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SE1M54/7pp/Autumn 2003 (1 Handout)



School of Engineering
Postgraduate Programmes in Civil Engineering
Level M Examination
Module SE1M54 ; 15 Credits
Time allowed: Three hours Autumn 2003
Answer THREE questions only
All questions carry equal marks; where appropriate the mark carried
by an individual part of a question is indicated in brackets [].
Additional materials:
Influence lines; Influence surfaces and Tables (1 document)
Reference documents candidates may use: BD37/01
Please avoid the use of red and green inks.
Calculator restrictions: None.
SE1M54/7pp/Autumn 2003
1. (a) What does type HA loading to BD 37/01 consist of and what does it represent?
(b) Discuss briefly the following aspects of HA loading:
(i) The origin of the loading. [2]
(ii) The effect of long loaded lengths, width of traffic lanes and number of
traffic lanes. [2]
(iii) How the HA loading compares with Eurocode EC1 requirements. [2]
(c) A simply supported bridge has a span of 42m and a 7.2m wide carriageway. It is
subject to HA loading combined with 37.5 units of HB loading.
(i) Determine the values of nominal HA and HB loading from BD 37/01 and
show the arrangement on the bridge for maximum bending moment and
maximum shear force. (The HB vehicle shall be taken as wholly within one
notional lane). [5]
(ii) Calculate the maximum nominal longitudinal bending moment in each
traffic lane due to this loading. [5]
SE1M54/7pp/Autumn 2003
2. (a) Using the influence lines provided determine the maximum nominal mid-span
bending moments at B and D due to HA loading only for the two span, single lane
bridge shown in Figure 1. The lane factor 1 may be taken as 1.0. [10]
Figure 1
(b) The reinforced concrete deck slab of a bridge to the west of Birmingham has a
section as shown in Figure 2. It is loaded with a single wheel from a 45 units HB
vehicle in accordance with BD 37/01.
Figure 2
(i) Determine the magnitude of the nominal wheel load and calculate the square
contact area under the wheel. [2]
(ii) Draw a diagram to illustrate how the wheel load disperses through the
bridge deck to the neutral axis in accordance with BD 37/01 and calculate
the width of the dispersal at the neutral axis. [4]
(iii) Calculate the adjusted maximum and minimum effective bridge temperature
assuming a 120 year return period. [4]
200 mm
600 mm
350 mm
Neutral axis
SE1M54/7pp/Autumn 2003
3. A two span bridge beam is shown in Figure 3
Figure 3
(a) Using the tables provided for stiffness, carry-over and fixed-end moment
coefficients, formulate the slope-deflection equations necessary to solve the
structure for UDL of wkN/m on both spans and a point load of WkN at the mid-
span of the longer span. [10]
(b) Using the equations developed for (a), determine the bending moment at the
central support if w = 10kN/m and W = 100kN. [10]
0.8 m
0.8 m
3.6 m 5.4 m
9 m 18 m
SE1M54/7pp/Autumn 2003
4. (a) The single lane, two span continuous bridge in Figure 4 is being checked for 30
units of HB loading.
Figure 4
(i) Determine the weight of the HB vehicle. [2]
(ii) Draw to scale the influence line for the bending moment at the central
support, and then use it to determine the nominal bending moment there
when the HB vehicle is positioned symmetrically over the support. [6]
(iii) Reposition the HB vehicle so that one axle is placed over support 1 with the
other three axles on the span, and calculate the bending moment at the
central support. [4]
(iv) Using the larger bending moment from (ii) and (iii) calculate the design
bending moment at the central support due to the HB vehicle. The worst
case should be considered. It should be assumed that the HB loading is
combined with the permanent loads. [4]
(b) A 40m span footbridge located in Birmingham is 20m above ground level.
Determine the gust wind speed vc for the loaded and unloaded cases.
Assume K1 = 1.0 and S1 = 1.0 and that the footbridge is surrounded by
windbreaks at least 10m high. [4]
1 3
6m 6m
SE1M54/7pp/Autumn 2003
5. The edge region of beam and slab deck is shown in Figure 5. The deck is subject to 45
units of an HB vehicle whose wheels can travel to within 0.5m of the free edge.
Using both the Westergaard and Pucher methods, determine:
(i) the maximum transverse BM in the slab between beams; [4]
(ii) the maximum transverse BM in the slab over the beams; [6]
(iii) the maximum transverse BM in the cantilever. [10]
Figure 5: Bridge section and HB wheel loads
2.5 m
1.5 m
1.8 m
1 m 1 m
SE1M54/7pp/Autumn 2003
6. (a) Describe, with the aid of sketches, the Grillage method of analysis of bridge
decks, and list its advantages. [6]
(b) Show in PLAN and SECTION, a suitable grillage arrangement for a simply
supported span comprised of:
(i) a reinforced concrete slab deck;
(ii) a spaced composite concrete and steel beam and slab deck;
(iii) a contiguous, prestressed concrete Tee beam and in-situ concrete bridge
(c) A concrete beam and slab bridge has a slab of depth of 200mm supported by
beams at 2500mm centres. It is subject to a point wheel load of 112.5kN acting
over a circle with a diameter of 300mm.
Use the Westergaad equation below to determine the maximum bending moment
under the wheel and compare it with the 'effective width' assumption if the
effective width can be assumed as . c 2 s 58 . 0 b
Mox = 0.21072 ( )


+ 1815 . 0 675 . 0 1 h / c 4 . 0 log h / s log

2 2
10 10
(d) Describe, with the aid of sketches, the use of Pucher's influence charts in order to
determine local moments in deck slabs due to wheel loads. [4]
Internal Examiner: Dr M J Ryall
External Examiner: Prof B I G Barr