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GENETICS

From the Greek word Genetikos which means


generative.
Suffix gen means to produce, to become, and to
grow into something.
Study of HEREDITY (cause of the similarities
between individuals), and VARIATION (cause of the
differences between individuals)
Variation may lead to speciation.

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HISTORY OF GENETICS
Prehistoric times
Domesticated plants and animals like Horses,
camels, oxens, and various breeds of dogs
during 8000-10000 B.C.
5000 B.C. Maize, wheat, rice, and date palm
were cultivated
Prehistoric evidence of cultivated plants and
animals documents our ancestors successful
attempts
to
manipulate
the
genetic
composition of useful species.
The Greek Influence
Hippocrates
An ancient Greek physician
Father of Medicine
Hippocratic treatise: On The Seed
Male semen is formed from different
parts of the body and is transported
through the blood vessels to the
testicles.
Active humors act as bearers of
hereditary traits and are drawn from
various parts of the body to the
semen
Aristotle
Naturalist and philisopher
He believed that male semen was formed
from blood not from each organ
That a generative heat resided in a vital
heat that has the capacity to produce
offspring of the same form as the parents

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That the Menstrual blood provided the


physical substance
The Dawn of Modern Biology
William Harvey
Blood is pumped by the heart through the
circulatory system made up of arteries and
veins
THEORY OF EPIGENESIS
Organisms
are
derived
from
substances present in the egg, which
differentiate into adult structures
during embryonic development
THEORY OF PREFORMATION
Sex
cells contain a complete
miniature
adult
called
the
HOMUNCULUS which means little
man"
that was placed inside a
woman for growth into a child
Casper Wolff
Several structures such as the alimentary
canal were not initially present in the
embryo but were instead formed later in
its development.
Francisco Redi, Lazaro Spallanzani, and
Louis Pasteur
Disproved
the
THEORY
OF
SPONTANEOUS GENERATION
Carolus Linnaeus
Swedish physician and plant taxonomist
FIXITY OF SPECIES
Animal and plant groups remain
unchanged in form from the moment
of their appearance of earth.
Binomial System of Classification
Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
CELL THEORY
All living organisms are made up of
cells.
Charles Darwin
The ORIGIN OF SPECIES
THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION

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Attempts to explain the cause of evolutionary


change.
Gregor Mendel
Experiment on Plant Hybridization
Demonstrated
statistical
patterns
underlying inheritance and developed a
theory involving hereditary factors in the
germ cells.
PARTICULATE INHERITANCE THEORY
Characteristics are not inherited, but
the particles, units, or factors that
determine or control the observable
character are transmitted from parent
to offspring.
Carl Correns, Erich Von Tschermak, Hugo
de Vries
Independently duplicated the works of
Gregor Mendel on green peas, maize, &
primrose and they got the same ratios.
Walter Sutton
CHROMOSOME
THEORY
OF
INHERITANCE
Factors proposed by Gregor Mendel
are located on chromosomes.
William Bateson
A British Biologist who introduced the
term GENETICS.
PRINCIPLE OF LINKAGE
Several factors are located on each
chromosome.
Thomas Hunt Morgan with Calvin Bridges,
Hermann J. Muller, and Alfred Sturtevant
Shows
that
genes
reside
in
chromosomes in a linear array
Genes are linked together in groups.
Linkage could be broken by crossingover.
Alfred Sturtevant
Makes the first genetic map of a
chromosome.
1926: Publication of Morgans Theory of the
Gene

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Hermann Muller
X-rays cause mutations and gene
mutations alter normal developmental
pattern.
Richard Goldschmidt
Genes exist as points in a chromosome
and has to be arranged in a proper order
to control normal developmental process
of the eye
A. E. Garrod
THEORY OF INBORN ERRORS OF
METABOLISM
Certain metabolic diseases are
inherited and had Mendelian
basis.
Oswald Avery
Genes are composed of a specific nucleic
acid DNA
Edward Lawrie Tatum and George Wells
Beadle
Genes code for protein
ONE-GENE-ONE-ENZYME
HYPOTHESIS
Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty, C. M.
MacLeod
Isolated DNA as the genetic material
(then called the transforming principle)
Erwin Chargaff
showed that the four nucleotides are not
present in nucleic acids in stable
proportions, but that some general rules
appear to hold (e.g., that the amount of
adenine, A, tends to be equal to that of
thymine, T).
Hershey-Chase Experiment
1952: proves the genetic information of
phages (and all other organisms) to be
DNA
James Watson and Francis Crick
Molecular structure of DNA.
Messelson-Stahl Experiment

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1958: demonstrates that DNA is


semiconservatively replicated
Heinrich Matthei, Phillip Leder, and Marshall
Nirenberg
1960: Gave the term genetic code for the
genetic sequence
1961: The genetic code is arranged in
triplets
Francis Jacob, Jacques Monod
Operon method of gene regulation
Howard Temin
1964: showed using RNA viruses that
Watsons central dogma is not always
true
1970: Restriction enzymes were discovered
in studies of a bacterium, Haemophilus
influenzae, enabling scientists to cut and
paste DNA
Fred Sanger
1977: sequenced THE DNA for the first
time ; completed the entire genome
sequence of Bacteriophage -X174.
Kary Banks Mullis
1983: discovers the polymerase chain
reaction enabling the easy amplification
of DNA
Alfred Jeffreys
1985: Discovers genetic fingerprinting
Francis Collins and Lap Chee Tsui
1989: sequenced the first human gene; It
encodes the CFTR protein. Defects in
this gene cause cystic fibrosis
1996:
the
first
eukaryote
genome,
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sequence was
released
1998:The first genome sequence for a
multicellular eukaryote, C. elegans was
released.
2001: First draft sequences of the human
genome are released simultaneously by the

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Human Genome Project and Celera __________________________


Genomics.
2003: (14 April) Successful completion of __________________________
Human Genome Project with 99% of the
genome sequenced to a 99.99% accuracy. __________________________
AREAS OF GENETICS
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1. CLASSICAL GENETICS
consists of the techniques and methodologies of __________________________
genetics that predate the advent of molecular biology.
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2. BEHAVIORAL GENETICS
studies the influence of varying genetics on animal __________________________
behavior.
studies the effects of human disorders as well as its __________________________
causes.
answers some very interesting questions about the __________________________
evolution of various behavior .
_________________________
3. CLINICAL GENETICS
Physicians who are trained as Geneticists diagnose, __________________________
treat, and counsel patients with genetic disorders or
syndromes.
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4. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
__________________________
builds upon the foundation of classical genetics but
focuses on the structure and function of genes at a __________________________
molecular level.
It employs the methods of both classical genetics (such _________________________
as hybridization) and molecular biology.
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5. MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS
use of molecular information to determine the patterns of __________________________
descent, and therefore the correct scientific classification
of organisms
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6. EPIGENETICS
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study of inherited features not strictly associated with
changes in the DNA sequence
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7. POPULATION GENETICS
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studies the distribution of and change in allele
frequencies of genes under the influence of the four
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evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, __________________________


mutation and migration. It is the theory that attempts to
explain such phenomena as adaptation and speciation. __________________________
8. ECOLOGICAL GENETICS
builds upon the basic principles of population genetics
but is more explicitly focused on ecological issues.
While molecular genetics studies the structure and
function of genes at a molecular level, ecological
genetics focuses on wild populations of organisms, and
attempts to collect data on the ecological aspects of
individuals as well as molecular markers from those
individuals.

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APPLICATIONS
Plant and Animal Improvement
Medicine
Genetic Engineering
Genetic Counselling
Legal Applications

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APPROACHES TO GENETICS
TRANSMISSION GENETICS
Patterns of inheritance of traits are examined.
Experiments are designed so that the transmission of
traits from parents to offspring can be analyzed through
several generations
PEDIGREE ANALYSIS
tool used in transmission genetics
Leads to inferences concerning the mode of inheritance
of a particular trait
CYTOGENETICS
Study of chromosome structure and behavior during cell
division
Karyotype
- tool used in cytogenetics
- illustrates the chromosomes of any
species arranged in a standard
sequence
MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS
Includes information on the nature, expression,
replication, regulation of the genetic information.
Includes also determination of nucleotide sequences

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RECOMBINANT DNA STUDIES


tool used in molecular genetic studies
genes from another organism are spliced into bacterial
or viral DNA and cloned
DNA BIOTECHNOLOGY
allows the cloning, identifying, sequencing, and
manipulation of the genes.

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