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IBERO-AMERIKANISCHES INSTITUT PREUSSISCHER KULTURBESITZ

The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development

Jan M. G. Kleinpenning
Ibero-Bibliographien 5

Berlin 2009

Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut Das Ibero-Amerikanische Institut (IAI) ist eine interdisziplinr orientierte Einrichtung des wissenschaftlichen und kulturellen Austausches mit Lateinamerika, der Karibik, Spanien und Portugal. Es beherbergt ein Wissensarchiv mit der grten europischen Spezialbibliothek fr den ibero-amerikanischen Kulturraum. Darber hinaus ist es ein Ort der Wissensproduktion, der Wissensvermittlung und der kulturellen bersetzungen. Die einzigartige Verbindung von Informationszentrum, Forschungszentrum und Kulturzentrum macht das IAI zu einer Plattform fr Kooperationen und zu einem Katalysator fr interkulturelle und transkulturelle Dialoge. Die IBERO-BIBLIOGRAPHIEN sind eine unregelmig erscheinende Schriftenreihe. Zu thematischen Schwerpunkten werden Auswahlbibliographien aus den Bestnden des IberoAmerikanischen Instituts verffentlicht. Am Ende der bibliographischen Eintrge befinden sich die Signaturen der Bibliothek des Ibero-Amerikanischen Instituts. Die Materialien knnen ber Fernleihe bestellt werden. Die IBERO-BIBLIOGRAPHIEN knnen auch ber die Homepage des IAI im PDF-Format heruntergeladen werden: http://www.iai.spk-berlin.de El Instituto Ibero-Americano (IAI) en Berln es una institucin de orientacin interdisciplinaria que se ocupa del intercambio cientfico y cultural con Amrica Latina, el Caribe, Espaa y Portugal. Alberga un archivo de conocimiento del que forma parte la biblioteca especializada en el mbito cultural iberoamericano ms grande de Europa. Es, adems, un lugar de produccin cientfica, transmisin de conocimiento y desarrollo cultural. La especial combinacin de centro de informacin, centro de investigacin y centro cultural hacen del IAI una plataforma para la cooperacin y un catalizador para el dilogo tanto intercultural como transcultural. La serie IBERO-BIBLIOGRAPHIEN publica en intervalos peridicos bibliografas selectas de los fondos del Instituto Ibero-Americano sobre diferentes temas. Las signaturas de la biblioteca se encuentran al final de los asientos bibliogrficos. Se puede solicitar los materiales in situ a travs del prstamo interbibliotecario. La serie IBERO-BIBLIOGRAPHIEN puede ser telecargada en el formato PDF de la pgina Web del Instituto Ibero-Americano: http://www.iai.spk-berlin.de
Redaktion dieser Ausgabe Peter Altekrger Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut Potsdamer Strae 37 10785 Berlin Telefon: 030 266 45 2000 Telefax: 030 266 35 1550 http://www.iai.spk-berlin.de 1. Auflage 2009 Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut, Potsdamer Strae 37, 10785 Berlin ISBN 3-935656-32-7

Contents 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 4 2. Overview of Mennonite colonies in Paraguay ........................................................... 5 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 3. The Mennonite colonies in the Chaco ........................................................... 5 The foundation of Menno .............................................................................. 5 The foundation of Fernheim .......................................................................... 7 The situation in the early 1930s ..................................................................... 8 The foundation of Neuland .......................................................................... 10 The development of the colonies ................................................................. 10 The Mennonite colonies in eastern Paraguay ............................................. 17 Friesland ...................................................................................................... 17 Volendam .................................................................................................... 19 Bergthal and Sommerfeld ............................................................................ 20

Bibliography of Mennonite colonies in Paraguay .................................................. 21 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 About this bibliography ............................................................................... 21 General Works ............................................................................................. 22 Migration to and from Canada, Canadian Monnonites .............................. 34 Migrations from Russia; Russian Mennonites ............................................. 35 Menno .......................................................................................................... 36 Fernheim ...................................................................................................... 37 Neuland ........................................................................................................ 38 Two urban centres: Filadelfia, Loma Plata ................................................ 39 Colonies in Eastern Paraguay ..................................................................... 39

3.10 Friesland ............................................................................................................. 39 3.11 Volendam ............................................................................................................ 40 3.12 Sommerfeld and Bergthal .................................................................................... 40 3.13 Mennonites in Asuncin ...................................................................................... 40 3.14 Economy; Cooperatives ...................................................................................... 41 3.15 Arable farming, livestock production and forestry; ecology ............................... 41 3.16 Transport; the Trans-Chaco Road ...................................................................... 42 3.17 Education ............................................................................................................ 43 3.18 Health and health care ........................................................................................ 44 3.19 Mennonites and the Chaco War .......................................................................... 45 3.20 Indians and Mennonites ...................................................................................... 45

1. Introduction During the period 1927-1948 German speaking Mennonites from Canada and Russia successfully established three colonies in the Paraguayan Chaco and four villages in Eastern Paraguay.1 Their colonisation activities have drawn world-wide attention and have led to a surprisingly large number of publications, mainly written by Mennonites residing in Paraguay or elsewhere. Other researchers, however, have also made an important contribution. The large body of writings justified the composition of a special Bibliography. With over 700 titles this new bibliography is the largest one made up to now, but it is certainly still incomplete. In compiling the Bibliography I made use of already existing general and specific bibliographies (see below), of bibliographical references made in important publications and of the catalogues of several important libraries: the Instituto Bblico in Asuncin, the Library and Archive in Filadelfia (Chaco), the Mennonitische Forschungsstelle in Kirchheimbolanden (Germany) and the Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut in Berlin. I am most grateful for the valuable help given by Gary Waltner, director of the Mennonitische Forschungsstelle, Peter Altekrger, library director of the Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut, and Henk Hack, who made many volumes of the Mennoblatt available to me. I am also grateful to Mr. R. R. Symonds (Bromley, UK.) for having corrected the English, and to the Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut for their willingness to include the Bibliography in their series Ibero-Bibliographien. Odijk, Netherlands, February 2008 Jan M. G. Kleinpenning

During the period 1966-1983 more colonies were established in Eastern Paraguay by Mennonites from Canada, the United States and Mexico, including some larger ones like Rio Verde and Durango with 2,774 and 2,906 inhabitants, respectively, in the mid-1990s, and about ten smaller ones with no more than 100-200 inhabitants each. Very little has been written about these colonies and they were left out of account when I compiled this Bibliography. For more details see Ratzlaff, Gerhard: Die konservativen amerikanischen Mennoniten in Paraguay. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 1, November 2000, pp. 28-38, and Schrder, William/Hubert, Helmut T.: Mennonite Historical Atlas, pp. 151-152 (Winnipeg 1996). Ibero-Bibliographien 5

2. Overview of Mennonite colonies in Paraguay 2.1 The Mennonite colonies in the Chaco In the early 1920s Canadian and East European Mennonites showed a serious interest in settlement in the western part of the Paraguayan Chaco as then defined. The Paraguayan government played along actively with this interest, since it was worth something to it to have the Chaco further populated because of the growing conflict over ownership with Bolivia. Law 514 of 26 July 1921 gave far-reaching rights and privileges to Mennonites (and their descendants) who wished to settle in Paraguay as farmers, so that they could lead there the religious, cultural and economic life which they could not lead elsewhere or could do so only with difficulty. They were exempted from military service in both peace and war, were granted complete freedom of religion and worship, the right to establish and manage institutions for teaching their own language (an old German dialect) and their own religion, the freedom to make their own social provision for widows and orphans (Waisenamt) and the right to regulate their own mutual fire insurance etc. In addition, they were granted exemption for 10 years from import duties on all the goods needed for the establishment and development of the colonies, and from national and municipal taxes. They were granted a large measure of administrative autonomy and allowed their own structure of law and order. No restrictions were placed on the immigrants themselves: all Mennonites would receive the right to settle in Paraguay, irrespective of their age and physical or mental health. The rights and privileges also applied to Mennonites who arrived individually and then settled with a group of co-religionists in Paraguay.2 2.1.1 The foundation of Menno The first Mennonite settlement was Menno colony (Fig. 1). It was established by a group of conservative Old Colony Mennonites from the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada.3 These immigrants, whose parents had migrated from Russia to Canada in the 1870s, felt that their religious freedoms were being threatened in Canada, because the Canadian government, as part of its assimilation policy, no longer wished to allow ethnic minorities to use their own language and give instruction in their own religion in schools. They had been looking for a new home for a number of years prior to their decision to come to Paraguay. Their choice ultimately fell on Paraguay, because this was the only country that was willing to offer the desired guarantees for their development. Those who decided to emigrate sold their land in Canada in 1926 to the Intercontinental Company in Winnipeg (property of Samuel McRoberts and Robinette of New York). Part of the purchase sum was paid in cash, and part in the form of land in the Chaco, where McRoberts had bought 323,700 acres (131,001 ha) from the Carlos Casado Company in 1921. The colonists had to pay a price of five US$ per acre for this. In order to be able to operate flexibly, the Intercontinental Company established a subsidiary company in Paraguay: La Corporacin Paraguaya, in which President Eligio Ayala (who was interested in colonisation of the Chaco) also had a considerable financial interest. On 29 October 1926 the Corporacin was officially recognised as a colonisation enterprise and as the Mennonites representative. It supplied them with the necessary land in the Chaco (at a suitable profit) and had the task of preparing and developing the settlement. The Canadian Mennonites acquired a total of three blocks of land with a combined area of 55,827 ha at a price of 689,602 US$. The colonists from Saskatchewan settled on the first block (7,403 ha), those from the West Reserve on the second (6,117 ha), and those from the East Reserve on the third (42,307 ha). These blocks formed part of a larger area acquired by the Corporacin Paraguaya from Compaa Carlos Casado Ltda at a price of 1.25 US$ per acre and which was officially registered in the corporations name on 20 August 1928.

2 3

See Departamento (1933) for the full text of the Law. The name Old Colony refers to the fact that these people stemmed from the oldest Mennonite colony Chortitza in Russia. Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development 5

Fig. 1: Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay

Source: Schrder, William/Hubert, Helmut T. (1996: 93).

Ibero-Bibliographien 5

A total of 279 families, comprising 1,765 persons, left Canada for the colony of Menno. The site of the settlement was extremely isolated. From Puerto Casado, about 300 kilometres north of Asuncin on the Paraguay River, the immigrants had to board the narrow-gauge Casado railroad and travel 145 kilometres westward. From the terminal point of the railroad another 90 kilometres had to be travelled either by oxcart or on foot to the land which they had purchased. While the group arrived in late December of 1926, the actual settlement could not be undertaken until late in 1927, because the land had not been surveyed and no wells had been dug. Many settlers did not get onto their own land until the April of 1928, some 16 months after arrival. For over a year they had to camp in tents or in other temporary shelters at Puerto Casado or at points along the way. 147 persons died in a typhoid epidemic and 355 were so disappointed that they decided to return to Canada rather than endure the difficulties they were certain to face in attempting to settle in the Chaco. The result was that approximately 1,400 of the immigrants decided to cast their lot with the more courageous and stay. They remained to prove that a foreign ethnic group could come to Paraguay and make a success of colonisation in the most unpromising of all its millions of unsettled hectares. In 1932 there were 255 farms in the Menno colony, each with an area of 80-200 ha.4 2.1.2 The foundation of Fernheim The early members of the Fernheim immigration group were among those fortunate enough to leave Russia with official permission during the later 1920s. All of them had experienced the hardships and agony that accompanied the post-World War I years - first the violence and bloodshed of the Revolution, later the agonies of famine and, still later, the terrors of expropriation and flight. When they escaped Russia, they had no goal other than to get out of Russia into Germany, where they were temporarily housed in camps for from several months up to several years. The majority did not have the means to emigrate elsewhere. Their co-religionists in the United States and Canada became interested in their welfare, as did the German government. Both made efforts to assist them in finding new places of settlement. The Mennonite Central Committee (MCC), which is the cooperating service agency of all American Mennonites, undertook to give direct assistance. Because this agency knew of the settlement of the Menno colony in Paraguay, it occurred to members of the committee to investigate immigration possibilities to that country for the recent escapees from Russia as well. All of the Fernheim group would have preferred to migrate to Canada or to the United States, where they had many co-religionists and blood relatives. This was not possible, however, and so other countries had to be sought out. After some study of the matter, on January 25, 1930, the MCC recommended that the Fernheim group should settle in the Paraguayan Chaco. They knew that earlier Canadian Mennonites had migrated there. However, the MCC leaders did not know what terrible hardships and untold difficulties the Menno colony people had encountered. A second and major reason why the MCC recommended Paraguay was because it still guaranteed permanent and absolute religious freedom for the particular beliefs which Mennonites had always cherished. Other attractions were cheap land and the challenge of a pioneering experience in a new country. The possibility of settling in a closed community and living their lives in peace according to the dictates of their own conscience was not the least of the attractions to these revolution-weary former citizens of the Soviet Union. Purchase of approximately 16,000 hectares of land was arranged at the unreasonably high price of 8 US$ an acre, 3 US$ an acre more than the Menno colonists had paid several years before. The sellers later reduced the price to 3 US$ an acre when they found that the settlers were totally unable to pay the original price. Ultimately, the MCC bought the land from the Corporacin Paraguaya and sold the land to the Paraguayan immigrants for 0.40 US$ an acre (1 US$ a hectare). The Corporacin Paraguaya organised the Mennonites crossing, but the costs were borne by the German government, which paid out a total 773,000 Reichsmarken without claiming it back. On April 26, 1930, the first Fernheim immigrants reached their land. The total settlement, however, took two years to complete. The land had not been surveyed prior to their coming, but this survey was undertaken within several weeks of their arrival, thus enabling them to settle their home sites in a relatively short time. The original group in 1930 numbered about 1,500. Altogether, however, 383 families
4 Amarillo Fretes (1932: 171-173); Blcker (1955: 46); Fretz (1962: 83-85); Grothe (1931: 5-7); Mueller (1998: 31-32); Pastore (1972: 306-310); Pidoux de Drachenberg (1975: 36-37); Plett Welk (1979: 69-73); Schmidt (1931: 251-252); Schmieder/Wilhelmy (1938: 87, 90-95); White (1927: 559-560); Wilhelmy/Rohmeder (1963: 427). Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development 7

(comprising 2,009 persons) came to the Chaco from Russia and Poland in 1930-1932. This figure takes into account births and deaths during the voyage. A small group of 57 persons came directly from Poland and another group came directly from eastern Siberia, but by far the majority arrived via Germany. The Fernheim colonists, in comparison with their neighbours in the Menno colony, were much more progressive at the time of settlement, probably due to greater variety of contacts with the European urban-industrial culture. As a result, they found themselves severely frustrated in the isolated heart of the Chaco. There was great dissatisfaction during the early years of settlement with their seemingly hopeless economic and social situation in their isolated surroundings. This dissatisfaction manifested itself in a steady stream of emigrants who left the colony either for Asuncin or for the neighbouring countries of Argentina and Brazil or possibly for Canada and Germany. In August 1937 a group of about 700 Mennonites (135 families) left for the area of Villa del Rosario in Eastern Paraguay, where they founded the colony of Friesland (40 km southeast of Villa del Rosario) (see Section 2.2). For the most part, however, the Fernheim group settled down.5 2.1.3 The situation in the early 1930s Up to 1931, a total of 24 villages had been founded: 13 villages with Mennonites from Canada in the colony of Menno, 11 with Mennonites from eastern Europe in the colony of Fernheim. They were all given explicitly German names, as appears below.
Table 1: Villages within the Colonies
Menno Halbstadt Weidenfeld Gnadenfeld Waldheim Schntal Reinland Strassberg Chortitz Bergtal Osterwick Blumengart Altbergfeld Laubenheim Fernheim Lichtfeld Kleefeld Gnadenheim Wiesenfeld Friedensfeld Friedensruh Schnwiese Schnbrunn Auhagen Rosenort Waldesruh

In early 1931, 228 families lived in the Canadian-German villages and 265 families in the Russian/Polish-German villages, giving a total of 493, with an average of 6 members, which means that the two colonies had a combined population of about 3,000 at 1 January. The settlements had a more or less closed character. Part of the land was situated near the houses; the remainder lay at some distance from the settlements. There was also land for communal use. Each colonist family had an average of about 40 ha for its own use. Thanks to the support of the Comit Central Mennonita and/or the German government and/or the possession of some capital of their own, all the families immediately had available the necessary equipment, such as harrows, ploughs, steel cables, cultivators etc. (Schallehn 1933: 332). A favourable circumstance was that the soils in the central part of the Paraguayan Chaco were quite good for arable farming in various respects; they were fairly easy to work, permeable, well-ventilated, free of stones, flat as a pancake or gently undulating. The soil generally consisted of loamy sand, although there was sandy loam or true loam in some places. The true loams occurred where there were areas of forest. The forested areas were also suitable for arable farming after removal of the vegetation, which consisted of light timber species of a generally small diameter. Because each colonist received several hectares of open land, he could plough his land from the first day without having immediately to clear forest. The colonists later also started to clear forest soils. They generally did the clearing themselves; only limited use was made of the cheap labour of the Lengua Indians in the early years. The climate and soil were suitable not only for crop farming, but for the practice of cattle ranching (Unruh 1973: 105-106).

Amarillo Fretes 1932:171-173; Blcker 1955:5-7; Fretz, 1962:88-91; Grothe 1931:5-7; Hack, 1961:44-47; Kliewer 1941:84-87; Mueller 1998:32-34; Pastore, 1972:306-310; Pidoux de Drachenberg 1975:37; Plett Welk 1979:69-73; Schmidt 1931:251-252; Schmieder/Wilhelmy 1938:90-95; Wilhelmy/Rohmeder 1963:427. Ibero-Bibliographien 5

As manager of the agricultural research station on the properties of Carlos Casado, Kempski described the prospects for growing various crops. Water was present everywhere at a depth of 7-10 m; it was not fresh everywhere, but was suitable in all the villages for watering the cattle. Moreover, each village had fresh water wells and, where the fresh groundwater was insufficient, use was made of rainwater stored in barrels and reservoirs. Kempski was impressed by the colonists industry and by what they had achieved in a short time. He was convinced that the colonists would prosper. In order to reduce production risks to a minimum, the farmers engaged in polyculture: they kept various kinds of livestock (pigs, cattle and poultry) and grew a variety of crops. For their own use they grew maize, millet, sweet potatoes, beans, chick peas, manioc and water melons. Wheat growing was considered possible in the future. They already grew more than enough cotton for their own needs in the early 1930s and thus sold part of the crop. Natural conditions were so good for this crop that Kempski considered it not improbable that the Chaco could become a serious competitor for North America. Sugar cane and groundnuts were grown for the market, but poor transport formed a serious bottleneck to marketing them. In the early 1930s each village already had its own small school. The colony also had its own shops. Some small industries had already been established in the centre known as Filadelfia. Thus an oil press, a corn mill and a sawmill came into operation in 1932, but the capacity of the sawmill already proved to be too small by 1933. A cotton ginning plant was opened in 1936 (Kempski 1931: 324-326). It is remarkable that Kempski did not take a negative view of what many regarded as the isolated location of the colonies. The rates of Casados railway were favourable, he argued, since they were 30 per cent lower than those charged on the Asuncin-Encarnacin route, and were also lower than those charged by various British lines in Argentina. The shipping rates were also favourable. The Compaa Carlos Casado provided transport from Puerto Casado to Asuncin and Buenos Aires at reasonable prices in its own steamships. The Compaa also assisted the Mennonites in selling their produce advantageously. The previous owner of the estate - Jos Casado - wanted the colonists who had settled on his former property to become prosperous farmers. He wished them well. Many Mennonites therefore appreciated all that Vater Casado did for them, according to Kempski, who maintained close relations with the Casado enterprise (Kempski 1931: 326). The more independent Quiring criticised the way in which Casado arranged the advantageous sale of the farm surpluses. In fact, the enterprise bought produce only occasionally in order to satisfy its own needs and did so at prices which left no profit for the farmers. The nearby industrial quebracho colonies also provided only a limited market. The only large market was in the capital, but that was situated 700 km away. Transport costs were high: the goods took 10-12 and sometimes as much as 1518 days to reach the Casado railway. From that point transport was quicker, but only if the wagons were not needed for timber transport. If they were, waiting periods of a few days or even weeks were not uncommon. The costs of river transport were also high. The export of cotton was, in fact, profitable only when prices were high. Isolation was therefore certainly an adverse factor in the colonies existence (Quiring 1936: 118-120). The farmers had to face other problems besides isolation. The climate was tolerable, but far from pleasant. A great part of the year was characterised by high to very high temperatures (up to above 40 C) and by long periods of drought. Some years were more than usually dry, such as 1930, with disastrous effect on man, beast and harvest. Illnesses also occurred. Certainly in the early years, when the farmers still had to clear the land and acclimatise themselves to the new environment, they led a very difficult pioneering existence. Wilhelmy painted a very sombre picture. There was not one official body which provided the 4,000 colonists with a regular and reliable supply of indispensable provisions such as vegetables and fruit. Argentinean flour and dried meat formed the basic diet for several years, resulting in scurvy and degeneration of the bones and teeth. He therefore feared that the process of dissolution which had begun in 1935 and the departure of many families to Eastern Paraguay would prove to be unstoppable. He linked this with the conclusion that the suitability of the Chaco as a colonisation zone had its limits: these lay at the point where due to the indifference of the state the adverse natural conditions defeated the energy and endurance of man. Later developments would prove Wilhelmy wrong (Wilhelmy 1937: 1120-1123).

Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development

2.1.4 The foundation of Neuland Neuland was the third cluster of villages founded by the Mennonites and the smallest of the three colonies. The members of the Neuland immigrant group came from Russia, but were already staying in Germany at the time of emigration because the German military government had resettled them from the Ukraine in 1943. The group comprised 641 families with 2,314 persons. Many of them had spent time in Russian concentration camps. Many had been forced to serve in the German army and others spent many months and even years in refugee camps. The Neuland colonists would have preferred to go to Canada or the United States or possibly to some other country than Paraguay. But they could not enter Canada or the United States and there were no other countries acceptable to Mennonites or open to immigrants. In Paraguay the doors were still open. All of the privileges which had been guaranteed to the first settlers from Canada and extended to the later migrants from Russia were still promised to the Mennonite refugees of World War II. The international relief organisations were willing to help transport refugees from Europe to Latin America. The availabilty of free transportation across the ocean was a considerable factor for the Mennonite immigrants. The first contingent of 299 refugees destined for the Chaco arrived safely at Puerto Casado on 1 March 1947, i.e. before the Paraguayan revolution interfered. About 1,200 refugees destined for Neuland were detained in Asuncin and housed for several months in temporary quarters there. The Neuland colony was officially established on June 4, 1947. The colony centre Neu Halbstadt was about 50 km south of Filadelfia. 206 persons of the 2,314 who travelled to the Chaco stayed in Fernheim, 355 persons left for Canada, Argentina, Brazil or other countries and 1,713 settled in Neuland. An arrangement had been made by the MCC with the Fernheim colony to release 197,535 acres (79,942 ha) of its own land holdings for the new colony. The MCC could therefore provide the colony with 110,625 ha; each family was given 170 ha. After four years, 25 villages had been established; 22 of these had adequate water supplies, but 3 still lacked wells, which made them dependent on the other villages. Of tremendous help to the Neuland immigrants were the international relief organisations, the MCC and the Fernheim and Menno colonists. Before the arrival of the new refugees, the older colonists had agreed as far as possible that each established family would shelter and maintain one refugee family until their new home could be built. This was additionally significant because in the Neuland colony 253 out of a total 641 family units were without husbands. They had been killed, captured, enslaved, or in some other way separated from their wives and families either in Russia during the agonies of the Soviet revolution or during the period of flight and the tragedies of World War II in Germany. In addition many of the old colonists provided transportation to the new colony homes and sent with them household goods and other gifts, which enabled the Neulanders to get a more rapid start. The Carlos Casado Company offered each of the immigrants one cow per family. These, however, were wild and untamed and often difficult to use as draft animals. A team of oxen was provided for each farm family. Neuland had its share of disappointed settlers. The same factors that operated to attract the members of other colonies to Canada operated in Neuland. Between 1947 and 1958 a total of 255 families (867 persons) left Neuland. Most of these emigrated to Canada. The Neuland Colony also endured disappointments and hardships (droughts, sandstorms, plagues, lack of water and isolation) but, as will appear in our final evaluation, it also became a successful colony. It was fortunate in having an outstanding leader throughout its years in the person of Oberschulze Peter Derksen.6 2.1.5 The development of the colonies Together with the Japanese colonies and the German-Brazilian settlements in the Department of Itapa, the Mennonite colonies in the Chaco are regarded as a prime example of successful foreign colonisation. Thus the Mennonites not only succeeded in surviving in the Chaco, but actually prospered there. In order to give an idea of their success, in the following section I will give a brief description of the situation in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

6 10

Fretz (1962: 95-97); Mueller (1998: 34-35); Pidoux de Drachenberg (1975: 37-38); Quiring (1954: 300-301). Ibero-Bibliographien 5

According to Table 2, a total of 5,783 Mennonite immigrants settled in the Chaco. The average number of children per family was between six and seven. It was not uncommon for families to have ten to twelve children, and a few families had as many as sixteen or eighteen children. The high birth rates and low death rates resulted in a steady natural increase: There were decreases due to emigration, mainly in Fernheim and Neuland and to some extent in Menno, but only in Neuland did this result in a decreasing number of inhabitants. In 1956 the three colonies had 8,866 inhabitants living on 1,216 farms; in 1965 the number had risen to 9,205.7 The Mennonites founded altogether 122 villages in the Chaco, 114 of which proved viable, while 8 had to be abandoned because of water shortage or other unfavourable conditions. With 68 villages in 1958, Menno was by far the largest colony. The Neuland Colony consisted of 25 villages and Fernheim of only 21. All the villages were small in size; in the late 1950s there was no village with over 40 farms and many even had fewer than 5, being hamlets rather than villages (Hack 1961: 71-73; Wilhelmy/Rohmeder 1963: 428).
Table 2: Demographic development of the three Mennonite colonies up to 1965
Menno (1928) Inhabitants in year of foundation Immigrants arrived later Emigrants Natural increase Inhabitants in 1956 Population gain or loss since foundation Inhabitants in 1960 Inhabitants in 1965 1,303 575 3,605 4,333 3,030 4,765 5,140 Fernheim (1930) 2,008 858 1,750 1,408 2,524 516 2,550 2,628 Neuland (1947) 2,472 1,431 968 2,009 463 1,669 1,437 Total 5,783 858 3,756 5,981 8,866 3,083 8,984 9,205

Source: Kohlhepp (1984: 261); Wilhelmy/Rohmeder (1963: 428).

As agriculture was practised with increasing success, the Mennonites greatly expanded their landownership. The initial area of the land purchased from the Carlos Casado Company to establish the three colonies was 150,370 ha, but in about 1956 total landownership, in the form of cooperatives, had risen to 807,250 ha. Most of the land had been obtained with the financial help of the Mennonite Central Committee. In the late 1950s, 14,530 ha had been brought under cultivation: 6,571 ha in Menno, 3,383 ha in Fernheim and 4,576 ha in Neuland. (see also Tables 2, 3 and 4). The remainder had not yet been cleared or was in pasture land.8 The native trees were seldom usable for lumber. In 1958, the colony had 40,000 planted trees of all kinds. The average Menno farmer had a total of 69 planted trees: 34 paraiso or timber producing trees, 9 orange trees, and 25 other trees, such as banana, tangerine, oranges, grapefruit, guava and dates (Table 3; Fretz 1962: 85-88). Land use in the other two colonies was similar, as shown in Tables 4 and 5. While arable farming could be practised quite easily, since there were soils which could be rapidly cleared and were fertile and almost completely flat, on the other hand, the farmers had to cope with wind erosion, droughts and plagues. In the course of time, there was noticeable growth and improvement in the area of mechanisation. Although the size of the farm was small as a rule, there was an average of a light and heavy wagon per farm, three ploughs and three cultivators to every two farms, almost one planter per farm, and a harrow or a disc for one out of three farmers at the end of the 1950s. Mechanisation in 1958 also extended to modern implements or conveniences such as trucks, tractors, jeeps, radios and refrigerators (see Tables 2-4; Fretz 1962: 85-87). Livestock production included cattle farming, horse breeding and keeping chickens and pigs. Tables 2-4 show the impressive growth of these sectors up to the end of the 1950s. Sheep farming remained relatively unimportant. The colonists started immediately with experiments to improve the natural grazing lands and found new grasses, including pasto Salinas, which were adapted to the
7 8 Kleinpenning (1984: 23); Kohlhepp (1984: 261); Wilhelmy/Rohmeder (1963: 428). Hack (1983:104; 1961: 71-73); Kleinpenning (1984: 23); Nickson (1993: 378-379). Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development 11

Chaco environment and enabled them to layout artificial pastures and to considerably raise the size and productivity of the cattle herd (Pidoux de Drachenberg 1975: 42-43; Plett Welk 1979: 97).
Table 3: Some basic data about the colony of Menno (1933-1958) 1933 1,535 17 223 ? ? ? 118 2,074 1,060 14 6,700 151 ? 198 169 36 117 0 1 0 0 1938 1,851 23 1,138 491 133 188 508 3,765 200 65 14,000 301 51 385 340 120 131 5 0 0 1943 2,312 37 1,264 554 121 119 735 4,205 700 145 15,200 345 95 415 380 152 142 6 0 0 1948 2,940 48 3,090 1,251 202 151 1,550 14,446 850 660 17,000 400 295 540 510 250 155 5 3 0 0 1953 3,852 53 1,416 1,843 313 125 2,647 22,078 1,145 661 29,824 574 417 907 865 346 215 217 6 3 0 1958 4,457 59 2,137 1,668 893 128 3,627 25,923 1,552 876 42,270 670 573 1,096 1,096 439 247 253 5 12 8

Inhabitants Villages Crops planted (ha) Cotton Kaffir Groundnuts Beans Domestic animals Horses Cattle Pigs Sheeps Chicken Farm implements Farm wagons Buggies Ploughs Cultivators Planters Harrows Discs Threshing machines Tractors Jeeps and trucks
Source: Fretz (1962 :86-88. *1932).

The marketing of produce was in the hands of the colony cooperative, which was founded in 1931 and included all the farmers. The cooperative was soon of crucial importance to the successful development of the colonies, because it did practically all of the buying and selling of producer and consumer goods for the colonists, took charge of the processing of agricultural products, was the colonies bank and offered financial help where necessary. As such it formed the heart of the economy (Plett Welk 1979: 95). The cooperative processing industry included a wide variety of provisions: saw mills, flour mills, oil presses, cotton gins, dairy plants, slaughterhouses, carpentry shops, smithies, a small plant for extracting palo santo oil, tanneries and machines for collective use such as combines and linters (for separating the last cotton fibre from the seeds). These provisions had gradually come into existence and existed in all the three colonies in 1956, except that Neuland did not have a linter, carpentry and cotton gin, while Menno lacked a dairy plant. Unruh reported the absence of an installation to process castor beans. In addition, there were small private industries such as carpentry and cartwrights shops, smithies, plumbers shops, tailors shops, tanneries, leather shops and brick factories. All these industries were mainly concentrated in the administrative centres of the colonies: Filadelfia, Loma Plata and Neu-Halbstadt.9 Most of the ample and excellent educational and health provisions were also located in these centres. The latter included 112 hospital beds in 1958 (Fretz 1962: 160).

9 12

Hack (1961: 131); Pidoux de Drachenberg (1975: 43); Plett Welk (1979: 96); Unruh (1973: 106). Ibero-Bibliographien 5

Table 4: Some basic data about the colony of Fernheim (1933-1958) 1933 2,078 18 369 68 248 275 134 297 162 1,019 152 418 90 1,871 467 8,246 102 337 302 325 0 0 1938 1,330 19 221 1,060 456 216 158 1,548 452 2,040 928 3,071 541 2,770 323 6,262 226 22 230 181 213 41 0 1 1943 1,717 19 217 915 662 191 155 3,111 1,395 5,519 1,141 3,722 874 5,177 677 8,514 215 97 282 168 256 96 0 1 1948 2,222 21 261 886 820 241 138 2,973 1,486 37 1,432 4,692 1,434 11,362 475 10,402 245 197 296 170 322 128 0 13 1953 2,486 21 264 807 1,009 585 79 3,583 1,524 1,975 2,635 8,354 1,691 9,218 575 13,903 326 259 459 238 509 189 5 16 1958 2,500 20 258 830 791 1,351 57 4,276 1,648 3,564 2,644 8,198 1,575 10,690 392 20,163 305 325 514 296 589 290 9 24

Inhabitants Villages Farms Crops planted (ha) Cotton Kaffir Peanuts Beans Trees (number) Oranges Tangerines Bananas Grapevines Paraiso Domestic animals Horses Cattle Pigs Chickens Farm implements Farm wagons Buggies Plows Harrows Cultivators Planters Tractors Trucks
Source: Fretz (1962: 92-94).

Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development

13

Table 5: Some basic data about the colony of Neuland (1948-1958) 1948 2,389 25 538 157 126 73 170 462 113 588 110 1,527 45 2 65 1 24 0 0 0 1953 2,462 27 473 985 1,066 531 6,333 9,205 1,715 7,437 950 11,361 420 173 528 41 469 142 1958 1,715 25 318 981 870 362 11,938 9,004 1,367 8,841 450 13,028 291 264 436 101 393 261 4 5 2

Inhabitants Villages Farms Crops planted (ha) Cotton Kaffir Peanuts Trees (number) Fruit trees Paraiso Domestic animals Horses Cattle Pigs Chickens Farm implements Farm wagons Buggies Plows Harrows Cultivators Planters Tractors Trucks Autos and Jeeps
Source: Fretz (1962: 97-99).

In the beginning, marketing possibilities were severely hampered by the lack of good communications. There were no good roads or even no roads at all. The villages had to be connected by picadas. Goods from Asuncin arrived by train at km 145 of the narrow-gauge line owned by the Carlos Casado Company. From that point (Fred Engen) they had to be transported to the colonies in ox or horse drawn carts. All citizens had to carry out one or more transports during the year and deliver the goods to the cooperative. Each journey took 1-2 weeks, during which time the drivers had to care for themselves at their own expense and had to cope with dust, heat, insects, inundated road sections etc. From the 1950s, the colonist could make use of machines to build relatively good earth roads and, gradually, a fairly good road network developed within and between the colonies. All roads were built without external help (Drksen/Harder 1980: 55). The situation improved drastically when the Trans Chaco Road (Ruta Transchaco) was completed. This earth road from Asuncin towards the Bolivian border was built with the assistance from the US Agency for International Development and reached Filadelfia, the urban centre of the Mennonite colonies, on 4 October 1961. On 10 September 1964 the section to the settlement of General Eugenio A. Garay, which lies 5 km from the Bolivian border, was inaugurated. The total distance from Asuncin to the latter settlement is 776 km. Asphalting began in the 1970s and was completed as far as Filadelfia in the mid-1980s. In 1978 the Puente Remanso Castillo provided a road bridge linking the Trans Chaco Road to Eastern Paraguay.10

10 Nickson (1993: 223, 590-591); Ratzlaff (1999: 184), Unruh (1973: 106). For more details about the history and importance of the Ruta Trans Chaco see the publications of Ratzlaff. 14 Ibero-Bibliographien 5

Table 6: Gross income from the various products sold by the three Mennonite colonies in 1956, in percentages Product Cotton Cotton seed oil Groundnuts Groundnut oil Cattle Butter Eggs Palo santo extract Total Menno 61.5 0.0 2.6 0.0 19.2 0.0 9.0 7.7 100.0 Fernheim 29.5 1.9 5.0 16.1 14.2 4.8 6.5 22.0 100.0 Neuland 46.5 0.0 10.8 11.7 11.4 4.9 7.6 7.1 100.0

Source: Wilhelmy/Rohmeder (1963:430); Kohlhepp (1984: 275).

With the opening of the Transchaco road the opportunities for marketing poultry and poultry products materialised and, since then, production of poultry has increased tremendously. This, in turn, required the production of more grain to feed the poultry, thus acreage in sorghum increased. Since the opening of the road, the Mennonite colonies have also supplied the growing market of Asuncin with an increasing quantity of milk and dairy products which, before the opening, could only be sent by plane in small quantities to the capital. The marketing of all kinds of other products, such as cotton, the colonies main commercial crop, also became much cheaper. The arrival of the Mennonites did not cause conflicts with the Indians. In the 1920s and 1930s land in the Central Chaco was abundant, as there were only a few hundred Indians in the colonisation area. Moreover, the Mennonites started to reclaim the land gradually and facilitated the further utilisation of the land reserves for hunting, gathering etc. Although the land had been legally bought, the Mennonites also paid a (symbolic) price to the Indians, in order to convince them that the white colonists had really become the owners. Another important reason why problems did not arise was that the Indians became better off, since they found work in the newly established colonies. Finally, it should be mentioned that the Indians of the area lived communally, while the Mennonites were pacifists by conviction. From the arrival of the Mennonites a growing number of Indians migrated to the central Chaco in order to find work and to receive various kinds of support in the Mennonite colonies which, because of better communications and considerable foreign aid, saw remarkable progress, particularly in the 1950s and 1960s. When the Mennonites started to settle, there were only a few hundred Indians in their colonisation area and these did not cause tensions. However, as the number of Indians grew, by migration and natural growth, it became increasingly urgent to do something in order to avoid future problems. This was all the more necessary as the area of uncultivated land decreased and it proved to be impossible for the Mennonites to provide sufficient seasonal and full-time jobs in the farming sector, because mechanisation considerably reduced the demand for seasonal labour. The Indians on the contrary expected that the Mennonites would provide work. Missionary activities, including education and health care, had already started in 1935, but land for the first Indian village was not bought until 1950. In 1955, a programme of systematic settlement was started, which was intensified in the 1960s, when social unrest threatened to increase. The purpose of the programme was to gradually settle some of the Indians and give them the same livelihood as the Mennonites. Four indigenous colonies were organized during the period 1955-1963: Yalve Sanga I (1955), Yalve Sanga II (1961), La Esperanza (1962) and Campo Largo (1963). In the mid-1960s, the Mennonites planned to found more colonies.11
11 In later years, the ASCIM (Asociacin de Servicios de Cooperacin Indgena-Mennonita), which was established in 1976 to assist the social and economic development of the Chaco Indians, took charge of the settlement programme. This organisation succeeded in obtaining large foreign funds for the purchase of land (Nickson 1993: 42). For more information about the relations between Mennonites and Indians and the Indian development policy of the former see Hack (1976; 1976-1980 and 1983). Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development 15

The Indians settled in the colonies formed part of the working population of the Mennonite area. Apart from land, they received farm equipment and food during the initial phase and educational and health facilities were also provided. The land was the property of the Mennonite organisation, but was to be ceded to the Indians as soon as an appropriate and officially acceptable model of organisation had been developed.12 In trying to evaluate the Mennonite colonisation experiment in the Chaco, it must be noted that although geographical and economic conditions of the Chaco were adverse in the extreme, the sum total of other factors was strong enough to offset these negative factors and assure successful agriculture and cattle raising, practised on small and medium-sized farms under semiarid conditions and without the help of irrigation. The unifying role of blood relationship, origin and religion, in particular, was very important. Large numbers of Mennonite colonists came from the same country and region. Furthermore, they often grew up in the same community, belonged to the same church, and were often close blood relatives to many of their colony neighbours. Another favourable factor was that the Mennonites received considerable external support from Canada, the United States Agency for International Development and the Comit Central Mennonita, based in Akron, Pennsylvania. External help included a loan from the USA and Canada of 76,000 US$ in 1953 for further industrial development in Fernheim Colony (more specifically local cotton processing), a loan of 1 million US$ from the US Agency for International Development in 1957, and financial support from Germany and the Netherlands to develop social services.13 Other important factors included exemptions from State taxes; the availability of cheap Lengua and Nivakl labour for farm and all kinds of other operations; efficiently organised purchasing and selling through a cooperative system, and the opening up of the area with the construction of the Trans-Chaco route.
Table 7: Data showing the development of the three Mennonite colonies (1956) Menno 68 4.065 564 331,875 6,571 4,474 132,000 193,304 11.7 Fernheim 21 2,395 255 249,375 3,383 3,043 82,000 163,992 13.2 Neuland 25 1,979 397 226,000 4,576 3,050 44,000 177,424 11.8 Total 114 8,439 1,216 807,250 14,530 10,567 258,000 534,720

Villages founded until 1956 Inhabitants Farms Total area (ha), of which: Fenced arable land Area under crops Pastures Remaining (Forest) area Average Farm Size (ha) Contributions to local export value from: Arable farming (%) Livestock production (%) Forestry (%)

64,3 28.1 7.6

59.2 21.7 19.1

69.2 23.7 7.1

Source: Hack (1961: 71-73, 92, 108); Wilhelmy/Rohmeder (1963: 429).

Despite the success of the Mennonites, their example was not followed by other groups. Up to the present, the Mennonites are still the only people to have founded successful permanent large-scale agricultural communities in the Chaco. On the one hand, this is surprising, since success of a certain group nearly always challenges other groups to follow their example, but on the other hand, it is also quite understandable, since the factors listed above which were responsible for the success are to a large degree specific to the Mennonites. Consequently, the Paraguayan Chaco has remained a thinly populated area. The major reasons why further agricultural colonisation failed to take place are rather obvious: living conditions in the Chaco are far from ideal, Paraguays population was rather small,
12 Borrini (1997: 95); Drksen/Harder (1980: 97); Kleinpenning (1984: 23-24, 59-61). 13 Nathan (1970: 32); Pidoux de Drachenberg (1975: 44); Quiring (1954: 304). 16 Ibero-Bibliographien 5

opportunities for expanding the agricultural frontier were much better in Eastern Paraguay, and the government lacked capital and manpower to organise large scale programmes of agricultural colonisation under marginal conditions. 2.2 The Mennonite colonies in eastern Paraguay Eastern Paraguay offered several advantages compared to the Chaco. In the Eastern Region rainfall is higher, the heat is less, there are no sandstorms in wintertime, and the soils are generally better. In other words, conditions for growing crops, vegetables and fruit trees, and for livestock production are more favourable. There is also much more high quality forest, and communications in general are better. For these and other reasons some Mennonites preferred to settle in the Eastern Region, directly or after having tried to build up an existence in the Chaco. Nevertheless, the Mennonite colonies founded in Eastern Paraguay were, generally speaking, less successful than the Chaco settlements in the early 1960s. One important reason was the lack of good and continuous leadership, while another was the difficulty of finding an attractive cash crop, since conditions for cotton growing were not invariably good. Altogether, four colonies were founded in Eastern Paraguay up to the 1950s: Friesland, Volendam, Bergthal and Sommerfeld. They will be dealt with in the following sections. 2.2.1 Friesland Soon after the foundation of Fernheim, small numbers of Mennonites left the Chaco to settle in Eastern Paraguay. They were sceptical about the possibilities of successful colonisation in the Chaco and felt unhappy with the rigidly organised Gemeinschaftswesen. They settled near Concepcin and the port of Rosario, while others bought some land in the colony of General Aquino (also named Chamorra) and tried to make a living among other German-speaking colonists and Paraguayans. Some Mennonites preferred to move to Asuncin. When cotton production in the Chaco increased considerably in 1933 and cotton harvests were good in 1934 emigration decreased and some Mennonites even returned to the Chaco. In 1936, however, locusts and droughts were responsible for bad harvests, including that of cotton, and in nearly all villages there was a shortage of grazing land. As a result, emigration to Eastern Paraguay started again. Meanwhile, the Mennonite group which had settled down near Concepcin had become so numerous that it became possible to establish a closed colony Neuhoffnung on state land at kilometre post 37 of the railway from Concepcin to Horqueta in 1936. Meanwhile, the Mennonites in Fernheim had become increasingly aware of the fact that, for the further development of their colony, more land would be necessary. The number of farms in the various villages had to be reduced to about the half in order to make more farm and grazing land available to the remaining holdings. When it was decided in 1937 to carry out the inevitable Dorfauflockerung, a large group of Mennonites did not wait for resettlement elsewhere in the Chaco, but preferred to move to Eastern Paraguay. Their decision was made in the face of direct discouragement from the Mennonite Central Committee in North America, which refused to give any financial help to any settlers leaving the Chaco. After several investigatory expeditions the group found a property of 6,913 ha of land (including forests and camps) about 65 km east of Rosario, which was bought in June 1937 from the owners, Wilhelm and Arthur Strauch, who lived in Montevideo. In August 1937, 135 families, with 754 persons, left the Chaco, dissatisfied with the prospects for success there after seven years of bitter struggle. Two boats brought them from Puerto Casado to the port of Rosario, from where they travelled overland to the newly acquired land to found the colony of Friesland in September 1937.14 The exodus was lead by Johann Funk and Isaak Federau. The group founded 9 villages with 146 farms: Corniesheim, Grossweide, Zentral, Grnfeld, Rckenau, Landskrone, Waldheim, Rosenberg and Blumenau. They also immediately built various principal roads of 12-16 m in width and secondary roads to give access to the land. The farm houses were situated on the roads, along which many orange trees were planted. The colonists also built two schools, one in Grossweide and one in Zentral, which were inaugurated in July 1938. A secondary school was opened in 1942. Some farmers were opposed to compulsory membership in the colony cooperative in Fernheim, but later discovered that a cooperative was essential and they formed one in 1941 after having tried vainly for a number of years to buy and sell on an individual basis. Some German families who lived scattered in the area of Rosario, decided to join the settlers in Friesland.
14 Friesland is the Dutch province where Menno Simons lived and preached and, as such, the cradle of the Mennonites. Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development 17

Table 8: Data showing the development of the Mennonite colony of Friesland during the period 1938-1958 1938 9 754 146 145 1943 9 862 163 154 1948 9 970 174 168 1953 9 1,072 204 201 1958 10 955 190 203

Villages Inhabitants Families Farms Crops planted (ha) Kaffir Corn Trees (number) Oranges Grapevines Peaches Domestic Animals Horses Cattle Pigs Chickens Farm implements Farm wagons Buggies Plows Cultivators Seeders Harrows Tractors Trucks and Jeeps
Source. Fretz (1962: 59-61).

n.d. 50.5

46.6 161.2

116.6 194.3

174.0 313.6

122.6 479.6

2,551 n.d n.d.

4,000 n.d. 330

4,500 982 570

3,179 n.d. 703

2,361 812 866

262 1,025 116 2,227

348 1,629 388 5,227

482 3,257 503 5,308

598 3,871 478 10,080

551 4,121 320 5,863

115 n.d. 135 119 9 94 0 0

99 2 134 115 14 93 0 0

120 2 142 114 12 93 0 0

141 25 165 128 37 95 1 0

126 47 130 130 18 78 5 8

By 1938, about 1,400 ha had already been cleared and brought under cultivation, and all the lotes had been fenced.15 In 1946 an additional area of 753 ha was bought and in 1952 133 ha were acquired, as a result of which the original area of 6,913 ha had increased to 7,799 ha in the latter year. It included 3,010 ha of forest. By about 1954 the colony numbered 1,046 persons (203 families) and 195 farms. Conditions for cotton growing were less favourable than had been hoped for, but many other products, like maize, manioc, kaffir, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, fruits and vegetables did well. In 1952 the colony had 566 horses, 3,600 head of cattle and 478 pigs. Grazing land was limited and more of it was needed, but all the land surrounding the colony was already privately owned and not for sale. One of the main economic problems at that time was that an attractive cash crop had not been found. In other words, the deep conviction of the Fernheimers who moved to Friesland that their greater proximity to Asuncion as a market for their products would give them a considerable advantage over their former isolated location in the Chaco had not been realised. Since it was impossible to live from the sale of
15 A detail worth noting is that nearly all the colonists in the Alto Paraguay area had clung to the primitive burning of the forest and the use of hoe and planting stick. The Mennonite colonists who had come from the Chaco, however, used to remove the tree trunks and to use ploughs the completion of clearing with fire. When they came to Eastern Paraguay they avoided clearing high forest lands, if possible, and preferred to buy land already partially cleared from Paraguayan colonists; they removed the remaining obstacles, levelled and started to plough it (Wilhelmy 1949b: 54). 18 Ibero-Bibliographien 5

sawn timber, livestock, eggs and butter, about 100 of the 203 families tried to obtain an additional income from carrying out transports between places like Friesland, General Aquino, Itacurub, Primavera and the port of Rosario. About one third of these families were full-time on the move. Paraguayan ox-cart drivers competed with them, which made clear that transport work was not a real solution. Because of this less favourable situation, 24 persons had returned to Fernheim, 39 to Canada, 66 to Brazil and 24 to Argentina up to 1954. There was no reason for pessimism, however. Blcker noted that the colony was doing well and Fretz noted that, after a first fifteen years of difficult struggle, the colony was fortunate to secure an outstandingly capable administrator and, at the same time, substantial loans with which to launch significant economic programmes. In the early 1960s, there was a general optimism among colony leaders and members. There was evidence of numerical and economic growth and some evidence that suggested a promising future.16 2.2.2 Volendam One of the more recent and the largest immigrant groups ever to settle in the Alto Paraguay region is the colony of Volendam. About 1,800 refugee immigrants arrived in Paraguay in 1947 and 1948 to make up this colony. They came from the same place as the settlers of Neuland, endured the same experience in concentration and refugee camps, and even more came over on the same ships. The name Volendam (a fishing town in the Netherlands) was taken from the name of one of the ships which brought many of the settlers across the Atlantic. The Mennonite Central Committee provided a great deal of help to the settlers at Volendam. From the time of the arrival of the refugees from Russia in West Germany in 1943, the Committee began to work with the prospective colonists. The Volendam people preferred to go to Canada, where many of their relatives had previously gone, but the doors of Canada and United States were closed. The Volendam colonists came to Paraguay because it offered a way of escape from their plight as temporary refugees in Germany. Many of them had been quartered in Berlin, where they were in constant danger of being seized by the Russians and forcibly returned to Russia. The Paraguayan Government continued to guarantee the same privileges to the 1947 and 1948 immigrants as it had to the first Mennonites who had come in 1926 and 1930. The Mennonite Central Committee had purchased 9,353 ha of land 13 km north of Rosario.17 The land extended from the river in an eastward direction, thus affording the colony its own river port, a small boat stop known as Mbopicu. The land was surveyed and laid out in 12 villages. Tiefenbrunn was the administrative centre of the colony and became the site of schools, the hospital, some workshops etc. The villages consisted of farms of 40, 30 and 15 ha. The first Volendammers (295 families with 1,135 persons) arrived on March 2, 1947 and moved onto the land on 9 July. The Volendam colony was officially established on July 1, 1947 and, after the arrival of other groups, numbered 1,825 German Mennonites. In 1952 the colony comprised 15 villages with 425 families and 1,767 persons. Because of its favourable location on the river and its proximity to Asuncin, the Volendam colony seemed to have the greatest promise of success, yet the fact is that it had the most disappointing record of all seven Mennonite colonies. One of the serious handicaps has been its lack of strong and continuous leadership by capable men; again and again, its more able leaders migrated to Canada, as did also many of its stronger families. Between 1947 and 1958, 223 families consisting of 1,281 persons left Volendam, so that by January 1, 1961 the colonys population was down to 800. Some villages were entirely abandoned. Approximately 750 of the exits were to Canada, some moved to Brazil and a few to Argentina, some returned to Germany and others settled in other Mennonite colonies in Paraguay or moved to Asuncin. Invitations from relatives in Canada, glowing accounts of the situation in that country and extreme hardships in Paraguay made it difficult for those remaining to settle down to the serious business of developing permanent homes, clearing lands etc. Quiring adds that it was also difficult to find an attractive cash crop. The colony land, however, comprised much forest land and additional income was therefore made from timber cutting and timber transport, the selling of firewood,
16 The foregoing section on Friesland is based on Blcker (1955: 46); Fretz (1962: 58-61); Kliewer (1941: 80-82); Mueller (1998: 66-68); Quiring (1954: 301-302); Ratzlaff (ed.) (1987: 125-126);Teichmann (1938b: 14). 17 This area is mentioned by Fretz but, according to Quiring (1954: 302), about 17,000 ha were bought and, somewhat later, another 13,000 ha. Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development 19

most of which was shipped by boat to Asuncin, and the selling of fence poles, which were exported to Uruguay. From 1960, the colony was receiving outside assistance of major significance. An organisation of North American Mennonite businessmen known as MEDA (Mennonite Economic Development Associates) had interested itself in providing administrative advice, financial support, and expert personnel in an effort to reorganise the colony and stabilise it economically.18
Table 9: Data showing the development of the colony of Volendam (1948-1958)
1948 Villages Inhabitants Families Farms Crops planted (ha) Corn Kaffir Trees planted (number) Fruit trees Shade trees Domestic animals Horses Cattle Pigs Chickens Farm implements Farm wagons Buggies Plows Harrows Cultivators Source: Fretz (1962: 64, 65). 12 1,172 295 295 49.8 42.9 n.d. n.d. 307 514 110 1,697 42 n.d. 48 6 1 1953 15 1,683 403 397 187.8 271.6 n.d. n.d. 846 2,779 998 8,538 246 0 n.d. n.d n.d. 1958 13 1,067 253 241 282.1 52.6 6,814 1,701 582 6,951 385 7,405 145 25 167 87 158

2.2.3 Bergthal and Sommerfeld Although Bergthal and Sommerfeld were separate colonies, the members making up the two groups came to Paraguay on the same ship and planned their immigration and colonisation ventures cooperatively. Bergthal and Sommerfeld were the most recent of the seven Mennonite colonies established in Paraguay up to 1960s. According to Fretz, they constituted the most socially and religiously conservative element of the seven Mennonite colonies. In contrast to the colonies Fernheim, Neuland, Friesland and Volendam, the Bergthal and Sommerfeld colonists did not come to Paraguay as penniless refugees. Like the migrants who came 20 years earlier, they deliberately chose to come to Paraguay. When the Mennonite colonists left Canada in 1926 to settle in Paraguay, where they felt their religious freedom would be unmolested, some of their co-religionists decided to remain in Canada. By 1948, however, they also had come to the conclusion that their way of life was being threatened by encroaching secularism and so decided to migrate. Rather than settling in the Chaco, they decided to locate in Eastern Paraguay, where natural conditions looked more favourable. The Bergthaler and Sommerfelder, like the Menno colonists, were among the prosperous Canadian prairie farmers. They had sold their farms at peak post-war prices and therefore had substantial sums in the bank. They were also acquainted with mechanised farming and aspects of scientific agriculture. Thirteen tractors and a large bulldozer were among the first pieces of equipment brought along on the initial migratory trip. The social solidarity of the groups was reflected in a fund that was raised to assist the poorer members.
18 The section on Volendam is based on Fretz (1962: 61-66), Mueller (1998: 68-69), and Quiring (1954: 302). 20 Ibero-Bibliographien 5

In 1946 delegates from Canada purchased a tract of land of 108,640 acres (43,967 ha). In 1948, 1,644 Mennonites sailed to Paraguay; 140 came from the province of Saskatchewan and the remaining 1504 from South Manitoba. Approximately 500 of those making the trip decided to return to Canada, before they had become established. Those who decided to stay settled in two colonies: Sommerfeld and Bergthal.
Table 10: Bergthal and Sommerfeld demographic data (1950-1958) 1950 Bergthal Villages Inhabitants Families Farms Sommerfeld Villages Inhabitants
Source: Fretz (1962: 102-103).

1952 8 635 116 111

1954 8 630 119 117

1956 8 654 125 132

1958 9 700 136 136

7 574 110 110

9 626

9 644

9 655

9 658

10 717

Sommerfeld is located approximately 290 km directly east of Asuncin, in the Department of Caaguaz, near the newly built Highway 1 stretching from Asuncin east to Puerto Stroessner (now Ciudad del Este) on the Paran River. Bergthal lies some 16 km farther north. The Sommerfeld colony comprised 9 villages, with 626 inhabitants in 1950, and 34,000 ha of land.19 The Bergthal colony was founded on about 11,000 ha of land and numbered 7 villages with 574 inhabitants in 1950. The first colonists arrived on 14 January 1949. The administrative centre of the colony is Chortitz. Because most of the land acquired consisted of forest, the colonists had to clear the land first. The colonists started to grow the traditional Paraguayan crops and planted quite a lot of fruit trees. In 1954 about 300 ha had been cleared in each of the two colonies. Economically, the colonies were dependent for cash on the sale of wood, some vegetables, dairy, poultry and pork products. In the early 1960s, of the seven colonies, these two were the only ones as yet with a good farm-to-market road. The farms were initially quite small, but were rapidly being enlarged to make way for a greater degree of mechanised farming. In 1958 Bergthal had 5 trucks and 12 tractors while Sommerfeld claimed to have 47 tractors, a bulldozer, 13 trucks, and a jeep. On the whole, the colonists seemed content. Up to 1954 about 162 persons had left the Bergthal colony and returned to Canada; about 441 persons had left Sommerfeld. There had been practically no additions to either colony from outside. But because birth rates were impressively high and the death rate low, the colonies rapidly increased in population (see Table 10).20 3. Bibliography of Mennonite colonies in Paraguay 3.1 About this bibliography The following Bibliography provides an overview of the publications dealing with the Mennonites colonisation activities, with the social and economic development of their colonies after these had been established and with the missionary activities of the Mennonites among the Indian population of the Central Chaco. Publications of a biographical nature and those dealing with the religious ideas of the Mennonites have not been included in this Bibliography.

19 Nickson reports that, in November 1989, a long-standing dispute with the Myb-Guaran, whose ancestral lands had been appropriated by the colony, was settled in favour of the Indians when the government decreed the expropriation of 1,456 hectares of land belonging to the Sommerfeld Komitee (Nickson 1993: 545). 20 The section on Bergthal and Sommerfeld is based on Fretz (1962: 98-102); Mueller (1998: 69-71); Nickson (1993: 70, 545), and Quiring (1954: 302-303). Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development 21

The Bibliography has been divided into several sections, each dealing with specific aspects of the Mennonite colonies. Within each section, publications have been listed in alphabetical and chronological order. Anonymous publications have been included, using the first word of the title. Besides numerous books, the Bibliography also includes a large number of articles published in journals and yearbooks. The most important serials with their full titles and their local of publication are listed below. For practical reasons only the main titles of these journals have been mentioned in the Bibliography:
Bibel und Pflug, Zeitschrift fr Gemeinde und Haus. Witmarsum, Brazil (IAI Z/4130). Der Bote. Ein mennonitisches Familienblatt. Rostern, Saskatchewan. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay. Vol. 1- 2000-. Asuncin: Editora Litocolor. (http://www.menonitica.org/) Mennoblatt, Zeitschrift fr Gemeinde und Kolonie. Filadelfia (SBB 4Co4710; IAI 4 Par ua 1 und Z/229).21 Der Mennonit. Ein Gemeindeblatt zunchst fr mennonitische Neusiedler in aller Welt. From 6, 1953, nr 8: Internationales Mennonitisches Gemeindeblatt. Basel/Karlsruhe/Frankfurt am/Main (DNB DZb 4433). Mennonite Life. An illustrated quarterly. North Newton, Kansas (http://www.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/). The Mennonite. Newton, Kansas. The Mennonite Quarterly Review. A Journal Devoted to Mennonite History, Thought, Life and Affairs. Goshen, Indiana. (SBB Zsn 2274; http://www.goshen.edu/mqr/).

Earlier already several other bibliographies on the Mennonites in Latin America have been composed. These are listed below. Although this Bibliography includes much of the information to be found in the earlier bibliographies, researchers are recommended to consult these publications as well, particularly those of Smith and Minnich et al., which contain useful annotations.
FADENRECHT, George H.: Bibliography: Mennonite Migration to Paraguay. Dept. of History paper, University of Kansas, Lawrence. 1949. 8 pp. SMITH, Willard: Mennonites in Latin America. An Annotated Bibliography. The Mennonite Qarterly Review, 26, 1952, 4, October, pp. 298-318 (SBB Zsn 2274). MINNICH, R. Herbert/SMITH, Willard H./STAHL, Wilmar: Mennonites in Latin America: An Annotated Bibliography, 1912-1971. The Mennonite Quarterly Review, 46, 1972, 2, April, pp. 177-235 (SBB Zsn 2274). COONEY, Jerry Wilson (1996). Paraguay: A Bibliography of Immigration and Emigration. Longview, Washington: The Author. 71 pp. (pp. 43-68: Mennonites) (IAI 5-Par-30).

Most bibliographic description has the information at the end where you may find the book or the article. Four German libraries where checked for their holdings. IAI SBB DNB SUB Ibero-American Institute Berlin (http://www.iaicat.de/) State Library Berlin (http://stabikat.de/) German National Library Frankfurt/Main and Leipzig (https://portal.d-nb.de/) State and University Library Gttingen (http://opac.sub.uni-goettingen.de/)

In the other cases please consult ther KVK (http://www.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de/kvk.html) or the WorldCat (http://www.worldcat.org/). 3.2 General Works
ALFERT, Mons. Lucio: The Mennonite Presence in the Chaco from a Catholic Perspective. The Mennonite Quarterly Review, 76, 1996, 3, July, pp. 337-352 (SBB Zsn 2274). ALFERT, Mons. Lucio: Mennonitische Prsenz im Chaco aus katholischer Perspektive. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 2, 2001, pp. 125-149 (http://www.menonitica.org/). ALFERT, Mons. Lucio: The mennonite Presence in the Chaco from a Catholic Perspective. Mennonite Quarterly Review, 2002, July, pp. 337-352 (http://www.goshen.edu/mqr/pastissues/july02alfert.html). AMARILLO FRETES, Eduardo: El Paraguay en el primer cincuentenario del fallo arbitral del presidente Hayes. Asuncin: Imprenta Nacional. 1932. 176 pp. (pp. 170-174: Las Colonias Mennonitas). 21 For this serial see Rahn, Peter: The Cradle of the Mennoblatt. Christian Living, A Magazine for Home and Community, 6, 1959, July, p. 34. 22 Ibero-Bibliographien 5

ANSIEDLUNG: Die neue Ansiedlung in Paraguay. Mennonitische Rundschau, 1927, 26 January through 9 February (Weekly). ANSIEDLUNG: Die Ansiedlung der deutschen Mennoniten in Paraguay (Nach einer Denkschrift des paraguayischen Wirtschafstministeriums). Der Deutsche Auswanderer, Verffentlichung des Evangelischen Vereins fr deutsche Ansiedler und Auswanderer E.V., Berlin, 31, 1935, 3, May-June, pp. 113-121 (IAI 4/8 Deut gi 4). ARCHIVO: Archivo Central de la ACOMEPA Asociacin de Colonias Mennonitas del Paraguay. Asuncin: ACOMEPA. 2001. 86 pp. BALEN, W.J. van: De Chaco. Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap 51, Series 2, 1934, pp. 96-102 (SBB Po 3409). BAU (= H.R.): Zum Bau einer neuen Gemeinde. Der Mennonit, 4, 1951, 2, February, pp. 23, 27 (DNB DZb 4433). BELL, Bran.: Mennonite Refugees Carve Haven in Paraguays Wilds. Denver, Colo., Post, December 27, 1959. BENDER, Fritz: Im unerschlossenen Chaco von Paraguay. Kosmos, Stuttgart, 57, 1961, 11, November, pp. 465-473 (SBB Lc 7963/2). BENDER, Harold S.: Die Einwanderung nach Paraguay. In: Neff, Christian (ed.). Bericht ber die Mennonitische Welthilfskonferenz von 31. August bis 3. September 1930 in Danzig, pp. 117-125. Karlsruhe: Heinrich Schneider. 1930 (SBB Co4715). BENDER, Harold S.: With the Mennonites in South America; in Paraguay. Gospel Herald, Scottdale, Pa., 1 and 8 September 1938. BENDER, Harold S.: With the Mennonite Refugee Colonies in Brazil and Paraguay. A Personal Narrative. The Mennonite Quarterly Review, 13, 1939, 1, January, pp. 59-70 (SBB Zsn 2274). BENDER, Harold S. et al. (eds.): The Mennonite Encyclopedia. A comprehensive work on the Anabaptist movement. Scottdale, Pa.: Mennonite Publishing House; Newton, Kan.: Mennonite Publication Office; Hillsboro, Kan.: MB Publishing House. 1955-1959. 4 Vols. (SBB HA 3 Sg 6200). BENDER, Harold S.: Vor 30 Jahren. Einwanderung nach Paraguay. Ein Vortrag vor der Welthilfskonferenz in Danzig, 1930. Mennoblatt, 31, 1960, 16, 15 August, pp. 5-6; 17, 1 September, pp. 5-6; 18, 15 September, pp. 5-6; 19, 1 October, pp. 5-6 (IAI 4Par ua 1). BENDER, John Ellsworth: Paraguay. Portrait of a Nation. Part I. The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. S. l.: s.n. 1955. 105 pp. Unpublished manuscript. BENDER, John Ellsworth: Paraguay Calling. Part II. The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Akron, Pa: Mennonite Central Commmittee. ca. 1955. 199 pp. Unpublished manuscript. BENIRSCHKE, Kurt/BYRD, Mary L./RICHARD, J.: The Chaco region of Paraguay. Peccaries and Mennonites. Interdisciplinary Science Review, London, 14, 1989, 2, pp. 144-147 (SBB Zsn 74828). BERGEN, Ernst Ferdinand/GOOD, Phyllis Pellman: Entwicklung, Macht und Korruption: als Christ in der Regierung Paraguays. Schwarzenfeld: Neufeld Verlag, 2008, 191 pp. (soon in IAI). BERGEN, Ernst Ferdinand/GOOD, Phyllis Pellman: Jumping into empty space: a reluctant Mennonite businessman serves in Paraguays presidential cabinet. Intercourse, PA: Good Books 2008, 204 pp. (soon in IAI). BERGEN, Ernst Ferdinand/GOOD, Phyllis Pellman: Un salto a lo desconocido: lo que aprend como ministro. Asuncin: Servilibro. 2008, 202 pp. (soon in IAI). BERGMANN, Gnther J.: Auslandsdeutsche in Paraguay, Brasilien, Argentinien. Bad Mnstereifel: Westkreuz Verlag. 1994. 256 pp. (IAI A 95/4156). Also thesis defended in Mainz in 1992 and entitled: Das Deutschtum im paraguayischbrasilianisch-argentinischen Dreilnderbereich des oberen Paran. BLCKER, Hans: Deutsche Kolonisation in Paraguay. bersee-Rundschau, 7, 1955, 10, October, pp. 44-47 (IAI 4 I bi 620). BOETTNER, Victor: Historia de las colonias mennonitas en el Paraguay. Guarana, Revista Americana de Cultura, Buenos Aires, 1, 1948, November-December, pp. 53-62 (IAI 8 Par bi 36). BORRINI, Hector Rubn: Desarrollo territorial en las colonias menonitas en el Chaco paraguay : 1885-1950. XIV. Encuentro de Geohistoria Regional. Resistencia, Chaco: Instituto de Investigaciones Geohistricas, Conicet-Fubdanord. 1995. pp. 53-66 (IAI A 08/17642). BORRINI, Hector Rubn: Poblamiento y Colonizacin en el Chaco Paraguayo (1850-1990). Resistencia, Chaco: Instituto de Investigaciones Geohistricas, Conicet. 1997. 118 pp. Cuadernos de Geohistoria Regional 32 (IAI A 98/11018). BRAUN, Heinz: Neue Heimat fr Flchtlinge. Unser Blatt, Zeitschrift fr Gemeinde und Haus, Curitiba, 1967, 1/16 July, pp. 4-5 (DNB DZt 943). BRADFORD, William E./FISHER, Frederic R./ROMITA, Joseph W./DARROW, Thomas S. y otros miembros de la Misin. El Chaco Paraguayo. Asuncin: Misin de Operaciones de los Estados Unidos de Amrica en el Paraguay. 1955. 115 pp. Also published in English: The Paraguayan Chaco. Asuncin: United States Operations Mission to Paraguay. 1955. 116 pp. Machine copies. BUCKELY: Deutschtum und deutsche Kolonien in Paraguay. Klnische Zeitung (Abendausgabe) 22 August 1938.

Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development

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BUHR, Gerhard: Youth in the Paraguayan Chaco. Life is different among youth in the Paraguayan Chaco. Mennonite Colonies. The Mennonite, 64, 1949, 25 January, pp. 15-16. BURGER, Friedrich: Im Herzen Sdamerikas: unter deutschen Siedlern. Mnchen-Grnwald: Haus Lhotzky Verlag. 1928. 130 pp. (IAI 8 Par cd 42). CASSEN, Bernard: Au Paraguay, le sage des Mennonites. Le Monde Diplomatique, 48, 2001, 569, pp. 10-12 (SBB Ztg 10415 MR). CHACO: Chaco Mennonites. Newsweek, 1948, 21 July, p. 48 (SBB 42 Per 928). CHARAKTER: Vom Charakter mennonitischer Ansiedlungen. Mennoblatt, 33, 1962, 1, 1 January, pp. 3-4 (Earlier published in Mennonitisches Jahrbuch, Newton, Can. 1949) (IAI 4Par ua 1). CODY, Morril: Refuge in the Chaco. Inter-American, New York, 2, 1943, 7, July, pp. 11-13 (SUB 4 Z GEN 397). CORPORACIN PARAGUAYA: Records of the Company, 1925-1931. DEPARTAMENTO de Tierras y Colonizacin: Repblica del Paraguay. Colonizacin mennonita. Derechos, privilegios y concesiones a los miembros de la comunidad mennonita y a los de cualquier otra comunidad religiosa de procedencia americana o europea, que vengan a establecerse en el Chaco paraguayo - Otras informaciones. Anotaciones recopiladas por Genaro Romero, presidente del Departamento de Tierras y Colonias. Asuncin: Imprenta Nacional. 1933. 22 pp. DERKSEN, Enrique: Los Menonitas. Origen dilema religioso vivencial desafio actual. Estudios Paraguayos, Asuncin, 16, 1988, 1-2, December, pp. 43-78 (IAI Z 2350). DERKSEN, Heinrich Sr.: Vom Paradies in die grne Hlle Paraguays. Asuncin: Adelheid und Heinrich Derksen jun. 1988. 135 pp. (IAI A 94/4879). DIENSTE: Im Dienste der Gemeinschaft. Monthly newsletter. 1968-, Loma Plata, Menno Colony. DITTMER, Drte/FULLRIEDE, Ulrike: Der weite Weg der Mennoniten nach Paraguay, oder wie die Mennoniten in dem paraguayischen Chaco verschlagen wurden. Berlin. 1992. 43 pp. Typescript (Archive Bolanden-Weierhof). DITTMER, Hans: Um Glauben und Heimat. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. 1939. 184 pp. (IAI A09/8928). DOLLINGER, Gerhard: Das Paradies in der Grnen Hlle. Kassel: Eichenkreuz-Bildkammer. 1959. 24 pp. Machine copy. DOLLINGER, Gerhard: Licht nach dem Dunkel. Der Bote, 38, 1961, 45, 14 November, pp. 2-3; 46, 21 November, pp. 3-4. DOLLINGER, Gerhard: Das Paradies in der grnen Hlle: was ein Landarzt erlebte. Stuttgart: J. F. Steinkopf. 1994. 140 pp. (IAI A 07/7292). DOLLINGER, Robert: Ein Staat im Staate. Von den Mennonitenkolonien im Gran Chaco von Paraguay. Mennonitischer Gemeinde-Kalender, 59, 1959, pp. 46-54 (DNB DZs 7540). DORKSEN, J. H.: Geschichte und wichtige Dokumente der Mennoniten von Russland, Canada, Paraguay und Mexico: nach geschichtlichen Quellen und mndlichen Ueberlieferungen bearbeitet und in kurzen Zgen. S. l.: J. H. Dorksen. 1932. 150 pp. DUECK, Dora: Under the Still Standing Sun. Winnipeg, Man.: Kindred Press. 1989. 293 pp. (Novel) (soon in IAI). DUECK, Henry: Paraguay. In the Heart of South America. Missions Today, 1968, January, pp. 9-15. DUERKSEN, Heinrich: Dass du nicht vergessest der Geschichten. Lebenserinnerungen von Heinrich Duerksen. Filadelfia: ASCIM/Asuncin: Cromos. 1990. 235 pp. (IAI A 91/1344). DUERKSEN, Jakob: Paraguay. In: Dyck, Cornelius J. (ed.) (1962). The Lordship of Christ, Proceedings of the Seventh Mennonite World Conference, August 1-7, 1962, Kitchener, Ont., pp. 290-292. Elkhart, Ind.: Mennonite World Conference. 1962. DURN ESTRAG, Margarita: La repblica mennonita en el Chaco Paraguayo. Cristianismo y Sociedad, Buenos Aires, 27, 1989, 99, pp. 75-81 (IAI Z/1007). DRKSEN, Hans: Mennonitische Rckwanderer aus Paraguay. Ergebnisse einer Befragung. Kln. 1975. 38 pp. + Annexes. Typescript (Archive Bolanden-Weierhof). DRKSEN, Hans: Puerto Casado. Mennoblatt, 71, 2000, 22, 16 November, pp. 4-5 (IAI Z/229). DRKSEN, Hans: Puerto Casado und die Moon-Sekte. Mennoblatt, 71, 2000, 23, 1 December 2000, pp. 4-5 (IAI Z/229). DYCK, Anni (ed.): Mennoniten in aller Welt; Mennonites around the world. Basel: Agape Verlag. 1967. 128 pp. (DNB D 67/13689). DYCK, Cornelius J.: Unsere mennonitischen Kolonien im Chaco Paraguay. Unser Blatt, Zeitschrift fr Gemeinde und Haus, Curitiba, 15 February 1950, pp. 2-4. DYCK, Cornelius J.: An die Gemeinden in Sdamerika. Der Mennonit, 3, 1950, March/April, pp. 17-32 (DNB DZb 4433). DYCK, Cornelius J.: The MCC Wittness in South America. Mennonite Life, 6, 1951, October, pp. 27-30 (MCC=Mennonite Central Committee) (http://www.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/). DYCK, Cornelius J.: The Mennonite Church in Latin America. In: Dyck, Cornelius, (ed.): An Introduction to Mennonite History; a Popular History of the Anabaptists and the Mennonites, pp. 239-256. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press. 1970. 324 pp. DYCK, Cornelius J.: Die Mennonitenkolonien in Sdamerika. In: Goertz, Hans-Jrgen (ed.): Die Mennoniten, pp. 206218. Stuttgart: Evangelisches Verlagswerk. 1971. 286 pp. Die Kirchen der Welt, Reihe A, Band 8 (SBB Ser. 12387-8). Ibero-Bibliographien 5

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DYCK, Heinrich: Presencia mennonita en el Paraguay; ms de 70 aos viviendo en el Paraguay. Asuncin: Asociacin de Colonias Mennonitas del Paraguay. 2000. 23 pp. DYCK, Heinrich/REGIER, Hans Theodor: Die Mennoniten in Paraguay. Am Tor des dritten Jahrtausends. Gemeinschaftsseminar. Asuncin: Asociacin de Colonias Mennonitas del Paraguay. 2000. 162 pp. (soon in IAI). DYCK, Peter: Peter DYCKs Story. Mennonite Life, 3, 1948, 1, January, pp. 8-11 (http://www.bethelks-edu/ mennonitelife/). DYCK, Peter: Nach Paraguay. Der Mennonit, 1, 1948, 1/2, January/February, pp. 6-7 (DNB DZb 4433). DYCK, Peter J.: Auferstanden aus Ruinen. Als MCC-Mitarbeiter in England, den Niederlanden und unter russlandmennonitischen Umsiedlern in Deutschland. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press/Kirchheimbolanden: GTS Druck. 272 pp. 1994. (Abbreviated version of DYCK, Peter/DYCK, Elfrieda 1991.) DYCK, Peter/DYCK, Elfrieda: Up from the rubble: the epic rescue of thousands of warravaged Mennonite refugees. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press. 1991. 384 pp. (IAI A 09/8615). ENS, Henrique: Fahrt in den Gran Chaco Paraguays. Sdamerika, Buenos Aires, 16, 1966, 3, January/March (IAI 4 III bi 571). EPP, H. P.: Wir erleben Sdamerika. Der Bote, 33, 1956, 1 October through 7 November 1956 and 12 December 1956 through 6 February 1957. Weekly. FADENRECHT, George H.: Mennonite Migration to Paraguay. Lawrence, Kan. 1947. 211 pp. M.A. Thesis in History, University of Kansas. FAITH: Faith, Hope and Love: these Three at Work in Paraguay. The Heartwarming Story of Erie Sauders Involvement in the Transformation of Lives in the Jungles of Paraguay. Archibold, Ohio: s.n. 1993. 26 pp. FAST, Henry A.: Mennonites in Paraguay. In 1930-1935 Mennonite Life 1, 1946, 1 January, pp. 38-42 (http://www.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/). FAUST, John B.: The Mennonite Colony in Paraguay. The Mennonite Quarterly Review 3, 1929, 3, July, pp. 183-189 (SBB Zsn 2274). FAUST, John B.: Die Mennonitenkolonien in Paraguay. Der Bote, 6, 1929, December, 50, 51 and 52. FIEBRIG, Karl: Was ist der Chaco?. Ibero-Amerikanisches Archiv, Berlin, 11, 1937, 2, pp. 166-182 (IAI 8 III cd 428). FINKE, Theodor: Paraguay: auf den Spuren deutschstmmiger Siedler. Bremen: T. Finke. 1984. 28 pp. (IAI A 86/5422). FINKE, Theodor: Auf den Spuren der deutschen Siedler in Paraguay. Neue Westflische, July 1983. Also published in Finke 1989, pp. 92-94. FINKE, Theodor: Auf den Spuren der Mennoniten in Paraguay. In: Heimatbuch Landsmannschaft der Deutschen aus Russland, Stuttgart. 1982-1984. Also published in Finke 1989, pp. 185-204 (SBB Zsn 10562). FINKE, Theodor: Leben und Arbeit deutschsprachiger Siedler in Sdbrasilien und Paraguay. Bremen: Jaskiewitz; Berlin etc.: Westkreuz Verlag im Vertrieb.1989. 294 pp. ( IAI A 90/140). FISCHER, Sara/PALAU, Toms/PREZ, Noemia: Inmigracin y Emigracin en el Paraguay 1870-1960. Asuncin: BASE Investigaciones Sociales. 1997. 45 pp. (only relevant because of some figures about Mennonite immigration on p. 13) (IAI B 98/1656). FOTH, Peter J.: Mennoniten in Sdamerika. Chance oder Gefahr. Reprint from: Gelegentlich, 3, 1970. FRANKE, Louis: Mennonite Colonies in the Paraguayan Chaco. Asuncin: Servicio Tcnico Interamericano de Cooperacin Agrcola (STICA). 1951. 14 pp. FRANKE, Louis: Colonias Mennonitas en el Chaco Paraguayo. Asuncin: Misin de Operaciones de los Estados Unidos de Amrica en el Paraguay. 1955. c.14 pp. FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: Mennonite Colonization. Lessons from the Past for the Future. Akron, Pa.: Mennonite Central Committee. 1944. 79 pp. FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: Factors Contributing to Success and Failure in Mennonite Colonization. The Mennonite Quarterly Review 24, 1950, 2, April, pp. 130-135 (SBB Zsn 2274). FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: Beobachtungen und Eindrcke bei den Mennoniten in Paraguay. Der Mennonit, 5, 1952, 4, April, pp. 56-57 (DNB DZb 4433). FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: Pilgrims in Paraguay. The Story of Mennonite Colonization in South America. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press. 1953. 247 pp. (IAI 8 Par ha 4). FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: Vor 30 Jahren. Warum nach Paraguay? . Mennoblatt, 31, 1960, 14, 16 July, pp. 5-6; 15, 1 August, pp. 6-7 (IAI 4Par ua 1). FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: Statistics about Mennonites in Paraguay. Mennonite Life, 16, 1961, 4, October, pp. 172-174 (http://www.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/). FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: Immigrant Group Settlements in Paraguay. A Study in the Sociology of Colonization. North Newton, Kan.: Bethel College. 1962. 194 pp. (IAI 8 Par gi 36) FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: Reflections on Ten Years of Change. Mennonite Weekly Review, Newton, Kan., 47, 1969, 26 June. Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development 25

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JANZEN, Abraham E.: Die ussere Mission in Paraguay. Hillsboro, Kan.: Board of the MB Church of North America. 1947. JANZEN, Abraham E.: Survey of Five of the Mission Fields of the Conference of the Mennonite Brethren Church of North America Located in India, Africa, Brazil, Paraguay, and Colombia. Hillsboro, Kan.: Board of Foreign Missions of Mennonite Brethren. 1950. 157 pp. JEDER. Jeder Mensch braucht Gott. 50 Jahre christlicher Dienst der Mennoniten in Paraguay. KAMMERON-GAAIKEMA, Jolan F. P.: Politieke en maatschappelijke consequenties van christelijk geloven: een onderzoek naar en bevraging van de geloofsopvatting en de daaruitvoortvloeiende politieke en maatschappelijke houding van de Doopsgezinden in Paraguay. Amsterdam: Algemene Doopsgezinde Sociteit. 1975. 98 pp. KMPFENDE: Kmpfende Jugend. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutsch-mennonitischen Jugendbundes der Kolonie Fernheim. 1934-1936 (Supplement to Mennoblatt) (IAI 4 Par ua 5; SBB Co 4710). 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RATZLAFF, Gerhard: Die paraguayischen Mennoniten in der nationalen Politik. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 5, 2004, pp. 59-92 (http://www.menonitica.org/). RATZLAFF, Gerhard: Historia, f y practicas menonitas: un enfoque paraguayo. Asuncin: Instituto Biblioco Asuncin, 2006, 281 pp. (soon in IAI). RATZLAFF, Gerhard: Robert und Myrtle Unruh: Dienst an der Gemeinschaft mit nachhaltiger Wirkung. Die drei mennonitischen Kolonien in Paraguay: Menno, Fernheim und Neuland. Filadelfia, 2007, 204 pp. (soon in IAI). RATZLAFF, Gerhard: One body, many parts: the Mennonite churches in Paraguay: versatile church, militant church, graciously blesses church. Kitchener, Ont.: Pandora Press. 2008. 307 pp. (soon in IAI). RATZLAFF, Heinrich: Siedlungsergebnisse im paraguayischen Chaco. s.l.:H. Ratzlaff. 1979. 87 pp. 3d edition: Asuncin. 2006. 137 pp. (in German and English). RATZLAFF, Heinrich: Zur Klrung des Begriffs Altkolonier. Jahrbuch zur Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 2, 2001, pp. 181-184 (http://www.menonitica.org/). Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development 31

RECHTSSTELLLUNG: Die Rechtsstellung der Mennoniten. Mitteilungen des Instituts fr Auslandsbeziehungen, Stuttgart, 4, 1954, 11/12, November/December, p. 297 (IAI I bi 695, 1954, 4). REDEKOP, Calvin Wall: Religion and Society: A State Within a Church. The Mennonite Quarterly Review, 47, 1973, 4, October, pp. 339-357 (SBB Zsn 2274). REGIER, Hans Theodor: Die Altkolonier in Paraguay. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 1, 2000, pp. 39-60 (http://www.menonitica.org/). REIMANN, Artur: Auf Landsuche in Paraguay. In: Heimatkalender der Bessarabiendeutschen. Hannover/Stuttgart: Hilfskomitee der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche aus Bessarabien/Landsmannschaft der Bessarabiendeutschen. 1985 (SBB Zsn 18097). REIMER, Gerhard: The Green Hell Becomes Home: Mennonites in Paraguay as Described in the Writings of Peter P. Klassen. A Review Essay. The Mennonite Quarterly Review, 76, 2002, 4, October, pp. 460-480 (SBB Zsn 2274; http://www.goshen.edu/mqr/pastissues/oct02reimer.html). REIMER, Jacob B.: Unser Privilegium ist ein Vertrag. Mennoblatt, 46, 1975,1, 1 January, pp. 3-4 (IAI Z/229). REIMER, Jacob B.: Die Einwanderung der Mennoleute. Mennoblatt, 48, 1977, 12, 16 June, pp. 4-5; 13, 1 July, pp. 3-5; 14, 16 Juliy, pp. 2-4 (IAI Z/229). RIMLAND, Ingrid: The Wanderers: the saga of three women who survived. St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia Publishing House. 1977. 323 pp. (Novel) (soon in IAI). RIVAROLA, Milda: Inmigracin, religin mennonita y nacin bajo el gobierno de Mornigo. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 2, 2001, pp. 114-124 (http://www.menonitica.org/). ROMERO, Genaro: El Paraguay como pas de inmigracin. Asuncin: Departamento de Tierras y Colonias. 1926. 18 pp. ROMERO LVERA, Mario Anbal: Las tres grandes colonias mennonitas del Chaco y su influencia sobre el desarrollo econmica del Paraguay. Asuncin: The Author. 2003. 198 pp. (IAI A 04/13036). RUDEL, Christian: Le Paraguay. Paris: ditions Karthala. 1990. 249 pp. (pp. 153-166: Les Mennonites: une poigne dhommes incontournables) (IAI A 92/7732). RUTH, Esther R.: The Mennonites on the Paraguayan Chaco: A Transplanted Culture on a No-Mans Land. Cultural Geography of South America term paper, Kutztown State College. Kutztown, Pa. 1966. 39 pp. (MCC Central Files, Akron, Pa. Paraguay Mennonites). SAWATZKY, Gustav T.: Die Verwaltung der Menno-Siedler im Chaco. Gegenwart und Zukunftsperpsektiven. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 3, 2002, pp. 26-41 (http://www.menonitica.org/). SAWATZKY, Peter G.: The Paraguayan Corporation. History Seminar paper, Goshen College, Goshen, Ind. 1965. 36 pp. Typescript. SCHALLEHN, Hellmut: Wieviel Deutsche gibt es in Paraguay? Der Auslandsdeutsche, Mitteilungen des Deutschen Ausland-Instituts, Stuttgart, 16, 1933, pp. 332-333 (IAI 4 I gn 1). SCHALLEHN, Hellmut: Chaco-Kultur Gesetzgebung Paraguays. Der Auslandsdeutsche, Mitteilungen des Deutschen Ausland-Instituts, Stuttgart, 13, 1930, pp. 511 et seq. (IAI 4 I gn 1). SCHMIDT, Vernon: Problems in the Paraguayan Colonies. Christian Monitor, 1942, June. SCHMIDT, Vernon: Mennonites in Paraguay. Christian Monitor, 1942, August. SCHMIDT, Walther: Deutsche Pionierarbeit in Paraguay. Zur 50. Wiederkehr des Grndungsjahres (1881) der ersten deutschen Siedlung San Bernardino. Der Auslandsdeutsche, Mitteilungen des Deutschen Ausland-Instituts, Stuttgart, 14, 1931, April, pp. 250-256 (IAI I gn 1, 1931, 4 + 8). SCHMITZ-WINNENTHAL, F. K.: Gutachten ber den Antrag der Mennonitenkolonien im paraguayischen Chaco zur Erweiterung des TH-Projektes. Bonn 1971. SCHNRICH, Edwin: The Mennonite Colonies in the Paraguayan Chaco. Unpublished manuscript, prepared for the U.S. Embassay, Asuncin. 1940. 54 pp. SCHRDER, William/HUBERT, Helmut T.: Mennonite Historical Atlas. Winnipeg: Springfield Publishers. 1991. 133 pp. (1st edition: 1990) (SBB 4 Kart. 30516). SEIFERHELD, Alfredo M.: Los mennonitas en el Chaco paraguayo. In: Seiferheld, Alfredo: Economa y petroleo durante la Guerra del Chaco: apuntes para una historia econmica del conflicto paraguayo-boliviano, pp. 130-150. Asuncin: Instituto Paraguayo de Estudios Geopolticos e Internacionales; El Lector. 1983. 534 pp. (IAI A 84/ 768). SELTMANN, Lothar von: Gottes Raben fliegen noch: Stationen eines besonderen Lebens. Wuppertal: R. Brockhaus. 2006. 240 pp. (IAI A 07/4867). SHELLY, Andrew R.: South American (http://www.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/). Diary. Mennonite Life, 16, 1961, 4, October, pp. 147-171

SIEDLUNGEN: Siedlungen und Gemeinden der Mennoniten in Sdamerika: Paraguay. In: Ens, Henrique/Reimer, Gustav E. (eds.): Jahrbuch der Mennoniten in Sdamerika 1961, pp. 93-115. Curitiba: Tipografia Santa Cruz. 1960. 160 pp. SIEMENS, Nikolai: Mennonitische Streusiedlungen im Chaco. Mennoblatt, 12, 1941, 3/4. March-April, p. 7; 5, May, p. 3; 6, June, p. 4 (IAI 4Par ua 1).

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SMITH, C. Henry: The Story of the Mennonites. Berne, Indiana: Mennonite Book Concern 1945. Fourth edition revised and enlarged by Cornelius Krahn. Newton, Kan.: Mennonite Publication Office. 1957. 856 pp. SMITH, Tony: Paraguay Mennonites Find Success a Mixed Blessing. The New York Times, 152, 2003, 10 August, p. 4 (SUB MA 2003-6:1-137). SMITH, Willard H.: Pilgrims in Paraguay. Gospel Herald, Scottdale, Pa., 38, 1945, 20 July; 3, 10, 17 and 24 August. SMITH, Willard H.: Material Progress, Spiritual Awakening Seen in Paraguay. The Mennonite Weekly Review, Newton, Kan., 1965, 4 November. Also published in MCC News Service, 22 October 1965. SMITH, Willard H.: Paraguay after Twenty Years. Gospel Herald, Scottdale, Pa., 57, 1965, 50, 28 December, pp. 11181120. SMITH, Willard H./SMITH, Verna Graber: Paraguayan Interlude: Observations and Impressions. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press. 1950. 184 pp. (soon in IAI). SOSA, Horacio C.: El desarrollo del Chaco Paraguayo. Estudios Paraguayos, Asuncin, 8, 1980, 1, June, pp. 143-258 (IAI Z/2350). STATISTIK: Statistik der Mennonitenkolonien in Paraguay. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 1, 2000, p. 148 (http://www.menonitica.org/). STOESZ, Edgar: Like a mustard seed: Mennonites in Paraguay. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. 2008. 311 pp. (soon in IAI). STOESZ, Edgar; STACKLEY, Muriel T.: Garden in the Wilderness: Mennonite Communities in the Paraguayan Chaco, 1927-1997. Winnipeg, Man.: CMBC Publications. 1999. 219 pp. (IAI B 09/515). STOESZ, Edgar/STACKLEY, Muriel T.: El Chaco Paraguayo. Tierra de Refugio. Patria Adquerida. Un libro sobre los Mennonitas en el Chaco Central Paraguayo, 1927-1997. Asuncin: Asociacin Evanglica Mennonita del Paraguay. 2000. 213 pp. (soon in IAI). SUREZ VILELA, Ernesto: Breve historia de los menonitas: con especial referencia a su llegada a la Amrica Latina. Buenos Aires: Comisin de Publicaciones de la Iglesia Evanglica Menonita de Argentina y Seminario Evanglico Menonita de Teologa de Montevideo. 1967. 48 pp. THIESEN, John D.: Mennonite & Nazi? Attitudes Among Mennonite Colonists in Latin America, 1933-1945. Kitchener, Ont.: Pandora Press. 1999. 329 pp. (soon in IAI). THOMPSON, Reginald William: Germans and Japs in South America, being a record of my search for El Dorado and of those who have sought and found new lives. London: Faber and Faber. 1942. 360 pp. First published in 1940 as: Voice from the Wilderness (IAI 8 IV cd 58). TOEWS, Bernard: Reise-Tagebuch des Bernard Toews mit Fred Engen. Mennoniische Chaco-Expedition 1921. Vollstndige Abschrift des ganzen Tagebuches, das in 2 Teilen verfasst worden ist. s.l.: Abteilung Geschichtsarchiv, Schulverwaltung der Kolonie Menno. 1997. 108 pp. TOEWS, John A.: The Mennonite Brethren Mission in Latin America. Winnipeg: The Christian Press Ltd.1955. 255 pp. TOEWS, John A.: The Mennonite Brethren Mission in Latin America. S.l.: General Conference of the Mennonite Brethren Church of North America; Board of Christian Literature. 1975. 155 pp. TOLTEN, H.: Mit uns wandert die Heimat. Roman. Potsdam: Rutten und Loening. 1938. 368 pp. (Novel) (IAI 8 Par xu 37). TNJES, H.: Mennonitensiedlung in Paraguay. Der Deutsche Auswanderer, Zeitschrift des Evangelischen Vereins fr deutsche Ansiedler und Auswanderer E.V. 1930, May, pp. 90-91 (SBB 4 Sa 5923/115). TRAGDIE: Die Tragdie der Mennoniten im Gran Chaco. Mennoblatt, 46, 1975, 12, 16 June, pp. 3-4; 13, 1 July, pp. 2-3 (IAI Z/229) (earlier published in: Deutsche Rundschau, Bromberg, Poland, 9 April 1937). UNRUH, Benjamin H.: Die Mennonitenansiedlung in Sdamerika. In: Neff, Christian (ed.): Der Allgemeine Kongre der Mennoniten gehalten in Amsterdam, Elspeet, Witmarsum (Holland) 29. Juni bis 3. Juli 1936, pp. 74-75. Karlsruhe: Heinrich Schneider. 1936. 183 pp. (SBB Co 4741). UNRUH, Benjamin H.: Fgung und Fhrung im mennonitischen Welthilfswerk, 1920-1933. Humanitt in christlicher Sicht. Karlsruhe: Heinrich Schneider. 1966. 64 pp. Schriftenreihe des Mennonitischen Geschichtsvereins, 8 (SBB Co 4753-8). UNRUH, John D.: In the Name of Christ: A History of the Mennonite Central Committee and its Service, 1920-1951. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press. 1952. 404 pp. (SBB 19264). VOGL, Friedrich: Paraguay als Zielland einer grossen Mennoniteneinwanderung. Mennonitische Rundschau, Winnipeg, Man., 1928, 6 and 13 June. WGELE, A.: Das Kulturleben im Chaco. Mennonitische Auslese, 1, 1951, 1, p 22. WARKENTIN, Abe: Gste und Fremdlinge: Hebrer 11:13. Strangers and Pilgrims: Hebrews 11-13. Steinbach, Man.: Die Mennonitische Post. 1987. 361 pp. (IAI B 94/629). WARKENTIN, Jakob: Zur sozialen und politischen Lage in Paraguay. Der Mennonit, 24, 1971, 4, April, pp. 60-61 (DNB DZb 4433). WARKENTIN, Jakob: Zur Politik der Mennoniten in Paraguay. Der Mennonit, 25, 1972, 3, March, pp. 42-43 (DNB DZb 4433).

Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development

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WARKENTIN, Jakob: Zur Geschichtsschreibung ber die Mennoniten in Paraguay. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 2, 2001, pp. 9-34 (http://www.menonitica.org/). WARKENTIN, Jakob: Begegnung zwischen Neulndern und Mennos 1947/48. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 3, 2002, pp. 102-115 (http://www.menonitica.org/). WARKENTIN, Jakob: Probleme und Chancen des interethnischen Zusammenlebens im Chaco. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 4, 2003, pp. 91-104 (http://www.menonitica.org/). WARKENTIN, J. W.: Der Aufbau einer Heimat im Urwald. Bericht ber die Neusiedlungen in Paraguay 1948. Der Mennonit, 1, 1948, 9/10, September/October, pp. 81-83; 11-12, November/December, p. 98 (DNB DZb 4433). WARKENTIN, J. W.: Carving a Home out of the Primeval Forest. The Mennonite Quarterly Review, 24, 1950, 2, April, pp. 142-148 (SBB Zsn 2274). The same article also in: Mennonite Central Committee: Proceedings of the Fourth Mennonite World Conference, Goshen, Indiana, and North Newton, Kansas, August 3-10, 1948, pp. 194-202. Akron, Pa.: MCC. 1950. 352 pp. WARUM: Warum gerade nach Paraguay. Der Mennonit, Basel, 1, 1948, 1/2, January/February, p. 7 (DNB DZb 4433). WEDEL, Oskar: Stckwerk. Hannover: The Author. 1985. 126 pp. WENGER, John Christian: Glimpses of Mennonite History and Doctrine. Scottdale, Penn.: Herald Press. 1947. 285 pp. 1st edition: 1940. WERNER, Franz: Das Privilegium der Mennoniten in Paraguay. Warum war es fr die Mennoniten so wichtig. Mennoblatt, 60, 1989, 20, 16 October, pp. 3-5 (IAI Z/229). WHITE, John W.: The Great Mennonite Immigration to Paraguay. In: Bulletin of the Pan American Union, 61, 1927, 5, May, pp. 432-442 (IAI 8 III bi 14). WHITE, John W.: La gran inmigracin de los Mennonitas al Paraguay. Boletn de la Unin Panamericana, 61, 1927, 6, pp. 559-569 (IAI 8 III bi 15). WIENS, Peter: Mennonitas en Paraguay. Folleto para las reuniones del Consejo General de la Conferencia Mundial Mennonita en Filadelfia, 14-19 de Julio de 1987. Filadelfia, Colonia Fernheim: Mennonite World Conference. 1987. 15 pp. (IAI A 92/1001). WIENS, Peter: Mennonites in Paraguay: Pamphlet for the Meetings of the General Council of the Mennonite World Conference in Filadelfia, July 14-19, 1987. Filadelfia, Colony Fernheim: Mennonite World Conference. 1987. 13 pp. WIENS, Peter: Mennoniten in Paraguay: Broschre fr die Sitzungen des Generalrates der Mennonitischen Weltkonferenz in Filadelfia, 14-19 Juli 1987. Filadelfia, Kolonie Fernheim: Mennonite World Conference. 1987. 14 pp. WIENS, Peter: Mennonitas en Paraguay: folleto para las reuniones del Consejo General de la Conferencia Mundial Mennonita en Filadelfia, 14-19 de julio de 1987. Filadelfia, Kolonie Fernheim: Mennonite World Conference. 1987. 15 pp. (IAI A92/1001). WIENS, Peter: 25 Jahre Gemeindekomitee in Paraguay, 1967-1991. s.l.: Gemeindekomitee in Paraguay. 1993. 44 pp. WILHELMY, Herbert: Deutsche Siedler am Gran Chaco. Die Umschau, 61, 1937, pp. 1120-1123. WILHELMY, Herbert/ROHMEDER, Wilhelm: Die La Plata Lnder. Argentinien, Paraguay, Uruguay. Braunschweig/Berlin/Hamburg: G. Westermann Verlag. 1963. 584 pp. (IAI Geo III Geogr 3). WILLIAMS, Howard: Let my People go: A peace play in three acts, using three episodes based upon historical incidents in the history of the oldest group of people to object to war for religious reasons, the people called Mennonites. North Newton, Kan.: Bethel College. 1936. 49 pp. YODER, Sanford Calvin: For Conscience Sake: A Study of Mennonite Migrations Resulting from the World War. Goshen, Ind.: Mennonite Historical Society, Goshen College. 1940. 300 pp. YODER, Sanford Calvin: To and Fro in South America. Christian Monitor, April 1941 to May 1942 (Weekly, 15 entries). YODER, Sanford Calvin: Down South America Way. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press. 1943. 148 pp. YODER, Sanford Calvin: Mennonites in Latin America. The Mennonite 59, 1944, 1, January, pp. 5-6.

3.3 Migration to and from Canada; Canadian Mennonites


AUSWANDERUNG: Neue Auswanderung aus Manitoba nach Paraguay. Der Mennonit, 1, 1948, 1/2, January/February, p. 7 (DNB DZb 4433). BROWNING, Webster E.: Die Mennonitenwanderung von Kanada nach Paraguay. Die Auslese 1, 1927, 10, pp. 627-628 (SBB Ad 858/160). DUECK, Dave: To Build a Homeland: Home in a Strange Land. Winnipeg, Man.: Mennonite Historical Society of Canada. 1981. 19 pp. EPP, Marlene E.: Women without men: Mennonite inmigration to Canada and Paraguay after the Second World War. Toronto: University of Toronto/UMI, dissertation, 1996, 498 pp. (IAI M 98/35).

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FRIESEN, Abraham: Emigration in Mennonite History with Special Reference to the Conservative Mennonite Emigration from Canada to Mexico and South America after World War One. Winnipeg. 1960. 212 pp. M.A. Thesis in History, University of Manitoba. FRIESEN, Cornelius W.: Wenn Kinder auswandern. Vor 47 Jahren von Kanada nach Paraguay Mennoblatt, 45, 1974, 16, 16 August, pp. 6-7; 17, 1 September, pp. 6-7 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). FRIESEN, Martin W.: Verschlampung geschichtlicher Ereignisse. Einige Gedanken zum Auszug der Menno-Leute aus Kanada nach Paraguay. Mennoblatt, 49, 1978, 6, 16 March, pp. 2-4; 7, 1 April, pp. 2-4 (IAI Z/229). HARDER, Jakob: Zur Auswanderung aus Menno nach Kanada. Mennoblatt, 36, 1965, 10, 16 May, p. 6 (IAI 4 Par ua 1) INTERCONTINENTAL COMPANY LTD.: Paraguay-Chaco Heimatland. Winnipeg, Man.: Intercontinental Company Ltd. 1928. 20 pp. MITCHELL, W. O.: The Tragic Trek of the Mennonites. Macleans Magazine, 1 March 1951, pp. 7-9, 54, 56, 57. OGELSBY, J. C. M.: The Canadian Mennonite Emigrations: The Paraguayan Experience. In: Ogelsby, J. C. M.: Gringos from the far North; Essays in the History of Canadian-Latin American Relations, 1866-1968, pp. 270-286. Toronto, Ont.: MacMillan. 1976 (soon in IAI). QUIRING, Walter: The Canadian Mennonite Immigration into the Paraguayan Chaco, 1926-27. The Mennonite Quarterly Review, 8, 1934, 1, January, pp. 32-42 (SBB Zsn 2274). QUIRING, Walter: Canadische Mennoniten im Chaco von Paraguay. Der Bote, 11, 1934, 28 February and 7 March. QUIRING, Walter: Weltweite Wanderung; ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Mennonitenwanderungen der Nachkriegzeit. 1. Von Kanada nach Paraguay 2. Von Russland, Polen und dem fernen Osten nach Paraguay. Der Auslandsdeutsche, Mitteilungen des Deutschen Ausland-Instituts, Stuttgart, 17, 1934, 4, April, pp. 218-228 (IAI 4 I gn 1). RATZLAFF, Gerhard: Die kanadischen Mennoniten in Paraguay. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 3, 2002, pp. 42-58 (http://www.menonitica.org/). WIEBE, Abraham S.: Die Bergthaler Mennonitengemeinde aus Russland ber Kanada nach Paraguay. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 3, 2002, pp. 9-25 (http://www.menonitica.org/).

3.4 Migrations from Russia; Russian Mennonites


AUFSCHWUNG: Aufschwung der russlanddeutschen Mennoniten in Paraguay. Deutsche Post aus dem Osten, Berlin, 4, 1929, 9, pp. 196-198. (SBB 4 Ue 523; N.F.). AUHAGEN, Otto: Die Schicksalswende des russlanddeutschen Bauerntums in den Jahren 1927-1930. Leipzig: S. Hirzel. 1942. 197 pp. Sammlung Georg Leibbrandt: Quellen zur Erforschung des Deutschtums in Osteuropa, 6 (SBB Ser. 1571-6). BEHRENDS, Ernst: 50-Jahr Feier der Russlanddeutschen. Bericht aus Chaco/Paraguay. Kluter Bltter, October 1980, pp. 35-38. BENDER, Harold S.: From Siberia to Paraguay with Russian Mennonite Refugees. The Goshen College Record, Goshen, Ind., October 1930, pp. 1-3. The same article in Christian Monitor, Scottdale, Pa., 22, 1930, 12, December, pp. 370-371. EPP, Frank H.: Mennonite Exodus: The Rescue and Resettlement of the Russian Mennonites since the Communist Revolution. Altona, Man.: D. W. Friesen & Sons Ltd/Canadian Mennonite Relief and Immigration Council. 1962. 257 pp. GERLACH, Horst: Die Russlandmennoniten ein Volk unterwegs. Scottdale/Kirchheimbolanden: s.n. 1992. 128 pp. KLASSEN, Peter P.: Deutsche Bauern zwischen Moskau und Fernheim. In: Klassen, Peter P. (ed.): Die Deutschen in Russland gestern und heute. Bonn: VDA-Verlag- und Vertriebs-GmbH. 1989. 192 pp. (SUB 91 B 27206). KLASSEN, Peter P.: Das russlndische Erbe der Mennoniten in Lateinamerika. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 1, 2000, pp. 7-27 (http://www.menonitica.org/). KLASSEN, W.: Die Russlanddeutschen in der neuen Heimat. Deutsche Welt, 8, 1931, 12, pp. 1003-1004 (SBB Sa 5923/478). KLIEWER, Friedrich: Russlanddeutsche in Paraguay. Deutschtum im Ausland, 22, 1939, 5, pp. 294-295 (IAI 4 I gn 1). KLIEWER, Fritz: Die Russlanddeutschen in Paraguay. Der Wanderweg der Russlanddeutschen. 4. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Ausland-Instituts, 1939, pp. 252-257. LNGIN, Bernd G.: Grnes Licht fr die grne Hlle: die Mennoniten in Paraguay. Globus, 21, 1989, 2, pp. 3-17 (DNB DZb 14341). LNGIN, Bernd G.: Grnes Licht fr die grne Hlle: die Mennoniten in Paraguay. In: Klassen, Peter P. (ed.): Die Deutschen in Russland gestern und heute. Bonn: VDA-Verlag und Vertriebs-GmbH. 1989. 192 pp. (SUB 91 B 27206). LOEWEN, Abram J.: ...Vor vielen wie ein Wunder: Fhrungen durch 85 Jahre meines Lebens. n.p., author, 1983, 93 pp. (IAI A 09/690). MENNONITAS: Los 370 Mennonitas que han llegado al Paraguay. El Liberal, Asuncin, 3 March 1932. 2 pp. NEUES: Neues von den russlanddeutschen Flchtlingen in Sdamerika. Der Deutsche Aussiedler, 70, 1932, pp. 41-43. (Elberfeld: Evangelische Gesellschaft fr die protestantischen Deutschen in Sdamerika.)

Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development

35

QUIRING, Walter: The Colonization of the German Mennonites from Russia in the Paraguayan Chaco. The Mennonite Quarterly Review. Goshen, 8, 1934, 2, April, pp. 62-72 (SBB Zsn 2274). QUIRING, Walter: Weltweite Wanderung; ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Mennonitenwanderungen der Nachkriegzeit. 1. Von Kanada nach Paraguay 2. Von Russland, Polen und dem fernen Osten nach Paraguay. Der Auslandsdeutsche, Mitteilungen des Deutschen Ausland-Instituts, Stuttgart, 17, 1934, 4, April, pp. 218-228 (IAI I gn 1, 1934, 4 + 8). QUIRING, Walter: Russlndische Mennoniten im Chaco von Paraguay. Der Bote, 11, 1934, 11, 18 and 25 April. QUIRING, Walter: Russlanddeutsche von gestern. Deutsche Post aus dem Osten, 9, 1937, 1-2, January/February, pp. 1317; 3, March, pp. 16-17; 4, April, pp. 8-10 (SBB 4 Ue 523; N.F.). QUIRING, Walter: Russlanddeutsche suchen eine Heimat; die deutsche Einwanderung in den paraguayischen Chaco. Karlsruhe: Verlagsdruckerei Heinrich Schneider. 1938. 192 pp. (IAI Par gn 18). REGEHR, Walter: Russlanddeutsche Mennoniten finden in Paraguay eine neue Heimat. In: Stump, Karl (ed.): Heimatbuch der Deutschen aus Russland, pp. 92-100. Stuttgart: Landmannschaft der Deutschen aus Russland. 1963 (SBB Zsn 10562). RIFFEL, J.: Die Russlanddeutschen, insbesondere die Wolgadeutschen, am La Plata (Argentinien, Uruguay und Paraguay): Festschrift zum 50jhrigen Jubilum ihrer Einwanderung (1878-1928). Buenos Aires: The Author. 1928. 130 pp. (IAI 8 IV gn 2, Aufl.2). UNRUH, Benjamin H.: Ansiedlung der deutsch-russischen Bauern in Kanada, Brasilien und Paraguay. Auslandswarte, Darmstadt, 11, 1931, pp. 213-216 (SBB 4 Sa 5923/401). WIEBE, Abraham S.: Die Bergthaler Mennonitengemeinde aus Russland ber Kanada nach Paraguay. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 3, 2002, pp. 9-25 (http://www.menonitica.org/). WIEBE, Heinrich: Vom Bauernjungen der Ukraine zum Schulrat in Paraguay: Heinrich Wiebe erzhlt uns seinen Lebensweg. Kirchlinteln: Kienzle, 84 pp. (IAI A 05/9861).

3.5 Menno
ATLAS: Atlas der Kolonie Menno. Loma Plata: Schulverwaltung der Kolonie Menno. 166 pp. 1987. 2nd edition: Ebenfeld: Buchhandlung Libreria Loma Plata unter der Schirmherrschaft des Schulvorstandes der Kolonie Menno. 214 pp. 1991 (IAI B 92/480). BRAUN, Jacob A.: Im Gedanken an jene Zeit. Mitteilungen zur Entstehungsgeschichte der Kolonie Menno. s.l.: Geschichtskomitee der Kolonie Menno. 2001. 119 pp. (soon in IAI). FRIESEN, Andres T. (ed.): Jubilumsschrift PARATODO 1948-1998. Asuncin/Loma Plata: Jubilumskomitee Paratodo. 1998. 114 pp. FRIESEN, Martin W.: Kolonie Menno. Anfang und Entwicklung. Der Mennonit, 5, 1952, 7, July, pp. 100-102 (DNB DZb 4433). FRIESEN, Martin W.: Vierzig Jahre Menno-Kolonie Chortitzer Komitee. Ein berblick ber den wirtschaftlichen Werdegang der Kolonie. In: Epp, Bruno (ed.): Mennonitisches Jahrbuch fr Sdamerika 1968-69, pp. 21-25. Curitiba: Verlagskomitee der Mennonitengemeinden in Sdamerika. 1968. 120 pp. (III ua 57, 8). FRIESEN, Martin W.: Vor 50 Jahren. War die Sprache der Grund zur Auswanderung? Zur Geschichte der Kolonie Menno, Chaco. Mennoblatt, Zeitschrift, 42, 1971, 13, 1 July, pp. 2-3 (IAI 4Par ua 1). FRIESEN, Martin W.: 50 Jahre Kolonie Menno, Chaco-Paraguay, 1927-1977: eine Gedenkschrift zum fnfzigjhrigen Jubilum. Asuncin: Artes Grficas Zamphirpolos. 1977. 173 pp. (IAI A 88/2427). FRIESEN, Martin W.: Mennonitas canadienses conquistan un desierto: bodas de oro de la Colonia Menno, Chaco Paraguayo, 1927-1977. Obra conmemorativa para su quinquagsimo aniversario. Colonia Menno: Industrial Grfico Comuneros. 1985. 144 pp. FRIESEN, Martin W.: Menno erste mennonitische Kolonie in Paraguay. In: G. Ratzlaff (ed.). Deutsches Jahrbuch fr Paraguay: Geschichte, Kultur, Unterhaltung, Asuncin, 2, 1989, pp. 40-44 (IAI Z/6549). FRIESEN, Uwe: Unter der heissen Sonne des Sdens. 75 Jahre Kolonie Menno. Erste mennonitische Siedlung in Sdamerika 1927-2002. Lomo Plata, Kolonie Menno: Geschichtskomitee der Kolonie Menno. 2002. 228 pp. (soon in IAI). HARDER, Erdmann: Erinnerungsbericht aus der Kolonie Menno Aus der Sicht der 3. Siedlergeneration. In: Tolksdorf, Ulrich (ed.): Jahrbuch fr ostdeutsche Volkskunde, Marburg, 27, 1984, pp. 307-325 (SBB Zsn 10359). HIEBERT, Abram W./FRIESEN, Jacob T. (eds.): Eine bewegte Geschichtedie zu uns spricht. Materialien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Kolonie Menno. Ein Beitrag zur 75. Gedenkfeier, Juni 2002. Loma Plata: Chortitzer Komitee. 2002. 320 pp. KLASSEN, Peter P.: Das Verhltnis der Bewohner der Kolonien Menno und Fernheim zueinander. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 3, 2002, pp. 83-101 (http://www.menonitica.org/). REIMER, Jacob B.: Die Menno-Kolonie im Chaco/Paraguay. Ein krzer Bericht ber die Grndung und Entwicklung der Kolonie. Mennonitisches Jahrbuch, Lahr, 89, 1974, pp. 58-62 (DNB DZs 7540). REIMER, Jacob B.: Menno Colony in Paraguay. From Canada to the Chaco. Mennonite Life, 29, 1974, 3, September, pp. 54-56 (http://www.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/).

36

Ibero-Bibliographien 5

REIMER, Jakob: Menno im Chaco feiert Geburtstag. Der Bote, 34, 1957, 9, 16, and 23 January. SOCIEDAD Cooperativa Colonizadora Chortitzer Komitee (Loma Plata, Paraguay): Protocolozacin de estatutos de la Sociedad Cooperativa Colonizadora Chortitzer Komitee. Loma Plata, Colonia Menno: Sociedad Cooperativa Colonizadora Chortitzer Komitee. 1962. 20 pp.

3.6 Fernheim
BALZER, Agnes/DCK, Lieselotte (eds.): Schnbrunn. Geschichten, Erlebnisse und Erinnerungen aus den 75 Jahren unseres Dorfes Schnbrunn, Nr. 8 der Kolonie Fernheim. s.l. s.n. 2005. 326 pp. BORRINI, Hctor R./BECK, Hugo H.: Colonias Castelli y Fernheim: dos ejemplos de organizacin del espacio en el Gran Chaco. XX Encuentro de Geohistoria Regional. Resistencia, 2000, Vol. 1, pp. 141-156 (IAI A 02/8102: 20,1). COLONIA. Colonia Fernheim 1930-2000. Fernheim, Cooperativa Colonizadora Multiactiva Fernheim, 2000. n.p. (IAI C 07/80). DUEK, David/DUEK, Toni: Heimat fr Heimatlose: dramatisierte Dokumentation ber ein Siedlungsunternehmen von Mennoniten im Gran Chaco in Paraguay; hergestellt im Auftrag von fernheim zum 50jhrigen Bestehen der Kolonie 19301980. 1980, Video, 76 min. (IAI VD-2003/86). DRKSEN, Hans/HARDER, Jacob: Fernheim 1930-1980: documento ilustrado sobre la vida de una colonia en el Chaco. Bilderbericht ber das Leben einer Siedlung im Chaco. Filadelfia: Administracin de la Colonia Fernheim. 1980. 135 pp. (IAI B 81/830). DRKSEN, Heinrich: Geschichte der Mennonitengemeinde in Fernheim. Mennoblatt, 30, 1959, 22, 16 November, pp. 2-3 (IAI 4Par ua 1). FERNHEIM: Fernheim: conmemorando a sus vecinos del Chaco Central paraguayo. Filadelfia, Sociedad Cooperativa Colonizadora Fernheim, 1991. n.p. (IAI D 07/4). FERNHEIM: Fernheim nach der Abwanderung. Ein wenig Statistik zum 1. Oktober 1937. Mennoblatt, 8, 1937, 10, October, p. 4 (IAI 4Par ua 2). FERNHEIM: Fernheim Bevlkerung und Wirtschaftsleben. Der Mennonit, 3, 1950, 3/4, March/April, p. 26 (DNB DZb 4433). FRIESEN, Heinrich B.: Das Fernheimer Waisenamt. Mennoblatt, 2, 1931, 7, July, p. 4 (SBB 4Co4710). FRIESEN, Martin W.: Kanadische Mennoniten bezwingen eine Wildnis. 50 Jahre Kolonie Menno, Chaco, Paraguay: eine Gedenkschrift zum fuenfzigjaehrigen Jubileum, herausgegeben von der Verwaltung der Kolonie Fernheim, Chaco, Paraguay, 1927-1977. Asuncin: Artes Grficas Zamphirpolos. 1977. 173 pp. (IAI A 88/2427). FUNK, J. J.: Aus der Colonie Fernheim. Bericht von dem Vorsitzenden des Fernheimer Central Komitees. Mennoblatt, 1, 1930, 12, December, p. 4; 2, February 1931, pp. 2-3; 5, May, p. 4; 6, June, p. 4 (SBB 4Co4710). GLCK, Theo: Helfende Bruderliebe: 50 Jahre Karlsruher und Durlacher Beuiehungen zur rulanddeutschen Mennonitenkolonie Fernheim und den Nachbarsiedlungen im Gran Chaco Paraguays; Erinnerungen. Karlsruhe-Durlach: authot. 1979, 26 pp. HARVEY, Reuben: The Russian Mennonites and Indians of Colonia Fernheim: they were left to die, 1930: Mennoniten Kolonien of Central Chaco, Repblica del Paraguay, South America. Filadelfia: Harvey. 1982. 130 pp. HEINRICHS, Franz: Etliches ber das Verfassungswesen und die Fortentwicklung der Kolonie Fernheim. Mennoblatt, 2, 1931, 7, July, pp. 1-2 (SBB 4Co4710). InfoBlatt. Filadelfia, Cooperativa Colonizadora Multiactiva Fernheim. 2004, Sept.- (IAI Z/6910). Informationsblatt. Filadelfia, Sociedad Cooperativa Colonizadora Fernheim. 1991, 4 2004, 8 (IAI Z/6910). ISAAK, Albert: 50 Jahre Blumental. Mennoblatt, 69, 1998, 10, 16 May, pp. 6-7 (IAI Z/229). ISAAK, Jakob: Die mennonitische Ansiedlung in Paraguay. Fernheim vom Standpunkt des Ansiedlers gesehen. Der Mennonit, 1, 1948, 9-10, September/October, pp. 80-81 (DNB DZb 4433). ISAAK, Jakob: Bericht aus Fernheim. Mennonitisches Jahrbuch, Newton, Kan., 69, 1954, p. 28. KAUENHOVEN, Kurt: Die Sippen der russlanddeutschen Siedlung Fernheim im Gran Chaco, Paraguay. In: Sippenkunde des Deutschtums im Ausland, Jahrbuch 3, 1938, pp. 149-155. Stuttgart: Deutsches Ausland-Institut (IAI 8 I gn 125). KLASSEN, Peter: Kolonie Fernheim, Paraguay. Der Bote, 11, 1934, 22 and 29 August. KLASSEN, Peter: Jugend und Jugendarbeit in Fernheim. Der Mennonit, 3, 1950, 3/4, March/April, pp. 31-32 (DNB DZb 4433). KLASSEN, Peter: Die Schulen der Kolonie Fernheim. Mitteilungen des Instituts fr Auslandsbeziehungen, Stuttgart, 4, 1954, 11/12, November/December, p. 314 (IAI I bi 695, 1954, 4). KLASSEN, Peter/THIELMANN, Walter: Die Verfassung der Kolonie Fernheim. Filadelfia, Paraguay: s.n. 1970. 34 pp. Typescript. KLASSEN; Peter P. (ed.): Glckwunsche und Grsse zum 50jhrigen Bestehen der Kolonie Fernheim, 1930-1980, aus aller Welt. Kolonie Fernheim: s.n. 1980. 67 pp. Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development 37

KLASSEN, Peter P.: Die deutsch-vlkische Zeit in der Kolonie Fernheim, Chaco, Paragay, 1933-1945. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der auslandsdeutschen Mennoniten whrend des Dritten Reiches. Bolanden-Weierhof: Mennonitischer Geschichtsverein. 1990. 148 pp. (IAI A 92/3032). KLASSEN, Peter P.: Das Verhltnis der Bewohner der Kolonien Menno und Fernheim zueinander. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 3, 2002, pp. 83-101 (http://www.menonitica.org/). KLIEWER, Friedrich: Brief aus Paraguay (mit Satzungen des Bundes deutscher Jungmennoniten der Kolonie Fernheim). Mennonitische Jugendwarte, 13, 1933, 5, October, pp. 121-124 (DNB ZA 12653). KOLONIE FERNHEIM: 50 Jahre Kolonie Fernheim. Ein Beitrag in der Entwicklung Paraguays, hrsg. von der Kolonie Fernheim. Asuncin: Imprenta Modelo. 1980. 318 pp. (IAI A 81/5324). KRAUS, Hertha: International Relief in Action, 1914-1943, Selected Records with Notes. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press. 1944. 248 pp. (contains a few pages on the Mennonites in Fernheim) (DNB EB 97/114). MARTENS, Victor P.: Filadelfia: aus dem Alltag einer Mennonitensiedlung = Filadelfia: la vida cotidiana de menonitas en el Paraguay ein Bildbericht von Victor P. Martens. Asuncion: Kilgus, Video, 1996, 90 min. (IAI VD 2009/3). NEUFELD, Korny: Unsere Stadt Filadelfia. Zum 75. Jubilum der Kolonie Fernheim. Im Auftrage des Stadtrates ersteltt von Korny Neufeld. Mitarbeiter Ronald Unruh, Artur Klassen. Filadelfia: s.n. 2005 124 pp. POSTMA, Johann: Fernheim: fernes Heim oder heimlose Ferne. Unpublished MS. n.p. Typescript in Walter Quiring Collection (nr 136), pp. 135-202. 1948. RAHN, Peter: 75 Jahre Kolonie Fernheim. 1. Ankunft bei Trebol. 2. Das Koloniezentrum 3. Aus der Zeit des Chacokrieges 4. Abwanderung nach Ostparaguay. Mennoblatt, 76, 2005, 5, 1 March, p. 3; 6, 16 March, p. 3; 7, 1 April, pp. 3-4; 8, 16 April, pp. 3-4 (IAI Z/229). REGIER, Hans Theodor: Educacin en la Colonia Fernheim, 1930-1945. Asuncin: Academia Paraguaya de la Historia. 1999. 55 pp. ROHKOHL, Kai: Die plautdietsche Sprachinsel Fernheim/Chaco (Paraguay). Dokumentation des Sprachverhltnis einer russlanddeutschen Mennonitenkolonie. Marburg: Elwert. 1993. 160 pp. Schriftenreihe der Kommission fr ostdeutsche Volkskunde in der Deutschen Gesellschaft fr Volkskunde e.V., 64 (IAI A 94/6652). SEIFERT, R. W.: Bericht ber die Reise des Herzogs Adolf Friedrich von Mecklenburg nach der Mennonitenkolonie Fernheim im Chaco. Deutsche Post aus dem Osten, 8, 1936, 6-7, August/September, pp. 32-34 (SBB 4 Ue 523; N.F.). SIEBZIG: 70 Jahre M.B.G.-Fernheim. Ein berblick ber die Zeit 1930-2000. s.l.: M.B.Gemeinden-Fernheims. 2000. 69 pp. SIEMENS, Jakob W.: Weitere Siedlungsmglichkeiten in Fernheim. Mennoblatt, 10, 1939, 1, January, p. 5 (IAI 4 Par ua 2). SIEMENS, Nikolai: Nachrichten aus der Kolonie Fernheim. Mennoblatt, 2, 1931, 2, February, p. 4 (SBB 4Co 4710). SIEMENS, Nikolai: Geistliches Leben in Fernheim. Der Mennonit, 3, 1950, 3/4, March/April, pp. 20-21 (DNB DZb 4433). THIESEN, John D.: The Mennonite Encounter with National Socialism: The Example of Fernheim. Mennonite Life 46, 1991, 2, June, pp. 4-9 (http://www.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/). VERFASSUNG: Die Verfassung der Kolonie Fernheim. Filadelfia: s.n. 1970. VERWALTUNG der Kolonie Fernheim: Mennonitische Kolonisation im paraguayischen Chaco unter Gesetz Nr. 514. s.l.: Verwaltung Kolonie Fernheim. 1984. 36 pp. WIENS, Peter: 50 Jahre Kolonie Fernheim, 1930-1980. Mennoblatt, 51, 1980, 2, 15 January, pp. 1-2; 3, 1 February, pp. 13; 4, 16 February, pp. 1-2; 5, 1 March, pp. 2-3; 6, 16 March, pp. 1-2; 7, 1 April, pp. 1-2; 8, 16 April, pp. 1-3; 9, 1 May, pp. 13; 10, 16 May, pp. 1-3 (IAI Z/229). WIENS, Peter: 60 Jahre Kolonie Fernheim im Chaco von Paraguay. In: Ratzlaff, Gerhard (ed.): Deutsches Jahrbuch fr Paraguay:Geschichte, Kultur, Unterhaltung, Asuncin, 3, 1990, pp. 22-29 (IAI Z/6549). WIENS, Peter: Geschichte der Mennonitengemeinde Fernheim 1930-1990. Fernheim: Mennonitengemeinde Fernheim. 1990. 124 pp. WIENS, Peter: Die K.f.K. Fernheim. Ein geschichtlicher berblick, 1931-1991. Asuncin: K.f.K Fernheim. 1992. 136 pp. WIENS, Peter/KLASSEN, Peter (eds.): Jubilumsschrift zum 25jhrigen Bestehen der Kolonie Fernheim, Chaco-Paraguay. Winnipeg, Man.: Echo Verlag. 1956. 72 pp. Historische Schriftenreihe des Echo Verlags, Buch 12/1956 (SBB SA 20453- 12).

3.7 Neuland
BARTEL, Alex: Wie ich den Weg zu den Indianern fand. 25 Jahre Kolonie Neuland. Karlsruhe. 1972. DERKSEN, Peter: Statistische Daten der Kolonie Neulad. Mennoblatt, 30, 1959, 9, 1 May, p. 7 (IAI 4Par ua 2). DERKSEN, Peter: Zwlfeinhalb Jahre Kolonie Neuland. Mennoblatt, 31, 1960, 9, 1 May, pp. 6-7 (IAI 4Par ua 2). Also published in Der Bote, 1960, 17 and 24 May. DERKSEN, Peter: Daten der Kolonie Neuland. Stand zum 31. Dezember 1962. Mennoblatt, 34, 1963, 10, 16 May, p. 7 (IAI 4Par ua 2) 38 Ibero-Bibliographien 5

FNFUNDZWANZIG: Zum 25 Jhrigen Bestehen der Kolonien Volendam und Neuland. Flchtlinge aus dem Osten. Mennoblatt, 43, 1972, 14, 16 July, pp. 2-3 (IAI 4Par ua 2) GOERING, Ed. J.: ber das Schulwesen in der Kolonie Neuland, Chaco, Paraguay. Mennonitische Auslese 1, 1951, 1, pp. 31-32. KLASSEN, C. F. et al.: Volendam 25 Jahre Neuland. Mennoblatt, 43, 1972, 13, 1 July, pp. 1-4 (IAI 4Par ua 2) KOLONIE-AMT NEULAND (ed.): Informationsblatt der Kolonie und Kooperative Neuland, 1985-. Neu-Halbstadt. REGEHR, Walter (ed.): 25 Jahre Kolonie Neuland, Chaco, Paraguay (1947-1972): eine Gedenkschrift zum fnfundzwanzigjhrigen Jubilum. Hrsg. im Auftrag der Kolonie Verwaltung von Walter Regehr. Karlsruhe: Heinrich Schneider. 1972. 152 pp. (IAI Par gn 27, 8). REMPEL, Hans: Bericht aus Neuland. Mennonitisches Jahrbuch, Newton, Kan., 69, 1954, pp. 29-30. STATUTEN: Statuten der Kolonie Neuland/Estatutos de la Colonia Neuland. s.l. s.n. 1989. 10 pp. WARKENTIN, Jakob (ed.): 50 Jahre Kolonie Neuland, Chaco, Paraguay. Asuncin: Artes Grficas Zamphirpolos. 1997. 225 pp.

3.8 Two urban centers: Filadelfia, Loma Plata


KLASSEN, Peter P.: Die Entwicklung der Stadt Filadelfia. Mennoblatt, 69, 1998, 5, 1 March, pp. 3-5; 6, 16 March, pp. 56; 7, 1 April, pp. 3-4 (IAI Z/229). LOMA: Loma Plata. Centro Mennonita. La Tribuna, Asuncin, 24 July 1966, p. 9. LWEN, Klaus: Aus unserer Geschichte. Zur Grndung von Filadelfia. Mennoblatt, 72, 2001, 15, 1 August, pp. 3-4; 16, 16 August, pp. 3-4 (IAI Z/229). QUIRING, Walter: Philadelphia, die Stadt. Deutsche Post aus dem Osten, Berlin, 8, 1936, 6-7, pp. 29-30 (SBB 4 Ue 523; N.F.). WIEBE, Rudy H.: The Peter Neudorfs of Filadelfia, Paraguay. Christian Living, A Magazine for Home and Community, 11, 1967, 5, May, pp. 4-6. WILHELMY, Herbert/BORSDORF, Axel: Filadelfia. In: Die Stdte Sdamerikas. II: Die urbanen Zentren und ihre Regionen, pp. 257-258. Berlin/Stuttgart: Gebrder Borntraeger. 1985. 486 pp. Urbanisierung der Erde, Band 3/2 (IAI Geo-III Bev 11/2).

3.9 Colonies in Eastern Paraguay


KLASSEN, Peter P.: Die Mennonitenkolonien in Ostparaguay: Ostparaguay und der Chaco zwei Grolandschaften Paraguays. Jahrbuch fr ostdeutsche Volkskunde, Marburg, 29, 1986, pp. 274-291 (SBB Zsn 10359). RATZLAFF, Gerhard: Die mennonitischen Siedlungen in Ostparaguay. Mennoblatt, 48, 1977, 3, 1 February, pp. 2-4; 4, 16 February, pp. 2-4; 5, 1 March, pp. 2-4; 6, 16 March, pp. 3-4; 7, 1 April, pp. 2-3; 8, 16 April, pp. 2-3; 9, 1 May, pp. 3-4; 10, 16 May, pp. 2-3; 11, 1 June, pp. 2-3; 12, 16 June, pp 3-4; 13, 1 July, pp. 5-6 (IAI Z/229). RATZLAFF, Gerhard: Die konservativen amerikanischen Mennoniten in Paraguay. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 1, 2000, pp. 28-38 (http://www.menonitica.org/). RATZLAFF, Gerhard: Die Mennonitensiedlungen in Ostparaguay. Asuncin: s.n. Mimeo.

3.10 Friesland
FAST, Alfred: 25 Jahre Kolonie Friesland. 1937-1962. Mennoblatt, 33, 1962, 22, 16 November, pp. 2-4 (IAI 4 Par ua 1) FAST, Alfred: Friesland, Paraguay. Prospectus for the Economic Development. S.l. s.n. 9 pp. HARDER, Abraham A.: Das Schulwesen in der Kolonie Friesland. Der Mennonit 3, 1950, 5-6, May-June, pp. 46-47. Also published in Mennonitische Auslese, 1, 1951, 1, pp. 33-35 (DNB DZb 4433). HARDER, Abraham A.: Die Schule in Friesland. Mennonit Welt, 1951, September, pp. 3-4. HILDEBRANDT, K.: Unsere Schulen in Friesland. Mennoblatt, 29, 1958, 18, 16 September, pp. 3-4 (IAI 4Par ua 1) KLIEWER, Fritz: Die Mennoniten-Kolonie Friesland in Ostparaguay. Mennonitische Geschichtsbltter, Weierhof, 3, 1938, 1/2, December, pp. 56-60. Also published in Mennoblatt, 65, 1994, 19, 1 October, pp. 3-4 (IAI Z/229) MATTIES, Evangeline: Ein Besuch in Volendam und Friesland. Mennonitische Auslese, 1, 1951, 1, pp. 41-43. PAULS, Hildebert: Die Mennonitenschulen in Friesland. Mitteilungen des Instituts fr Auslandsbeziehungen, Stuttgart, 4, 1954, 11/12, November/December, p. 313 (IAI I bi 695, 1954, 4). RATZLAFF, Gerhard (ed.): Auf den Spuren der Vter. Eine Jubilumsschrift der Kolonie Friesland in Ostparaguay, 19371987. Asuncin: Verwaltung der Kolonie Friesland/Cromos. 1987. 248 pp. (IAI A 88/2431).

Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development

39

RATZLAFF, Gerhard: Kolonie Friesland in Ost-Paraguay. In: Ratzlaff, Gerhard (ed.): Deutsches Jahrbuch fr Paraguay: Geschichte, Kultur, Unterhaltung, Asuncin, 1, 1988, pp. 47-57 (IAI Z/6549). RATZLAFF, Helmut: Geschichte der Kolonie Friesland. Asuncin: Instituto Bblico. 1985. 45 pp. REGIER, Hans Theodor: Die Mennonitenkolonie Friesland in Ost-Paraguay. Friesland: Verwaltung der Kolonie Friesland. 1993. 21 pp. Mimeo. TEICHMANN, Carlos: La colonia Mennonita Friesland. Revista de Agricultura y Ganadera, Asuncin, 1, 1938, 6-7, March-April, pp. 12-15. TEICHMANN, Carlos: Die Mennonitenkolonie Friesland in Curuz. Der Bote, 15, 1938, 22 June (Earlier published in Deutsche La Plata Zeitung, 5 April 1938) (IAI F ZZ/225).

3.11

Volendam

DYCK, Hans: Krankendienst in der Kolonie Volendam. Der Mennonit, 6, 1953, 11, November, pp. 164-165 (DNB DZb 4433). FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: MEDA in Action at Volendam. Christian Living, A Magazine for Home and Community, 10, 1963, July, pp. 20-21.22 FNFUNDZWANZIG: Zum 25jhrigen Bestehen der Kolonien Volendam und Neuland. Flchtlinge aus dem Osten. Mennoblatt, 43, 1972, 14, 16 July, pp. 2-3 (IAI 4 Par ua 1) FUNK, Abram (ed.): 25 Jahre Volendam: 1947-1972. Im Auftrag des Komitees fr kirchliche Angelegenheiten in Volendam, Paraguay. Curitiba/Paran: Tipografia Santa Cruz. c.1972. 118 pp. (IAI 8 Bra gn 274). FUNK, Abram (ed.): 50 Jahre Kolonie Volendam. Jubilaeum 1947-1997. Volendam: Verwaltung der Kolonie Volendam. 1997. 247 pp. KLASSEN, C. F. et al.: Volendam 25 Jahre Neuland. Mennoblatt, 43, 1972, 13, 1 July, pp. 1-4 (IAI 4 Par ua 1) MATTIES, Evangeline: Ein Besuch in Volendam und Friesland. Mennonitische Auslese, 1, 1951, 1, pp. 41-43. REDEKOPP, Jakob: Etwas ber das Schulwesen in Volendam. Der Mennonit 5, 1952, 8, August, p. 117 (DNB DZb 4433). REDEKOPP, Jakob: Zehn Jahre Volendam. Bibel und Pflug, 4, 1957, 15, 1 August, pp. 5-6; 16, 16 August, pp. 5-6; 17, 1 September, p. 4. REDEKOPP, Jakob: Volendam. Der Weg in der Wildnis: von 1947-1995. Lage: Logos Verlag. 1995. 112 pp. (DNB 2000 A 17876). REMPEL, Hermann H.: Das Schulwesen in der Kolonie Volendam. Der Mennonit, 3, 1950, 3/4, March/April, pp. 27-28 (DNB DZb 4433). SNYDER, William T.: Volendam, a Pioneer Mennonite Settlement. Mennonite Community, 3, 1949, 12, December, pp. 20-23. THIESSEN, Jack: Die Mennoniten-Colonie Volendam in Ostparaguay. Jahrbuch fr ostdeutsche Volkskunde, Marburg, 27, 1984, pp. 333-352 (SBB Zsn 10359). WARKENTIN, J. W.: Volendam, Paraguay. Mennonitisches Jahrbuch, Newton, Kan., 64, 1949, pp. 20-23.

3.12

Sommerfeld and Bergthal

FRIESEN, Martin W.: Bergthal, eine Siedlung im Urwald bei Caaguaz. Mennoblatt, 28, 1957, 3, 1 February, pp. 2-3; 4, 15 February, p. 3 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). GESCHICHTSBILDBAND: Geschichtsbildband zum 50jhrigen Bestehen der Kolonie Sommerfeld, 1948-1998. Zusammengestellt: einige Brder der E.M.G. Sommerfeld: Verwaltung der Kolonie Sommerfeld. 1998. 94 pp. WIEBE, Abraham S.: Die Bergthaler Mennonitengemeinde aus Russland ber Kanada nach Paraguay. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 3, 2002, pp. 9-25 (http://www.menonitica.org/).

3.13

Mennonites in Asuncin

BOSCHMANN, Erwin: Mennonites at Work in Asuncin. Mennonite History term paper, Bethel College, North Newton, Kan. 1962. 25 pp. Copy in COM Files. BOSCHMANN, David: Die Mennoniten in Asuncin. Mennoblatt, 34, 1963, 2 (16 January), through 10 (16 May). 1 or 2 pp. in each number (IAI 4 Par ua 1). GEMEINDEBEGRNDUNG: Gemeindebegrndung in Asuncin. Mennonitische Auslese, 1, 1951, 1, pp. 19-20. 22 MEDA (= Mennonite Economic Development Associates): A North America based association of Mennonite colonists established to raise the standard of the colonies in Paraguay in cooperation with some Mennonites of the latter country. 40 Ibero-Bibliographien 5

HARDER, Ernst: Jugend und Jugendarbeit in Asuncin. Der Mennonit 4, 1951, 3, March, pp. 44-45 (DNB DZb 4433). MENNONITENBESUCH: Mennonitenbesuch in Asuncin. Mennoblatt, 3, 1932, 2, February, p. 4 (SBB 4Co4710). MENNONITENGEMEINDE: Mennonitengemeinde Concordia. 50 Jahre Unterwegs zum Ziel. Asuncin: Mennonitengemeinde Concordia. 2000. 146 pp. (soon in IAI). SIEMENS, Nikolai: Auf der Reise nach Asuncin. Mennoblatt, 3, 1932, 2, February, pp. 2-3 (SBB 4Co4710). SIEMENS, Nikolai: Mennoniten in Asuncin. Der Mennonit, 1, 1948, 5/6, May/June, pp. 38-39 (DNB DZb 4433).

3.14

Economy; Cooperatives

ANFANG: Der Anfang einer kleinen Industrie im Chaco, Paraguay. Mennonitische Auslese, 1, 1951, 1, p. 36. DANA, Leo-Paul/DANA, Teresa E.: Collective entrepreneurship in a Mennonite community in Paraguay. Latin American Business Review, Binghamton, NY: International Business Press, 8, 2007, 4, pp. 82-96 (IAI Z/9178). De FEHR, C. A.: Die wirtschaftliche Lage der Mennoniten-Kolonien im Chaco. Der Mennonit, 1, 1948, 3/4, May-June, p. 45 (DNB DZb 4433). De FEHR, C. A.: Zur Wirtschaftslage im mennonitischen Paraguay. Der Bote, 36,1959, 4, 9 March, pp. 5-6, 12; 10, 11 March, pp. 5-6,12; 11, 18 March, pp. 9, 12. FADLALA, Emilio: Las colonias mennonitas en el desarrollo regional. Vida Econmica, Asuncin, 2, 1956, April, pp. 6064 (IAI). FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: Wirtschaftliche Entwicklungen und Mglichkeiten im Chaco von Paraguay. Der Bote, 37, 1960, 26 April and 3 May. FRIESEN, Martin W.: Kooperation im paraguayischen Chaco. Mennonitisches Jahrbuch, Newton, Kan., 70, 1955, pp. 3032. FRIESEN, Martin W.: Entwicklung des Genossenschaftwesens in der Kolonie Menno. Mennoblatt, 45, 1974, 3, 1 February, pp. 7-8; 4, 16 February, pp. 5-6 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). KREIDER, Carl: Helping Developing Countries. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press. 1968. 47 pp. (Gives a description of various MEDA projects, including those in Paraguay). PHILIPSEN, Renate: Die Entwicklung der Wirtschaftsstruktur der Mennonitischen Kolonien im Chaco Boreal Paraguayo, 1960-1973. Freiburg. 1976. 126 pp. Typescript. SCHLICHTING, Emma: Industry in the Paraguayan colonies. Mennonite Weekly Review, Newton, Kan., 20 and 27 November 1952. WIRTSCHAFTSLEBEN: Aus dem Wirtschaftsleben/Unser Wirtschaftsleben. Mennoblatt, Zeitschrift fr Gemeinde und Kolonie, 27, February 1956, through 40, 1969 (less regularly in the latter year). From 1 december 1969 for some time continued under the title: Der landwirtschaftliche Berater (short articles dealing with a wide range of subjects, written by different authors) (IAI 4 Par ua 1).

3.15

Arable farming, livestock production and forestry; ecology

ALUMNOS del 2 Ao Escuela de Economa (UNA): La agro-industria en el Chaco: experiencia en las Colonias Mennonitas. San Lorenzo: Universidad Nacional. Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas, Administrativas y Contables, Ctedra de Economa de las Empresas. Fundacin Hans Seidel. 1987. 214 pp. BALZER, Eduard: Ackerbau vor 40 Jahren. Mennoblatt, 72, 2001, 19, 1 October, p. 4 (IAI Z/229). BALZER, Eduard: Viehzucht vor 40 Jahren. Mennoblatt, 72, 2001, 20, 16 October, pp. 3-4 (IAI Z/229). CAMPAL, E. F.: Some Aspects of Agricultural Activity of the Mennonite Colonies in the Chaco (Algunos aspectos de la actividad agropecuaria de las colonias mennonitas del Chaco) . Vida Econmica, Asuncin, 2, 1956, April, pp. 54-60 (IAI). DYCK, Cornelius J.: The Paraguayan Chaco Water Situation. In: Bradford, William E. et al.: The Paraguayan Chaco. Asuncin: U.S. Operations Mission to Paraguay. 1955. 116 pp. (IAI 4 Par ua 1). ECKERT, Jakob: Vor 25 Jahren. Die ersten Pferde fr die Kolonie. Mennoblatt, 28, 1957, 12, 15 June, p. 6 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). FAST, A.: Vom Tschumaken zum Weizenbau. Unser Blatt, Zeitschrift fr Gemeinde und Haus, Curitiba, 1967, 1 and 16 July, pp. 2-3 (DNB DZt 943). FRANKE, Louis: La agricultura en las colonias mennonitas del Chaco paraguayo. In: BRADFORD, William E/FISHER, Frederic R./ROMITA, Joseph W./DARROW, Thomas S. y otros miembros de la Misin. El Chaco Paraguayo. Asuncin: Misin de Operaciones de los Estados Unidos de Amrica en el Paraguay. 1955. 115 pp. Also published in English: The Paraguayan Chaco. Asuncin: U.S. Operations Mission to Paraguay. 1955. 115 pp. FRIESEN, Martin W.: Geschichte der Baumwolle in der Kolonie Menno. Mennoblatt, 44, 1973, 20, 16 October 1973, pp. 6-7 (IAI 4 Par ua 1).

Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development

41

FRIESEN, Martin W.: Der schwierige Weg in die Wildnis. Vor 67 Jahren. Die erste Ackerbausiedlung im paraguayischen Chaco 1927. Mennoblatt, 65, 1994, 12, 16 June, pp. 3-4 (IAI Z/229). GIESBRECHT, Wilfried: kologische Aspekte in der Entwicklung der Mennonitenkolonien im Chaco. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 4, 2003, pp. 25-40 (http://www.menonitica.org/). GOERZEN, Rosali: Landnutzung in den mennonitischen Kolonien im Chaco unter dem Blickwinkel der Forst- und Umweltgesetze in Paraguay. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 4, 2003, pp. 41-76 (http://www.menonitica.org/). GREILING, Frank: Auswirkungen und Konsequenzen aus der Drrekatastrophe fr die Viehwirtschaft im Gebiet der Chacokolonien. Mennoblatt, 41, 1970, 24, 16 December, pp. 7-9 (4 Par ua 1). HECHT, Alfred: The Agricultural Economy of the Mennonite Settlers in Paraguay. Growth and Change, Lexington, Ky, 6, 1975, 4, pp. 14-23. HECHT, Alfred: The Agricultural Economy of the Mennonite Settlers in Paraguay: Impact of a Road. Ekistics, reviews on the Problems and Science of Human Settlement, Athens, Greece, 42, 1976, 248, July, pp. 42-47 (SBB Zsn 18055). HECHT, Alfred: Food Production under Conditions of Increased Uncertainty: The Chaco Example. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfried Laurier University. 1977. 42 pp. KEMPSKI, Karl E.: Die Landwirtschaft im Paraguayischen Chaco. Buenos Aires: Imprenta Mercur. 1931. 148 pp. (IAI Par na 3;a 8). KEMPSKI, Karl E.: La agricultura en el Chaco Paraguayo. Guarania, Revista Americana de Cultura, Buenos Aires, 1, 1948, 2, pp. 173-317 (IAI 8 Par bi 36). Also published as book: Buenos Aires: Librera del Plata. 1948.156 pp. KLASSEN, Peter: Adventures in Chaco Agriculture. Mennonite Life, 7, 1952, 4, October, pp. 152-156 (http://www.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/). KLASSEN, Peter J.: Aufforstung im Chaco. Mennoblatt, 24, 1953, 12, December. pp. 3-4 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). KLIEWER, Marion: Paraguayan Experiment Farm. Mennonite Community, 7, 1953, 5, May, pp. 8-9, 21. KOHLHEPP, Gerd: Strukturwandel und Beharrungsvermgen der Mennoniten im paraguayischen Chaco. Zur wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung religiser Gruppensiedlungen an der agronomischen Trockengrenze. In: Heydenreich, Titus/ Schneider, Jrgen (eds.) Paraguay Referate des 6. interdisziplinren Kolloquiums der Sektion Lateinamerika des Zentralinstituts 06, Universitt Erlangen-Nrnberg, pp. 255-286. Mnchen: Wilhelm Fink Verlag. 1984. Lateinamerika Studien 14 (IAI S/744:14). LWEN, Peter: Vor 25 Jahren. Maultiere statt Ochsen. Mennoblatt, 28, 1957, 16, 15 August, p. 6 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). PETERS, Abram: Landwirtschaftliche Versuchsstation. Der Mennonit, 3, 1950, 3/4, March-April, p. 26 (DNB DZb 4433). SCHMIEDER, Oskar/WILHELMY, Herbert: Deutsche Ackerbausiedlungen im sdamerikanischen Grasland. Pampa und Gran Chaco. Leipzig: Ferdinand Hirt und Sohn. 1938. 132 pp. Wissenschaftliche Verffentlichungen des Deutschen Museums fr Lnderkunde, N.F., Band 6. 148 pp. (IAI 4 I ca 105). UNRUH, Robert C.: Colonization and agriculture in the Paraguayan Chaco. In: Gorham, J. Richard (ed.): Paraguay: Ecological Essays, pp. 105-107. Miami, Florida: Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas. 1973. 296 pp. (IAI B 07/3085).

3.16

Transport; the Trans Chaco Road

CHANGE: Change comes to the Chaco. A new road is opening a frontier in Paraguay and linking isolated Mennonites with city markets. Lamp Journal, New York, 46, 1964, 2, pp. 20-23. FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: The Trans-Chaco Highway. Mennonite Life 15, 1960, 1, January, pp. 22-25, 29 (http://www.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/). FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: The Trans-Chaco Road. Christian Living, A Magazine for Home and Community, 7, 1960, February, pp. 4-7, 31. HARDER, Jacob: Transport, Absatz und Auenwelt. Ein siedlungsgeschichtlicher Rckblick auf das Transportwesen im paraguayischen Chaco. Mennoblatt, 59, 1988, 15, 1 August, pp. 6-9 (IAI Z/229). HECHT, Alfred: Changes in Agricultural Activities of the Mennonites in the Chaco Region of Paraguay: The Result of the Ruta Trans-Chaco Road: A Report. Waterloo, Ont.: s.n. 1974. 35 pp. HECHT, Alfred: The Agricultural Impact of the Paraguayan Trans-Chaco Highway. A Report. Waterloo, Ont.: s.n. 1975. 15 pp. NEUFELD, K. K.: Wir und der Transchacoweg. Mennoblatt, 32, 1961, 8, 16 April, pp. 5-7 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). RATZLAFF, Gerhard: Die Ruta Transchaco wie sie entstand. Asuncin: s.n. 1998. 266 pp. (soon in IAI). RATZLAFF, Gerhard: La Ruta Transchaco: proyecto y ejecucin; una perspectiva menonita. Asuncin: Author. 1999. 189 pp. (IAI A 99/10553). SIEMENS, Nikolai: Verkehrsverhltnisse in Paraguay. Mennonitische Auslese, 1, 1951, 1, pp. 27-28.

42

Ibero-Bibliographien 5

3.17

Education23

BOSCHMANN, David: Pionier-Lehrer der Kolonie Fernheim 1930-1932. Hillsboro, Kan.: Multi Busines Press, Inc. 1989. 97 pp. DESARROLLO: El desarollo econmico-social y educacional de las colonias mennonitas en nuestro pas. Revista Crtica y Anlisis, 1, 1963, 5, pp. 35-36. DIEKERT, Ulrich: Die Schulen der deutschen Siedlungen in Paraguay. Der Deutsche Lehrer im Ausland, Hannover, 17, 1970, 2, pp. 33-38, 74-76, 131-135 (IAI 8 I vg 19). DRKSEN, Hans: Fortbildung mennonitischer Studenten in Asuncin. Eine Untersuchung der Probleme. Filadelfia: Ausschuss Fortbildung in Asuncin. 1973. 31 pp. + 29 pp. Annexes Typescript (Archive Bolanden-Weierhof). F. K.: Feier der paraguayischen Unabhngigkeitstage in der Fernheimer Zentralschule. Mennoblatt, 4, 1933, 3, May, p. 5 (SBB 4Co4710). FRIESEN, Martin W.: Mennonitische Schule einst und jetzt. Wandlungen in der Kolonie Menno, im Chaco von Paraguay. Mennonitischer Gemeinde-Kalender 1963, pp. 61-65 (DNB DZs 7540). GOERING, Ed. J.: ber das Schulwesen in der Kolonie Neuland, Chaco, Paraguay. Mennonitische Auslese 1, 1951, 1, pp. 31-32. HARDER, Abraham A.: Das Schulwesen in der Kolonie Friesland. Der Mennonit 3, 1950, 5-6, May-June, pp. 46-47 (DNB DZb 4433). Also published in Mennonitische Auslese, 1, 1951, 1, pp. 33-35. HARDER, Abraham A.: Die Schule in Friesland. Mennonit Welt, 1951, September, pp. 3-4. HIEBERT, Waldo: Mennonite Education in the Gran Chaco. Mennonite Life, 2, 1947, 4, October, pp. 28-32 (http://www.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/). HILDEBRANDT, K.: Unsere Schulen in Friesland. Mennoblatt, 29, 1958, 18, 16 September, pp. 3-4 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). KLASSEN, Peter: Die Schulen der Kolonie Fernheim. Mitteilungen des Instituts fr Auslandsbeziehungen, Stuttgart, 4, 1954, 11/12, November/December, p. 314 (IAI 4 I bi 695). KLASSEN, Peter Jr.: Unsere Schulen in Sdamerika und die Universitt in Europa. Der Mennonit,8, 1955, 3, March, pp. 43-44 (DNB DZb 4433). KLASSEN, Peter P.: Schule zwischen Tradition und Integration. Das Schulwesen der Mennoniten in Paraguay. Mennonitisches Jahrbuch, 1976, pp. 77-79 (DNB DZs 7540). KLIEWER, Fritz: Die Entwicklung des deutschen Schulwesens. Mitteilungen des Instituts fr Auslandsbeziehungen, Stuttgart, 4, 1954, 11-12, November-December, pp. 310-313 (IAI 4 I bi 695). LINNERT, Rudolf: Von der Schule unterm Flaschenbaum bis zur heutigen Ausbildungssttte. Unser Blatt, Zeitschrift fr Gemeinde und Haus, Curitiba, 1967, 1 and 16 July (DNB DZt 943). NEUFELD, Peter J.: Unsere Schulen bestimmen unsere Zukunft. Der Bote, 33, 1956, 19, 9 May, p. 4. PAULS, Hildebert: Die Mennonitenschulen in Friesland. Mitteilungen des Instituts fr Auslandsbeziehungen, Stuttgart, 4, 1954, 11/12, November/December, p. 313 (IAI 4 I bi 695). QUIRING, Walter: Wie vor hundertfnfzig Jahren. In einer russlanddeutschen Altvterschule im Chako (!) von Paraguay. Deutsche Post aus dem Osten, 8, 1936, 8, August, pp. 12-14 (SBB 4 Ue 523; N.F.). QUIRING, Walter: Wie vor hundertfnfzig Jahren. In einer russlanddeutschen Altvterschule im Chaco von Paraguay. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 3, 2002, pp. 136-140 (http://www.menonitica.org/); (Earlier published in: Post aus dem Osten, August 1936) (SBB 4 Ue 523; N.F.). REGIER, Hans Theodor: Identittsfragen in der Erziehungspolitik. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 2, 2001, pp. 59-85 (http://www.menonitica.org/). REMPEL, Hans: In Paraguay brauchen wir Sonntagschulen. Der Mennonit, 5,1952, 8, August, p. 114 (DNB DZb 4433). SAWATZKY, Andreas F.: Der Einfluss der Schulen im internen Wandel der Kolonie Menno in den fnfziger und sechziger Jahren. Jahrbuch fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay, 3, 2002, pp. 59-82 (http://www.menonitica.org/). WARKENTIN, Jakob: Die mennonitischen Siedlerschulen in Paraguay zwischen Anspruch und Wirklichkeit. In: Studienkonferenz der Mennoniten, Asuncin, pp. 89-101. Asuncin: s.n. WARKENTIN, Jakob: Die deutschsprachigen Siedlerschulen in Paraguay im Spannungsfeld staatlicher Kultur- und Entwicklungspolitik. Mnster etc.: Waxmann. 1998. 444 pp. (IAI A 98/12001). WARKENTIN, Jakob: Erziehung und Bildung im Raum der Schule. Vortrge, Aufstze, Reden (1985-2007). Asuncin: Verein fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay. 2007. 387 pp. (Band 1) (soon in IAI). WARKENTIN, Jakob: Erziehung und Bildung im Raum der Kolonie. Vortrge, Aufstze, Reden (1985-2007). Asuncin: Verein fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay. 2007. 424 pp. (Band 2) (soon in IAI)..

23 See also the Bibliography in Warkentin (1998) (this section). Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development 43

WARKENTIN, Jakob: Erziehung und Bildung im Raum der Gemeinde. Vortrge, Aufstze, Reden (1985-2007). Asuncin: Verein fr Geschichte und Kultur der Mennoniten in Paraguay. (Band 3) (soon in IAI). WIENS, Peter: Unsere Schulen. Der Mennonit, Basel, 3, 1950, 3/4, March/April, pp. 21-22 (DNB DZb 4433). WIENS, Peter: Das mennonitische Schulwesen in Paraguay. Mennonitische Auslese, 1, 1951, 1, pp. 28-30.

3.18

Health and health care

BREUNINGER DE GUENTHER, Regine: Geburtshilfe in der Anfangszeit der Kolonie Menno: von der Ansiedlung 1927/28 bis zur Entstehung des Krankenhauses Ende der 1940er Jahre. Loma Plata: Geschichtskomitee der Kolonie Menno. 2004. 104 pp. DIENSTE: Im Dienste der Liebe, 1951-, Asuncin. Centro de Salud. DOLLINGER, Erika: Als Arztfrau im paraguayischen Busch. Der Bote, 1956, 33, 15 August, p. 9; 34, 29 August, p. 9; 35, 5 September, p. 9. DOLLINGER, Gerhard: Das Fernheimer Krankenhaus Bethesda. Der Mennonit, 5, 1952, 11, November, pp. 170-171 (DNB DZb 4433). DOLLINGER, Gerhard: Deutsche rzte in Paraguay. Mitteilungen des Instituts fr Auslandsbeziehungen, Stuttgart, 4, 1954, 11/12, November/December, pp. 316-317 (IAI 4 I bi 695). DOLLINGER, Gerhard: Die mennonitischen Krankenanstalten im Gran Chaco. Der Mennonit, 9, 1956, 8, August, pp. 124-125 (DNB DZb 4433). DOLLINGER, Gerhard: Unser mennonitischer Patient. Der Bote, 1956, 2 May through 6 June 1956 (Weekly). DOLLINGER, Gerhard: Ein Landarzt erzhlt. Stuttgart: J. F. Steinkopf. 1991. 144 pp. (DNB D 92/7642). DYCK, Hans: Krankendienst in der Kolonie Volendam. Der Mennonit, 6, 1953, 11, November, pp. 164-165 (DNB DZb 4433). DYCK, Rudolf: Aus dem Leben eines Arztes im Chaco: Erlebnisse, vielseitige Erfahrungen und Schlussfolgerungen aus meinem Leben. Asuncin. 2007 (soon in IAI). EPP, Hans: rztliche und schulische Betreuung der Indianer im Chaco. Der Mennonit 23, 1970, 5, May, p. 74 (DNB DZb 4433). EPP, Hans: Medizinische Betreuung der Indianer im Chaco. Mennoblatt, 42, 1971, 6, 16 March, pp. 3-4; 8, 16 April, p. 3; 9, 1 May, pp. 2-3; 10, 16 May, pp. 2-3 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). GAEDE, Alvin W.: Hookworm Diasease in the Paraguayan Chaco. The Journal of the American Medical Association 149, 1952, June 28, p. 887 (SBB Zsn 2198). HOLST, Jens: Krankenversicherungsstrukturen der Mennoniten im paraguayischen Chaco. Eschborn, GTZ, 2004, 7 pp. (www.gtz.de/de/dokumente/de-mennoniten-chaco-py.pdf). ISAAK, Suse: Kulturerbe als Brcke. Mitteilungen des Instituts fr Auslandsbeziehungen, Stuttgart, 1956, 1/2, January/February, pp. 81-82 (IAI 4 I bi 695). KLAASSEN, Gert: Als Arzt in Paraguay. Der Mennonit, 24, 1971, 8, August, pp.123-124 (DNB DZb 4433). RAKKO, W.: Aus der Arbeit des Arztes im paraguayischen Busch. Der Bote, 33, 1956, 44, 7, November, p. 5; 45, 14 November, pp. 5-6; 46, 21 November, p. 6. RATZLAFF, Gerhard: Hospital Mennonita km 81: Liebe die ttig wird; Eine Festschrift zum 50jhrigen Bestehen. Asuncin: Gemeindekomitee (Asociacin Evanglica Mennonita del Paraguay). 2001. 143 pp. (IAI A 01/13034). SCHARTNER, Gerhard/SCHMIDT, John R./DYCK, Cornelius J.: Lepramission in Paraguay. Der Mennonit, 4, 1951, 10, October, pp. 154-155 (DNB DZb 4433). SCHMIDT, John R.: The Practice of Medicine for our Mennonites in the Chaco, Paraguay. Newton, Kan.: Womens Home and Foreign Missionary Association, General Conference Mennonites of North America. 1942. 11 pp. SCHMIDT, John R.: Medical Service Under Pioneer Conditions. Mennonite Life, 2, 1947, 3, July, pp. 13-16 (http://www.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/). SCHMIDT, John R.: Helping Lepers (http://www.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/). in Paraguay. Mennonite Life, 13, 1958,1, January, pp. 20-22

SIEMENS, Nikolai: Krankendienst in den Chaco-Kolonien. Mennonitische Auslese, 1, 1951, 1, pp. 23-26. WGELE, A.: Der Gesundheitszustand im Chaco. Der Mennonit, 3, 1950, 3/4, March/April, p. 23 (DNB DZb 4433). WIENS, Peter: Centro de Salud Mennonita Km 81. Jubilumsschrift zum 25 jhrigen Bestehen von Km 81, 1951-1976. Fernheim: Gemeindekomitee. 1976. 50 pp.

44

Ibero-Bibliographien 5

3.19

Mennonites and the Chaco War

ABERCROMBIE, Roland K.: Peaceful Pawns in the Chaco Conflict. Mennonite Weekly Review, Newton, Kan., 25 October 1933. KLASSEN, Peter P. (ed.): Kaputi Mennonita. Arados y fusiles en la Guerra del Chaco. Asuncion: Imprenta Modelo. 1976. 218 pp. (IAI A 81/5323). KLASSEN, Peter P. (ed.): Kaputi Mennonita. Eine friedliche Begegnung im Chacokrieg: Kurzberichte aus 40 Jahrgngen des Mennoblattes. Asuncin: Imprenta Modelo. 1976; 3d edition 1980. 166 pp. (IAI A 81/5322). RATZLAFF, Gerhard: Die Mennoniten und der Chaco-Grenzkonflikt zwischen Paraguay und Bolivien. In: Ratzlaff, Gerhard (ed.). Deutsches Jahrbuch fr Paraguay: Geschichte, Kultur, Unterhaltung, 3, 1990, pp. 30-44 (IAI Z/6549). RATZLAFF, Gerhard: Entre dos fuegos: los Menonitas en el conflicto limtrofe entre Paraguay y Bolivia, 1932-1935. Asuncin: s.n. 1993. 32 pp. (IAI A 04/5331). RATZLAFF, Gerhard (misspelled as RATZALAFF): Cristianos evanglicos en la Guerra del Chaco: 1932-1935, Asuncin: Instituto Bblio Asuncin. 2008. 156 pp. (IAI A 09/5796) STOESZ, Edgar: Mennonites and the Chaco War. Economic History of Latin America term paper, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 1969. 16 pp.

3.20

Indians and Mennonites

ASOCIACIN de Servicios de Cooperacin Indgena-Mennonita: Estatutos de la Asociacin de Servicios de Cooperacin Indgena-Mennonita, ASCIM. Filadelfia, Chaco-Paraguay Filadelfia: ASCIM. 1980. 54 pp. ASOCIACIN de Servicios de Cooperacin Indgena-Mennonita: Archivo de Culturas Indgenas Chaqueas. Lista de materiales archivados en la Oficina Central de la ASCIM en Filadelfia. Incluye libros, ensayos diversos publicados en revistas contemporneas y fotocopias de publaciciones diversas y agotadas. Lista preparada por el Sr. Coen Schaap. s.l. s.n. ASOCIACIN de Servicios de Cooperacin Indgena-Mennonita (ASCIM): En busca de una subsistencia agraria. Filadelfia: ASCIM. 1993. ASSOCIATION: Association of Mennonite-Indigenous Co-operation Services (ASCIM) . In: Projects with the Indigenous Peoples of Paraguay: Past and Future, pp. 8-9. Survival International Document VIII. s.l.: Survival International. 1980. 26 pp. CHASE-SARDI, Miguel: The Present Situation of Indians in Paraguay. In: Dostal, W. (ed.): The Situation of Indians in South America: contributions to the study of inter-ethnic conflict in the non-Andean regions of South America, pp. 173-217. Geneva: World Council of Churches. 1972. 435 pp. Verffentlichungen des Seminars fr Ethnologie der Universitt Bern, 3 (IAI A Stfl Ethn 1). CHASE-SARDI, Miguel: La situacin actual de los indgenas en el Paraguay. Asuncin: Centro de Estudios Antropolgicos, Universidad Catlica Nuestra Seora de la Asuncin. 1972. 111 pp. (IAI 8 Par ge 77). DIOS: Dios quiere que todo los hombres sean salvos: indgenas mennonitas: obra espritual y servicio de desarrollo en el Chaco central. Filadelfia: ASCIM. 1984. 20 pp. DITTMER, Drte/FULLRIEDE, Ulrike: Como agua y aceite: zum Verhltnis von Mennoniten und Indgenas in der multiethnischen Gesellschaft im paraguayischen Chaco. Berlin/Hamburg/Mannheim: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag. 1996. 232 pp. (IAI A 97/ 5741). DITTMER, Hans: Um Glauben und Heimat. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 1939. 184 pp. (pp. 126-130: Unter Mennoniten und deutschsprechenden Indianern) (soon in IAI). DORN, Georgette Magassy: Three Mennonite Colonies and the Indigenous Communities in the Central Chaco. In: Grover, Mark L. (ed.): Religion and Latin America in the twenty-first century: libraries reacting to social change; Rockville, Maryland, May 17-21, 1997, pp. 78-84. SALALM (Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials) Papers, 42 (IAI S 127:42). DUERKSEN, Marvin: Radio Mission in the Multicultural Gran Chaco. In: Gtz, Diether/Kreider, Loretta (eds.): Mennonite World Handbook 1990, Mennonites in Global Witness, pp. 223-226. Carol Stream, Ill.: Mennonite World Conference. 440 pp. EPP, Bruno: Mennonitische Mission unter den Indianern des paraguayischen Chaco. Bibel und Pflug, 10, 1963, 6-13, 16 March. through July 1 (Weekly). EPP, Hans: rztliche und schulische Betreuung der Indianer im Chaco. Der Mennonit 23, 1970, 5, May, p. 74 (DNB DZb 4433). EPP, Hans: Medizinische Betreuung der Indianer im Chaco. Mennoblatt, 42, 1971, 6, 16 March, pp. 3-4; 8, 16 April, p. 3; 9, 1 May, pp. 2-3; 10, 16 May, pp. 2-3 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). ESPNOLA BENTEZ, Ebelio: Algunas anotaciones en torno a Indios y Mennonitas en el Chaco Paraguayo de Henk Hack. Suplemento Antropolgico, Asuncin, XVI, 1981, 2, Diciembre, pp. 213-226 (IAI Z 2489). FIEBRIG, C.: Deutsche Missionsarbeit im Chaco (Paraguay). Ibero-Amerikanisches Archiv, 11, 1937/1938, no. 1, pp. 9297 (IAI 8 Par ud 36).

Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development

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FRANZ, Jacob H.: Mission unter den Indianern im paraguayischen Chaco. Der Mennonit 9, 1956, 8, August, pp. 125 (DNB DZb 4433). FRANZ, Jacob H.: The Indian Brotherhood in the Chaco of Paraguay. In: DYCK, Cornelius J. (ed.) (1967): The Witness of the Holy Spirit: Proceedings of the eighth Mennonite World Conference, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, July 23-30, 1967, pp. 114-118. Elkhart, Ind.: Mennonite World Conference. 423 pp. FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: Indian Episodes on a 20th Century Frontier. Mennonite Weekly Review, Newton, Kan., 13, 1951, September. FRETZ, Joseph Winfield: The Paraguayan Indians. Mennonite Life, Vol. XVII, 2, April 1962, pp. 87-88 (http://www.bethelks.edu/mennonitelife/). FRIESEN, Martin W.: Unsere Lengua-Indianer einst und jetzt. Der Mennonit 17, 1964, 5, May, pp. 74-76 (DNB DZb 4433). FRIESEN, Martin W: Indianer und Mennoniten im paraguayischen Chaco. Menno-blatt, 49, 1978, 21, 1 November, pp. 24; 22, 16 November, pp. 2-4; 23, 1 December, pp. 3-5 (IAI Z/229). GIESBRECHT, Gerd G.: Ich sah der Lengua Htten. Erfahrungen und Beobachtungen in der Missionsarbeit. 2000. Asuncin: s.n. 275 pp. (soon in IAI). GIESBRECHT, Gerhard B.: Bericht ueber die 15jhrige Missionsttigkeit unter den Lenguaindianern im Gran Chaco. S. l.: s.n. 1950. GIESBRECHT, Gerhard B.: Licht den Indianern. Der Mennonit 4, 1951, 1, January, pp. 10-11; 2, February, pp. 22-23 (DNB DZb 4433). GIESBRECHT, Gerhard B.: Indianermission im Chaco. Mennoblatt, 23, 1952, 7, Juli, pp. 1-2 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). GIESBRECHT, Gerhard B.: Etwas ber unsere Indianermission. Mennoblatt, 24, 1953, 1-2, January-February, p. 4 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). GIESBRECHT, Gerhard B.: Lengua-Mission in Paraguay. Mennoblatt, 24, 1953, 6, June, pp. 1-2 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). GIESBRECHT, Gerhard B.: Indianersiedlung. Mennonitische Rundschau, Winnipeg, Man., 79, 1956, 10, 7 March, p. 2. (DNB ZC 6638). GIESBRECHT, Gerhard B.: Wir und unsere Lenguaindianer. Der Bote, 33, 1956, 38, 26 September, p. 9; 39, 3 October, p. 9; 40, 10 October, p. 9. GIESBRECHT, Gerhard B.: Die Zukunft unsrer Indianer. Mennoblatt, 29, 1958, 12, 16 June, pp. 2-3; 13, 1 July, p. 2; 14, 15 July, p. 2 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). GIESBRECHT, Gerhard B.: Neue Wege in der Missionsarbeit im Chaco. Mennoblatt, 32, 1961, 15, 1 August through 22, 16 November. (IAI 4 Par ua 1). GIESBRECHT, Gerhard B.: Die ersten 15 Jahre der Missionsttigkeit im paraguayischen Chaco. Mennoblatt, 43, 1972, 24, 16 December, pp. 2-5; 44, 1973, 1, 1 January, pp. 4-5; 2, 16 January, pp. 4-5; 3, 1 February, pp. 3-4; 4, 16 February, pp. 3-4; 5, 1 March, pp. 3-4; 6, 16 March, pp. 3-4 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). GOTT: Gott will dass alle Menschen geholfen werden Indianer, Mennoniten: Gemeindebau und Entwicklungsdienste im zentralen Chaco. Filadelfia: Indianer-Beratungs Behrde/ASCIM. 1984. 20 pp. GRABER, Christian L.: The Coming of the Moros; from Spears to Pruning Hooks. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press. 1964. 91 pp. (IAI 8 Par ge 59). GRABER, Ken et al.: An Economic Evaluation of the ASCIM Land Settlement Program. Filadelfia: s.n. 1980. 87 pp. HACK, Henk: Akkulturation bei den Lengua im paraguayischen Chaco. Akten des 34. internationalen Amerikanistenkongresses, Wien 18.-25. Juli 1960, pp. 644-652. Horn-Wien:Verlag Ferdinand Berger. 1962. 874 pp. (IAI 8 III be 7: 34, Hauptw.). HACK, Henk: Van jagers tot boeren. Veranderingen in de cultuur van de Chaco-Indianen. Geografisch Tijdschrift, Nieuwe Reeks, 9, 1975, 5, pp. 374-387 (SBB Zsn 24454). HACK, Henk: Indianer und Mennoniten im paraguayischen Chaco. Amsterdam: Centrum voor Studie en Documentatie van Latijns Amerika (CEDLA). 1976. 161 blz. CEDLA Incidentele Publicaties, 7 (IAI B 77/383). HACK, Henk: Indios y Mennonitas en el Chaco Paraguayo. Suplemento Antropolgico, Asuncin, XIII, 1978, 1-2, pp. 207-260; XIV, 1979, 1-2, pp. 201-248; XV, 1980, 1-2, pp. 45-137 (IAI Z 2489). HACK, Henk: Land problems in the Paraguayan Chaco. Boletn de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe, Amsterdam, 34, 1983, pp. 99-115 (IAI Z 969:34, 1983). HEIN, David (ed.): Die Ayoreos, unsere Nachbarn: Anfnge der Mission im nrdlichen Chaco. Filadelfia/Asuncin: David Hein/Imprenta Modelo. c. 1988. 216 pp. (IAI A 90/773). HEIN, David (ed.): Los Ayoreos nuestros vecinos; comienzos a la misin del norte del Chaco. Filadelfia/Asuncin: David Hein/Imprenta Modelo. 1990. 228 pp. (IAI A 90/ 7056). HIEBERT, Peter Cornelius: Hilfswerk und Kolonisation der Mennoniten seit 1930. In: Neff, Christian (ed.): Der Allgemeine Kongre der Mennoniten gehalten in Amsterdam, Elspeet, Witmarsum (Holland) 29. Juni bis 3. Juli 1936, pp. 146-151. Karlsruhe: Heinrich Schneider. 1936. 183 pp. (SBB Co 4741). INDIANER-Beratungsbehrde: Jahresberichte des Exekutiv-teams. I.B.B., 1977-, Filadelfia. 46 Ibero-Bibliographien 5

ISAAK, Kornelius: Werdegang der Chulupimission. Mennoblatt, 28, 1957, 6, 15 March, pp. 1-2; 7, 1 April, pp. 1-2; 8, 15 April, p. 2; 9, 1 May, p. 2 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). ISAAK: Kornelius Isaak, Missionary Martyr to the Moros. Christian Leader, 1958, 9 September through 7 October (Weekly). ISERT, Jorg: Die Indianer und die Mennoniten in Paraguay. Der Mennonit 24, 1971, 6, June, pp. 90-92 (DNB DZb 4433). JANZEN, Abraham E.: The Moros Spear. Hillsboro, Kan.: Board of Missions of the Conference of the MB Church. 1962. 51 pp. KLASSEN, Peter P.: Begegnung von Indianern und Mennoniten in christlicher Verantwortung. In: Dulon, Gnter (ed.): Evangelium in indianischen Kulturen: Referate und Ergebnisse einer Arbeitstagung im Mrz 1979 in Dorfweil/Ts. Hamburg: Evangelische Pressestelle fr Weltmission. 1980. 119 pp. (DNB D 86/46975). KLASSEN, Peter P.: Die Mennoniten in Paraguay. 1: Reich Gottes und Reich dieser Welt. 2: Begegnung mit Indianern und Paraguayern. Bolanden-Weierhof: Mennonitischer Geschichtsverein. 1988/1991. 383 + 376 pp. (IAI A 90/774). 2nd edition, Vol 1: 2001. 480 pp. (soon in IAI). KLASSEN, Tinchen: Ach, diese Indianer!. Der Bote, 1960, 12 and 19 April, 10 and 17 May. KLIEWER, Fritz: Mennoniten in Indianerland. Mennonitische Jugendwarte, 15, 1935, 3, June, pp. 77-80 (DNB ZA 12653). KONNERT, Walter: Indianermission in Paraguay. Mennoblatt, 34, 1963, 17, 1 September, pp. 2-4 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). KROEKER, Peter J.: Lenguas and Mennonites. A Study of Cultural Change in the Paraguayan Chaco, 1928-1970. Wichita, Kan.: Wichita State University. 1970. 178 pp. Thesis. Typescript. LOEWEN, Jacob A.: Research Report on the Question of Settling Lengua and Chulupi Indians in the Paraguayan Chaco. Akron. Pa.: Mennonite Central Commitee. 1964. 117 pp. Typescript. Also in German. LOEWEN, Jacob A.: Wissenschaftliche Untersuchung ber die Frage der Ansiedlung der Lengua- und Chulupi-Indianer im Chaco von Paraguay. Hillsboro, Kan. 1964. c. 120 pp. Typescript. Also in English. LOEWEN, Jacob A.: A Mennonite Encounter with the Innermost of the Lengua Indians. The Mennonite Quarterly Review, 39, 1965, 1, January, pp. 40-67 (SBB Zsn 2274). LOEWEN, Jacob A.: Missionaries and Anthropologists Cooperate in Research. Practical Anthropology, 12, 1965, JulyAugust, pp. 158-190 (SUB ZA 21860). LOEWEN, Jacob A.: The Way to First Class: Revolution or Conversion. Practical Anthropolgy, 12, 1965, SeptemberOctober, pp. 193-209 (SUB ZA 21860). LOEWEN, Jacob A.: Mennonites, Chaco Indians, and the Lengua Spirit World. Mennonite Quarterly Review, 39, 1965, 4, October, pp. 280-306 (SBB Zsn 2274). LOEWEN, Jacob A.: Lengua Festivals and Functional Substitutes. Practical Anthropolgy, 14, 1967, January-February, pp. 15-36 (SUB ZA 21860). MARCZYNSKI, Provost Martin: Unter Mennoniten und deutschsprechenden Indianern. Der Bote, 13, 1936, 15 April (Earlier published in Deutsche La Plata Zeitung of 9 December 1935) (IAI FZZ/225). MENNONITE Brethren Church: Mennonite Brethren Mission to the Chaco Indians. Hillsboro, Kan.: Board of Foreign Missions of the Mennonite Brethren Church. 1950. 59 pp. MENNONITISCHES Missionskomitee von Paraguay: Sende mich. 1973. 16 pp. MENNONITISCHES Missionskomitee von Paraguay: Jahressammlung der Behrde fr Indianersiedlungen im Chaco; am 16 Januar 1974. Neu-Halbstadt, Paraguay: Mennonitisches Missionskomitee von Paraguay. 1974. 47 pp. NEUFELD, Alfred: Die ersten dreissig Jahre der mennonitischen Indianermission im zentralen Chaco von Paraguay. Fresno, California. 1981. Typescript. NBLING (Pastor): Das Evangelium bei den Chaco-Indianern. Der Mennonit 8, 1955, 7, July, pp. 100-101 (DNB DZb 4433). QUIEN: Quien es mi projimo?: accin misionera entre los indgenas del Chaco central paraguayo, 1936-1986 Wer ist mein Nchster?: Indianermission im zentralen Chaco von Paraguay, 1936-1986. Filadelfia: Luz a los Indgenas, Asociacin de Servicios de Cooperacin Indgena Mennonita. 1986. 79 pp. (IAI B 90/634). QUIRING, Walter: Unter Indianern im Chaco. Der Bote, 11, 1934, 14 April. RATZLAFF, Abram: Der Anfang der Missionsarbeit unter den Lenguas im Juli 1935, Chaco, Paraguay. Mennoblatt, 47, 1976, 4, 16 February, pp. 2-3; 5, 1 March, pp. 3-5; 6, 16 March, pp. 1-3; 7, 1 April, pp. 2-4 (IAI Z/229). REDEKOP, Calvin Wall: Mennonite Mission in the Paraguayan Chaco. Geneva: World Council of Churches. 15 pp. (Reprint from: International Review of Missions, 62, 1973, 247, July, pp. 302-317) (SBB Zsn 1434). REDEKOP, Calvin Wall: Strangers become Neighbours: Mennonites and Indigenous Relations in the Paraguayan Chaco. Scottdale, Pa.; Kitchener, Ontario: Herald Press; 1980. 305 pp. Studies in Anabaptist and Mennonite History, 22 (IAI A 81/2470). REDEKOP, Calvin Wall: Mennonite Displacement of Indigenous Peoples. An Historical and Sociological Analysis. Calgary, Alb.: Research Centre for Canadian Ethnic Studies at the University of Calgary for the Canadian Ethnic Studies Association. 1982. 90 pp. Jan M. G. Kleinpenning: The Mennonite Colonies in Paraguay. Origin and Development 47

REGEHR, Verena: Chacoindianer gestern und heute. Weierhof, Germany: Internationale Mennonitische Organisation. 1975. 16 pp. REGEHR, Verena: Indian handycrafts from the Paraguayan Chaco. Colonia Neuland, Chaco: s.n. 1990. 9 pp. REGEHR, Walter: Die lebensrumliche Situation der Indianer im paraguayischen Chaco. Humangeographisch-ethnologische Studie zu Subsistenzgrundlage und Siedlungsform akkulturierter Chacovlker. Basel: Geographisch-Ethnologische Gesellschaft Basel. In Kommission bei Wepf & Co Verlag. 1979. 436 pp. Basler Beitrge zur Geographie, 25 (IAI A 80/691). REIMER, Jacob B.: Mennoniten und Indianer im zentralen Chaco. Mennoblatt, 51, 1980, 19, 1 October, pp. 4-6 (IAI Z/229). REIMERT, Walter: Die Ansiedlung der Indianer im Chaco. Mennoblatt, 38, 1967, 9, 1 May, pp. 2-3 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). REIST, Ilse: Indianersiedlung im Chaco. Das MCC untersttzt diese Arbeit. Mennoblatt, 33, 1962, 7, 1 April, pp. 2-4 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). RENNERT, Walter: Indianermission im Gran Chaco. Mennonitischer Gemeinde-Kalender, 1965, pp. 59-66 (SBB Co 4576). SAWATZKY, Martin H.: Die wirtschaftliche Lage der Lengua im Chaco. Mennoblatt, 33, 1962, 1, 1 January, p. 2 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). SAWATZKY, Peter: Bericht ber das Wachstum der Indianerbevlkerung im Siedlungsgebiet der Mennonitenkolonien. NeuHalbstadt, Chaco. 1972. Typescript. SCHARTNER, Sieghard: Licht den Indianern 1935-1985. Filadelfia. 1985. SCHMIDT, John R.: The Mennonite Mission in the Chaco. The Mennonite, 1946, 24 September. SERVICES: Services of Inter-Ethnic Cooperation. Filadelfia: Asociacin de los Servicios de Cooperacin IndgenaMennonita. 1978. 57 pp. SIEMENS, Nikolai: Im Indianerland. Mennonitische Auslese, 1, 1951,1, pp. 37-39. SIEMENS, Nikolai: Im Indianerland. Mennoblatt, 23, 1952, 8, August, pp. 2-3; 9/10, September-October, pp. 2-3; 12, December, p. 3 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). STAHL, Wilmar (ed.): Guided Social Change in the Paraguayan Chaco: Cooperation in a Land Development Scheme by Indigenous Farmers. Filadelfia: Indian Settlement Excecutive Committee. 1973. 50 pp. STAHL, Wilmar (ed.): Informe sobre los establecimientos agrcolas de los indgenas en el rea de las colonias Mennonitas. Filadelfia: Comit Ejecutivo de los Establecimientos Indgenas. 1973. 42 pp. STAHL, Wilmar: Cinco establecimientos agrcolas indenas en el Chaco Central; un estudio de cambio social guiado. Suplemento Antropolgico, Asuncin, IX, 1974, 1-2, pp. 111-152 (IAI 8 Par ge 64). STAHL, Wilmar: Escenario Indgena Chaqueo, Pasado y Presente. Filadelfia: Asociacin de Servicios de Cooperacin Indgena-Mennonita. 1983. 144 pp. (IAI B 83/582). STAHL, Wilmar: Interethnic cooperation in the Chaco. In: Gtz, Diether/Kreider, Loretta (eds.): Mennonite World Handbook 1990, Mennonites in Global Witness, pp. 233-236. Carol Stream, Ill.: Mennonite World Conference. 440 pp. STUNNENBERG, Petrus Walterus: Entitled to Land. The Incorporation of the Paraguayan Chaco and Argentinean Gran Chaco and the Spatial Marginalization of the Indian People. Saarbrcken/Fort Lauderdale: Verlag Breitenbach Publishers. 1993. 277 pp. Nijmegen Studies in Development and Cultural Change, 15. (pp. 178-197 deal with the Lengua of Colonia Armona) (IAI A 93/8577). STOESZ, Edgar: A Structural Analysis of the Relationship between the Mennonites and the Indians in the Paraguayan Chaco. Rural Sociology term paper, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 1969. 15 pp. (MCC Central Files, Akron, Pa. Paraguay Indians). STOESZ, Edgar: Indian Settlement Program: Chaco, Paraguay. Akron, Pa. 1970. 35 pp. Machine copy edition by MCC. (MCC Central Files). WIENS, Hans J.: Dass die Heiden Miterben seien. Die Geschichte der Indianermission im paraguayischen Chaco. Geschrieben im Auftrag des Missionskomitees Licht den Indianern. Filadelfia: Konferenz der Mennonitischen Brdergemeinde in Paraguay. 1989. 238 pp. (IAI A 09/8811). WIENS, Peter: Indianersiedlungen im Chaco. Mennoblatt, 38, 1967, 20, 16 October, pp. 5-6 (IAI 4 Par ua 1). UNRUH, Murtle: Indianersiedlungen im Chaco. Wo sind wir in Wirklichkeit?. Mennoblatt, 40, 1969, 21, 1 November, pp. 2-3; 22, 16 November, p. 3; 23, 1 December, pp. 3-4; 41, 1970, 1, 1 January, pp. 4-5; 4, 16 February, p. 3 (IAI 4 Par ua 1).

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Ibero-Bibliographien 5

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