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Chinese Ground-based Space Weather Monitoring Project

(Meridian Project)
Dr. Chi Wang
Center for Space Science and Applied Research Chinese Academy of Sciences
Feb. 10, 2011

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Milestone Overview of the Meridian Project Structure of the Meridian Project International Collaboration


2005.08 Meridian Project was officially approved by the China National Development and Reform Commission as a key scientific project. 2006.06 The feasibility study of the Meridian Project was evaluated and approved. The total budget is about 24 million US$. 2008.01 Construction phase started 2011.01 Integrate and test phase started 2012.01 Official kick-off of operation


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It is a Chinese multi-station chain along 120ºE to monitor space environment, starting from Mohe, the most northern station in China, through Beijing、 Wuhan、Guangzhou and extended to Chinese Zhongshan station in the Antarctic.

Scientific Principles
; Many basic physical
processes occur along the meridian circle.

; With the rotation of the
Earth, we can make global measurements of the space environment.

.Observatories 15 Stations : 120°E Meridian Chain (10 stations):Mohe、Manzhouli、 Changchun、Beijing、Xinxiang、Hefei、Wuhan、 Guanzhou、Hainan、Zhongshan; 30°N Chain (5 stations):Shanghai(Hangzhou)、 Chongqing、Chengdu、Qujing、Laasa。 Among them. Beijing、Wuhan、Hainan、Zhangsan are multi-tasking stations.

Station Distribution .

5N 49. interplanetary scintillation monitor.6N 44.0N 40. ionosonde 125.2E magnetometer.6E magnetometer.5N Hefei 33.5E Lidar Xinxiang Wuhan 34. Fabry-Perot interferometer. Instruments 122.2E magnetometer. mesosphere-stratospherethermosphere radar. high frequency Doppler frequency shift monitor 116.4N . ionosonde 116. digisonde. 53. TEC monitor/ionospheric scintillation monitor. TEC monitor/ionospheric scintillation monitor 114. mesosphere-stratosphere-thermosphere radar. digisonde. lidar. meteor radar.Station Mohe Manzhouli Changchun Beijing Lat. cosmic ray monitor. ionosonde.3N Lon. digisonde.6N 30.4E magnetometer.4E magnetometer. TEC monitor/ionospheric scintillation monitor 117. lidar. all-sky imager.6E magnetometer. high frequency Doppler frequency shift Monitor 113. TEC monitor/ionospheric scintillation monitor.

high frequency Doppler frequency shift monitor 109.Station Guangzhou Lat.1N Lon. all-sky imager. ionosonde 103.6N 121. TEC monitor/ ionospheric scintillation monitor.5N 25.1N 29. very high frequency radar. TEC monitor 106.8E Incoherent Scattering Radar 103. sounding rockets. ionosonde 91. 23.2E magnetometer.4E magnetometer.7E magnetometer. mesosphere-stratospherethermosphere radar. lidar. ionosonde .0E magnetometer. high-frequency coherent scatter radar. TEC monitor/ionospheric scintillation monitor. aurora spectrometer Hainan 19.0N Zhangshan Shanghai Chongqing Qujing Chengdu Lhasa 69.8E magnetometer. Lidar.0N 29. digisonde.4S 31.3E magnetometer.5E magnetometer. meteor radar 76. digisonde. meteor radar. Instruments 113. digisonde.6N 31.

Spatial Coverage By The Meridian Project .

Parameters Observed Earth Surface:Geomagnetic field、Geoelectronic field 、Cosmic Rays; Middle-Upper Atmosphere:density、temperature、 composition、electric current; Ionosphere:density of electron and proton. irregular structures. temperature. electric current Interplanetary Space:solar wind plasma speed .

GeoMagnetic Radio Optical atmospheric Sounding Rocket Space Environment Monitoring System …… Data and Communication System Domestic Data Exchange International Data Exchange FRAMEWORK Research and Forecast System Public User Professional User .

I . Geomagnetic Monitoring Subsystem „ To measure the variation of the geomagnetic (geoelectric) field To study the response of the geomagnetic (geoelectric) field to interplanetary disturbances „ .

D.Instrument Geomagnetic Measurement Absolute Measurement Relative Measurement Proton Precession Magnetometer: F Overhauser magnetometer F DI-fluxgate magnetometer: D. I Fluxgate Magnetometer: H. Z Induction Magnetometer .

Geomagnetic Instrument 地电场仪 探头 Overhauser磁力仪 磁通门磁力仪 探头 大气电场仪 感应式磁力仪 磁通门经纬仪 .

Geomagnetic Observatories .

Radio Monitoring Subsystem „ To measure the physical parameters of the middle-upper atmosphere.II. ionosphere and the interplanetary space by use of remote sensing technique. .

8°E)。 To measure physical parameters of the middle-upper atmosphere and ionosphere from 70 up to 1000 km. Yunnan Province (25.6°N, 103. ISR has a peak transmission power of ~2MW. Incoherent Scattering Radar(ISR) „ ISR is located in Qujing.Four Parts 1. „ „ .

ISR Radar 天 线 罩 操 控 室 进 口 发 射 机 系 统 发 射 机 水 冷 系 统 .

the flux. and to detect intensity and drift of the spread F.2. position and velocity of the meteors between 70~110 km by tracing the meteors Meteor Radar Wuhan . stratosphere and mesosphere . To detect the wind field and diffusive coefficient of the atmosphere. Radar Chain Instrument MST Radar Detecting Content Wind parameters of troposphere. by measuring the intensity and Doppler Shift of the echo from the field aligned irregular bulk. ~50MHz Sites Beijing、 Wuhan Zhongshan Station at South Pole Hainan HF Coherent To detect the motion of the ionospheric structure Scattering Radar within a azimuth angle of 52º and 3000 km height (HF Radar) by use of the scatter features of the ionospheric irregular structures VHF Coherent Scatter Radar (VHF Radar) To detect the irregular structure and drift (electrical field) in the ionospheric E lay.

MST Radar 北 京 MS T雷 达 武 汉 MS T雷 达 .

HF Radar .

VHF Radar 前端数字单元实物 时钟同步设备 后端处理系统 .

Meteor Radar .

Meteor radar observation Observed meteors Observed wind .

Meteor radar observation: tidal winds : Observation : GSWM02 .

3. Ionosode Chain • Digisonde Mohe (new) – Beijing (new) – Wuhan (upgrade)-Hainan (upgrade) – Zhangshan (upgrade) • Traditional Ionosonde Manzhouli – Changchun – Ghuanzhou – Chongqing .Lasha .

Digisonde 北京数字测高仪 海南数字测高仪 漠 河 数 字 测 高 仪 武汉数字测高仪 南极数字测高仪 .

Hainan. Wuhan . Real time monitor chain of space environment Instrument Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) Monitor Neutron Monitor Ionospheric TEC and Scintillation Monitors HF Doppler Drift Monitor Purpose To monitor the interplanetary disturbance and obtain information about the solar wind velocity and plasma irregular structures To detect the solar energetic particles and cosmic rays Beijing Site Beijing. Wuhan. by use of a long baseline system including a 3 HF Doppler antenna array in Beijing and a HF Doppler monitor in Wuhan Beijing.4. Shanghai(Hangzhou) To monitor multi-scale ionospheric disturbance propagation. Guanzhou To monitor the ionospheric TEC and scintillation Mohe. Beijing. in real time Xinxiang.

IPS 50米天线 控制室 .

Neutron Monitor 北京宇宙线中子堆 广州宇宙线闪烁体望远镜 .

temperature. airglow and aurora spectrum by use of active and passive optical tools. wind field.III. Optical-Atmospheric Monitoring Subsystem „ To measure the density. .

FP-interferometer (new) Hainan: All-sky Airglow Imager (new) Beijing(new)-Wuhan(upgrade)-Hefei(new)-Hainan(new) „ „ Zhangshan: Aurora Spectrometer (new) .Station Distribution „ Lidar Chain: Beijing: All-sky Airglow Imager.

Hainan Beijing Fabry-Perot Interferometer All-sky Airglow Imager Aurora Spectrometer Beijing. Hainan Zhongshan Station in South Pole . Hefei. the atmospheric chemical species.Instrument Lidar Content Temperature and density profiles of the middle atmosphere Wind and temperature of atmosphere in the mesopause region and F2 layer The horizontal structure and transmitting feature of gravity waves in the mesopause region and the thermosphere Aurora spectrum. Wuhan. the energetic spectrum of the energetic particles from the solar wind and the magnetosphere Sites Beijing.

北 京 激 光 雷 达 海 南 激 光 雷 达 合 肥 激 光 雷 达 Lidar .

Origin data Origin data Sodium density (double sodium layer) Rayleigh temperature .

All-Sky Imager 全天空气辉成像仪 光学干涉仪 .

2009. .A difference image between consecutive raw images of OH airglow at 05:14 LT and 05:15LT on Dec. This image shows some gravity waves. 26.

Aurora Spectrometer 南极中山站极光光谱仪 .

pressure. . wind etc. in the height of 20~200 km. Rocket Sounding Subsystem „ To make in-situ measurements of temperature. density.IV.

.The first sounding rocket was successfully launched on June 3. 2010.

process. store and distribute data International and domestic data exchange .Data and Communication System „ „ Collect. transfer.

Three-layerStructure: Station-Node-Center .

Data Center .

Data Center Storage Equipment .

research and management Carry out research and model Jointly make space weather forecast Promote international collaboration .Research and Forecast System „ „ „ „ Coordinate observations.

Science Operation Center 专 用 高 性 能 计 算 平 台 演 示 大 厅 .

Space Weather Warning and Forecast Center .

91 Lon=103.Observations of the geospace response of to the solar storm on Aug.73 -50 -100 -150 100 Lat=30.57 Lon=117.08 Lon=124.8 Lon=118.8.5 W u Han 50 0 -50 50 Lat=29 L h asa 0 Lon=91 Lat=49.3-5 .8.5 -50 -100 -150 -200 0 -50 0 -20 220 200 220 200 40 20 220 200 260 240 240 220 260 240 40 20 280 260 60 40 80 60 H component [nT] 100 80 Z component [nT] ionospheric Geo Magnetic field Ch en g Du Ch o n g M in g S an L ie Q io n g Z h o n g Q u an Z h o u -50 -100 Na layer 2010.5 Lon=114.3-5 2010.86 100 50 0 0 Lat=30.3-5 2010.43 600 550 500 450 400 100 50 0 -50 -100 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 -800 -850 -900 -950 -1000 -850 -900 -950 -1000 -1050 0 Lat=25 -150 -200 -250 -100 Lat=19 -150 -100 -200 150 Lat=0 100 50 Lon=0 -150 -50 -100 -150 -200 -250 120 100 180 160 160 140 Lon=109. 1 – 3.8. 2010 Declination angle [min] 100 M an Z h o u L i 50 0 -50 -100 150 Ch an g Ch u n Lat=44.

Space Weather Journal Cover Article (2010/08/19) Editor’s Comments: What an ambitious. and hard-hitting endeavor! . broad-reaching.

proposal to connect 120ºE and 60ºW meridian chains of ground based monitors and enhance the ability of monitoring space environment worldwide. .International Collaboration The International Space Weather Meridian Circle Program (ISWMCP).

Making data available to the space weather community. Promoting education and public outreach on space science and technology. .What will ISWMCP do? „ „ „ „ Coordinating observational campaigns. Encouraging collaboration on scientific research and observations.

Meridian Project has officially been approved by Chinese government. .Summary „ „ „ Meridian Project is a ground-based network program to monitor space environment . International collaboration will make it possible to constitute the first complete environment monitoring chain around the globe. and have been finished by 2011. which consists of a chain of ground-based observatories with multiple instruments. The official operation will begin in 2012. 正! . Chi Wang 谢谢指 cw@spaceweather.Thank You ! Dr.