure Cummins Bulletin 4971323, July 2010 OEM Product Brochure Detroit 3SA402 0010, 2000 OEM Product Brochure HATZ Deisel L Series, 5/569 ENG - 02.08 - 1 OEM Product Brochure Honeywell: PA00-2613, May 2000 OEM Product Brochure Honeywell: PA02-2993B, April 2002 OEM Product Brochure Jabiru, 3300 Aero Engine OEM Product Brochure LEDT7014-01, 2007 OEM Product Brochure Mack: A Sales Engineering Publication, ENG139 1001519_9B 04/04/2008 OEM Product Brochure MAN D 114.482/E - mu 11092 OEM Product Brochure MAN D 114.483/E - mu 11092 OEM Product Brochure MAN, D114567/E

OEM Product Brochure Marine Diesel: Marine (medium boat) applications, diesel OEM Product Brochure MTU 3230991, 2/10, VMD 2010-09 OEM Product Brochure MTU 3231111, 2/10, VMD 2010-09 OEM Product Brochure MTU 3231131, 2/10, VMD 2010-09 OEM Product Brochure MTU 3232171, 2/10, VMD 2010-09 OEM Product Brochure - MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH brochure, www.mtu-online.com OEM Product Brochure MTU Marine Diesel Engines 12V/16V 2000 M70 for Vessels with High Load Factors (1B) OEM Product Brochure Schrick: diesel/Kerosene for UAVs OEM Product Brochure Schrick: lightweight gasoline engine for UAVs OEM Product Brochure Steyr Motors: 25kW Diesel Electric Generator, August 2011 OEM Product Brochure Steyr Motors: MONOBLOCK DIESEL, [Marine engine series - SE 6 cylinder] OEM Product Brochure Steyr Motors: STEYR MONOBLOCK DIESEL - FOR HEAVY DUTY DEMANDS OEM Product Brochure UAV Engines Ltd: AR741 - 38 bhp OEM Product Brochure UAV Engines Ltd: AR801 - 51 bhp OEM Product Brochure VCOMB 0636 May 2009

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OEM Product Brochure VOLVO PENTA, 47701285 OEM Product Brochure Yanmar Service Manual, Industrial Diesel Engine, Model: LA Series Taleb N. N., The Black Swan: Second Edition: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, Random House, USA, 2010 US Patent 7438044 B2 US Patent: 6,739,307 B2 http://www.marinediesel.se http://www.schrick.com http://www.seatek-spa.com

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10. Annex A

Figure A-1: Quinns Quilt [31]

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11. Endnotes

1 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 2 http://www.angellabsllc.com/specs.html 3 Taleb, 2010 4 Bender, 2012 5 http://www.angellabsllc.com/news_nasa.html 6 http://www.angellabsllc.com/2006-0213%20Sema%20Show_photo.html 7 http://www.angellabsllc.com/2006-0213%20LA%20Auto_photo.html 8 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 9 http://pesn.com/2010/04/08/9501634_MYT_E ngine_6-inch_version_could_go_into_productio n_soon/ 10 US Patent: 6,739,307 B2 11 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 12 US Patent: 6,739,307 B2 13 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 14 US Patent: 6,739,307 B2 15 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 16 http://www.angellabsllc.com/video/animatio n.xls 17 US Patent: 6,739,307 B2 18 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 19 http://www.angellabsllc.com/news2.html 20 US Patent: 6,739,307 B2 21 http://www.angellabsllc.com/ 22 http://www.angellabsllc.com/AirMotoringRe search.html 23 http://www.angellabsllc.com/specs.html 24 https://acc.dau.mil/CommunityBrowser.aspx ?id=25811 25 https://acc.dau.mil/adl/en-US/25811/file/320 6/TRL%20Calc%202_2.zip 26 http://www.csiro.au/science/TiRO 27 http://www.angellabsllc.com/news2.html 28 http://pesn.com/2011/04/23/9501814_Russia n_firm_claims_MYT_engine_design_its_own/ 29 http://www.angellabsllc.com/specs.html 30 Bender ibid 31 Bender ibid

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