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Bump Test

The Bump Test is a simple method for analyzing the structural modal response of a machine or structure. When impacted, a machine or structure produces a broad frequency band of excitation components. When these frequency components coincide with the structural natural frequencies, then resonant conditions are present which result in a higher than normal vibration level at those frequencies. During the bump test the vibration amplitudes and frequencies are sensed with accelerometers and measured by CoCo-80 and displayed as plots of amplitude versus frequency. The peak amplitudes correspond to the structural flexible modes and the narrowness of the peaks provides insight as to the damaging amplification factors. Usually, in most cases of machine vibration, it is not so important to determine the exact magnitude of the transfer function; the most important information is in the frequencies of the modes of vibration of the structure, their locations, and to a lesser extent, the damping associated with these modes. The CoCo can be used to perform an impact test without the need for a special hammer with a force transducer attached. The technique involves simply hitting the structure with a suitable impacting device, such as a wooden mallet, a hard rubber mallet, or in some cases, a sledge hammer. The bump test can be conducted in Equipment On or Off mode. Equipment Off, a preferred method, means the rotor is not rotating and no other excitation sources exist in the system. A bump impact can cause clear resonance, as shown below: Bump Test Display

Equipment On is applied when rotor still rotates where the force excitation source exists in the whole vibration system. A special algorithm called negative averaging is

applied, as shown below:

Balancing

CoCo-80 field balancing function guides the user through the steps to balance a machine in normal operation with the rotor mounted in the bearings. Large machines, such as steam turbines, electric motors, and generator armatures, often require field balancing between major overhauls. Correction of unbalance situations involves characterizing the heavy spot in one or two planes of the rotor, depending on its length and stiffness. A heavy spot is the radial location at which excessive radial mass distribution exists. This heavy spot is always a location that is opposite the location where weight needs to be added. Unfortunately, unless previous balancing information is available, the location of the heavy spot cannot be identified directly. In this case, you use the Influence Coefficient method for calculation of correction weights as many field balancing solutions do.

Accelerometers are mounted on the bearings and used to acquire vibration signals. The tachometer signal is used to calculate the rotating speed and synchronize the vibration signals the angular rotation of the rotor.

Balancing Diagram

The influence coefficient is used to describe how the rotor system responds to the unbalanced weight changes. A trial weight is added to the rotor to produce a change in vibration amplitude and/or phase. The influence of unbalance caused by the known mass and location of the trial weight, or the influence coefficient, can then be calculated. A single-plane balance procedure will produce one balance response coefficient of mass and location. Multiple-plane balancing will produce a number of coefficients depending upon the number of balance planes. Since the initial vibration can be viewed as the response of the rotor to the initial mass unbalance, you can calculate the initial mass unbalance with the initial vibration and the influence coefficients. This allows the system to calculate a solution weight and location for each plane. Precision balancing often requires a second balancing run after the first has been completed. Balancing Procedure

Measure Unbalanced Vectors for both Planes

Estimate the Trial Weight

Apply the Trial Weight

Summary of the Complete Process