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Subject Company Product

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Proposal of Dynamic Self-Balancing & Controls Solution Abex Engineering Pte Ltd FlowCon SME/SM Dynamic Self-Balancing Modulating Control Valve John Huang (9061 2332) Abex Engineering Pte Ltd

Prepared by

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Contents
1) 2) Introduction to FlowCon International A/S Illustration of Hydronic Balancing a) Fractional losses b) Hydraulic Interactivity c) Control Valve Authority d) Pipe Pressure Drop Transition Chart e) Unbalanced System f) Balancing Procedure Needs & Types of Balancing System a) Variable Flow System(MBV) b) Variable Flow System(MBV & P Controller) FlowCon Dynamic Self-Balancing Control Valve in Variable Flow System FlowCon Dynamic Self-Balancing Control Valve a) Pressure Independent Working Principle b) SME/SM Selection and Flow Setting c) FlowCon Project References

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FlowCon International A/S


FlowCon International A/S was originally founded in 1993 as a joint venture between the two dynamic balancing market leaders in Europe and the USA. The fundamental purpose of this union was to combine these two companies' knowledge for joint development of dynamic valves. FlowCon International A/S was also appointed marketing and sales organization for the two owners on all external markets world-wide. Today FlowCon boasts more than 50 years of HVAC market experience. Our offices in North Carolina, Singapore, Dubai and Denmark handle all sales and marketing world-wide. Furthermore we act as the sales and marketing organization of Griswold Controls' products out of the USA. We are 100% devoted to dynamic flow regulation and pressure independent temperature control. We think balancing 24 hours a day and cannot suppress all of our exciting new ideas. FlowCon builds on innovation and shifts from idea to action very rapidly. Our goal is to offer a better product range and up-to-date Application know-how. Hence, we will be able, in cooperation with our distributors and other business partners, to offer the optimum solution for a well-balanced HVAC system.

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Illustration of Hydronic Balancing

Figure 1: Frictional losses Assuming the above pipe was given a constant flow & Differential Pressure, we will be able to see the first hole will have the highest pressure and the last hole will have the lowest pressure. This is because of frictional losses along the pipeline, the water will rub against the pipe inner surface losing its energy/pressure to reach to the end.

P Increase

Closed

Figure 2 : Hydraulic interactivity If we close the first hole, we notice that the flow/pressure for rest of the holes is proportionally increased. This is because of hydraulic interactivity, closing one hole will interfere the rest.

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Control Valve Authority


Formula for Control Valve Authority;

Constant based on the selected Kvs value of the valve which is limited to the increasing Reynard series; 1.0,1.6,2.5 and so on. Nothing in between.

Variable dependent on flow and opening of all the other control Valves

In general, the smaller the percentage of the calculated authority, the lousier the control characteristic. From the equation, we can see that most of the control valve is generally oversize due to the limited available Kvs values. In most cases, the control valve fully shut P is taken during partial load condition. Assuming a variable flow system with a pump head of 300kPa. Normally the pressure drop of the control valve is 40kPa at design flow. At partial load condition the pipe frictions would transfer the 80% of the pump head to the control value based pressure drop transition chart (Figure 3). Then the calculated valve authority = 40/(300*0.8) =0.167 The calculated valve authority is 0.167 which means the control valve lifting of 10% would give us more than the desired flow in the coil by 7 to 8 times. This means the low authority 0.167 would be too sensitive for the controller to handle.

Piping Pressure Drop Transition Chart


Coil Emission % 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%
100% 60% 70% 80% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 90%

Piping P % 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%
50% 10% 20% 30% 40% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Flow (Q)

Flow

Figure 3 : P transition from pipe to control valve During 80% load condition, the pipe frictional losses will only be 20% as the control valve closes to 50% of the flowrate. This means the 80% of the pump head pressure will transfer to the control valve during part-load condition.

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Unbalanced System
Underflow

Overflow

High Differential Pressure

Low Differential Pressure

Figure 4 : System without Hydronic balancing

Figure 4 show a system which does not contain any form of hydronic balancing. The terminal units nearest to the pumps will have overflow and the furthest terminal units will have underflow because of pipe frictional losses. In most practice, the pump head pressure is oversized to in order to pump enough flow to the furthest unit. This practice will cause the control valve to work against a high close off pressure causing failures to actuators continuously. The worst condition of an unbalanced plant is that it will contribute a great amount of energy wastage. Common problems in unbalanced plant; a) Noise (hammering of control valves) b) Insufficient capacity(Need to run more chiller) c) Control problems(Control Valve Authority) d) Long start up time(high room temperature Oscillation) e) Energy wastage(Need to run more pump)

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Balancing Procedure

Partner Valve

Figure 5 : Hydraulic Interactivity in Balancing The common practices of balancing method in the market is Proportional or Trial Error Method. Step required to do balancing: All Distribution pumps must be operating at constant speed and full load to ensure all terminal units has sufficient P. All control valves must be fully-opened. Strainers or any other congestion must be checked. Flushed and completely clean without air lock. Calibrated measurement instrument required. While the pumps are running at full load, the terminal units nearest to the pumps will have overflow. Balancing will begin by throttling the valves nearest to the pumps. By throttling the valves nearest to the pumps, the available P will be pushed to the further terminal units and they will obtain an increase of flow. After throttling down the furthest terminal units, noticeably there will be an increase of P in the terminal units nearest to the pumps. This procedure is repeated again and again resulting the balancing valves throttled down to 10% to 15% for units nearest to the pumps and 25% to 35% for the furthest units. The pumps are running at full load but the balancing valves are creating a huge amount of resistance to limit the excessive flow. Eventhough the terminal units may achieve 90% to its flow design, the balancing valves are inefficiently commissioned causing a great amount of energy wastage.

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Variable Flow System - Manual Balancing Valve


DP

VSD

Figure 6 : Variable Flow System(Manual Balancing Valve)

Optimisation & Control Strategy


Constant differential pressure of the system is maintained by modulating the speed of the pump. By sensing the pressure fluctuations(Index Loop) during different load conditions, the speed of the pump will be variable, hence the flow will be variable but the P is still maintained constant(DP Sensor).

System Analysis Results


The first benefit of this system is that the speed of the pump will react according to demand. Unfortunately, the drawback of this system is that the control valve authority varies because of having a variable flow in the distribution loop. By having poor control valve authority, the output of the controller hunts for the setpoint vigorously causing the room temperature to fluctuate continuously. During low load, the pressure drop from the pipes will transfer to the control valve (because control valve has the smallest orifice in the system when modulating). Channeling almost the entire pump head to the control valves will cause overflow. The desired characteristic for power output is not performing as expected due to overflows. Overflows will cause low T syndrome, therefore the chillers will have to work inefficiently again. Furthermore this system is sensitive to any hydraulic interactivities to any load conditions. Extra installations of partner balancing valves are essential to perform proportional rule balancing. Eventhough the system is balanced properly, the operation performance is still subjective to any movement of control valve.

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Variable Flow System - Manual Balancing Valve


System Analysis Breakdown Design Calulation
- Traditional Calculation Required; Kvs of the valve, authority on the Control Valves, presetting of Manual Balancing Valves - Pump head calculation according to nominal flow

System Operational cost


- Very High pumping costs (Due to overflow phenomenon) - Heat losses and heat gains on the pipeline are High - Optimisation of pump head is Not Possible. Only if partner valves are implemented. Use propotional commissioning method. - Control valves - good authority and high efficiency cannot be achieved higher room temperature oscillation(In case of modulation control) - Low T Syndrome - has no control on return temperature, lower heat-exchanger and cooling equipment efficiency - Re-commissioning is needed from time to time.

Capital Cost
Capital cost - High (Control valve + Manual Balancing Valves + Commissioning) Big partner valves are required More valves therefore higher installation costs Commissioning of the system required

System Ready after Installation


Balancing at full load - Very Good, in part load only Acceptable Commissioning of the system required in any cases In part load, flow will be 25-40% higher than designed flow, bigger pump is needed Pumping cost are far higher in part load operation

Other
- Closing pressure of terminal valves should be equal with the pump head at zero flow, pressure is not relieved - Pump usually is oversized and overloaded to ensure the correct condition for the Manual Balancing Valve

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Variable Flow System - Manual Balancing Valve & P Controller


DP

VSD

Figure 7 : Variable Flow System(Manual Balancing Valve & P Controller)

Optimisation & Control Strategy


Constant differential pressure of the system is maintained by modulating the speed of the pump. By sensing the pressure fluctuations(Index Loop) during different load conditions, the speed of the pump will be variable, hence the flow will be variable but the P is still maintained constant(DP Sensor). Differential pressure sensor at the index loop should maintain the minimum specified P from the P Controller.

System Analysis Results


By adding P Controller to individual loop, balancing valve at the main & riser is not required as the membrane of the P Controller will react to the P fluctuations as a proportional controller making the loop independent of each other. There will not be overflow between loop, but slight overflow during part load condition from the manual balancing within the control loop. Good control valve authority can be easily achieved by ensuring the closing pressure of the control valve to be 50% more than the P Controller. Higher Pump head demand due to the extra pressure loss on the P Controller (Pressure drop dependent on the flow of the loop). Hydraulic Calculation is simplified by presetting valve on the control loop and sizing the authority on the control valve.Commissioning of the system is not required only in case of a long control loop. Overall, as compare to the manual balancing valve, this is better system.

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Variable Flow System - Manual Balancing Valve & P Controller


System Analysis Breakdown Design Calulation
- Traditional Calculation Required; Kvs of the valve, authority on the MCV, - Simplified hydraulic calculation (System Pressure sizing reduce to the individual controlled loop) - Presetting calculation within the controlled loop is needed - Pump head calculation according to nominal flow

System Operational cost


Low pumping costs (overflow phenomenon with the controlled loop) Heat losses and heat gains on the pipeline are small Higher pump head demand - extra pressure loss on p controller required Optimisation of the pump head is practical Control valves- possible to achieve good authority and better efficiency - lower room temperature oscillation - Re-commissioning of the system is not required (only in case of long controlled loop) -

Capital Cost
Capital cost - High (Control valve + MBV)-Teminal & (p controller + MBV)-Loop Expensive big p controller and manual balancing valve. Most number of valves in a system therefore higher installation costs Commissioning of the system not required (only in case of long controlled loop) Variable speed pump is recommended (constant pressure characteristic)

System Ready after Installation


- Hydraulic regulation only in terminal units and the p on the control valve nearby is constant - Balancing at full and part load - Good - Commissioning not required only in case of long controlled loop - Variable speed pump ensures energy saving

Other
- Closing pressure of control valves(teminal) should be at least 50% of the pressure setting on the P controller - Slight overflow during part load condition (manual balancing within the loop) - Pump usually oversized or overloaded to achieve normal authority on the Control Valve

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Variable Flow System - FlowCon Dynamic Self-Balancing Control Valve


DP

PICV

PICV

PICV PICV PICV

PICV PICV PICV

PICV PICV PICV

PICV

PICV

PICV PICV PICV

PICV

PICV

PICV

PICV

PICV PICV

PICV PICV

PICV

PICV

PICV

VSD

Figure 8 : Variable Flow System(FlowCon Dynamic Self-Balancing Control Valve )

Optimisation & Control Strategy


Constant differential pressure of the system is maintained by modulating the speed of the pump. By sensing the pressure fluctuations(Index Loop) during different load conditions, the speed of the pump will be variable, hence the flow will be variable but the P is still maintained constant(DP Sensor). Differential pressure sensor at the index loop should maintain the minimum specified P from the FlowCon Dynamic Self-Balancing Control Valve typically at 16/35kpa.

System Analysis Results


By applying the FlowCon PICV Method, all of the drawbacks of variable flow system have been solved. The diaphragm of the SME/SM will react to P fluctuations as a proportional controller. There is no overflow during part load condition; hence with unchanged characteristic output of the control valve, the control valve authority is considered as 1. Without overflow, high efficiency in pumps and chillers is ensure, eliminating low T syndrome, thus promoting comfort. There is no extra installation of partner valves and balancing needed because all the terminal units are pressure independent. Saving the installation, labour, commissioning, design calculations, time and energy costs. Therefore, all complications of the system are well taken care of by using FlowCon Dynamic Self-Balancing Control Valve. FlowCon PICV fulfilled three main key condition to ensure the lowest possible energy cost 1 Design flow available in all terminal units at different load connditions 2 Differential Prsssure Stability across all PICV 3 Flow compatible between the production and distribution

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Variable Flow System - FlowCon Dynamic Self-Balancing Control Valve


System Analysis Breakdown Design / Sizing
- Simple Calculation Method: neither Kvs, authority or hydraulic presetting calculation - Valve Authority 100% - pressure independent control - Simplified flow setting calculation according to heat demand - Pump head calculation according to min. p on the valve and system pressure loss at nominal flow

System Operational cost


Lowest pumping costs (no overflow phenomenon) Heat losses and heat gains on the pipeline are minimal Lowest pump head demand Optimisation of pump head is recommended Control valves - 100% Authority and best efficiency - minimum room temperature oscillation - Re-commissioning of the system is not required -

Capital Cost
Capital cost - GOOD (only 2 Way PICV)-Terminal Do not requried any balancing valve in the distribution system The least number of valves in the system (least installation cost) No Commissioning required Variable speed drive is recommended (proportional characteristic)

System Ready after Installation


- Hydraulic regulation only in terminal units with 100% Valve Authority Balancing at full and part load - Excellent - No Commissioning required - Variable speed pump ensures highest energy saving

Other
High close off pressure at 600kPa No overflow at all load Simple and usual pump optimized Minimal total energy consumption(Production & Distribution) Maximum Energy Saving

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FlowCon Dynamic Self-Balancing Control Valve


Pressure Independent Working Principle

Movement of the plug controls the amount of water flowing thru the valve regardless of changes in P1 and P2.

CONTROL VALVE P CONTROLLER

Water enters via a small passage and builds up the pressure at P1, which pushes the diaphragm upwards, closing the outlet orifice area hence keepingP at a constant level

Figure 9 : Internal Structure of FlowCon SM

Figure 10 : Performance Curve of FlowCon SM

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FlowCon Dynamic Self-Balancing Control Valve


Pressure Independent Working Principle

Differential pressure increase

Position varies to keep P at a constant level

Figure 11 : Diaphragm position at higher Load

Figure 12 : Diaphragm position at lower Load

The diaphragm position will vary whenever the P across the control valve changes (due to change in the incoming pressure and movement of other control valves) the diaphragm will move to a new position thus controlling the outlet opening orifice which brings a new equilibrium and keeps the P at a constant level. Refer to Fig 12 for the relationship between the outlet opening and P. For example, during a low load condition, the diaphragm senses a pressure build up from the inlet tube below the diaphragm and then it will command the diaphagm to move upward to create a smaller outlet orifice so that there will be no excessive flow going through. In short, flow will vary only when the control valve modulated and the diaphragm will maintain a constant P thus a constant flow regardless of pressure changes. Refer to Fig 9 for the performance of the valve.
Opening outlet orifice %

100%

50%

35kPa

220kPa

400kPa

P Controller= P2-P3

Figure 13 : Diaphragm position vs P Changes

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FlowCon Dynamic Self-Balancing Control Valve


SME/SM Selection & Flow Setting
SME(15-40mm) SM(50-150mm)

Flow Setting on Valve Cartridge

Flow Setting on Digital Actuator

The selection for the valve only required two parameters(Design flowrate & Pipe size connection). For SME, simply select the flow from the chart and adjust on the cartridge from the valve. In-event of any flow changes, flow can be easily change without tampering the pipe or insulation. For SM, simply select the valve model(SM3.1) on the actuator and all the available flowrate will be shown for selection. SM actuator also include feature like high IP rating at 54, information in the display such as supply signal(2-10V), feedback signal(2-10V), current flow rate(L/S), battery condition and alarm. It also come with password activation and fail safe feature. Lastly, Kv value and authority of the valve does not need any calculation due to the pressure independent characteristic which ensure 100% authority at all setting and P. With this, it not just increase the control quality and precision, it also increase the flexibility of the system. The easy setting for FlowCon makes late changes in the designs or subsequent system retrofits a breeze to implement in the system.

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FlowCon Dynamic Self-Balancing Control Valve


FlowCon Project References

Country

Project name

Consultant

Kind of building

Singapore

Marina Bay Sand IR

PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF

Integrated Resort

Singapore

SGX Center

PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF

Commercial Building Commercial Building Commercial Building Office Building

Singapore

May Bank Tower

ALPHA CONSULTING

Singapore

Great Eastern Centre

SQUIRE MECH

Singapore

One Marina Boulevard (NTUC Centre) Singapore Land Tower

BECA CARTER

Singapore

PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF

Office Building

Singapore

Hyatt Hotel (Heat Recovery System) Nayang Academy of Fine Arts

CNA GROUP

Hotel

Singapore

SQUIRE MECH

School

Singapore

Sembawang Shopping Centre

THAM & WONG

Shopping Centre

Singapore

China Square Parcel 'G' Shop Houses Great Eastern @ Changi

SQUIRE MECH

Shopping Centre

Singapore

JOHNSON CONTROL

Office Building

Singapore

Shell Bukom (Central Lab)

G-Energy Global

Lab

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