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# Lecture 20 Computer Structural Analysis using STAAD BACKGROUND:

Structural analysis by hand methods is feasible only for relatively simple structural members such as simply-supported beams and other 2-dimensional statically determinate frames. The real world, however, is much more complex and is composed of structures having multiple stories and supports, trusses, space frames, flat plates, arches, etc. Prior to the advent of digital computers in the 1960s, the analysis of these structures was most likely performed by approximate methods (such as moment distribution and portal analysis), or more rigorous exact methods involving applications of matrix and differential math. Originally, computer structural analysis was developed by mechanical and aerospace engineers for the airplane industry to calculate stresses on the wings and fuselage. Over the years, software was further developed and refined for usage by structural engineers to include analysis of structural elements as well as design of these members.

## Basics of Computer Structural Analysis:

All computer based structural analysis programs work in a similar manner the structure is broken into individual joints and members and Hookes law is used to determine forces, stresses, deflections and moments from large matrices of the load interactions between the joints and members. Joint

Member

STAAD Pro is one of many commercially available general-purpose structural analysis/design software packages. STAAD is an acronym for STructural Analysis and Design, and was introduced in the early 1980s. It is capable of analyzing the largest 3dimensional projects such as skyscrapers, stadiums, etc., or simple beams, trusses, or any other structural member or system.

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The following simple truss will be analyzed using STAAD: ALL members are nominal 2x4 wood (actual 1 x 3) B 8-0 A R1 = 4500 Lbs. R1 D 9000 lbs. 10-0 10-0 R2 C R2 = 4500 Lbs.

By hand-calculations, it was determined that the forces in the members are as follows: Member: AB and BC AD and DC BD Force: 7203 lbs. 5625 lbs. 9000 lbs. Tension or Compression: Compression Tension Tension Stress: 1372 PSI 1071 PSI 1714 PSI

To begin the analysis, a computer model of the truss must be determined, and joints must be defined (in X,Y coordinates) and members must be assigned as follows: 2 1 5 1 (0,0) 3 (20,0) 3 4 (10,0) 4 Joint No. and coordinates End Joint: 2 3 4 4 4 = (10,8) 2 Member No. Stress =

## 9000 Lbs. (1.5" x3. 5")

= 1714 PSI

Member No. 1 2 3 4 5

Start Joint: 1 2 1 3 2

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Follow the following steps to input the computer model, run the analysis and view & print the results: 1. Open the STAAD program by the following: START PROGRAMS STAAD Pro Rel.3.1 STAAD This will open the program and will look like:

## New Structure Icon

2. Pick the New Structure icon (or, go to File New) and the following will appear:

Be sure to click Truss and put in a title as shown here. Then pick Next.

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## Be sure to click Foot and Pound, then pick Next.

Another screen will appear, pick Finish. 4. You are now in the main graphic environment of the program, and the screen will look like the following:

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5. Save your work by clicking on the Save icon. At this point, you are ready to begin inputting your geometry. First, you must SAVE your work by clicking on the Save icon. The easiest way to do this is by picking the STAAD Editor icon (see above) and input information EXACTLY as shown below:

Joint 1 coordinates 0,0 Joint 2 coordinates 10,8 Joint 3 Member 1 is between Joints 1 & 2 Member 2 is between Joints 2 & 3 Member 3 YD = Depth in Y direction = 3.5 ZD = Width in Z direction = 1.5 Load of -9000 lb in the Y direction at Joint 4 (minus = downward force)

When finished inputting the information EXACTLY as shown above, click the X (close) button. The following screen will appear: (See next page)

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6. You are now ready to analyze the structure you just created. From the root menu, select Analyze (see above) and pick Run Analysis. You will then see the following:

Be sure to pick STAAD Analysis and then hit the Run Analysis button

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The next screen should look like the following. IF you made any mistakes in your input, you will be informed! Hit the Done button.

7. If you get any error messages, you can edit your input by hitting the STAAD Editor icon (see Step 4 above) to revise tour work, then follow Steps 5 and 6. DONT GET s likely you will need to tweak your input to get the proper results of your analysis. BE PATIENT.

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8. You can view your results after you have run your analysis by picking the STAAD Output icon (see Step 5 above). Here you will be able to view your results and decide if you need to revise your input. The following is the STAAD output of your analysis:

Print

9. IF YOUR RESULTS ARE CORRECT, you can print the output by hitting the Print icon (see above).

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Watch Units!!!

Support Reactions

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Watch Units!!!

Member Forces

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Watch Units!!!

## Member Stresses T = Tension C = Compression

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