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Solutions for Math 311 Assignment #9

(1) Obtain the Taylor series representation

z cosh(z 2 ) =
n=0

z 4n+1 (2n)!

at z = 0 and show that it holds for all z , i.e., its radius of convergence is . Solution. Since ez =
n=0

zn n!

for |z | < , we have

e and

z2

=
n=0

(z 2 )n = n!

n=0

z 2n n!

ez =
n=0

(z 2 )n = n!
2

n=0

(1)n 2n z n! 1 + (1)n n!

for |z | < . Therefore, ez + ez 1 z cosh(z ) = z =z 2 2 n=0


2
2

z 2n

for |z | < . Note that 1 + (1)n = Therefore,

2 if n = 2k 0 if n = 2k + 1 z 4k = (2k )!

z cosh(z ) = z
k=0

n=0

z 4n+1 (2n)!

for |z | < . (2) Obtain the Taylor series

ez = e
n=0 z

(z 1)n for |z 1| < n!

of f (z ) = e at z = 1 by (a) using f (n) (1); (b) writing ez = ez1 e.


1

Solution. (a) Let f (z ) = ez . Then f (n) (z ) = ez and f (n) (1) = e. Therefore,

e =
n=0

f (n) (1) (z 1)n = n!

n=0

e (z 1)n (z 1)n = e n! n! n=0

for |z 1| < . The radius of convergence is since f (z ) is entire. (b) Since zn ez = n! n=0 for |z | < , we see that

z 1

=
n=0

(z 1)n n!

for |z 1| < by substituting z 1 for z . Therefore, ez = eez1 = e


n=0

(z 1)n n!

for |z 1| < . (3) Find the Taylor series of f (z ) = sin(z 2 ) at z = 0 and use it to show that f (4n) (0) = f (2n+1) (0) = 0 for n = 0, 1, 2, .... Solution. Since

sin(z ) =
n=0

(1)n 2n+1 z (2n + 1)!

for |z | < , we see that

sin(z ) =
n=0 2

(1)n 4n+2 z (2n + 1)!

by substituting z for z . Therefore, f (m) (0) m z = m! m=0


(m)

n=0

(1)n 4n+2 z (2n + 1)!

It follows that f (0) = 0 if and only if m = 4n + 2 for some integer n 0. Therefore, f (2n+1) (0) = f (4n) (0) = 0

for all integers n 0. (4) Derive the Taylor series representation 1 = 1z

n=0

(z i)n (1 i)n+1

of f (z ) = 1/(1 z ) at z = i and show that it holds for |z i| < 2, i.e., its radius of convergence is 2. Solution. Since 1 = 1w for all |w| < 1, we have 1 1 1 1 = = 1z (1 i) (z i) 1 i 1 (z i)/(1 i) = =
n=0

wn
n=0

1 1i

n=0

(z i)n (1 i)n

(z i)n (1 i)n+1 zi < 1 |z i| < 2. 1i

for all z satisfying

Another way to show that the radius of convergence is 2 is by noticing that |i 1| = 2. Hence 1/(1 z ) is analytic in |z i| < 2 and not analytic in | z i | < R for all R > 2. In other words, R = 2 is the largest R such that 1/(1 z ) is analytic in |z i| < R. So it is the radius of convergence. (5) Find the Laurent series that represents the function f (z ) = z 2 sin in the domain 0 < |z | < . Solution. Since

1 z2

sin(z ) =
n=0

(1)n 2n+1 z (2n + 1)!

for |z | < , we have z sin


2

1 z2

=z

2 n=0

(1)n 4n2 z = (2n + 1)!

n=0

(1)n 1 (2n + 1)! z 4n

for 0 < |z | < by substituting z 2 for z . (6) Derive the Laurent series representation ez 1 = 2 (z + 1) e

n=0

(z + 1)n 1 1 + + (n + 2)! z + 1 (z + 1)2

for 0 < |z + 1| < .

Solution. Since

e =
n=0

zn n!

for |z | < , we have

z +1

=
n=0

z + 1n n!

for |z + 1| < by substituting z + 1 for z . Therefore, ez ez+1 = = (z + 1)2 e(z + 1)2 1 = e 1 = e

n=0

(z + 1)n2 e(n!)

(z + 1)n2 1 1 + + (z + 1)2 z + 1 n=2 n! 1 1 (z + 1)n + + (z + 1)2 z + 1 n=0 (n + 2)!

for 0 < |z + 1| < . (7) Give two Laurent Series expansions in powers of z for the function 1 f (z ) = 2 z (1 z ) and specify the regions in which those expansions are valid.

Solution. We observe that f (z ) is analytic in {z = 0, 1}. So it is analytic in 0 < |z | < 1 and 1 < |z |. When 0 < |z | < 1, 1 1 = 2 2 z (1 z ) z =

z =
n=0

z n2 = 1 1 + zn + 2 z z n=0

1 1 + z + z 2 z n=2

n=0 n2

When 1 < |z | < , 1 1 1 1 = 3 = 3 2 z (1 z ) z 1 1/z z

z n
n=0

=
n=0

1 z n+3

=
n=3

1 zn

(8) Show that when 0 < |z 1| < 2, (z 1)n 1 z = 3 . n +2 (z 1)(z 3) 2 2(z 1) n=0 Solution. We rst write z/((z 1)(z 3)) as a sum of partial fractions: 1 3 1 z = + (z 1)(z 3) 2 z1 z3 When 0 < |z 1| < 2, |(z 1)/2| < 1 and hence 1 1 1 1 = = z3 2 (z 1) 2 1 (z 1)/2 1 = 2 Therefore, 1 z = (z 1)(z 3) 2 = 3 2 1 3 + z1 z3 (z 1)n 1 2n+1 2(z 1) (z 1)n 1 n +2 2 2(z 1)

n=0

(z 1)n (z 1)n = 2n 2n+1 n=0

n=0

= 3
n=0

(9) Write the two Laurent series in powers of z that represent the function 1 f (z ) = z (4 + z 2 ) in certain domains and specify these domains. Solution. We observe that f (z ) is analytic in {z = 0, 2i}. Therefore, it is analytic in 0 < |z | < 2 and 2 < |z |. When 0 < |z | < 2, 1 1 1 1 = = 2 2 z (4 + z ) 4z 1 (z /4) 4z = 1 4z

n=0

(1) 2n z = 4n

n=0

z2 4

n=0

(1)n 2n1 z 4n+1

(1)n 2n1 1 (1)n+1 2n+1 1 = + z + z = 4z n=1 4n+1 z n=0 4n+2 When 2 < |z | < , 1 1 1 1 = 3 = 2 2 z (4 + z ) z 1 (4/z ) z = =
n=0

(4z 2 )n
n=0

1 z3

(1)n 4n z 2n =
n=0 n=0

(1)n 4n z 2n3

(1)n 4n z 2n+3