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# 6/13/2013

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Energy Transport - Part 1
Overview
Heat Conduction Through
Slab
PROCESSES /
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
CCB/CBB 3033
Course Outcomes
Semester May 2013
CLO1 Explain the theoretical aspect of momentum, mass
and energy transport
CLO2 Apply mathematical and numerical methodology in
analyzing momentum transfer problem
CLO3 Apply mathematical and numerical methodology in
analyzing heat transfer problem
CLO4 Apply mathematical and numerical methodology in
analyzing mass transfer problem
CLO5 Analyze and solve transport phenomena using
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools.
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Lesson Outcome
Explain the principle of heat transfer
Formulate temperature profile using shell
balance for
Heat Conduction through slab
Lesson 16
Overview
So far, we dealt with momentum, now we turn to heat
transfer
From the first principles. There is no difference
between the analysis of momentum transfer and that on
heat transfer, which you will see.
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Overview
Three modes of heat transfer:
2. Convection Motion of fluid.
3. Radiation only occur at high temperature.
Overview
Heat Conduction.
Simplest among the three modes.
It occurs in all three phases of matter ( gas,
liquid and solid)
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7
Energy Transport Equation Fouriers Law
T k q
dz
dT
k q ,
dy
dT
k q ,
dx
dT
k q
dy
dT
k q
Y
T T
k
A
Q
z y x
y
=
= = =
=

=
0 1 (9.1-1)
(9.1-2)
(9.1-3)
(

=
z y x
Divergence, div
8
Energy Transport Equation Fouriers Law
dy
dT
k q
Y
T T
k
A
Q
y
=

=
0 1
(9.1-1)
(9.1-2)
Heat Flux, q
y
[=] W/m
2
k[=] W/m.K
Heat Flow, Q[=] W
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Momentum Vs. Heat
dy
dT
k q
y y
=
dy
dv
x
yx
=
Driving force
Properties of
material
Overview
Heat Flux as a vector.
z
y
x
q
z
q
y
q
x
Temperature: Scalar quantity.
Heat flux is a vector of which components are:
dz
dT
k q ;
dy
dT
k q ;
dx
dT
k q
z z y y x x
= = =
Overview
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For isotropic materials,
k
x
= k
y
= k
z
= k
The heat flux vector become:
T k = q
Overview
Thermal Conductivity, k
1. Property of material through which heat is conducted
2. In general k
solid
> k
liquid
> k
gas
3. Insulating materials have low k
4. Temperature dependance:
Gas: k increases with temperature
Liq: no general rule.
Solid: no general rule
6. Fairly independent of pressure.
Overview
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Shell Balance
Procedure of transport phenomena analysis
First principles
1. Draw a physical diagram as carefully as
possible.
2. Identify all possible energy transport
mechanisms.
3. Set a frame of coordinates and draw the
direction of all transport processes identified in
step 2.
4. Draw a shell balance in such a way that its
surface are perpendicular to the transport
direction.
5. Carry out the energy shell balance as below:
|
|

\
|
=
|
|

\
|
+
|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
energy of
on Accumulati
prod energy
of Rate
out energy
of Rate
in energy
of Rate
This should give a first-order ODE in term of heat flux.
Shell Balance
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6. Apply Fourier law: This should give a second order
ODE in terms of heat flux.
7. Impose physical constraint on the boundary of the
physical system.
8. Solve equation for the temperature distribution.
9. Obtain others quantities e.g. mean temperature,
heat flux.
Shell Balance
Boundary conditions
1. At the boundary surface, the temperature is
specified. This is called boundary condition of
the first kind.
2. At the boundary surface, the heat flux equals to
the flux supplied. Boundary condition of second
kind.
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Step 1 to 4:
z
z
z z +
Thin shell
Energy in Energy out
Shell Balance:
Steady state heat conduction in a slab.
Step 5 and 6 : Energy balance equation
0 0 q A q A
z z z
= +
+
Rate of energy in Unit :
J/s = W
Rate of energy out
Unit : J/s = W
S. S
No heat prod.
Shell Balance
|
|

\
|
=
|
|

\
|
+
|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
energy of
on Accumulati
prod energy
of Rate
out energy
of Rate
in energy
of Rate
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First order ODE with respect to heat flux.
0
dz
dq
=
Shell Balance
0 0 q A q A
z z z
= +
+
( ) ( )
0
0
=
(

z
q q
lim
z z z
z

z z z
q q
+
=
If k is constant
0
dz
T d
k
2
2
=
|

\
|
If k is temperature dependant
0
dz
dT
) T ( k
dz
d
=
|

\
|
Shell Balance
Sustitute Fourier
0
dz
dT
k
dz
d
=
|

\
|
dz
dT
k q
z
=
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Step 7: Physical constraint on the boundary.
L
T(0) = T
0
0
T(L) = T
L
z
Shell Balance
1. At the boundary surface, the temperature is specified. This is
called boundary condition of the first kind.
z = 0 , T = T
0
z = L , T = T
L
Step 8: Temperature distribution.
L
z
T T
T ) z ( T
0 L
0
=

## Temperature distribution is linear ( only valid for constant k and slab

geometry)
Shell Balance
Work on the derivation !
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Step 9
Heat Flux
: Applying the Fouriers law, remember that the heat flux in general is
the function of z.
|

\
|

=
L
T T
k q
L 0
Shell Balance
Lesson Outcome
Explain the principle of heat transfer
Formulate temperature profile using shell
balance for
Heat Conduction through slab
Heat Conduction through cylinder
Obtain expression for
Heat conduction through cylinder with
heat generation
Lesson 16