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HIGH CAPACITY OPTICAL NETWORKS

PRE-DISSERTATION
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN (Electronic and Communication Engineering)


By Anshul Under the Guidance of

Project Supervisor Mr.Gurpartap Singh

Lovely School of Science and Technology Lovely Professional University Punjab April 2013

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Pre Dissertation titled High Capacity Optical Networks that is being submitted by Anshul is in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY DEGREE, is a record of bonafide work done under my /our guidance. The contents of this Thesis, in full or in parts, have neither been taken from any other source nor have been submitted to any other Institute or University for award of any degree or diploma and the same is certified.

Gurpartap Singh Project Supervisor Lovely Professional University (Organization stamp)

Objective of the Thesis is satisfactory / unsatisfactory

ExaminerI

Examiner II

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Gurpartap Singh who gave his heart whelming full support in the completion of this pre-dissertation with his stimulating suggestions and encouragement to go ahead in all the time of the pre-dissertation. I would also like to thank ,Head of Electronics and Communication department,for providing with adequate knowledge in carrying out the work more interestingly. At last but not the least I would pay gratitude towards my parents and also like to thank God for the strength for keeping me standing and providing hope that this pre-dissertation would be possible.

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Ranjana. bearing Registration no. 10904258 has completed objective formulation of thesis titled, High Capacity Optical Networks under my guidance and supervision. To the best of my knowledge, the present work is the result of her original investigation and study. No part of the thesis has ever been submitted for any other degree at any University.

Signature and Name of the Research Supervisor Designation School Lovely Professional University Phagwara, Punjab. Date :

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DECLARATION

I, Anshul, student of B.Tech-M.Tech. (Program name) under Department . of Electronics And Communication Engneering Lovely Professional University, Punjab, hereby declare that all the information furnished in this Pre Dissertation report is based on my own intensive research and is genuine. This thesis does not, to the best of my knowledge, contain part of my work which has been submitted for the award of my degree either of this university or any other university without proper citation.

Date : 27 April 2013

ABSTRACT

Optical performance monitoring is an important function for high capacity optical transmission system. To meet the ever increasing demand for broadband services, future optical networks will have higher data rates, higher spectral efficiency and more flexibility in light path assignment. we will summarize some of the recent work that have carried out in this area. In particularly, PMD independent OSNR monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signal and signed residue dispersion monitoring of CSRZ-DQPSK signal using delay tap sampling and asymmetry ratio are presented. It presents the new design concepts to implement advanced high-capacity avionics optical fiber information exchange networks (AOFIEnetworks). Very-high-speed medium access protocols are proposed to support multi-gigabit per second data communications, and the considerations on network design are described to match the requirements for aircraft applications. Optical time-division multiple access networks are shown to be very efficient for on-board TV and audio distribution services, while an optical code-division multiple access network is attractive to high-speed asynchronous packet data transfer. Since wavelength-division multiple access (WDMA) has advantages of channel independence and protocol transparence, it makes WDMA networks very suitable for real-time multiservice communications and on-board network interconnection. With the tremendous growth in the Internet and the use of multimedia services, the demands for increased transmission capacity and switching/routing-node throughput for trunk networks are increasing rapidly. In addition, networks must now accommodate a variety of services as independently as possible. Optical network technology will play an important role in constructing costeffective transparent trunk networks. In this paper we briefly discuss the technologies needed to implement optical networks: wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to increase transmission capacity, photonic transport to support high-capacity flexible networks, and photonic switching to expand node capacities and functionality.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Chapter 1:Introduction. 10 1.1-Detection.....11 1.2-Error Performance.12 1.3-Optical filter based Mitigation Group Delay Ripples.12 1.3.1-Determination of Statistical Multi Freq phase ripples..13 1.3.2-Simulation setup13 1.4-Statistical model.14 1.5-Optical Equalizer structure..14 1.5.1-Filter structure for PMD15 1.6-High capacity optical networking techniques..16 Chapter 2: Literature Survey..17 Chapter 3:Broadarea and problem formulation20 3.1-Receiver..20 3.2-Fiber cable type.21 3.3-Regenerate..22 4.References.24 5. Biodata..25

LIST OF FIGURES

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Figure 1- NTEST fiber watch Figure 2- Acable real trailer with conduit that can carry optical fiber Figure 3-Single mode optical fiber in underground service pit

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

OPM- Optical Performance Monitoring NR-Optical Signal to Noise Ratio CO-Chromatic Dispersion OTN-Optical Transport Network PMD- Polarization mode Dispersion WDM-Wavelength Division Multiplexed FBGs- Fiber Bragg Grating MMC- Multi canonical Monte Carlo GDR-Group Delay Ripple NRZ-Non Return to Zero RZ-Return to Zero

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CHAPTER:- 1 INTRODUCTION

Fiber optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. Advantages over electrical transmission ,optical fibers have largely replaced copper wire communications in core networks in the developed world. The process of communicating using fiber-optics involves the following basics steps: Creating the optical signal involving the use of a transmitter ,relaying the signal along the fiber, ensuring that the signal does not become too distorted or weak, receiving the optical signal ,and converting it into an electrical signal .To meet the ever increasing demand for broadband width services, future optical networks will have higher data rates, higher spectral efficiency and more flexibility in light path assignment. This means transmission system parameters for the links in the network need to be controlled to be within a much tighter range in order to ensure proper operation of the networks.

Optical performance monitoring(OPM) functions are essential for monitoring these parameters in order that dynamic impairment compensation, efficient resources allocation and impairement aware routing can be carried out to ensure the proper operation of the networks. Among the system parameters to be monitored include signal wavelength ,optical signal to noise ratio(OSNR ), chromatic dispersion (CO),polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and non linear. In backbone optical transport networks(OTN),high capacity transmission technologies are essential to provide various broadband services such as video-sharing, high definition video-on-demand, and network computing. Network traffic demands are forecast to increase for the foreseeable future, with the challenge being to meet the demand while maintaining or lowering network costs. Simply increasing capacity will not be sufficient; overall bandwidth utilization also needs to improve. A combination of improved transport capacity through increased spectral efficiency and bit rate along with better network utilization by integrating sub channel electrical grooming into the transmission system will be required. Smarter ways to utilize optical capacity are key since transmission costs have been decreasing slower than grooming and switching costs. Integrated transport and switching can improve the efficiency of the client network using techniques such as port virtualization and transit traffic reduction. The baseline for transport networks will be 100 Gb/s PM-QPSK using 50 GHz channel spacing. Moving from a fixed DWDM channel arrangement to support flexible grid and super channels will allow tighter channel (carrier) spacing and should increase capacity by 30 to 50 percent. For shorter distances higher-order modulation such as 16-QAM can double network capacities. Advanced optical modulation formats have become a key ingredient to the design of modern wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) optically routed networks. In this paper, we review the generation and detection of multi gigabit/second intensity- and phase-modulated formats and highlight their resilience to key impairments found in optical networking, such as optical amplifier noise, chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode dispersion, WDM crosstalk, concatenated optical filtering, and fiber nonlinearity. Coherent detection with digital signal processing enables the use of the multi-level modulation format and polarization-division multiplexing(PDM), and thus dramatically increases the

spectral efficiency. Since higher speed interfaces such as 400G Ethernet are expected, research Interest is shifting to the long-haul transport of such higher speed client signal ,100-Tb/s-class total capacity is required in next generation. Many optical networks have link rates of 2.5 Gigabits per second, and research teams are deploying 10 and 40 G bit/sec optical links in experimental network test beds (e.g., the Internet2 Abilene backbone, and the NSFs Tera Grid) [Dr00]. If the optical links are conditioned to carry multiple channels via wavelength division multiplexing, then a networks capacity can exceed tens of Peta bits per second. The Global Grid Forum has identified basic requirements for applications and services that use optical network resources; these include: (1) a scalable, flexible, and rapidly reconfigurable optical network infrastructure; (2) ultra high bandwidth on demand between arbitrary endpoints; and (3) user/application provisioning and control of bandwidth with sub-wavelength granularity .Provisionable optical networks have been identified by the U.S. National Science Foundation and various Federal agencies as an essential and critical part of the Nations information infrastructure. Unfortunately, large-scale, ultra high capacity optical networks cannot be realistically modeled and analyzed using todays methods and tools. A new approach is required to provide insight into how applications and services that rapidly provision and release network resources might behave in these networks.

Ultra high capacity optical networks that are able to provide bandwidth on demand cannot be modeled with high fidelity using todays methods and tools. Discrete event and hybrid simulators, a nd (near) real time network emulators capable of processing several hundred thousand packets per second cannot cope with aggregate traffic volumes four or five orders of magnitude .In high-capacity metro networks, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) offer a potentially cost-effective solution for compensation of chromatic dispersion (CD). However, FBGs suffer from stochastic variations of their group delay, the so-called group delay ripple (GDR). We propose a novel statistical model to describe the effects of stochastic variations of GDR. The statistical properties of our model are verified by comparison to measurement data and Monte Carlo simulations as well as Multi canonical Monte Carlo (MMC) simulations. Results indicate that without further measures to counteract the GDR distortions, very large penalties (>; 10 dB) for the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) occur frequently at a bit rate of 112 G bit/s. Thus, we investigated the performance of short and cost-effective optical finite and infinite impulse response equalizer structures to mitigate the GDR distortions and to enhance the signal quality. With the use of optical equalizers (which can be realized as planar light wave circuits) we were able to reduce the mean OSNR penalty due to the GDR to less than 0.1 dB. We also demonstrate that the same filter structures can efficiently be used to mitigate all-order PMD distortions as well.

1.1 Detection
Efcient detection of FDM signals depends on the properties of the covariance matrix M (i.e. the Gram matrix) that appears in the linear statistical model . The Gram matrix is positive semi denite upper triangular, so its eigen values equate to its diagonal elements. In the OFDM case the ortho normal base coincides with the FDM carriers and consequently M =IN. On the other hand, in the FDM case, with decreasing carrier spacing and/or increasing number of carriers N, the Gram matrix eigen values decrease rapidly and M tends to become singular. Next, the well known iterative steps of SD based on the previous formula are applied. The improvement in the condition number of matrix D, due to the

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regularization process, is depicted . We need to underline the fact that the GSD based FDM detection can be easily expanded for higher level QAM schemes since non-constant modulus M-QAM symbols (M > 4) can be expressed as linear combinations of 4-QAM symbols .Finally, in our implementation of the GSD, we followed the Schnorr Euchner (SE) enumeration strategy, as applied to MIMO systems .

1.2 Error Performance


Error rate simulations were performed for different values of fT and different noise levels. It shows that with Eb/N0 = 8 dB the system approximates the BER of an OFDM scheme if the frequency separation between the FDM carriers is reduced up to 0.7 the FDM system with up to 32 carriers and 25% bandwidth saving (relative to an equivalent OFDM system) approximates the OFDM performance for between 5 and 8 dB. Finally, we show the applicability of the method through detailed system modeling and simulations. In particular, it is shown that for practical Eb/N0 values the proposed receiver could afford the computational cost of the detection of a 4-QAM IMGS FDM signal of N = 32 carriers with up to 25% bandwidth saving relative to a standard OFDM signal.

1.3 Optical Filter Based Mitigation Group Delay Ripple


In high-capacity metro networks, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) offer a potentially cost-effective solution for compensation of chromatic dispersion (CD). However, FBGs suffer from stochastic variations of their group delay, the so-called group delay ripple (GDR). We propose a novel statistical model to describe the effects of stochastic variations of GDR. The statistical properties of our model are verified by comparison to measurement data and Monte Carlo simulations as well as Multi canonical Monte Carlo (MMC) simulations. Results indicate that without further measures to counteract the GDR distortions, very large penalties (>; 10 dB) for the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) occur frequently at a bit rate of 112 G bit/s. Thus, we investigated the performance of short and cost-effective optical finite and infinite impulse response equalizer structures to mitigate the GDR distortions and to enhance the signal quality. With the use of optical equalizers (which can be realized as planar light wave circuits) we were able to reduce the mean OSNR penalty due to the GDR to less than 0.1 dB. We also demonstrate that the same filter structures can efficiently be used to mitigate allorder PMD distortions as well. The distortion caused by physical impairments which accur along the transmission link such as chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) are more severe at higher bitrates and may causes a significant decrease in signal quality. For high values of uncompensated CD or P M D ,it may even be impossible to detect an eye opening at the receiver without any further measures, Metro networks, however are very cost-sensitive application area. a lower cost solution which does not necessarily involve the deployment of DSP and POLMUX-QPSK would be preferred. The FBGs suffer from so-called group delay ripples .GRD is created due to inherent statistical deviations from the ideal linear dispersion gradient which may lead to inter symbol

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interference(ISI) and thus potential signal degradation. The maximum spectral bandwidth for each channel for these applications is predetermined by the 50GHz ITU grid

1.3.1 Determination of statistical multi frequency phase ripples and single frequency ripples

The multi frequency ripples are taken from a group delay measurement of a commercial DCFBG. The phase ripple characteristics are extracted by subtracting the linear part from the measured group delay characteristic over wavelength for one channel. The remaining GDR, which has a peak-to-peak ripple amplitude of 19 p s maximum, is integrated over the wavelength. To randomize the ripple influence, this characteristic is shifted cyclically with respect to the carrier frequency of the laser signal. With this method, a set of 100 different FBGs is modeled. These 100 FBGs are composed randomly together in 1000 different multi span links, each consisting of up to 20 FBGs. The phase ripple of one FBG represented as the phase response b(f) can be separated into different frequency components by Fourier series expansion These three parameters determine the influence of the ripple on the signal. The sinusoidal phase distortion leads to pre and post curser echoes with temporal distance of n/frip to the main signal pulse and weighted by the Bessel function of the n-th order J n as the impulse response of a single frequency ripple device shows.

1.3.2 Simulation setup

The simulation setup with a data rate of 11 G b/s is shown in Fig. 1. The considered modulation formats are amplitude shift keying (ASK), differential phase shift keying (DPSK), and differential quad rature phase shift keying with non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ) pulse shapes, respectively, and optical duobinary (ODB). For the differential formats, balanced detection is applied. To focus on the influence of the ripples, we consider full compensation of dispersion and linear fiber. The receiver consists of a 100 GHz Gaussian optical filter and a photo diode, followed by an electrical 3rd order Butterworth filter with bandwidth 0.7x symbol rate for NRZ and 1.1x symbol rate for RZ. The received signal is evaluated after every second FBG. Since OSNR estimation for the enormous number of received signal wave forms (1000x10 for each modulation format) would take too much time, the eye opening penalty (EOP) as the ratio of the maximum opening of the disturbed eye and the eye without ripple influences is measured .For single frequency ripple simulations the optical and the electrical filter are left out and only one FBG with sinusoidal ripples determined by g, frip and 0 is investigated.

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1.4 Statistical Model

When performing the fourier analysis of the experimentally obtained data, one can sort the values for the fourier coefficients of the GDR amplitudes in each distinct ripple period and all channels of the FBGs. The resulting distribution for othe GDR amplitudes can be approximately by using a log normal distribution.The log normal distribution has two degrees of freedom with being the expectations value and the individual fourier coefficient. The iterative Bayesian algorithm is applied to computergenerated ideal data and to experimental phantom imaging data containing Poisson noise. Improvement in image processing with the Bayesian algorithm is demonstrated by comparing the processed images and the convergence performances of objective evaluation test functions obtained by using the Bayesian algorithm with those obtained by using the standard maximum-likelihood algorithm. A Bayesian analysis considering both the a priori source distribution probabilistic models and the Poisson statistics of photon detection fluctuations is studied. The Bayesian solution determined by a system of equations that maximizes the a posteriori probability, given the measured data, is presented. A Bayesian image-processing algorithm that obtains the solution iteratively is derived by using an expectation-maximization technique.

1.5 Optical Equalizer Structure and Determination of Equalizer Coefficients

The transversal FIR filter functional diagram is depicted in Fig 1. (left). In order to mitigate PMDrelated distortions, a very simple approach would be to implement two parallel filter structures: Each equalizer structure has its own set of coefficients and can be adjusted independently while the input and output signals are split and, respectively, combined using a polarization beam splitter (PBS) . In this contribution we also implemented a so called butterfly structure as depicted in consisting of four FIR equalizer subsets which can be adjusted independently from each other. In a system with direct detection, the conventional approach of using (e.g.) the constant modulus algorithm (CMA) and/or a decision-directed algorithm cannot be used since the complex signal and thus the phase information is not known at the receiver. However, the tap coefficients can be found using a numerical optimizer. Previous studies have shown, that using a training sequence (512 bits) to guide the numerical optimizer to a solution for the set of tap coefficients achieves very good results. In this case, the least mean squares error which is composed of the difference of the detected signal power and the known training sequence is used as a feedback criterion. In our studies, we have used a MATLAB TM implementation of the trust region algorithm and a Leven berg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm to solve the (nonlinear) optimization problem. The equalizers can be realized as planar light wave circuit devices (PLC) which are composed of Si ON . They can also be used to equalize group delay ripples (GDR) due to deviations from an ideal dispersion compensation scheme as has been shown in . In contrast to

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electrical equalization, which has been intensively studied , optical equalization has received comparatively little attention . We have carried out extensive numerical simulations to compare two alternative strategies to realize an optical PMD equalizer and we found that the occurring maximum and mean penalties can be significantly reduced, when optical equalization is implemented. We also outline how the adaptation process for the filter coefficients can be realized.

1.5.1 Filter Structures for PMD Equalization

Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in a dual-pole optical communications network is compensated for using an adaptive PMD equalizer. The PMD equalizer may include a number of substantially identical filter modules that provide partial outputs which may be combined to form a PMD compensated output. A constant modulus algorithm (CMA)-based equalizer may track PMD across both poles and generates an error signal. The CMA-based equalizer includes a filter bank, and uses an update algorithm and tap/output adjustments based on a difference between combined tap energies and an index, and feedback from a forward error correction code frame synchronizer .An apparatus for adaptive equalization of polarization mode dispersion in an optical signal, comprising: an input configured to receive multiple input channels corresponding to digitized versions of in-phase and quadrature channels of horizontal and vertical polarity optical signals; a plurality of substantially identical finite impulse response (FIR) filter modules, configured to receive the input channels, receive filter tap error updates, adjust FIR filter tap values based on the received tap error updates, partially filter one or more of the input channels based on the adjusted FIR filter tap values, and output one or more partially filtered input channels; and an error calculation and output generation module configured to receive the partially filtered input channels from the FIR filter modules, combine the partially filtered input channels, output a polarization mode dispersion compensated version of each channel of the digitized. .

A method for adaptive equalization of polarization mode dispersion in an optical signal, the method comprising: receiving multiple input channels corresponding to digitized versions of in-phase and quadrature channels of horizontal and vertical polarity optical signals; partially filtering one or more of the input channels at a plurality of substantially identical FIR filter modules, each of the plurality of FIR filter modules including a portion of the filter taps for one or more FIR filters; receiving partially filtered input channels at an error calculation and output generation module; calculating, at the error calculation and output generation module, tap error updates for each of the FIR filter modules; outputting, from the error calculation and output generation module, the tap error updates to the plurality of FIR filter modules; and outputting, from the error calculation and output generation module.

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A method of polarization mode dispersion compensation may include receiving a digitized version of an optical signal, and utilizing a constant modulus algorithm in an adaptive equalizer to compensate for the effects of polarization mode dispersion.

1.6 High capacity optical networking technologies

With the tremendous growth in the Internet and the use of multimedia services, the demands for increased transmission capacity and switching/routing-node throughput for trunk networks are increasing rapidly. In addition, networks must now accommodate a variety of services as independently as possible. Optical network technology will play an important role in constructing cost-effective transparent trunk networks. In this paper we briefly discuss the technologies needed to implement optical networks: wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to increase transmission capacity, photonic transport to support high-capacity flexible networks, and photonic switching to expand node capacities and functionality. The Internet has produced higher demands for broadband services, leading to extensive growth in Internet Protocol (IP) data traffic and putting pressure on service providers to upgrade their existing networks. Fibre -To-The-Home (FTTH) for broadband access applications may be considered as an effective solution for higher capacity access networks as optical fiber in telecommunications have huge capacity, small size, light in weight, very high bandwidth, and immunity to electromagnetic interference, etc. The PON based technologies are somewhat new for Indian telecom environment and will grow extensively in due course. The Gigabit passive optical network (GPON) and Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) is considered to be a very attractive solution for implementing FTTX (Tiber To The Home/Business/Curb/Premises etc). The question will rise that what will be the next fiber access technology? Two technologies stand out in the industry would be 10G PON as a continuation of GPON and/or EPON & WDM-PON.

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CHAPTER 2 Literature survey The paper reviews the recent technical challenges of digital-signal-processing (DSP)-aided high-speed channel for future high-capacity Optical Transport Network (OTN) with the channel data rate beyond 100Gbit/s. In high-capacity metro networks, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) offer a potentially costeffective solution for compensation of chromatic dispersion (CD). However, FBGs suffer from stochastic variations of their group delay, the so-called group delay ripple (GDR). We propose a novel statistical model to describe the effects of stochastic variations of GDR. The statistical properties of our model are verified by comparison to measurement data and Monte Carlo simulations as well as Multi canonical Monte Carlo (MMC) simulations. Results indicate that without further measures to counteract the GDR distortions, very large penalties (>; 10 dB) for the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) occur frequently at a bit rate of 112 G bit/s. Thus, we investigated the performance of short and cost-effective optical finite and infinite impulse response equalizer structures to mitigate the GDR distortions and to enhance the signal quality. With the use of optical equalizers (which can be realized as planar light wave circuits) we were able to reduce the mean OSNR penalty due to the GDR to less than 0.1 dB. We also demonstrate that the same filter structures can efficiently be used to mitigate allorder PMD distortions as well. With the tremendous growth in the Internet and the use of multimedia services, the demands for increased transmission capacity and switching/routing-node throughput for trunk networks are increasing rapidly. In addition, networks must now accommodate a variety of services as independently as possible. Optical network technology will play an important role in constructing cost-effective transparent trunk networks. In this paper we briefly discuss the technologies needed to implement optical networks: wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to increase transmission capacity, photonic transport to support high-capacity flexible networks, and photonic switching to expand node capacities and functionality .

A collection of slides from the author's conference presentation is given. (Fiber- Wireless) is the combination of optical networking technology and wireless networks. Wi fi networks are very cost effective, gives high capacity bandwidth and the best solution to full fill the demand of bandwidth hungry applications like quad play, online gaming etc. Our goal is to reduce the delays in FiWi networks. In this paper we proposed most nearest most used routing algorithm (MNMU-RA) to overcome the delays in wireless (front end of Fi-Wi). Our algorithm shows the significant improvement in Delay and throughput of the network. Telecommunication networks call for novel energy-efficient design and management schemes as a result of the increasing contribution of the ICT sector to electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Access networks, being one of the significant contributors in the last mile, require power saving protocols and architectures. As one of the emerging access network solutions, convergence of PONs and wireless access networks, also named as Fi Wi, offer to combine the robustness and high capacity of optical networks with the mobility and ubiquity of wireless networks. In this article, we present an overview and a brief comparison of energy-efficient protocols and design approaches in Fi Wi networks. We further propose an energy-efficient bandwidth allocation mechanism in FiWi networks that adopts an optical burst switching (OBS)-like report generation mechanism in LREPON. Through simulations, we show that the proposed scheme leads to significant energy savings in the long-reach FiWi network while overcoming the delay penalty of the

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ONU-BS sleep modes. This article presents ACCORDANCE, a novel optical access network architecture based on OFDMA technology and applied on a PON topology. In compliance with next generation optical access requirements, this architecture aims to outperform existing PON solutions in terms of total capacity, bandwidth allocation flexibility, number of users, and network reach. Moreover, it provides the opportunity for convergence with wireless technologies and a smooth migration path from legacy access solutions like TDMA-PONs and DSL.

The last mile solutions for high-speed high-capacity optical networks capable of securely supporting large number of simultaneous users by minimal hardware requirements are needed but it seems that any such solutions are still far away. Access networks based only on a wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) or optical code-division multiplexing (OCDM) schemes can't do it as the standalone systems. Here we present a proof-of-concept field demonstration of the implementation of an incoherent OCDMA over OTDMA system (iOCDM-OTDM) using a 17km long bidirectional fiber link installed between the Strathclyde and Glasgow Universities. The performed system performance analyses include system scalability calculations and a system reach under the influence of transmission link physical impairments. optical transmission technologies are able to support 400Gbps over a single optical channel. However, this capacity cannot tit in the current fixed frequency grid optical spectrum. On the other hand, high rate optical channels have to co-exist with different ranges of line rates in order to serve heterogeneous bandwidth requests from variety of internet applications. Today's fixed rate and rigid frequency grid optical transmission systems cause over provisioning, where usually more spectral resources are provided than necessary. Recently, the concept of elastic optical network has been proposed in order to reduce this waste of resources. In networks with such feature enabled, modulation parameters and central frequencies are not fixed and the resources can be allocated with a fine granularity, in contrast to the traditional WDM networks. This flexibility makes it possible to adapt to the granularity of the requested bandwidth without over provisioning. However, this heterogeneous bandwidth allocation may on the other hand result in fragmentation of spectral resources under dynamic traffic.

We present a scalable high fan-out optical network (HF-PON) architecture that supports 450+ simultaneous users and an aggregate downstream bandwidth of 100Gb/s using quadrature amplitude modulation, coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (QAM-OFDM) sub-carrier modulation scheme. Presented architecture is best suited for high-capacity bandwidth hungry applications such as in-flight entertainment networks and can be deployed in small and geographically confined areas. Simulation results show that HF-PON is able to provide up to ~195Mb/s to each user with BER kept under the FEC threshold. The high capacity transport infrastructure that underpins today's Internet utilizes optical wavelengths both to provide high capacity transmission by means of multiplexing many wavelengths, each carrying as much as 100 G b/s on a single wavelength, but also to provide coarse networking flexibility by dynamically adding, dropping, and routing wavelength channels. Viewed initially by many as little more than a dreamlike vision, these wavelength switched networks have now been deployed in both metro and long-haul networks around the globe to

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provide flexible, cost-effective high bandwidth connectivity to meet the explosive growth in demand of very broadband wire line and wireless services, especially video. The success of these networks, as signified by their ubiquitous deployment, is a result of a fortuitous combination of three factors: A new network vision that, with the help of optical switching elements, leverages the advantage of optical amplifiers at the network as well as the transmission systems level; Popularization of videocentric handheld devices including smart phones and computer tablets has led to a sharp increase in the demand for wired and wireless data capacity and coverage towards the edge of modern communication networks. Since these devices are operated mostly from inside buildings, in-building coverage and capacity have also become critical components of wireless networks. But poor propagation of wireless signals inside buildings leads to significant performance degradation of wireless systems in terms of both coverage and capacity. As a result, a high density of antennas is needed to provide the required performance. Due to its inherent large bandwidth, optical fiber is ideally suited to provide flexible backbone infrastructure of high-capacity wireless networks. By employing analog radio-over-fiber signal transmission techniques, highly transparent fiber-wireless networks, which are ideal for multi-standard wireless system operation can be realized. We have demonstrated multiple simple techniques that may be used solve many technical challenges faced when analog signal transport is employed. Using simple and practical solutions, we have experimentally demonstrated ultra high-capacity radio-over-fiber systems operating at >; 30 G b/s.

Optical networks continue to play an essential role in scaling network capacity at a dramatically reduced unit bandwidth cost, and the next generation of technology will continue this trend. Automation of optical networks has reduced operations costs and enabled customer control of highbandwidth services. We anticipate application-driven control of optical networks to appear in the near future. This paper looks to emerging technologies, both at the physical layer and network control layer, with a goal of assessing their impact on next-generation optical network architectures. We look forward to orders of magnitude improvement both to the capacity and complexity of intelligent optical networks. we provide a historical perspective on the evolution of optical networks, with some emphasis on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)-funded Multiple Wavelength Optical Network (MONET) program, which demonstrated the technical feasibility of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) optical networks. The last mile solutions for high-speed high-capacity optical networks capable of securely supporting large number of simultaneous users by minimal hardware requirements are needed but it seems that any such solutions are still far away. Access networks based only on a wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) or optical code-division multiplexing (OCDM) schemes can't do it as the standalone systems. Here we present a proof-of-concept field demonstration of the implementation of an incoherent OCDMA over OTDMA system (iO CDM-OTDM) using a 17km long bidirectional fiber link installed between the Strathclyde and Glasgow Universities. The performed system performance analyses include system scalability calculations and a system reach under the influence of transmission link physical impairments.

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CHAPTER 3 Broad Area and Problem Formulation

Many network operations managers are well acquainted with the network monitoring tools designed to monitor the status of applications on their networks; however, few monitor the health of their optical network, yet this can often be the cause of network performance degradation. Reactive network troubleshooting is not sufficient as this approach may require too much time to identify and isolate problems; thus damaging an organization's reputation, diminishing customer service expectations and ultimately reducing an organization's revenue stream in the time needed to make necessary repairs. Designed for full service, emerging and next generation public and private networks, FiberWatch is the first Remote Fiber Testing System that allows the network operations manager to proactively monitor the fiber optic network through use of Domains, thus enabling delivery of the highest level of QoS and ensuring network security a and reliability to the greatest degree.

3.1 Receivers The main component of an optical receiver is a photo detector, which converts light into electricity using the photoelectric effect. The primary photo detectors for telecommunications are made from Indium gallium arsenide The photo detector is typically a semiconductor-based photodiode. Several types of photodiodes include p-n photodiodes, p-i-n photodiodes, and avalanche photodiodes. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photo detectors are also used due to their suitability for circuit integration in regenerators and wavelength-division multiplexers. Optical-electrical converters are typically coupled with a trans impedance amplifier and a limiting amplifier to produce a digital signal in the electrical domain from the incoming optical signal, which may be attenuated and distorted while passing through the channel. Further signal processing such as clock recovery from data (CDR) performed by a phase-locked loop may also be applied before the data is passed on.

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3.2 Fiber cable types

A cable reel trailer with conduit that can carry optical fiber.

Single-mode optical fiber in an underground service pit An optical fiber consists of a core, cladding, and a buffer (a protective outer coating), in which the cladding guides the light along the core by using the method of total internal reflection. The core and the cladding (which has a lower-refractive-index) are usually made of high-quality silica glass, although they can both be made of plastic as well. Connecting two optical fibers is done by fusion splicing or mechanical splicing and requires special skills and interconnection technology due to the microscopic precision required to align the fiber cores. Two main types of optical fiber used in optic communications include multi-mode optical fibers and single-mode optical fibers. A multi-mode optical fiber has a larger core ( 50 micrometers), allowing less precise, cheaper transmitters and receivers to connect to it as well as cheaper connectors. However, a multi-mode fiber introduces multimode distortion, which often limits the bandwidth and length of the link. Furthermore, because of its higher dopant content, multi-mode fibers are usually expensive and exhibit higher attenuation. The core of a single-mode fiber is smaller (<10 micrometers)

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and requires more expensive components and interconnection methods, but allows much longer, higher-performance links.

3.3 Regeneration When a communications link must span a larger distance than existing fiber-optic technology is capable of, the signal must be regenerated at intermediate points in the link by repeaters. Repeaters add substantial cost to a communication system, and so system designers attempt to minimize their use. Recent advances in fiber and optical communications technology have reduced signal degradation so far that regeneration of the optical signal is only needed over distances of hundreds of kilo meters. This has greatly reduced the cost of optical networking, particularly over undersea spans where the cost and reliability of repeaters is one of the key factors determining the performance of the whole cable system. The main advances contributing to these performance improvements are dispersion management, which seeks to balance the effects of dispersion against non-linearity; and solutions, which use nonlinear effects in the fiber to enable dispersion-free propagation over long distances.

The design of future all-optical networks relies on the knowledge of the physical layer transport properties. In this thesis, we focus on two types of system impairments: those induced by the non-ideal transfer functions of optical filters to be found in network elements such as optical add-drop multiplexers (OADM) and optical cross-connects (OXC), as well as those due to the interaction of group-velocity dispersion, optical fibre non-linearities and accumulation of amplifier noise in the transmission path. The dispersion of fibre optics components is shown to limit their cascadability. Dispersion measurement techniques are first reviewed, and the limitations of the commonly used phase-shift technique is discussed. Additionally, an alternative method which enables the direct determination of small dispersion values in the pass-band of optical filters is proposed. Available optical filter technologies are compared with respect to their dispersive properties. The cascadability of fibre gratings is investigated numerically and experimentally. The conventional Gaussian apodisation profile is shown to result in unwanted dispersion in the pass-band, which will limit its cascadability to less than five devices when a channel spacing of 50 GHz is used at 10 G bit/s. The use of narrow bandwidth modulation formats such as optical duo binary is suggested in order to improve the detuning tolerance of Gaussian apodised gratings. Alternatively, novel asymmetric apodisation profiles with multiple phase-shifts can be designed to provide reduced dispersion in the pass-band. Large detuning tolerances are demonstrated experimentally for a variety of modulation formats. A numerical optimisation of pass-band flattened phased array (PHASAR) multiplexers is performed for use in high spectral efficiency metropolitan area networks at 40 G bit/s. Even if conventional PHASARs are theoretically dispersion-less devices, the pass-band flattening process is shown to induce unwanted dispersion, which will ultimately limit the device cascadability. A PHASAR based on a parabolic horn input coupler is found to be the most promising design in order to maximise the spectral efficiency in a xxii

four add-drop node ring network. The concept of "normalised transmission sections" is introduced in order to ease the dimensioning of transparent domains in future all-optical networks. Normalised sections based on standard single mode fibre (SMF) and dispersion compensating fibre (DCF) are optimised numerically with respect to the positioning of the DCF, the degree of compensation and the input powers to the two fibre types. Experimental validations are performed for 10 Gbit/s non return-tozero (NRZ) and chirped return to-zero (CRZ) modulation over 80 km pre-compensated spans. Passive pre distortion at the transmitter is shown to significantly improve the reach of the systems. Based on the experimental results, transparent domains with a diameter of the order of 1000 km can be realised, thus demonstrating the applicability of the optimisation method to the design of large area networks. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems not only require compensation of the dispersion of the transmission fibre, but also of its dispersion slope. The effectiveness of early slope compensating DCFs for broadband compensation of SMF is demonstrated experimentally for 10 Gbit/s NRZ modulation. In particular, transmission in the L-band is achieved over more than 1000 km using a dispersion map optimised for the C-band, removing the need for separate band compensation. Novel DCFs enabling for the cabled compensation of the dispersion and dispersion slope of SMF (the socalled inverse dispersion fibres, IDFn, where n is the SMF to DCF length ratio), are compared numerically. For NRZ modulation at 10 Gbit/s, IDF1 is found to maximise the transmission distance over 50 km spans for single channel, while being prone to cross-phase modulation in WDM systems where IDF2 or 3 should be preferred. The benefit of using short return-to-zero (RZ) pulses over conventional NRZ modulation in a SMF+IDF1 link is highlighted. Short pulses disperse faster in the transmission fibre, which is in turn beneficial in terms of optical signal-to-noise ratio, resulting in a twofold increase in transmission distance over NRZ for a 3 dB power penalty criterion.

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Refrences [1] S.J.Savory,Digital filters for coherent optical receivers.Opt.Exp,vol.16,no.2,pp.804-817,2008. [2] www.opticsinfobase.org Optics and Photonics News Volume 14 Issue 9 by M Oikawa - 2003 [3] www4.ncsu.edu/~hp/Bragg.pdf [4] xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/24534646/885915896/name/paper11.pdf [5] www.amazon.com/University-Nebraska...high-capacity.../B000Y76JKE [6] www.kochi-tech.ac.jp/kut_E/graduate/image/iwashita.pdf [7]I.Kaminov,optitcal fiber and tecommunication IV B.New York:Academic,2002,pp.658-695 [8]D.W.Marquardt,An algorithm for least-square estimation of non linear parameters,SIAM J.Appl.Math,vol.11,pp.431-441,1963

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