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# 6.

## 041 Fall 2009 Quiz 2

Tuesday, November 3, 7:30 - 9:30 PM.
YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO

Question 1 2 (a) 2 (b) 2 (c) 2 (d) 2 (e) 2 (f ) 3 4 (a i) 4 (a ii) 4 (b) 4 (c) 5 (a) 5 (b) 5 (c) Your Grade Score Out of 2 7 7 7 7 7 7 10 5 5 7 8 7 7 7 100

## Name: Recitation Instructor: TA:

This quiz has 5 problems, worth a total of 100 points. When giving a formula for a PDF, make sure to specify the range over which the formula holds. Please make sure to return the entire exam booklet intact. Write your solutions in this quiz booklet, only solutions in this quiz booklet will be graded. Be neat! You will not get credit if we cant read it. You are allowed 2 two-sided, handwritten, formulae sheets. Calculators not allowed. You may give an answer in the form of an arithmetic expression (sums, products, ratios, factorials) of numbers that could be evaluated using a calculator. Expressions like 8 or 3 5 k k=0 (1/2) are also ne. You have 2 hrs. to complete the quiz. Graded quizzes will be returned in recitation on Thursday 11/5.

## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science 6.041/6.431: Probabilistic Systems Analysis (Fall 2009)

.00 0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
.5000 .5398 .5793 .6179 .6554 .6915 .7257 .7580 .7881 .8159 .8413 .8643 .8849 .9032 .9192 .9332 .9452 .9554 .9641 .9713

.01 .5040 .5438 .5832 .6217 .6591 .6950 .7291 .7611 .7910 .8186 .8438 .8665 .8869 .9049 .9207 .9345 .9463 .9564 .9649 .9719

.02 .5080 .5478 .5871 .6255 .6628 .6985 .7324 .7642 .7939 .8212 .8461 .8686 .8888 .9066 .9222 .9357 .9474 .9573 .9656 .9726

.03 .5120 .5517 .5910 .6293 .6664 .7019 .7357 .7673 .7967 .8238 .8485 .8708 .8907 .9082 .9236 .9370 .9484 .9582 .9664 .9732

.04 .5160 .5557 .5948 .6331 .6700 .7054 .7389 .7704 .7995 .8264 .8508 .8729 .8925 .9099 .9251 .9382 .9495 .9591 .9671 .9738

.05 .5199 .5596 .5987 .6368 .6736 .7088 .7422 .7734 .8023 .8289 .8531 .8749 .8944 .9115 .9265 .9394 .9505 .9599 .9678 .9744

.06 .5239 .5636 .6026 .6406 .6772 .7123 .7454 .7764 .8051 .8315 .8554 .8770 .8962 .9131 .9279 .9406 .9515 .9608 .9686 .9750

.07 .5279 .5675 .6064 .6443 .6808 .7157 .7486 .7794 .8078 .8340 .8577 .8790 .8980 .9147 .9292 .9418 .9525 .9616 .9693 .9756

.08 .5319 .5714 .6103 .6480 .6844 .7190 .7517 .7823 .8106 .8365 .8599 .8810 .8997 .9162 .9306 .9429 .9535 .9625 .9699 .9761

.09 .5359 .5753 .6141 .6517 .6879 .7224 .7549 .7852 .8133 .8389 .8621 .8830 .9015 .9177 .9319 .9441 .9545 .9633 .9706 .9767

The standard normal table. The entries in this table provide the numeri cal values of (y ) = P(Y y ), where Y is a standard normal random vari able, for y between 0 and 1.99. For example, to nd (1.71), we look at the row corresponding to 1.7 and the column corresponding to 0.01, so that (1.71) = .9564. When y is negative, the value of (y ) can be found using the formula (y ) = 1 (y ).

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## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science 6.041/6.431: Probabilistic Systems Analysis (Fall 2009)
Problem 2. (42 points)
The random variable X is exponential with parameter 1. Given the value x of X , the random variable Y is
exponential with parameter equal to x (and mean 1/x).
Note: Some useful integrals, for > 0: 1 2 xex dx = 2 , x2 ex dx = 3 . 0 0 (a) (7 points) Find the joint PDF of X and Y . (b) (7 points) Find the marginal PDF of Y . (c) (7 points) Find the conditional PDF of X , given that Y = 2. (d) (7 points) Find the conditional expectation of X , given that Y = 2. (e) (7 points) Find the conditional PDF of Y , given that X = 2 and Y 3. (f) (7 points) Find the PDF of e2X . Problem 3. (10 points)
For the following questions, mark the correct answer. If you get it right, you receive 5 points for that question.
You receive no credit if you get it wrong. A justication is not required and will not be taken into account.
Let X and Y be continuous random variables. Let N be a discrete random variable. (a) (5 points) The quantity E[X | Y ] is always: (i) A number. (ii) A discrete random variable. (iii) A continuous random variable. (iv) Not enough information to choose between (i)-(iii). (b) (5 points) The quantity E[ E[X | Y, N ] | N ] is always: (i) A number. (ii) A discrete random variable. (iii) A continuous random variable. (iv) Not enough information to choose between (i)-(iii). Problem 4. (25 points)
The probability of obtaining heads in a single ip of a certain coin is itself a random variable, denoted by Q,
which is uniformly distributed in [0, 1]. Let X = 1 if the coin ip results in heads, and X = 0 if the coin ip
results in tails.
(a) (i) (5 points) Find the mean of X . (ii) (5 points) Find the variance of X . (b) (7 points) Find the covariance of X and Q. (c) (8 points) Find the conditional PDF of Q given that X = 1.

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## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science 6.041/6.431: Probabilistic Systems Analysis (Fall 2009)
Problem 5. (21 points) Let X and Y be independent continuous random variables with marginal PDFs fX and fY , and marginal CDFs FX and FY , respectively. Let S = min{X, Y }, L = max{X, Y }.

(a) (7 points) If X and Y are standard normal, nd the probability that S 1. (b) (7 points) Fix some s and with s . Give a formula for P(s S and L )
involving FX and FY , and no integrals.
(c) (7 points) Assume that s s + . Give a formula for P(s S s + , as an integral involving fX and fY .
L + ),

Page 5 of 13

## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science 6.041/6.431: Probabilistic Systems Analysis (Fall 2009)
Problem 2. (42 points)
The random variable X is exponential with parameter 1. Given the value x of X , the random variable Y is
exponential with parameter equal to x (and mean 1/x).
Note: Some useful integrals, for > 0: 1 2 xex dx = 2 , x2 ex dx = 3 . 0 0 (a) (7 points) Find the joint PDF of X and Y .

Page 6 of 13

## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science 6.041/6.431: Probabilistic Systems Analysis (Fall 2009)
(c) (7 points) Find the conditional PDF of X , given that Y = 2.

Page 7 of 13

## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science 6.041/6.431: Probabilistic Systems Analysis (Fall 2009)
(e) (7 points) Find the conditional PDF of Y , given that X = 2 and Y 3.

Page 8 of 13

## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science 6.041/6.431: Probabilistic Systems Analysis (Fall 2009)
Problem 3. (10 points)
For the following questions, mark the correct answer. If you get it right, you receive 5 points for that question.
You receive no credit if you get it wrong. A justication is not required and will not be taken into account.
Let X and Y be continuous random variables. Let N be a discrete random variable. (a) (5 points) The quantity E[X | Y ] is always: (i) A number. (ii) A discrete random variable. (iii) A continuous random variable. (iv) Not enough information to choose between (i)-(iii). (b) (5 points) The quantity E[ E[X | Y, N ] | N ] is always: (i) A number. (ii) A discrete random variable. (iii) A continuous random variable. (iv) Not enough information to choose between (i)-(iii). Problem 4. (25 points)
The probability of obtaining heads in a single ip of a certain coin is itself a random variable, denoted by Q,
which is uniformly distributed in [0, 1]. Let X = 1 if the coin ip results in heads, and X = 0 if the coin ip
results in tails.
(a) (i) (5 points) Find the mean of X .

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## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science 6.041/6.431: Probabilistic Systems Analysis (Fall 2009)
(ii) (5 points) Find the variance of X .

Page 10 of 13

## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science 6.041/6.431: Probabilistic Systems Analysis (Fall 2009)
(c) (8 points) Find the conditional PDF of Q given that X = 1.

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## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science 6.041/6.431: Probabilistic Systems Analysis (Fall 2009)
Problem 5. (21 points) Let X and Y be independent continuous random variables with marginal PDFs fX and fY , and marginal CDFs FX and FY , respectively. Let S = min{X, Y }, L = max{X, Y }.

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## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science 6.041/6.431: Probabilistic Systems Analysis (Fall 2009)
(b) (7 points) Fix some s and with s . Give a formula for P(s S and L ) involving FX and FY , and no integrals.

(c) (7 points) Assume that s s + . Give a formula for P(s S s + , as an integral involving fX and fY . L + ),

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Fall 2010