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Work Part A first. You have 90 minutes to complete all four problems. After you have completed Part A, you may take a break. Then work Part B. You have 90 minutes to complete both problems. Show all your work. Partial credit will be given. Start each question on a new sheet of paper. Be sure to put your name in the upper righthand corner of each page, along with the question number and the page number/total pages for this problem. For example, Doe, Jamie A1 1/3 A hand-held calculator may be used. Its memory must be cleared of data and programs. You may use only the basic functions found on a simple scientific calculator. Calculators may not be shared. Cell phones, PDAs, or cameras may not be used during the exam or while the exam papers are present. You may not use any tables, books, or collections of formulas. Questions with the same point value are not necessarily of the same difficulty. Do not discuss the contents of this exam with anyone until after March 27th. Good luck! Possibly Useful Information - (Use for both part A and for part B) Gravitational field at the Earths surface g = 9.8 N/kg Newtons gravitational constant G = 6.67 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2 Coulombs constant k = 1/4 = 8.99 x 109 Nm2/C2 Biot-Savart constant km = /4 = 10-7 Tm/A Speed of light in a vacuum c = 3.00 x 108 m/s Boltzmanns constant kB = 1.38 x 10-23 J/K Avogadros number NA = 6.02 x 1023 (mol)-1 Ideal gas constant R = NAkB = 8.31 J/(molK) Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.67 x 10-8 J/(sm2K4) Elementary charge e = 1.602 x 10-19 C 1 electron volt 1 eV = 1.602 x 10-19 J Plancks constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 Js = 4.14 x 10-15 eVs Electron mass m = 9.109 x 10-31 kg = 0.511 MeV/c2 Binomial expansion (1 + x)n 1 + nx for |x| << 1 Small angle approximations sin cos 1 1/2 2

A1. A group of 12 resistors is arranged along the edges of a cube as shown in the diagram below.

a. (13 pts) The resistance between each pair of vertices is as follows: Rab = Rac = Rae = 3.0 Rcg = Ref = Rbd = 8.0 Rcd = Rbf = Reg = 12.0 Rdh = Rfh = Rgh = 1.0 What is the equivalent resistance between points a and h? b. (12 pts) The three 12.0 resistors are replaced by identical capacitors. Ccd = Cbf = Ceg = 15.0 F. A 12.0 V battery is attached across points a and h and the circuit is allowed to operate for a long period of time. What is the charge (Qcd, Qbf, Qeg) on each capacitor after this long period of time? Copyright 2007, American Association of Physics Teachers

A2. A simple gun can be made from a uniform cylinder of length L0 and inside radius rc. One end of the cylinder is sealed with a moveable plunger and the other end is plugged with a cylindrical cork bullet. The bullet is held in place by friction with the walls of the cylinder. The pressure outside the cylinder is atmospheric pressure, P0 . The bullet will just start to slide out of the cylinder if the pressure inside the cylinder exceeds Pcr . a. There are two ways to launch the bullet: either by heating the gas inside the cylinder and keeping the plunger fixed, or by suddenly pushing the plunger into the cylinder. In either case, assume that an ideal monatomic gas is inside the cylinder, and that originally the gas is at temperature T0 , the pressure inside the cylinder is P0 , and the length of the cylinder is L0 . (8 pts) i. Assume that we launch the bullet by heating the gas without moving the plunger. Find the minimum temperature of the gas necessary to launch the bullet. Express your answer in terms of any or all of the variables: rc , T0 , L0 , P0 , and Pcr . ii. Assume, instead that we launch the bullet by pushing in the plunger, and that we do so quickly enough so that no heat is transferred into or out of the gas. Find the length of the gas column inside the cylinder when the bullet just starts to move. Express your answer in terms of any or all of the variables: rc , T0 , L0 , P0 , and Pcr .

(8 pts)

b. (9 pts) It is necessary to squeeze the bullet to get it into the cylinder in the first place. The bullet normally has a radius rb that is slightly larger than the inside radius of the cylinder; rb rc = r , is small compared to rc . The bullet has a length h L0 . The walls of the cylinder apply a pressure to the cork bullet. When a pressure P is applied to the bullet along a given direction, the bullets dimensions in that direction change by x P = x E for a constant E known as Youngs modulus. You may assume that compression along one direction does not cause expansion in any other direction. (This is true if the so-called Poisson ratio is close to zero, which is the case for cork.) If the coefficient of static friction between the cork and the cylinder is , find an expression for Pcr . Express your answer in terms of any or all of the variables: P0 , , h, E , r , and rc .

A3. A volume V f of fluid with uniform charge density is sprayed into a room, forming spherical drops. As they float around the room, the drops may break apart into smaller drops or coalesce into larger ones. Suppose that all of the drops have radius R. Ignore inter-drop forces and assume that V f R 3 . (10 pts) a. Calculate the electrostatic potential energy of a single drop. (Hint: suppose the sphere has radius r. How much work is required to increase the radius by dr?). (4 pts) b. What is the total electrostatic energy of the drops? Your answer to (b) should indicate that the total energy increases with R. In the absence of surface tension, then, the fluid would break apart into infinitesimally small drops. Suppose, however, that the fluid has a surface tension . (This value is the potential energy per unit surface area, and is positive.) (4 pts) c. (7 pts) d. What is the total energy of the drops due to surface tension? What is the equilibrium radius of the drops?

A4. A nonlinear circuit element can be made out of a parallel plate capacitor and small balls, each of mass m, that can move between the plates. The balls collide inelastically with the plates, dissipate all kinetic energy as thermal energy, and immediately release the charge they are carrying to the plate. Almost instantaneously, the balls then pick up a small charge of magnitude q from the plate; the balls are then repelled directly toward the other plate under electrostatic forces only. Another collision happens, kinetic energy is dissipated, the balls give up the charge, collect a new charge, and the cycle repeats. There are n0 balls per unit surface area of the plate. The capacitor has a capacitance C. The separation d between the plates is much larger than the radius r of the balls. A battery is connected to the plates in order to maintain a constant potential difference V. Neglect edge effects and assume that magnetic forces and gravitational forces may be ignored. (5) (5) a. Determine the time it takes for one ball to travel between the plates in terms of any or all of the following variables: m, q, d, and V. b. Calculate the kinetic energy dissipated as thermal energy when one ball collides inelastically with a plate surface in terms of any or all of the following variables: m, q, d, and V. c. Derive an expression for the current between the plates in terms of the permittivity of free space, 0 , and any or all of the following variables: m, q, n0, C, and V. d. Derive an expression for the effective resistance of the device in terms of 0 , and any or all of the following variables: m, q, n0, C, and V. e. Calculate the rate at which the kinetic energy of the balls is converted into thermal energy in terms of 0 , and any or all of the following variables: m, q, n0, C, and V.

(5)

(5)

(5)

B1. A certain mechanical oscillator can be modeled as an ideal massless spring connected to a moveable plate on an incline. The spring has spring constant k, the plate has mass m, and the incline makes an angle with the horizontal. When the system is operating correctly, the plate oscillates between points A and B in the figure, located a distance L apart. When the plate reaches point A it has zero kinetic energy, but then trips a small lever that instantaneously loads a block of mass M onto the plate. The block and plate then move down the incline to point B, where the force from the spring stops the plate. At this point, the block falls through a hole in the incline, allowing the plate to move back up under the force of the spring. Upon returning to point A it collects another block, and the cycle repeats. Both the plate and the block have a coefficient of friction with the incline for both kinetic and static friction. It is reasonable that the motion in either direction is simple harmonic in nature.

(10 pts) a. Let c be the critical value of the coefficient of friction where the block will just start to slide under the force of gravity on an incline (without the spring acting on

. Find in terms of g, the acceleration of free fall, and any 2 or all of the following variables: and M.

(14 pts) b. In order for this system to work correctly, it is necessary to have the correct ratio between the mass of the block and the mass of the plate. These masses are chosen so that the downward moving block and plate just stop at point B while the M upward moving plate just stops at point A. Find the ratio R = . m (13 pts) c. The system delivers blocks to point B with period T0 , until the blocks run out. T After that, the plate alone oscillates with a period T . Find the ratio 0 . T (13 pts) d. The plate only oscillates a few times after delivering the last block. At what distance up the incline, measured from point B, does the plate come to a permanent stop?

B2. A model of the magnetic properties of materials is based upon small magnetic moments generated by each atom in the material. One source of this magnetic moment is the magnetic field generated by the electron in its orbit around the nucleus. For simplicity, we will assume that each atom consists of a single electron of charge e and mass me , a single proton of charge +e and mass m p me , and that the electron orbits in a circular orbit of radius R about the proton. a. Magnetic Moments. Assume that the electron orbits in the x-y plane. (3 pts) i. Calculate the net electrostatic force on the electron from the proton. Express your answer in terms of any or all of the following parameters: e, me , m p , R, and the

permittivity of free space, 0 , where 1 0 = . 4 k (k is the Coulombs Law constant). (5 pts) ii. Determine the angular velocity 0 of the electron around the proton in terms of any or all of the following parameters: e, me , R, and 0 .

(8 pts) iii. Derive an expression for the magnitude of the magnetic field Be due to the orbital motion of the electron at a distance z R from the x-y plane along the axis of orbital rotation of the electron. Express your answer in terms of any or all of the following parameters: e, me , R, 0 , z , and the permeability of free space 0 . (4 pts) iv. A small bar magnet has a magnetic field far from the magnet given by m B= 0 3, 2 z where z is the distance from the magnet on the axis connecting the north and south poles, m is the magnetic dipole moment, and 0 is the permeability of free space. Assuming that an electron orbiting a proton acts like a small bar magnet, find the dipole moment m for an electron orbiting an atom in terms of any or all of the following parameters: e, me , R, and 0 .

b. Diamagnetism. We model a diamagnetic substance to have all atoms oriented so that the electron orbits are in the x-y plane, exactly half of which are clockwise and half counterclockwise when viewed from the positive z axis looking toward the origin. Some substances are predominantly diamagnetic. (3 pts) i. Calculate the total magnetic moment of a diamagnetic substance with N atoms. Write your answer in terms of any or all of the following parameters: e, me , R, N , and 0 .

G is applied to the substance. Assume that the An external magnetic field B0 = B0 z introduction of the external field doesnt change the fact that the electron moves in a circular orbit of radius R. Determine , the change in angular velocity of the electron, for both the clockwise and counterclockwise orbits. Throughout this entire problem you can assume that 0 . Write your answer in terms of e, me , and B0 only.

(6 pts) ii.

(6 pts) iii. Assume that the external field is turned on at a constant rate in a time interval t . That is to say, when t = 0 the external field is zero and when t = t the external G field is B0 . Determine the induced emf E experienced by the electron. Write your answer in terms of any or all of the following parameters: e, me , R, N , B0 , 0 , and 0 . (6 pts) iv. Verify that the change in the kinetic energy of the electron satisfies K = e E. This justifies our assumption in (ii) that R does not change. (6 pts) v. Determine the change in the total magnetic moment m for the N atoms when the external field is applied, writing your answer in terms of e, me , R, N , 0 and B0 .

(3 pts) vi. Suppose that the uniform magnetic field used in the previous parts of this problem is replaced with a bar magnet. Would the diamagnetic substance be attracted or repelled by the bar magnet? How does your answer show this?

AAPT AIP

Seminal Exam

Important Instructions for the Exam Supervisor

This examination consists of three parts. Part A has four questions and is allowed 90 minutes. Part B has two questions and is allowed 90 minutes. Part C has one question and is allowed 20 minutes. The answer for Part C will not be used for team selection, but will be used for special recognition from the Optical Society of America. The rst page that follows is a cover sheet. Examinees may keep the cover sheet for all three parts of the exam. The three parts are then identied by the center header on each page. Examinees are only allowed to do one part at a time, and may not work on other parts, even if they have time remaining. Allow 90 minutes to complete Part A. Do not let students look at Part B or Part C. Collect the answers to Part A before allowing the examinee to begin Part B. Examinees are allowed a 10 to 15 minutes break between parts A and B. Allow 90 minutes to complete Part B. Do not let students look at Part C or go back to Part A. Collect the answers to part B before allowing the examinee to begin Part C. Examinees are allowed a 10 to 15 minutes break between Parts B and C. Allow 20 minutes to complete Part C. This part is optional; scores on Part C will not be used to select the US Team. Examinees may not go back to Part A or B. Ideally the test supervisor will divide the question paper into 4 parts: the cover sheet (page 2), Part A (pages 3-7), Part B (pages 8-10), and Part C (page 11). Examinees should be provided the parts individually, although they may keep the cover sheet. The supervisor must collect all examination questions, including the cover sheet, at the end of the exam, as well as any scratch paper used by the examinees. Examinees may not take the exam questions. The examination questions may be returned to the students after March 31, 2008. Examinees are allowed calculators, but they may not use symbolic math, programming, or graphic features of these calculators. Calculators may not be shared and their memory must be cleared of data and programs. Cell phones, PDAs or cameras may not be used during the exam or while the exam papers are present. Examinees may not use any tables, books, or collections of formulas. Please provide the examinees with graph paper for Part A.

Cover Sheet

AAPT AIP

Seminal Exam

INSTRUCTIONS DO NOT OPEN THIS TEST UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO BEGIN Work Part A rst. You have 90 minutes to complete all four problems. Each question is worth 25 points. Do not look at Parts B or C during this time. After you have completed Part A you may take a break. Then work Part B. You have 90 minutes to complete both problems. Each question is worth 50 points. Do not look at Parts A or C during this time. Show all your work. Partial credit will be given. Do not write on the back of any page. Do not write anything that you wish graded on the question sheets. Start each question on a new sheet of paper. Put your school ID number, your name, the question number and the page number/total pages for this problem, in the upper right hand corner of each page. For example, School ID # Doe, Jamie A1 - 1/3 A hand-held calculator may be used. Its memory must be cleared of data and programs. You may use only the basic functions found on a simple scientic calculator. Calculators may not be shared. Cell phones, PDAs or cameras may not be used during the exam or while the exam papers are present. You may not use any tables, books, or collections of formulas. Questions with the same point value are not necessarily of the same diculty. Part C is an optional part of the test. You will be given 20 additional minutes to complete Part C. Your score on Part C will not aect the selection for the US Team, but can be used for special prizes and recognition to be awarded by the Optical Society of America. In order to maintain exam security, do not communicate any information about the questions (or their answers/solutions) on this contest until after March 31, 2008. Possibly Useful Information. You may use this sheet for all three parts of the exam. g = 9.8 N/kg G = 6.67 1011 N m2 /kg2 9 2 2 k = 1/40 = 8.99 10 N m /C km = 0 /4 = 107 T m/A 8 c = 3.00 10 m/s kB = 1.38 1023 J/K 23 1 NA = 6.02 10 (mol) R = NA kB = 8.31 J/(mol K) = 5.67 108 J/(s m2 K4 ) e = 1.602 1019 C 1eV = 1.602 1019 J h = 6.63 1034 J s = 4.14 1015 eV s 31 2 me = 9.109 10 kg = 0.511 MeV/c (1 + x)n 1 + nx for |x| 1 1 2 1 3 cos 1 2 for || 1 sin 6 for || 1 Copyright c 2008 American Association of Physics Teachers

Part A

Part A

Question A1

Four square metal plates of area A are arranged at an even spacing d as shown in the diagram. (Assume that A d2 .)

Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 d Plate 4 d d

Plates 1 and 4 are rst connected to a voltage source of magnitude V0 , with plate 1 positive; plates 2 and 3 are then connected together with a wire. The wire is subsequently removed. Finally, the voltage source attached between plates 1 and 4 is replaced with a wire. The steps are summarized in the diagrams below.

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Find the resulting potential dierence V12 between plates 1 and 2; like wise nd V23 and V34 , dened similarly. Assume, in each case, that a positive potential dierence means that the top plate is at a higher potential than the bottom plate.

Part A

Question A2

A simple heat engine consists of a moveable piston in a cylinder lled with an ideal monatomic gas. Initially the gas in the cylinder is at a pressure P0 and volume V0 . The gas is slowly heated at constant volume. Once the pressure reaches 32P0 the piston is released, allowing the gas to expand so that no heat either enters or escapes the gas as the piston moves. Once the pressure has returned to P0 the outside of the cylinder is cooled back to the original temperature, keeping the pressure constant. For the monatomic ideal gas you should assume that the molar heat capacity at constant volume is given by CV = 3 2 R, where R is the ideal gas constant. You may express your answers in fractional form or as decimals. If you choose decimals, keep three signicant gures in your calculations. The diagram below is not necessarily drawn to scale.

32P0 Pressure P0

V0

Vmax

Volume

a. Let Vmax be the maximum volume achieved by the gas during the cycle. What is Vmax in terms of V0 ? If you are unable to solve this part of the problem, you may express your answers to the remaining parts in terms of Vmax without further loss of points. b. In terms of P0 and V0 determine the heat added to the gas during a complete cycle. c. In terms of P0 and V0 determine the heat removed from the gas during a complete cycle. d. What is the eciency of this cycle?

Part A

Question A3

A certain planet of radius R is composed of a uniform material that, through radioactive decay, generates a net power P . This results in a temperature dierential between the inside and outside of the planet as heat is transfered from the interior to the surface. The rate of heat transfer is governed by the thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of how quickly heat ows through that material in response to a temperature gradient. Specically, consider a thin slab of material of area A and thickness x where one surface is hotter than the other by an amount T . Suppose that an amount of heat Q ows through the slab in a time t. The thermal conductivity k of the material is then k= Q 1 x . t A T

It is found that k is approximately constant for many materials; assume that it is constant for the planet. For the following assume that the planet is in a steady state; temperature might depend on position, but does not depend on time. a. Find an expression for the temperature of the surface of the planet assuming blackbody radiation, an emissivity of 1, and no radiation incident on the planet surface. You may express your answer in terms of any of the above variables and the Stephan-Boltzmann constant . b. Find an expression for the temperature dierence between the surface of the planet and the center of the planet. You may express your answer in terms of any of the above variables; you do not need to answer part (a) to be able to answer this part.

Part A

Question A4

A tape recorder playing a single tone of frequency f0 is dropped from rest at a height h. You stand directly underneath the tape recorder and measure the frequency observed as a function of time. Here t = 0 s is the time at which the tape recorder was dropped. t (s) 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 f (Hz) 581 619 665 723 801

The acceleration due to gravity is g = 9.80 m/s2 and the speed of sound in air is vsnd = 340 m/s. Ignore air resistance. You might need to use the Doppler shift formula for co-linear motion of sources and observers in still air, vsnd vobs f = f0 vsnd vsrc where f0 is the emitted frequency as determined by the source, f is the frequency as detected by the observer, and vsnd , vsrc , and vobs are the speed of sound in air, the speed of the source, and the speed of the observer. The positive and negative signs are dependent upon the relative directions of the motions of the source and the observer. a. Determine the frequency measured on the ground at time t, in terms of f0 , g , h, and vsnd . Consider only the case where the falling tape recorder doesnt exceed the speed of sound vsnd . b. Verify graphically that your result is consistent with the provided data. c. What (numerically) is the frequency played by the tape recorder? d. From what height h was the tape recorder dropped?

Part A

If there is still time remaining for Part A, you should review your work for Part A, but do not continue to Part B until instructed by your exam supervisor.

Part B

Part B

Question B1

A platform is attached to the ground by an ideal spring of constant k ; both the spring and the platform have negligible mass; assume that your mass is mp . Sitting on the platform is a rather large lump of clay of mass mc = rmp , with r some positive constant that measures the ratio mc /mp . You then gently step onto the platform, and the platform settles down to a new equilibrium position, a vertical distance D below the original position. Throughout the problem assume that you never lose contact with the platform.

h D

a. You then slowly pick up the lump of clay and hold it a height h above the platform. Upon releasing the clay you and the platform will oscillate up and down; you notice that the clay strikes the platform after the platform has completed exactly one oscillation. Determine the numerical value of the ratio h/D. b. Assume the resulting collision between the clay and the platform is completely inelastic. Find the ratio of the amplitude of the oscillation of the platform after the collision (Af ) to the amplitude of the oscillations of the platform before the collision (Ai ). Determine Af /Ai in terms of the mass ratio r and any necessary numerical constants. c. Sketch a graph of the position of the platform as a function of time, with t = 0 corresponding to the moment when the clay is dropped. Show one complete oscillation after the clay has collided with the platform. It is not necessary to use graph paper. d. The above experiment is only possible if the mass ratio r is less than some critical value rc . Otherwise, despite the clay having been dropped from the height determined in part (a), the oscillating platform will hit the clay before the platform has completed one full oscillation. On your graph in part (c) sketch the position of the clay as a function of time relative to the position of the platform for the mass ratio r = rc .

Part B

Question B2

Consider a parallel plate capacitor with the plates vertical. The plates of the capacitor are rigidly supported in place. The distance between the plates is d. The plates have height h and area A d2 . Assume throughout this problem that the force of air resistance may be neglected; however, the force of gravity cannot be neglected. Neglect any edge eects as well as any magnetic eects.

d/2 d

Rigid Support

L h h/2

String

a. A small metal ball with a mass M and a charge q is suspended from a string of length L that is tied to a rigid support. When the capacitor is not charged, the metal ball is located at the center of the capacitor at a distance d/2 from both plates and at a height h/2 above the bottom edge of the plates. If instead a constant potential dierence V0 is applied across the plates, the string will make an angle 0 to the vertical when the metal ball is in equilibrium. i. Determine 0 in terms of the given quantities and fundamental constants. ii. The metal ball is then lifted until it makes an angle to the vertical where is only slightly greater than 0 . The metal ball is then released from rest. Show that the resulting motion is simple harmonic motion and nd the period of the oscillations in terms of the given quantities and fundamental constants. iii. When the ball is at rest in the equilibrium position 0 , the string is cut. What is the maximum value for V0 so that the ball will not hit one of the plates before exiting? Express your answer in terms of the given quantities and fundamental constants. b. Suppose instead that the ball of mass M and charge q is released from rest at a point halfway between the plates at a time t = 0. Now, an AC potential dierence V (t) = V0 sin t is also placed across the capacitor. The ball may hit one of the plates before it falls (under the inuence of gravity) out of the region between the plates. If V0 is suciently large, this will only occur for some range of angular frequencies min < < max . You may assume that min g/h and max g/h. Making these assumptions, nd expressions for min and max in terms of the given quantities and/or fundamental constants. c. Assume that the region between the plates is not quite a vacuum, but instead humid air with a uniform resistivity . Ignore any eects because of the motion of the ball, and assume that the humid air doesnt change the capacitance of the original system. i. Determine the resistance between the plates. ii. If the plates are originally charged to a constant potential source V0 , and then the potential is removed, how much time is required for the potential dierence between the plates to decrease to a value of V0 /e, where ln e = 1? iii. If the plates are instead connected to an AC potential source so that the potential dierence across the plates is V0 sin t, determine the amplitude I0 of the alternating current through the potential source.

Part B

10

If there is still time remaining for Part B, you should review your work for Part B, but do not continue to Part C until instructed by your exam supervisor. You may not return to Part A

Part C

11

Researchers have developed a lens made of liquid. The spherical lens consists of a droplet of transparent liquid resting on an electrically controllable surface. When the voltage of the surface is changed, the droplet itself changes shape; it either tries to ball-up more strongly or it becomes atter. The gure below is a sketch of the liquid lens and several parameters that describe it, including the thickness of the lens (t), the radius of curvature of the top surface (R) and the contact angle (), which represents the angle between the at surface beneath the droplet and the tangent to the curved surface at the point of contact.

t R R

a. When a certain voltage is applied, both the contact angle and lens thickness increase (and the lens becomes more curved). In this case, is the liquid attracted or repelled by the surface? b. Express the contact angle as a function of R and t. c. The total volume of the liquid lens is an important parameter because as the liquid lens changes shape, its volume is conserved. Calculate the volume of the lens as a function of R and t. d. Use your result to part (b) to eliminate the variable t from your expression for the volume and nd V (R, ). e. By changing the voltage on the control surface, the contact angle, , can be changed, which in turn changes the focal length of the lens, f . The lensmakers formula can be used to calculate the focal length and is given by 1 1 1 , = (nliquid nair ) f R1 R2 where nliquid and nair are the refractive indices of the liquid in the lens and air around it, and R1 and R2 are the radii of curvature of the two surfaces of the lens. In gure 1, R1 is the curved face and R2 is the at face. Use the lensmakers formula to calculate the focal length of the lens in terms of the total volume of the liquid, the contact angle, and the relevant refractive indices. Sidenote: liquid lenses are interesting because they are electrically controllable, variable focus lenses that can be very compact. People are working on putting them into cell phone cameras for ultracompact zoom lenses. For more information on this type of liquid lens, see T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, Tunable liquid microlens, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).

AAPT AIP

Seminal Exam

Important Instructions for the Exam Supervisor

This examination consists of two parts. Part A has four questions and is allowed 90 minutes. Part B has two questions and is allowed 90 minutes. The rst page that follows is a cover sheet. Examinees may keep the cover sheet for both parts of the exam. The parts are then identied by the center header on each page. Examinees are only allowed to do one part at a time, and may not work on other parts, even if they have time remaining. Allow 90 minutes to complete Part A. Do not let students look at Part B. Collect the answers to Part A before allowing the examinee to begin Part B. Examinees are allowed a 10 to 15 minutes break between parts A and B. Allow 90 minutes to complete Part B. Do not let students go back to Part A. Ideally the test supervisor will divide the question paper into 3 parts: the cover sheet (page 2), Part A (pages 3-4), and Part B (pages 6-7). Examinees should be provided parts A and B individually, although they may keep the cover sheet. The supervisor must collect all examination questions, including the cover sheet, at the end of the exam, as well as any scratch paper used by the examinees. Examinees may not take the exam questions. The examination questions may be returned to the students after March 31, 2009. Examinees are allowed calculators, but they may not use symbolic math, programming, or graphic features of these calculators. Calculators may not be shared and their memory must be cleared of data and programs. Cell phones, PDAs or cameras may not be used during the exam or while the exam papers are present. Examinees may not use any tables, books, or collections of formulas. Please provide the examinees with graph paper for Part A.

Cover Sheet

AAPT AIP

Seminal Exam

INSTRUCTIONS DO NOT OPEN THIS TEST UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO BEGIN Work Part A rst. You have 90 minutes to complete all four problems. Each question is worth 25 points. Do not look at Part B during this time. After you have completed Part A you may take a break. Then work Part B. You have 90 minutes to complete both problems. Each question is worth 50 points. Do not look at Part A during this time. Show all your work. Partial credit will be given. Do not write on the back of any page. Do not write anything that you wish graded on the question sheets. Start each question on a new sheet of paper. Put your school ID number, your name, the question number and the page number/total pages for this problem, in the upper right hand corner of each page. For example, School ID # Doe, Jamie A1 - 1/3 A hand-held calculator may be used. Its memory must be cleared of data and programs. You may use only the basic functions found on a simple scientic calculator. Calculators may not be shared. Cell phones, PDAs or cameras may not be used during the exam or while the exam papers are present. You may not use any tables, books, or collections of formulas. Questions with the same point value are not necessarily of the same diculty. In order to maintain exam security, do not communicate any information about the questions (or their answers/solutions) on this contest until after March 31, 2009. Possibly Useful Information. You may g = 9.8 N/kg k = 1/4 0 = 8.99 109 N m2 /C2 c = 3.00 108 m/s NA = 6.02 1023 (mol)1 = 5.67 108 J/(s m2 K4 ) 1eV = 1.602 1019 J me = 9.109 1031 kg = 0.511 MeV/c2 3 sin 1 1 6 for | | use this sheet for both parts of the exam. G = 6.67 1011 N m2 /kg2 km = 0 /4 = 107 T m/A kB = 1.38 1023 J/K R = NA kB = 8.31 J/(mol K) e = 1.602 1019 C h = 6.63 1034 J s = 4.14 1015 eV s (1 + x)n 1 + nx for |x| 1 1 2 cos 1 2 for || 1

Part A

Part A

Question A1

A hollow cylinder has length l, radius r, and thickness d, where l r d, and is made of a material with resistivity . A time-varying current I ows through the cylinder in the tangential direction. Assume the current is always uniformly distributed along the length of the cylinder. The cylinder is xed so that it cannot move; assume that there are no externally generated magnetic elds during the time considered for the problems below.

I r

a. What is the magnetic eld strength B inside the cylinder in terms of I , the dimensions of the cylinder, and fundamental constants? b. Relate the emf E developed along the circumference of the cylinder to the rate of change of the current dI dt , the dimensions of the cylinder, and fundamental constants. c. Relate E to the current I , the resistivity , and the dimensions of the cylinder. d. The current at t = 0 is I0 . What is the current I (t) for t > 0?

Question A2

A mixture of 32 P and 35 S (two beta emitters widely used in biochemical research) is placed next to a detector and allowed to decay, resulting in the data below. The detector has equal sensitivity to the beta particles emitted by each isotope, and both isotopes decay into stable daughters. You should analyze the data graphically. Error estimates are not required. Day 0 5 10 20 30 Activity 64557 51714 41444 27020 18003 Day 40 60 80 100 150 Activity 12441 6385 3855 2734 1626 Day 200 250 300 Activity 1121 673 467

a. Determine the half-life of each isotope. b. Determine the ratio of the number of sample.

35 S

35 S

32 P.

32 P

Part A

Question A3

Two stars, each of mass M and separated by a distance d, orbit about their center of mass. A planetoid of mass m (m M ) moves along the axis of this system perpendicular to the orbital plane.

axis perpendicular to plane of orbit

Let Tp be the period of simple harmonic motion for the planetoid for small displacements from the center of mass along the z -axis, and let Ts be the period of motion for the two stars. Determine the ratio Tp /Ts .

This problem was adapted from a problem by French in Newtonian Mechanics.

Question A4

A potato gun res a potato horizontally down a half-open cylinder of cross-sectional area A. When the gun is red, the potato slug is at rest, the volume between the end of the cylinder and the potato is V0 , and the pressure of the gas in this volume is P0 . The atmospheric pressure is Patm , where P0 > Patm . The gas in the cylinder is diatomic; this means that Cv = 5R/2 and Cp = 7R/2. The potato moves down the cylinder quickly enough that no heat is transferred to the gas. Friction between the potato and the barrel is negligible and no gas leaks around the potato.

potato

closed end

open end

The parameters P0 , Patm , V0 , and A are xed, but the overall length L of the barrel may be varied. a. What is the maximum kinetic energy Emax with which the potato can exit the barrel? Express your answer in terms of P0 , Patm , and V0 . b. What is the length L in this case? Express your answer in terms of P0 , Patm , V0 , and A.

Part A

If there is still time remaining for Part A, you should review your work for Part A, but do not continue to Part B until instructed by your exam supervisor.

Part B

Part B

Question B1

A bowling ball and a golf ball are dropped together onto a at surface from a height h. The bowling ball is much more massive than the golf ball, and both have radii much less than h. The bowling ball collides with the surface and immediately thereafter with the golf ball; the balls are dropped so that all motion is vertical before the second collision, and the golf ball hits the bowling ball at an angle from its uppermost point, as shown in the diagram. All collisions are perfectly elastic, and there is no surface friction between the bowling ball and the golf ball.

l

After the collision the golf ball travels in the absence of air resistance and lands a distance l away. The height h is xed, but may be varied. What is the maximum possible value of l, and at what angle is it achieved? You may present your results as decimals, but remember that you are not allowed to use graphical or algebraic functions of your calculator.

Part B

Question B2

An electric dipole consists of two charges of equal magnitude q and opposite sign, held rigidly apart by a distance d. The dipole moment is dened by p = qd. Now consider two identical, oppositely oriented electric dipoles, separated by a distance r, as shown in the diagram.

A d r

B d

a. It is convenient when considering the interaction between the dipoles to choose the zero of potential energy such that the potential energy is zero when the dipoles are very far apart from each other. Using this convention, write an exact expression for the potential energy of this arrangement in terms of q , d, r, and fundamental constants. b. Assume that d r. Give an approximation of your expression for the potential energy to lowest order in d. Rewrite this approximation in terms of only p, r, and fundamental constants. c. What is the force (magnitude and direction) exerted on one dipole by the other? Continue to make the assumption that d r, and again express your result in terms of only p, r, and fundamental constants. d. What is the electric eld near dipole B produced by dipole A? Continue to make the assumption that d r and express your result in terms of only p, r, and fundamental constants.

AAPT AIP

Seminal Exam

Important Instructions for the Exam Supervisor

This examination consists of two parts. Part A has four questions and is allowed 90 minutes. Part B has two questions and is allowed 90 minutes. The rst page that follows is a cover sheet. Examinees may keep the cover sheet for both parts of the exam. The parts are then identied by the center header on each page. Examinees are only allowed to do one part at a time, and may not work on other parts, even if they have time remaining. Allow 90 minutes to complete Part A. Do not let students look at Part B. Collect the answers to Part A before allowing the examinee to begin Part B. Examinees are allowed a 10 to 15 minutes break between parts A and B. Allow 90 minutes to complete Part B. Do not let students go back to Part A. Ideally the test supervisor will divide the question paper into 3 parts: the cover sheet (page 2), Part A (pages 3-4), and Part B (pages 6-7). Examinees should be provided parts A and B individually, although they may keep the cover sheet. The supervisor must collect all examination questions, including the cover sheet, at the end of the exam, as well as any scratch paper used by the examinees. Examinees may not take the exam questions. The examination questions may be returned to the students after March 31, 2010. Examinees are allowed calculators, but they may not use symbolic math, programming, or graphic features of these calculators. Calculators may not be shared and their memory must be cleared of data and programs. Cell phones, PDAs or cameras may not be used during the exam or while the exam papers are present. Examinees may not use any tables, books, or collections of formulas.

Cover Sheet

AAPT AIP

Seminal Exam

INSTRUCTIONS DO NOT OPEN THIS TEST UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO BEGIN Work Part A rst. You have 90 minutes to complete all four problems. Each question is worth 25 points. Do not look at Part B during this time. After you have completed Part A you may take a break. Then work Part B. You have 90 minutes to complete both problems. Each question is worth 50 points. Do not look at Part A during this time. Show all your work. Partial credit will be given. Do not write on the back of any page. Do not write anything that you wish graded on the question sheets. Start each question on a new sheet of paper. Put your school ID number, your name, the question number and the page number/total pages for this problem, in the upper right hand corner of each page. For example, School ID # Doe, Jamie A1 - 1/3 A hand-held calculator may be used. Its memory must be cleared of data and programs. You may use only the basic functions found on a simple scientic calculator. Calculators may not be shared. Cell phones, PDAs or cameras may not be used during the exam or while the exam papers are present. You may not use any tables, books, or collections of formulas. Questions with the same point value are not necessarily of the same diculty. In order to maintain exam security, do not communicate any information about the questions (or their answers/solutions) on this contest until after March 31, 2010. Possibly Useful Information. You may g = 9.8 N/kg k = 1/4 0 = 8.99 109 N m2 /C2 c = 3.00 108 m/s NA = 6.02 1023 (mol)1 = 5.67 108 J/(s m2 K4 ) 1eV = 1.602 1019 J me = 9.109 1031 kg = 0.511 MeV/c2 3 sin 1 1 6 for | | use this sheet for both parts of the exam. G = 6.67 1011 N m2 /kg2 km = 0 /4 = 107 T m/A kB = 1.38 1023 J/K R = NA kB = 8.31 J/(mol K) e = 1.602 1019 C h = 6.63 1034 J s = 4.14 1015 eV s (1 + x)n 1 + nx for |x| 1 1 2 cos 1 2 for || 1

Part A

Part A

Question A1

An object of mass m is sitting at the northernmost edge of a stationary merry-go-round of radius R. The merry-go-round begins rotating clockwise (as seen from above) with constant angular acceleration of . The coecient of static friction between the object and the merry-go-round is s . a. Derive an expression for the magnitude of the objects velocity at the instant when it slides o the merry-go-round in terms of s , R, , and any necessary fundamental constants. b. For this problem assume that s = 0.5, = 0.2 rad/s2 , and R = 4 m. At what angle, as measured clockwise from north, is the direction of the objects velocity at the instant when it slides o the merry-go-round? Report your answer to the nearest degree in the range 0 to 360 .

Question A2

A spherical shell of inner radius a and outer radius b is made of a material of resistivity and negligible dielectric activity. A single point charge q0 is located at the center of the shell. At time t = 0 all of the material of the shell is electrically neutral, including both the inner and outer surfaces. What is the total charge on the outer surface of the shell as a function of time for t > 0? Ignore any eects due to magnetism or radiation; do not assume that b a is small.

Question A3

A cylindrical pipe contains a movable piston that traps 2.00 mols of air. Originally, the air is at one atmosphere of pressure, a volume V0 , and at a temperature of T0 = 298 K. First (process A) the air in the cylinder is compressed at constant temperature to a volume of 1 4 V0 . Then (process B) the air is allowed to expand adiabatically to a volume of V = 15.0 L. After this (process C) this piston is withdrawn allowing the gas to expand to the original volume V0 while maintaining a constant temperature. Finally (process D) while maintaining a xed volume, the gas is allowed to return to the original temperature T0 . Assume air is a diatomic ideal gas, no air ows into, or out of, the pipe at any time, and that the temperature outside the remains constant always. Possibly 5 5 useful information: Cp = 7 2 R, Cv = 2 R, 1 atm = 1.01 10 Pa. a. Draw a P-V diagram of the whole process. b. How much work is done on the trapped air during process A? c. What is the temperature of the air at the end of process B?

Part A

Question A4

The energy radiated by the Sun is generated primarily by the fusion of hydrogen into helium-4. In stars the size of the Sun, the primary mechanism by which fusion takes place is the proton-proton chain. The chain begins with the following reactions: 2 p X1 + e+ + X2 (0.42 MeV) p + X1 X3 + (5.49 MeV) (A4-1) (A4-2)

The amounts listed in parentheses are the total kinetic energy carried by the products, including gamma rays. p is a proton, e+ is a positron, is a gamma ray, and X1 , X2 , and X3 are particles for you to identify. The density of electrons in the Suns core is sucient that the positron is annihilated almost immediately, releasing an energy x: e+ + e 2 (x) (A4-3)

Subsequently, two major processes occur simultaneously. The pp I branch is the single reaction 2 X3 4 He + 2 X4 (y ), which releases an energy y . The pp II branch consists of three reactions: X3 + 4 He X5 + X5 + e X6 + X7 (z ) X6 + X4 2 4 He where z is the energy released in step A4-6. a. Identify X1 through X7 . X2 and X7 are neutral particles of negligible mass. It is useful to know that the rst few elements, in order of atomic number, are H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O. b. The mass of the electron is 0.51 MeV/c2 , the mass of the proton is 938.27 MeV/c2 , and the mass of the helium-4 nucleus is 3 727.38 MeV/c2 . Find the energy released during the production of one helium-4 nucleus, including the kinetic energy of all products and all energy carried by gamma rays. c. Find the unknown energies x and y above. d. Step (A4-6) does not proceed as follows because there is insucient energy. X5 X6 + e+ + X7 What constraint does this fact place on z ? e. In which of the reaction steps is the energy carried by any given product the same every time the step occurs? Assume that the kinetic energy carried in by the reactants in each step is negligible, and that the products are in the ground state. (A4-5) (A4-6) (A4-7) (A4-4)

Part A

If there is still time remaining for Part A, you should review your work for Part A, but do not continue to Part B until instructed by your exam supervisor.

Part B

Part B

Question B1

A thin plank of mass M and length L rotates about a pivot at its center. A block of mass m M slides on the top of the plank. The system moves without friction. Initially, the plank makes an angle 0 with the horizontal, the block is at the upper end of the plank, and the system is at rest. Throughout the problem you may assume that 1, and that the physical dimensions of the block are much, much smaller than the length of the plank.

L/2

Let x be the displacement of the block along the plank, as measured from the pivot, and let be the angle between the plank and the horizontal. You may assume that centripetal acceleration of the block is negligible compared with the linear acceleration of the block up and down the plank. a. For a certain value of 0 , x = k throughout the motion, where k is a constant. What is this value of 0 ? Express your answer in terms of M , m, and any fundamental constants that you require. b. Given that 0 takes this special value, what is the period of oscillation of the system? Express your answer in terms of M , m, and any fundamental constants that you require. c. Determine the maximum value of the ratio between the centripetal acceleration of the block and the linear acceleration of the block along the plank, writing your answer in terms of m and M , therefore justifying our approximation.

Part B

Question B2

These three parts can be answered independently. a. One pair of ends of two long, parallel wires are connected by a resistor, R = 0.25 , and a fuse that will break instantaneously if 5 amperes of current pass through it. The other pair of ends are unconnected. A conducting rod of mass m is free to slide along the wires under the inuence of gravity. The wires are separated by 30 cm, and the rod starts out 10 cm from the resistor and fuse. The whole system is placed in a uniform, constant magnetic eld of B = 1.2 T as shown in the gure. The resistance of the rod and the wires is negligible. When the rod is released is falls under the inuence of gravity, but never loses contact with the long parallel wires.

Resistor

Fuse

Sliding Rod

i. What is the smallest mass needed to break the fuse? ii. How fast is the mass moving when the fuse breaks? b. A fuse is composed of a cylindrical wire with length L and radius r L. The resistivity (not resistance!) of the fuse is small, and given by f . Assume that a uniform current I ows through the fuse. Write your answers below in terms of L, r, f , I , and any fundamental constants. i. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric eld on the surface of the fuse wire? ii. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic eld on the surface of the fuse wire? iii. The Poynting vector, S is a measure of the rate of electromagnetic energy ow through 1 a unit surface area; the vector gives the direction of the energy ow. Since S = E B, 0 where 0 is the permeability of free space and and E and B are the electric and magnetic eld vectors, nd the magnitude and direction of the Poynting vector associated with the current in the fuse wire. c. A fuse will break when it reaches its melting point. We know from modern physics that a hot object will radiate energy (approximately) according to the black body law P = AT 4 , where T is the temperature in Kelvin, A the surface area, and is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. If Tf = 500 K is the melting point of the metal for the fuse wire, with resistivity f = 120 n m, and If = 5 A is the desired breaking current, what should be the radius of the wire r? Copyright c 2010 American Association of Physics Teachers

AAPT AIP

Seminal Exam

Important Instructions for the Exam Supervisor

This examination consists of two parts. Part A has four questions and is allowed 90 minutes. Part B has two questions and is allowed 90 minutes. The rst page that follows is a cover sheet. Examinees may keep the cover sheet for both parts of the exam. The parts are then identied by the center header on each page. Examinees are only allowed to do one part at a time, and may not work on other parts, even if they have time remaining. Allow 90 minutes to complete Part A. Do not let students look at Part B. Collect the answers to Part A before allowing the examinee to begin Part B. Examinees are allowed a 10 to 15 minute break between parts A and B. Allow 90 minutes to complete Part B. Do not let students go back to Part A. Ideally the test supervisor will divide the question paper into 3 parts: the cover sheet (page 2), Part A (pages 3-4), and Part B (pages 6-7). Examinees should be provided parts A and B individually, although they may keep the cover sheet. The supervisor must collect all examination questions, including the cover sheet, at the end of the exam, as well as any scratch paper used by the examinees. Examinees may not take the exam questions. The examination questions may be returned to the students after April 1, 2012. Examinees are allowed calculators, but they may not use symbolic math, programming, or graphic features of these calculators. Calculators may not be shared and their memory must be cleared of data and programs. Cell phones, PDAs or cameras may not be used during the exam or while the exam papers are present. Examinees may not use any tables, books, or collections of formulas. Please provide the examinees with graph paper for Part A.

Cover Sheet

AAPT AIP

Seminal Exam

INSTRUCTIONS DO NOT OPEN THIS TEST UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO BEGIN Work Part A rst. You have 90 minutes to complete all four problems. Each question is worth 25 points. Do not look at Part B during this time. After you have completed Part A you may take a break. Then work Part B. You have 90 minutes to complete both problems. Each question is worth 50 points. Do not look at Part A during this time. Show all your work. Partial credit will be given. Do not write on the back of any page. Do not write anything that you wish graded on the question sheets. Start each question on a new sheet of paper. Put your AAPT ID number, your name, the question number and the page number/total pages for this problem, in the upper right hand corner of each page. For example, AAPT ID # Doe, Jamie A1 - 1/3 A hand-held calculator may be used. Its memory must be cleared of data and programs. You may use only the basic functions found on a simple scientic calculator. Calculators may not be shared. Cell phones, PDAs or cameras may not be used during the exam or while the exam papers are present. You may not use any tables, books, or collections of formulas. Questions with the same point value are not necessarily of the same diculty. In order to maintain exam security, do not communicate any information about the questions (or their answers/solutions) on this contest until after April 1, 2012. Possibly Useful Information. You may g = 9.8 N/kg k = 1/4 0 = 8.99 109 N m2 /C2 c = 3.00 108 m/s NA = 6.02 1023 (mol)1 = 5.67 108 J/(s m2 K4 ) 1eV = 1.602 1019 J me = 9.109 1031 kg = 0.511 MeV/c2 1 3 for || 1 sin 6 use this sheet for both parts of the exam. G = 6.67 1011 N m2 /kg2 km = 0 /4 = 107 T m/A kB = 1.38 1023 J/K R = NA kB = 8.31 J/(mol K) e = 1.602 1019 C h = 6.63 1034 J s = 4.14 1015 eV s (1 + x)n 1 + nx for |x| 1 1 2 cos 1 2 for || 1

Part A

Part A

Question A1

A newly discovered subatomic particle, the S meson, has a mass M . When at rest, it lives for exactly = 3 108 seconds before decaying into two identical particles called P mesons (peons?) that each have a mass of M . a. In a reference frame where the S meson is at rest, determine i. the kinetic energy, ii. the momentum, and iii. the velocity of each P meson particle in terms of M , , the speed of light c, and any numerical constants. b. In a reference frame where the S meson travels 9 meters between creation and decay, determine i. the velocity and ii. kinetic energy of the S meson. Write the answers in terms of M , the speed of light c, and any numerical constants.

Question A2

An ideal (but not necessarily perfect monatomic) gas undergoes the following cycle. The gas starts at pressure P0 , volume V0 and temperature T0 . The gas is heated at constant volume to a pressure P0 , where > 1. The gas is then allowed to expand adiabatically (no heat is transferred to or from the gas) to pressure P0 The gas is cooled at constant pressure back to the original state. The adiabatic constant is dened in terms of the specic heat at constant pressure Cp and the specic heat at constant volume Cv by the ratio = Cp /Cv . a. Determine the eciency of this cycle in terms of and the adiabatic constant . As a reminder, eciency is dened as the ratio of work out divided by heat in. b. A lab worker makes measurements of the temperature and pressure of the gas during the adiabatic process. The results, in terms of T0 and P0 are Pressure Temperature units of P0 units of T0 1.21 2.11 1.41 2.21 1.59 2.28 1.73 2.34 2.14 2.49

Plot an appropriate graph from this data that can be used to determine the adiabatic constant. c. What is for this gas?

Part A

Question A3

This problem inspired by the 2008 Guangdong Province Physics Olympiad Two innitely long concentric hollow cylinders have radii a and 4a. Both cylinders are insulators; the inner cylinder has a uniformly distributed charge per length of +; the outer cylinder has a uniformly distributed charge per length of . An innitely long dielectric cylinder with permittivity = 0 , where is the dielectric constant, has a inner radius 2a and outer radius 3a is also concentric with the insulating cylinders. The dielectric cylinder is rotating about its axis with an angular velocity c/a, where c is the speed of light. Assume that the permeability of the dielectric cylinder and the space between the cylinders is that of free space, 0 .

a. Determine the electric eld for all regions. b. Determine the magnetic eld for all regions.

Question A4

Two masses m separated by a distance l are given initial velocities v0 as shown in the diagram. The masses interact only through universal gravitation.

v0 l v0

a. Under what conditions will the masses eventually collide? b. Under what conditions will the masses follow circular orbits of diameter l? c. Under what conditions will the masses follow closed orbits? d. What is the minimum distance achieved between the masses along their path? Copyright c 2012 American Association of Physics Teachers

Part A

If there is still time remaining for Part A, you should review your work for Part A, but do not continue to Part B until instructed by your exam supervisor.

Part B

Part B

Question B1

A particle of mass m moves under a force similar to that of an ideal spring, except that the force repels the particle from the origin: F = +m2 x In simple harmonic motion, the position of the particle as a function of time can be written x(t) = A cos t + B sin t Likewise, in the present case we have x(t) = A f1 (t) + B f2 (t) for some appropriate functions f1 and f2 . a. f1 (t) and f2 (t) can be chosen to have the form ert . What are the two appropriate values of r? b. Suppose that the particle begins at position x(0) = x0 and with velocity v (0) = 0. What is x(t)? c. A second, identical particle begins at position x(0) = 0 with velocity v (0) = v0 . The second particle becomes closer and closer to the rst particle as time goes on. What is v0 ?

Part B

Question B2

For this problem, assume the existence of a hypothetical particle known as a magnetic monopole. Such a particle would have a magnetic charge qm , and in analogy to an electrically charged particle would produce a radially directed magnetic eld of magnitude B= 0 qm 4 r 2

and be subject to a force (in the absence of electric elds) F = qm B A magnetic monopole of mass m and magnetic charge qm is constrained to move on a vertical, nonmagnetic, insulating, frictionless U-shaped track. At the bottom of the track is a wire loop whose radius b is much smaller than the width of the U of the track. The section of track near the loop can thus be approximated as a long straight line. The wire that makes up the loop has radius a b and resistivity . The monopole is released from rest a height H above the bottom of the track. Ignore the self-inductance of the loop, and assume that the monopole passes through the loop many times before coming to a rest. a. Suppose the monopole is a distance x from the center of the loop. What is the magnetic ux B through the loop? b. Suppose in addition that the monopole is traveling at a velocity v . What is the emf E in the loop? c. Find the change in speed v of the monopole on one trip through the loop. d. How many times does the monopole pass through the loop before coming to a rest? e. Alternate Approach: You may, instead, opt to nd the above answers to within a dimen2 sionless multiplicative constant (like 2 3 or ). If you only do this approach, you will be able to earn up to 60% of the possible score for each part of this question. You might want to make use of the integral

1 3 du = 2 3 (1 + u ) 8

or the integral

0

sin4 d =

3 8

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