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A chemist's view of the world is not as narrow as one might think!

Yes, we start with the atom, and then go on to the rules governing the kinds of structural units that can be made from them. We are taught early on to predict the properties of bulk matter from these geometric arrangements. And then we come to H2O, and are shocked to find that many of these predictions are way off, and that water (and by implication, life itself) should not even exist on our planet! But we soon learn that this tiny combination of three nuclei and eight electrons possesses special properties that make it unique among the more than 15 million chemical species we presently know. When we stop to ponder the consequences of this, chemistry moves from being an arcane science to a voyage of wonder and pleasure as we

learn to relate the microscopic world of the atom to the greater world in which we all live. [image]

T h e m ol ecule of water
A molecule is an aggregation of atomicnuclei and electrons that is sufficiently stable to possess observable properties and there are few molecules that are more stable and difficult to decompose than H2O. In water, each hydrogen nucleus is bound to the central oxygen atom by a pair of electrons that are shared between them; chemists call this shared electron pair a covalent chemical bond. In H2O, only two of the six outer-shell electrons of oxygen are used for this purpose, leaving four electrons which are organized into two nonbonding pairs. The four electron pairs surrounding the oxygen tend to arrange themselves as far from each other as possible in order to minimize repulsions between these clouds of negative charge. This would ordinarly result in a tetrahedral geometry in which the angle between electron pairs (and therefore the H-O-H bond angle) is 109.5. However, because the two non-bonding pairs remain closer to the oxygen atom, these exert a stronger repulsion against the two covalent bonding pairs, effectively pushing the two hydrogen atoms

closer together. The result is a distorted tetrahedral arrangement in which the HOH angle is 104.5. Although the water molecule carries no net electric charge, its eight electrons are not distributed uniformly; there is slightly more negative charge (purple) at the oxygen end of the molecule, and a compensating positive charge (green) at the hydrogen end. The resulting polarity is largely responsible for water's unique properties. Because molecules are smaller than light waves, they cannot be observed directly, and must be "visualized" by alternative means. This computer-generated image comes from calculations that model the electron distribution in the H2O molecule. The outer envelope shows the effective "surface" of the molecule as defined by the extent of the cloud of negative electric charge created by the eight electrons.

See the SBU Water Site for more information on this model.

Hydro gen bondi ng

The H2O molecule is electrically neutral, but the positive and negative charges are not distributed uniformly. This is illustrated by the gradation in color in the schematic diagram here. The electronic (negative) charge is concentrated at the oxygen end of the molecule, owing partly to the

nonbonding electrons (solid blue circles), and to oxygen's high nuclear charge which exerts stronger attractions on the electrons. This charge displacement constitutes anelectric dipole, represented by the arrow at the bottom; you can think of this dipole as the electrical "image" of a water molecule.

As we all learned in school, opposite charges attract, so the partiallypositive hydrogen atom on one water molecule is electrostatically attracted to the partially-negative oxygen on a neighboring molecule. This process is called (somewhat misleadingly) hydrogen bonding. Notice that the hydrogen bond (shown by the dashed green line) is somewhat longer than the covalent OH bond. This means that it is considerably weaker; it is so weak, in fact,that a given hydrogen bond cannot survive for more than a tiny fraction of a second. See here for much more about hydrogen bonding.

The anomalous properties of water

Water has long been known to exhibit many physical properties that distinguish it from other small molecules of comparable mass. Chemists refer to these as the "anomalous" properties of water, but they are by no means mysterious; all are entirely predictable consequences of the way the size and nuclear charge of the oxygen

atom conspire to distort the electronic charge clouds of the atoms of other elements when these are chemically bonded to the oxygen. Water is one of the few known substances whose solid form is less dense than the liquid. The plot at the right shows how the volume of water varies with the temperature; the large increase (about 9%) on freezing shows why ice floats on water and why pipes burst when they freeze. The expansion between 4 and 0 is due to the formation of larger hydrogen-bonded aggregates. Above 4, thermal expansion sets in as vibrations of the OH bonds becomes more vigorous, tending to shove the molecules farther apart.

The other widelycited anomalous property of water is its high boiling point. As this graph shows, a molecule as light as H2O "should" boil at around 90C; that is, it would exist in the world as a gas rather than a liquid if H-bonding were not present. Notice that H-bonding is also observed with fluorine and nitrogen.

"Forty-one anomalies of water" some of them rather esoteric

Surface tension and wetting

Have you ever watched an insect walk across the surface of a pond? The water strider takes advantage of the fact that the water surface acts like an elastic film that resists deformation when a small weight is placed on it. (If you are careful, you can also "float" a small paper clip or steel staple on the surface of water in a cup.) This is all due to the surface tension of the water. A molecule within the bulk of a liquid experiences attractions to neighboring molecules in all directions, but since these average out to zero, there is no net force on the molecule. For a molecule that finds itself at the surface, the situation is quite different; it experiences forces only sideways and downward, and this is what creates the stretchedmembrane effect. The distinction between molecules located at the surface and those deep inside is especially prominent in H2O, owing to the strong hydrogen-bonding forces. The difference between the forces experienced by a molecule at the surface and one in the bulk liquid gives rise to the liquid'ssurface tension.

This drawing highlights two H2O molecules, one at the surface, and the other in the bulk of the liquid. The surface molecule is attracted to its neighbors

below and to either side, but there are no attractions pointing in the 180 solid angle angle above the surface. As a consequence, a molecule at the surface will tend to be drawn into the bulk of the liquid. But since there must always be some surface, the overall effect is to minimize the surface area of a liquid. The geometric shape that has the smallest ratio of surface area to volume is the sphere, so very small quantities of liquids tend to form spherical drops. As the drops get bigger, their weight deforms them into the typical tear shape.
[image: Crawford Wilson III] Wetting

Take a plastic mixing bowl from your kitchen, and splash some water around in it. You will probably observe that the water does not cover the inside surface uniformly, but remains dispersed into drops. The same effect is seen on a dirty windshield; turning on the wipers simply breaks hundreds of drops into thousands. By contrast, water poured over a clean glass surface will wet it, leaving a uniform film.

When a liquid is in contact with a solid surface, its behavior depends on the relative magnitudes of the surface tension forces and the attractive forces between the molecules of the liquid and of those comprising the surface. If an H2O molecule is more strongly attracted to its own kind, then surface tension will dominate, increasing the curvature of the interface. This is what happens at the interface between water and a hydrophobic surface such as a plastic mixing bowl or a windshield coated with oily material. A clean glass surface, by contrast, has -OH groups sticking out of it which readily attach to water molecules through hydrogen bonding; this causes the water to spread out evenly over the surface, or to wet it. A liquid will wet a surface if the angle at which it makes contact with the surface is more than 90. The value of this contact angle can be predicted from the properties of the liquid and solid separately. If we want water to wet a surface that is not ordinarily wettable, we add adetergent to the water to reduce its surface tension. A detergent is a special kind of molecule in which one end is attracted to H2O molecules but the other end is not, so these ends stick out above the surface and repel each other, cancelling out the surface tension forces due to the water molecules alone.

Water the liquid

The nature of liquid water and how the H2O molecules within it are organized and interact are questions that have attracted the interest of chemists for many years. There is probably no

liquid that has received more intensive study, and there is now a huge literature on this subject. The following facts are well established:

H2O molecules attract each other through the special type of dipoledipole interaction known as hydrogen bonding a hydrogen-bonded cluster in which four H2Os are located at the corners of an imaginary tetrahedron is an especially favorable (lowpotential energy) configuration, but... the molecules undergo rapid thermal motions on a time scale of picoseconds (10 12 second), so the lifetime of any specific clustered configuration will be fleetingly brief.

A variety of techniques including infrared absorption, neutron scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance have been used to probe the microscopic structure of water. The information garnered from these experiments and from theoretical calculations has led to the development of around twenty "models" that attempt to explain the

structure and behavior of water. More recently, computer simulations of various kinds have been employed to explore how well these models are able to predict the observed physical properties of water. This work has led to a gradual refinement of our views about the structure of liquid water, but it has not produced any definitive answer. There are several reasons for this, but the principal one is that the very concept of "structure" (and of water "clusters") depends on both the time frame and volume under consideration. Thus questions of the following kinds are still open:

How do you distinguish the members of a "cluster" from adjacent molecules that are not in that cluster? Since individual hydrogen bonds are continually breaking and re-forming on a picosecond time scale, do water clusters have any meaningful existence over longer periods of time? In other words, clusters are transient, whereas "structure" implies a molecular arrangement that is more enduring. Can we then legitimately use the term "clusters"

in describing the structure of water?

The possible locations of neighboring molecules around a given H2O are limited by energetic and geometric considerations, thus giving rise to a certain amount of "structure" within any small volume element. It is not clear, however, to what extent these structures interact as the size of the volume element is enlarged. And as mentioned above, to what extent are these structures maintained for periods longer than a few picoseconds?

The view first developed in the 1950's that water is a collection of "flickering clusters" of varying sizes (right) has gradually been abandoned as being unable to account for many of the observed properties of the liquid.

Cu rrent views of water structure

The present thinking, influenced greatly by molecular modeling simulations beginning in the 1980s, is that on a very short time scale (less than a picosecond), water is more like a "gel" consisting of a single, huge hydrogen-bonded cluster. On a 10-12-10-9 sec time scale, rotations and other thermal motions cause individual hydrogen bonds to break and re-form in new configurations, inducing ever-changing local discontinuities whose extent and influence depends on the temperature and pressure.

Recent work from Richard SayKally's laboratory shows that the hydrogen bonds in liquid water break and re-form

This computer-generated nanoscale view of liquid water is from the lab of Gene Stanley of Boston

so rapidly (often in distorted configurations) that the liquid can be regarded as a continuous network of hydrogen-bonded molecules.

University [source]. The oxygen atoms are red, the hydrogen atoms white

Local structures and water clusters

It is quite likely that over very small volumes, localized (H2O)n polymeric clusters may have a fleeting existence, and many theoretical calculations have been made showing that some combinations are more stable than others. While this might prolong their lifetimes, it does not appear that they remain intact long enough to detect as directly observable entities in ordinary bulk water at normal pressures. Theoretical models suggest that the average cluster may encompass as many as 90 H2O molecules at 0C, so that very cold water can be thought of as a collection of ever-changing ice-like structures. At 70 C, the average cluster size is probably no greater than about 25.

It must be emphasized that no stable clustered unit or arrangement has ever been isolated or identified in pure bulk liquid water. A 2006 report suggests that a simple tetrahedral arrangement is the only long-range structure that persists at time scales of a picosecond or beyond. But for an interesting (and somewhat controversial) alternative view, see this PDF article by Rustum Roy. And a 2007 study suggests that infrared radiation can stabilize clathratelike clusters for up to several hours.

Water clusters are of considerable interest as models for the study of water and water surfaces, and many articles on them are published every year. Some notable work reported in 2004 extended our view of water to the femtosecond time scale. The principal finding was that 80 percent of the water molecules are bound in chain-like fashion to only two other molecules at room temperature, thus supporting the prevailing view of a dynamically-changing, disordered water structure.
Some recent work involving novel experimental and computational techniques has revealed more about water structure:

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Revealing the Mysteries of Water Water: Dissolving the Controversy this page is from the UCBerkely lab of Richard Saykally, one of the world's experts on water structure.

Liquid and solid water

Ice, like all solids, has a well-defined structure; each water molecule is surrounded by four neighboring H2Os. two of these are hydrogenbonded to the oxygen atom on the central H2O molecule, and each of the two hydrogen atoms is similarly bonded to another neighboring H2O.

The hydrogen bonds are represented by the dashed lines in this 2dimensional schematic diagram. In reality, the four bonds from each O atom point toward the four corners of a tetrahedron centered on the O atom. This basic assembly repeats itself in three dimensions to build the ice crystal. When ice melts to form liquid water, the uniform three-dimensional tetrahedral organization of the solid breaks down as thermal motions disrupt, distort, and occasionally break hydrogen bonds. The methods used to determine the positions of molecules in a solid do not work with liquids, so there is no unambiguous way of determining the detailed structure of water. The illustration here is probably typical of the arrangement of neighbors around any particular H2O molecule, but very little is known about the extent to which an arrangement like this gets propagated to more distant molecules.

Here are three-dimensional views of a typical local structure of water (left) and ice (right.) Notice the greater openness of the ice structure which is necessary to ensure the strongest degree of hydrogen bonding in a uniform, extended crystal lattice. The more crowded and jumbled arrangement in liquid water can be sustained only by the greater amount thermal energy available above the freezing point. [image source] For more on the structure of ice:

A very readable article on ice structure.

This Ice Structure page from U. of Wisconsin has some excellent graphics illustrating the structures of ordinary ice as well as of its highpressure polymorphs.

The stable arrangement of hydrogen-bonded water molecules in ice gives rise to the beautiful hexagonal symmetry that reveals itself in every snowflake. For almost everything there is to know about snowflakes (and a lot of nice images), see this SnowCrystals pagefrom CalTech.

Why is ice slippery? At temperatures as low as 200K, the surface of ice is highly disordered and water-like. As the temperature approaches the freezing point, this region of disorder extends farther down from the surface and acts as a lubricant. The illustration is taken from from an article in the April 7, 2008 issue ofC&EN honoring the physical chemist Gabor Somorjai who pioneered modern methods of studying surfaces.

"Pure" water
To a chemist, the term "pure" has meaning only in the context of a particular application or process. The distilled or de-ionized water we use in the laboratory contains dissolved atmospheric gases and occasionally some silica, but their small amounts and relative inertness make these impurities insignificant for most purposes. When water of the highest obtainable purity is required for certain types of exacting measurements, it is commonly filtered, de-ionized, and triple-vacuum distilled. But even this "chemically pure" water is a mixture of isotopic species: there are two stable isotopes of both hydrogen (H1 and H2, the latter often denoted by D) and oxygen (O16 and O18) which give rise to combinations such as H2O18, HDO16, etc., all of which are readily identifiable in the infrared spectra of water vapor. And to top this off, the two hydrogen atoms in water contain protons whose magnetic moments can be parallel or antiparallel, giving rise to orthoand para-water, respectively. The two forms are normally present in a o/p ratio of 3:1.
The amount of the rare isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water varies enough from place to place that it is now possible to determine the age and source of a particular water sample with some precision. These differences are reflected in

the H and O isotopic profiles of organisms. Thus the isotopic analysis of human hair can be a useful tool for crime investigations and anthropology research. See also this Microbe Forensics page, and this general resource on water isotopes.

It has recently been found (Langmuir 2003, 19, 6851-6856) that freshly distilled water takes a surprisingly long time to equilibrate with the atmosphere, that it undergoes large fluctuations in pH and redox potential, and that these effects are greater when the water is exposed to a magnetic field. The reasons for this behavior are not clear, but one possibility is that dissolved O2 molecles, which are paramagnetic, might be involved.

Drinking water
Our ordinary drinking water, by contrast, is never chemically pure, especially if it has been in contact with sediments. Groundwaters (from springs or wells) always contain ions of calcium and magnesium, and often iron and manganese as well; the positive charges of these ions are balanced by the negative ions carbonate/bicarbonate, and occasionally some chloride and sulfate. Groundwaters in some regions contain unacceptably high concentrations of naturally-occuring toxic elements such as selenium and arsenic. One might think that rain or snow would be exempt from contamination, but when water vapor condenses out of the atmosphere it always does so on a particle of dust which releases substances into the water, and even the purest air contains carbon dioxide which dissolves to form carbonic acid. Except in highly polluted atmospheres, the impurities picked up by snow and rain are too minute to be of concern. Various governments have established upper limits on the amounts of contaminants allowable in drinking water; the best known of these are theU.S. EPA Drinking Water Standards.

What kind of water is most healthy to drink?

I am not aware of any evidence indicating that any one type of water (including highly "pure" water) is more beneficial to health than any other, as long as the water is pathogen-free and meets accepted standards such as those mentioned above. For those who are sensitive to residual chlorine or still have concerns, a good activated-carbon filter is usually satisfactory. More extreme measures such as reverseosmosis or distillation are only justified in demonstrably extreme situations. "Pure" rainwater always contains some dissolved carbon dioxide which makes it slightly acidic. When this water comes into contact with sediments, it tends to dissolve them, and in the process becomes alkaline. The pH of drinking water can vary from around 5 to 9, and it has no effect on one's health. The idea that alkaline water is better to drink than acidic water is widely promoted by alternative-health hucksters who market worthless "water ionizer" machines for this purpose. Acidic water is sometimes described by engineers as "aggressive"; this refers to its tendency to corrode metal distribution pipes, but in this sense it is no more active than the hydrochloric acid already present in your gastric fluid!
Ion-free water

One occasionally hears that mineral-free water, and especially distilled water, are unhealthy because they "leach out" required minerals from the body. There is no truth to this; the fact is that mineral ions do not pass through cell walls by ordinary osmotic diffusion, but rather are actively transported by metabolic

processes. An extensive 2008 study failed to confirm earlier reports that low calcium/magnesium in drinking water correlates with cardiovascular disease. Any well-balanced diet should supply all the mineral substances we need. It is well known that people who are engaged in heavy physical activity or are in a very hot environment should avoid drinking large quantities of even ordinary water. In order to prevent serious electrolyte imbalance problems, it is necessary to make up for the salts lost through perspiration. This can be accomplished by ingestion of salted foods or beverages (including "sports beverages"), or salt tablets.

Water in our bodies

About two-thirds of the weight of an adult human consists of water. About two-thirds of this water is located within cells, while the remaining third consists of extracellular water, mostly in the blood plasma and in the interstitial fluid that bathes the cells. This water, amounting to about five percent of body weight (about 5 L in the adult), serves as a supporting fluid for the blood cells and acts as a means of transporting chemicals between cells and the external environment. It is basically a 0.15M solution of salt (NaCl) containing smaller amounts of other electrolytes, the most important of which are bicarbonate (HCO3) and protein anions.
For more information, see this Fluid Physiology on-line text.

The water content of our bodies is tightly controlled in respect to both total volume and its content of dissolved substances, particulary ions.

Drinking constitutes only one source of our water; many foods, especially those containing cells (fruits, vegetables, meats) are an important secondary source. In addition, a considerable amount of water (350-400 mL/day) is produced metabolically that is, from the oxidation of glucose derived from foods.
The quantity of water exchanged within various parts of our bodies is surprisingly large. The kidneys process about 180 L/day, returning most of the water to the blood stream. Lymph flow amounts to 1-2.5 L/day, and turnover of fluids in the bowel to 8-9 L/day. These figures are dwarfed by the 80,000 L/day of water that diffuses in both directions through capillary walls.

How much water should I drink?

The idea that everyone should drink "eight glasses" of water a day is one of those urban legends that never seems to go away; it is nicely debunked at this medical myths site. This Mayo Clinic page offers sensible guidelines. The body's daily water loss Loss through breath: 800 mL Minimal sweat loss: 100 mL Fecal loss: 200 mL Minimal urine loss: 500 mL Total: 1600 mL Ultimately, total water intake plus metabolic production must balance water loss. For a healthy unstressed adult, the figures shown here are typical minimum values. Notice that the major loss is through simple breathing. The minimal urinary loss is determined by the need to remove salts and other solutes taken in with foods or produced by metabolic processes. Individuals (such as many elderly) having reduced kidney function produce more dilute urine, and must therefore

take in more water. And of course stress factors such as strenuous exercise, exposure to very high temperatures, or diarrhea can greatly increase the need for water intake. Consumption of overly large quantities of water can lead to electrolyte imbalance resulting in water intoxication. Children, with their low body masses, are especially susceptible. A 2008 report recommends that young infants should never be given water.

Bound water
As we explained above, bulk liquid water consists of a seething mass of various-sized chain-like groups and that flicker in and out of existence on a time scale of picoseconds. But in the vicinity of a solid surface or of another molecule or ion that possesses an unbalanced electric charge, water molecules can become oriented and sometimes even bound into relatively stable structures.

Water in ionic hydration shells

Water molecules interact strongly with ions, which are electricallycharged atoms or molecules. Dissolution of ordinary salt (NaCl) in water yields a solution containing the ions Na+ and Cl . Owing to its high polarity, the H2O molecules closest to the dissolved ion are strongly attached to it, forming what is known as the inner or primary hydration shell. Positively-charged ions such as Na+ attract the negative (oxygen) ends of the H2O molecules, as shown in the diagram

below. The ordered structure within the primary shell creates, through hydrogen-bonding, a region in which the surrounding waters are also somewhat ordered; this is the outer hydration shell, or cybotactic region.

Some recent experiments have revealed a degree of covalent bonding between the d-orbitals of transition metal ions and the oxygen atoms of water molecules in the inner hydration shell.

In 2003, some chemists in India found (Inorg. Chem. 44(4) pp 816 - 818) that a suitable molecular backbone (above) can cause water molecules to form a "thread" that can snake its way though the more open space of the larger molecules. What all of these examples show is that water can have highly organized local structures when it interacts with molecules capable of imposing these structures on the water.

Finally, a 2006 publication from U. Nebraska-Lincoln describes how water can form a DNA-like double-helix within a carbon nanotube that is subjected to high pressure.

Biowater: Bound water in biological systems

It has long been known that the intracellular water very close to any membrane or organelle (sometimes called vicinal water) is organized very differently from bulk water, and that this structured water plays a significant role in governing the shape (and thus biological activity) of large folded biopolymers. It is important to bear in mind, however, that the structure of the water in these regions is imposed solely by the geometry of the surrounding hydrogen bonding sites. Water can hydrogen-bond not only to itself, but also to any other molecules that have -OH or -NH2 units hanging off of them. This includes simple molecules such as alcohols, surfaces such as glass, and macromolecules such as proteins. The biological activity of proteins (of which enzymes are an important subset) is critically dependent not only on their composition but also on the way these huge molecules are folded; this folding involves hydrogen-bonded interactions with water, and also between different parts of the molecule itself. Anything that disrupts these intramolecular hydrogen bonds will denature the protein and destroy its biological activity. This is essentially what happens when you boil an egg; the bonds that hold the eggwhite protein in its compact folded arrangement break apart so that the molecules unfold into a tangled, insoluble mass which, like Humpty Dumpty, cannot be restored to their original forms. Note that

hydrogen-bonding need not always involve water; thus the two parts of the DNA double helix are held together by HNH hydrogen bonds.

This image, taken from the work of William Royer Jr. of the U. Mass. Medical School, shows the water structure (small green circles) that exists in the space between the two halves of a kind of dimeric hemoglobin. The thin dotted lines represent hydrogen bonds. Owing to the geometry of the hydrogen-bonding sites on the heme protein backbones, the H2O molecules within this region are highly ordered; the local water structure is stabilized by these hydrogen bonds, and the resulting water cluster in turn stabilizes this particular geometric form of the hemoglobin dimer. More diagrams, with commentary, can be found here.
Prof. Pollock's latest (2013) book,The Fourth Phase of Water, is as beautifully written and illustrated as his earlier one. And it will likely prove equally controversial, firming up the author's reputation (at least among some chemists) as "The Bad Boy of Water Science". The publisher offers a free pdf filecontaining several chapters.
Cells, Gels and the Engines of Life: A New, Unifying Approach to Cell Functionis the title of a fascinating, beautifully illustrated book by Gerald Pollack of the University of Washington. His central theme relates to the structuring effect of the water molecule on the dynamics of the cytoplasmic gel. As with

most theories that challenge conventional scientific understanding, Pollack's ideas have attracted a lot of criticism from the scientific community (example), but asthis review in Nature suggests, there is a lot here that is certainly worth exploring. This video of his 2009 UW Faculty Lecture is entertaining and informative.

Water Pseudoscience
See the "AquaScams" site for much more on this subject. Here are a few highlights.

"Clustered", "Unclustered" and other structurealtered waters

The "alternative" health market is full of goofy productswhich purport to alter the structure of water by stabilizing groups of H2O molecules into permanent clusters of 4-8 molecules, or alternatively, to break up what they claim are the larger clusters (usually 10-15 molecules) that they say normally

exist in water. The object in either case is to promote the flow of water into the body's cells ("cellular hydration"). This is of course utter nonsense; there is no credible scientific evidence for any of these claims, many of which verge on the bizarre. There are even some scientifically absurd U.S. Patents for the manufacture of socalled "Clustered Water". At least 20 nostrums of this kind are offered to the scientifically-nave public through hundreds of Web sites and late-night radio "infomercials". None of this misleading sales hype should be believed.

Does water have "memory"?

According to modern-day proponents of homeopathy, it must. Homeopathic remedies are made by diluting solutions of various substances so greatly that not even a single molecule of the active substance can be expected to be present in the final medication. Now that even the homeopaths have come to accept this fact, they explain that the water somehow retains the "imprint" or "memory" of the original solute.

Some references (mostly skeptical) on homeopathy

In 1985, the late Jacques Benveniste, a French biologist, conducted experiments that purported to show that a certain type of cellular immune response could be brought about by an anti-immunoglobulin agent that had been diluted to such an extent that it is highly unlikely that even one molecule of this agent remained in the aqueous solution. He interpreted this to indicate that water could somehow retain an impression, or "memory", of a solute that had been diluted out of existence. This result was immediately taken by believers in

homeopathy as justification for their dogma that similarly diluted remedies could be effective as alternative medical agents. The consensus among chemists is that any temporary disruption of the water structure by a dissolved agent would disappear within a fraction of a second after its removal by dilution, owing to the vigorous thermal motions of the water molecules. Benveniste's results have never been convincingly replicated by other scientists (see here for a recent summary).

In 2010, a UK parliamentry committee report urged the government to withdraw funding and licensing of homeopathy.

Can you run your car on wat er?

Not really. For water to act as a fuel, there must be some combination of oxygen and hydrogen that is energetically more stable than H2O, and no such molecule is known.

This fact has failed to put to rest the venerable urban legend that some obscure inventor discovered a process to do this, but the invention was secretly bought up by the oil companies in order to preserve their monopoly.
It takes 286 kJ of energy to break up 18 g of water into its elements. Allowing the oxygen and hydrogen to recombine yields this same amount of energy back in the form of heat. But to do anything useful with this heat, it must be converted into work, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics limits the efficiency of this step to less (usually far less) than 100%. If the hydrogen and oxygen are recombined in a fuel cell, the Second Law limitation is removed, but the First Law still limits energy

recovery to 100%, and this does not count inefficiencies in the initial decomposition of water. Any scheme to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen requires a net input of energy.

However, adding water to the fuel-air mixture in an internal combustion engine, a process known as water injection, has been employed for many years as a method of improving the performance of both piston- and turbine engines. Water injection kits are widely available, many offered by hucksters whose marketing (sample) falsely implies that their products allow you to "run your car on water". Don't believe it! And get some solid advice before you try this on a modern computer-controlled high compression engine.
Burning water

In 2007, a widely-cited YouTube video appeared that showed a sample of salt water "burning". This occurs only in the presence of a strong radio-frequency field, which supposedly dissociates the water into H2 and O2. These two gases then recombine, producing the flame. Although there has been much uninformed hype about this being some kind of a breakthrough as a source of "energy from water", there is no reason to believe that the First Law of Thermodynamics has been repealed. If the energy supplied by the radio-frequency source is taken into account, you can be sure that there has been no net energy gain.
The actual mechanism of the process remains unclear. The fact that salt or some other ionic solute is required suggests that ions at the water's surface might be accelerated in the local field produced by the plasma discharge, helping to break up the molecules in the water vapor.

But for something really far-out, few things beat the sub-culture of the "free energy" pseudoscience enthusiasts and their religionlike obsession with "HHO" (also known as "Brown's gas") for whom the late Stan Meyerseemed to be the guru. See this video about Stan Meyer's "water fuel cell" that apparently flouts all the laws of

thermodynamics! (and see here orhere for some competent debunking of this nonsense.)

The mystery, art and science of water. This site provides a view of water in all the many ways it impacts upon the multiple facets of our culture. Highly recommended. Water Treatment - this Wikipedia page covers the basics of water treatment and disinfection. Water Structure and Properties is a Web site developed by Martin Chaplin at South Bank University in England. It is a scientifically sound, well laid-out collection of articles on water and its structure which should answer any of your questions. Does hot water freeze faster than cold water? Yes, this can happen under the right conditions. Brief explanation, more complete explanation. See also Warm water vibrates for a longer time. Special Report on the Chemistry of Water from the U.S. National Science Foundation. An interesting summary of new work on water and its structure, with some striking images. "Water Buckyballs": Chemical, catalytic and cosmic implications. This rather technical paper by Keith Johnson of MIT explores the quantum theory and far-i.r. spectra of water clusters and speculates on their role in cosmochemistry. {The structure of ideal liquid water} - a well-organized but rather technical Web site by Gregory Moreno. It includes

an extensive bibliography of scientific articles on water structure from 1915 through 1992. Water on earth: the hydrosphere and the oceans - this site, from the Author's former course in Environmental Chemistry, presents a general survey. Why is water blue? It's all about O-H bond stretching! A more technical site. See also this nicely illustrated NASA article Where is the ocean bluest? For a darker view of water, see the Ban DHMO page

and finally... Science tells us about the world, but the arts help us discover ourselves. Here are a few water-related artistic works that I would like to share:

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own water!

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By Norman deLauder Mikesell, 1985

ABSTRACT ON STRUCTURED WATER RESEARCH Structured water is found in the cytoplasm of healthy tissue. It has a high solubility for the body's minerals, so minerals and vitamins, which are formed with structured water, tend to go from the digestive tract and bloodstream into the tissues. Structured water can be formed using lights, magnets, temperature changes, quartz crystals, pyramids, motion, and sounds. Structured water formed with blue light or North Pole magnetic energy is slightly alkaline and has an increased surface tension. Water structured with yellow and red light, south pole magnetic energy or within a pyramid is slightly acidic and has a decreased surface tension. The two types of structured water each have increased mineral solubilities and different healing effects on the body. North pole magnetic energy and water is known to stop the growth of pathogenic bacteria and cancer tumors while south-pole magnetic energy and water enhances organ functions and endocrine excretions. The structured water research will investigate the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water structured under different conditions of light, temperature, magnets, quartz crystals, pyramids and sounds. The physical changes in dielectric conductivity and surface tension will be investigated. The chemical changes in the pH and mineral solubilities will be correlated with the different biological actions found for each type of structured water. FORMATION OF STRUCTURED WATER All light structures water. Light centered in the blue, violet and ultraviolet end of the spectrum will produce an alkaline structured water. Examples of these kinds of light are sunlight at high noon (blue) bilirubin light (blue) and germicidal light (U.V.). Light centered in the green part of the spectrum; early morning and late afternoon sunlight, tree shade and Kiva lights structure water at a neutral pH. Light centered in the yellow and red end of the spectrum produces an acid structured water. Examples of these kinds of light are

incandescent light bulbs (yellow), cool white fluorescent tubes (yellow), warm white fluorescent tubes (yellow) and Gro-Lites (pink) (Bachechi, 1982 p. 14). North-pole magnetic energy structures water and amino acid solutions to an alkaline pH and increases water surface tension. South-pole magnetic energy structures water amino acid solutions to an acid pH and decreases water surface tension (Davis & Rawls, 1979 pp. 85-86 and Rees, pp. 26-27). A decrease in surface tension is also found with water placed under a pyramid (Schul & Pettit, 1975 pp. 91-92). Structured water has a higher solubility for minerals than bulk water. Water activated by Kiva lights (Bachechi, 1984), red light and electrical discharge from a neon & mercury filled vial (Gauquelin, 1969) and south-pole magnetic energy (Davis and Rawls, 1979 p.89) will dissolve calcium deposits found in hard water and boiler scale. These three types of activated water are structured to an acid pH and have an increased solubility for structure-maker ions -- ions that cause water to become more highly structured. Structure-maker ions are all multivalent ions and monovalent ions the size of sodium or smaller. These +1 +1 +1 +2 +2 +3 +2 +3 -1 -1 are Li , Na , H30 , Ca , Ga , Mg , Al , Er , OH , and F . Ions which are more soluble in alkaline structured water are called structure-breaker ions and include all +1 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 -1 -1 monovalent ions, the size of potassium or larger. These are K , NH4 , Rb , Co , Br , I , NO3 , BrO3 , -1 -1 I03 , CIO4 . (Mikesell 1974,pp. 2-3). These solubility differences are reflected in the cells ionic make-up. The cytoplasm of healthy tissues have a slightly basic pH and a high potassium to sodium ratio while the bloodstream, nucleus and extracellular fluid is more acidic with a higher sodium content (Mikesell, 1974 pp. 5-14). Structured water has a decreased solubility for dissolved gases. Kiva light activated water has a decrease in the amount of dissolved chlorine gas, that which remains is turned into a chloride ion (Bachechi, 1984). Magnet activated water has a decrease in the dissolved oxygen and nitrogen (Davis & Rawls, 1975 pp. 118-119). Water with 1.2 ppm dissolved nitrogen, which is exposed to either a North Pole or South Pole magnet, loses half of its dissolved nitrogen. The same water, which is exposed to an alternating northpole south-pole electromagnet, has one quarter the original amount of dissolved nitrogen (Davis & Rawls, 1979 p. 88). Structured water can be formed using lights, magnets, temperature changes, quartz crystals, pyramid energy, sounds and minerals. The effect of lights should first be studied since all laboratory experiments are done under some kind of artificial lights - usually either cool white fluorescence, warm white fluorescence or incandescent bulbs. Since these three lights are centered in the yellow end of the spectrum, all structured water data will be biased toward an acid pH condition. Therefore structured water experiments on the changes in pH, dielectric conductivity and surface tension should be done on incandescent bulbs, Gro-Lites, warm white and cool white fluorescent lights, Kiva lights, bilirubin lights and UV germicidal lights in order to find out the amount each light will bias subsequent experiments on other water structuring energies. It could be that standard lighting conditions for structured water experiments should be all cool whites, all Kiva lights or even that experiments should only be done in the dark. The activation of water by a Kiva light, because it is centered in the green, structures both the acid and the alkaline ions. The North Pole and south pole magnetized water will structure both the acid and alkaline ions. One explanation for the decrease in the dissolved gas content of Kiva lighted and sun energized water is that the acid structured water, with its decreased surface tension, opens the water bonding up and allows the dissolved chlorine to escape into the atmosphere. The alkaline structured+1 -1 +1 -1 -1 -1 water is more soluble for H3O , OH , NH4 , NO3 , Cl , ClO , ions. The hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions -1 +1 -1 will react with chlorine to form Cl ions and CIO4 ions, with nitrogen to form NH4 and NO3 and will react with oxygen to form additional hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. Dissolved CO 2 will react with hydrogen ions to -1 form carboxylic acid (HCOO ). The structuring of water can be done using both light and magnetic energy. Parccardi demonstrated this by stirring a vial of low-pressure neon with a drop of mercury around in a beaker of water. The mercury, rubbing on the wall of the vial produces a slight electromagnetic current, which causes the neon to discharge a red fluorescent light. This produces an acid structured water which dissolves boiler scale

(Gauquelin, 1969). The inert gases, subjected to pressure and a magnetic field, have been used on water, juice or as whole body irradiation to cure a variety of diseases (Cook, 1980 pp. 1-7). Changes in temperature have been used to structure water. An increase in temperature is used in making cell salt solutions. Each successive dilution is prepared by either raising the temperature 10 degrees Centigrade or shaking a bottle 2/3's full of the salt solution 40-50 times. This forms hydration shells around each of the ions, which causes an increased separation between the ions and structures the water around the ions (Mikesell, 1974 pp. 14-16). A decrease in temperature is used in structuring vortexya water. Water is vortexed, under vacuum, at 4 degrees Centigrade with C0 2, 02 and trace minerals, which combine with the oxygen and with the carbon dioxide (Baumgardner pp. 5-7). This creates both acid and alkaline structured water with an increased solubility of the trace minerals. Freshly melted snow and water, which has been boiled and quickly cooled, is degassed to the point where the water becomes structured. This kind of water is more biologically active, shows an increased surface tension, density and viscosity and a decrease in electrical conductivity. (Maugh II, 1978 p. 414) Minerals will structure water. Silica gel will cause an alkaline structuring of water with an increased surface tension and solubility of potassium structure-breaking type ions (Mikesell 1974, pp. 7-9). Hunza water is composed of all the sea waters minerals except NaCl and has a decreased surface tension (Flanagan, 1984). Pyramid energy will produce acid structured water with a decrease in surface tension if water is placed inside a pyramid. The pyramid's effect on water has been attributed to an increase in the water's dipole moment. (Schul-Pettit, 1975 pp. 91-92 & 102-105). Quartz crystals structure water for several reasons. They will impart pyramid energy to water because their points are at the pyramid angle of 76 degrees. The silica dioxide will increase the water's viscosity when water is placed between two silica plates (Peschel, G. & P Belouschek, 1979 p. 9). Crystals have a piezoelectric energy, which varies depending upon their orientation in the earth's magnetic field. Pierralos found a pulse rate of 9/mm. with the leading edge of a crystal facing south, 6/mm. facing west, 4/mm. facing north and 14/mm. when facing east (Pierralos, 1971 p.18). The crystal's piezoelectric energy will also amplify the variations in pressure caused by sound while the pyroelectric energy will reflect variations in heat produced by different frequencies of light. Water treated on top of pyramids and with Ralf Bergstresser's pyramid energized aluminum plates should be tested to see how the water is structured. Sound structuring of water needs to be tested. Keely found that striking a resonate chord of an object in three octaves, the third, sixth and ninth of a chord scale would produce a variable effect. The sixth would cause the matter to condense while the ninth would have an expanding or levitating effect (Sykes 1964 pp. 20-21, Richards 1983 p. 2, & Richards 1984 p. 12). The structuring of water by these various means should be measured by looking at changes in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dielectric conductivity, UV spectrophotometry, surface tension, viscosity, density, freezing temperature, ice crystal formation, dried crystal formation, mineral solubilities, biological activity and healing abilities. DETOXIFYING THE BODY TO HEAL PATHOGENIC AND METABOLIC DISEASES In my review of alternative healing procedures I have found four methods which will detoxify the body and cure pathogenic and metabolic diseases -- Koch Therapy, Kiva Lights, vortexya Water and the John Ray Program of minerals. They work by inducing a periodic healing crisis, which includes diarrhea and endocrine activation. The Koch Therapy heals by providing two activators of cellular oxidative reactions, Glyoxyide and Coenzyme Q10 that allows the cells to remove pathogenic bacteria and viruses and reabsorb cancerous tumors. (Koch 1961, p. 278 & 288). Kiva lights, when used on cooking water and food, cause the food to be properly absorbed by the body and induces the body to heal itself of cancers, Candida yeast, food allergies, arthritis, overweight and underweight metabolism. When used over the

cooking water and bath water, the Kiva lights remove chlorine and structure the water so minerals are more soluble and biologically active. Both the Koch Therapy and the Kiva Process detoxify the body in such a way that every month on the Kiva Process equals one year's worth of toxic elimination. For example, if you had quit smoking or drinking six years ago, then after six months of Kiva food processing you would find yourself starting to eliminate nicotine or alcohol toxins from your body. This would continue in terms of months, for however many years you smoked or drank (Bachicha, 1984). With Koch Therapy, polio victims who have been paralyzed for three years require three months to recover 95% normal function, while one patient who was paralyzed for twenty years had 95% normal functioning and muscle reconstruction after two years of Koch Therapy detoxification. (Koch 1961, p. 16). The John Ray Program uses a high amount of chelated trace minerals from kelp, enzymes, vitamins, acidophilus and herbs to promote good nutrition and periodic diarrhea. Acupressure points are pressed to activate the organs, the endocrine system and to remove calcifications. Colon elimination is so good that intestinal tumors and diverticuli are flushed out and cancers in other parts of the body are reabsorbed (John Ray Lecture Tapes, 1984). Vortexya water has the same trace minerals found in kelp. They are activated by vortexing under vacuum with oxygen and carbon dioxide at 4 degrees Centigrade. This bio-active water rejuvenates the endocrine glands, normalizes intestinal elimination and heals the body of cancers, arthritis, kidney stones, gall stones and other metabolic disorders by flooding the tissues with an active form of oxygen, carbon dioxide and trace minerals. (Baumgardner, p. 5-7) KIVA LIGHTS Chemical mechanisms on Orie Bachechi's eight year study of the effects of full spectrum Kiva lights submitted to One for his use in grant proposals and the designing of future experiments. Kiva light removes dust and static electricity from the air while holding the humidity between 45 and 55%. This balances the positive and negative ion contents in a room. Rooms, which are dry and dusty, are depleted in negative ions while rooms, which are very humid, have few positive or negative ions. The Kiva light produces highly active water molecules, which precipitate the dust (positive ions), and excess humidity (negative ions) to produce a room, which has an equal balance of, charged positive and negative ions. Negative ion studies show a balance of positive and negative ions increases oxygen absorption in man. The Kiva light changes the pH of water. This change comes from the light structuring or activating the water to form free radicals or highly reactive positive and negative ions within the water. These charged ions will react with other water molecules to form ionized chains of water molecules and will ionize dissolved gases and minerals. Dissolved minerals become more highly soluble because there are more water hydration shells around each mineral. This increase in the charged molecule changes the chemical strength of the dissolved minerals and changes the pH of the water. Dissolved gases become ionized in structured water. Kiva lights change dissolved chlorine gas into chloride ions by the structured water ionizing the Cl2 molecules into two Cl free radicals which then react with two H free radicals to form two HCl molecules. This reaction will change the water to a more acid pH. Dissolved CO2 gas will become HCOO (carboxylic acid) while dissolved 02 will react with H free radicals -1 to become two basic hydroxyl (OH ions). Kiva lights seem to inhibit several well-known free radical organic and biochemical reactions. Epoxy glue will not bond under Kiva light but will stick when placed under incandescent lights. These reactions probably need an acid environment to go from the free radical condition to the ionic or covalently bonded state. Fats and oils do not become rancid under Kiva lights so meat and vegetables do not spoil as readily with Kiva light as they do under acid causing yellow or pink lights.

Kiva lights are modified 4 foot fluorescent Vita-Lites which when placed over the kitchen sink structure the tap water and the food prepared in the kitchen. People using these lights in this manner experience periodic detoxification reactions, which include a slight fever and diarrhea. Many diseased conditions are improved by this use of structured water including poor circulation, high blood pressure, cellulite loss, dry skin, kidney and gall bladder stones, toxicity, anemia, ulcers, diabetes, arthritis, fibroid tumors and paralysis (Bachechi, 1982). In the body, poor circulation, high blood pressure, arterial sclerosis and cellulite from cholesterol deposits are dissolved after KIVA activated water has been used for cooking. Also skin becomes softer and less wrinkled. Cholesterol deposits are due to free radical oxidation while skin wrinkles are caused by free radical cross linkage of collagen molecules. Arthritis, kidney stones and gall bladder stones are alleviated by a rebalancing of the calcium metabolism. - END -

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1. Structure Water powerful magnetic and infrared forces reduce the size of individual water clusters, creating Hexagonal Water for more rapid penetration into your body. 2. Increased Oxygen turbulent forces create a visible vortex, increasing the amount of oxygen in your drinking water - up to 30%. 3. Add Minerals a mineral core within the unit releases structure-making minerals during the vitalizing process to help structure the water and increase alkalinity. NOTE: these are minimal and dissolved completely for easy simulation into the body. 4. Add Energy the resulting energy in Vitalized water is enough to begin to balance the organs of your body within minutes after drinking.

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Bachechi, Orie (1982) When Light Touches Many Changes Take Place, Kiva, Inc., 912 Broadway N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87102 Bachechi, Orie (1984) Personal Communication, Albuquerque, NM: Kiva, Inc. Baumgardner, Walter Vortexya Water, Albuquerque, NM: Energy Unlimited, p. 5-7 Beall, Paula T. (1979) "Applications of Cell Biology to an Understanding of Biological Water" in Cell-Associated Water, (Drost-Hansen, W. and James S. Clegg; Eds.) New York: Academic Press Bradford, Robert W., Henry W. Allen and Michael L. Culbert (1981) Phase I Research Project (The HLB Blood Test), San Francisco, CA: The Robert Bradford Research Institute, 111 Ellis St., Suite 300, San Francisco, CA 94102 C1egg, James S. (1979) "Metabolism and the Intracellular Environment: The Vincinal-Water Network Model" in CellAssociated Water, (Drost-Hansen, W. and James S. Clegg; Eds.) New York: Academic Press Clifford, J., B.A. Pethica and E.G. Smith (1968) "A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Molecular Motion in Erythrocyte Membranes" in Membrane Models and the Formation of Biological Membranes, (Bolis, Liana and Pethica; Eds.) pp. 19-42 Cook, Maurice B. (1980) The Inert Gases, Toronto, Canada: Marcus Books Davis, A.R. & W.C. Rawls (1979) The Magnetic Blueprint of Life, Smithtown, NY: Exposition Press Davis, A.R. & W.C. Rawls (1975) The Magnetic Effect, Smithtown, NY: Exposition Press Flanagan, Patrick (1984) Hunza Crystal Water, Novato, CA: Flanagan Research LTD Gauquelin, M. (1969) The Cosmic Clocks, London: Peter Owen Koch, William F. (1961) The Survival Factor in Neoplastic and Viral Diseases, p. 16, pp. 278 & 288 Levine, S.A. and P.M. Kidd (1985) Antioxidant Adaptation: Its Role in Free Radical Pathology, San Leandro, CA: Biocurrents Div., Allergy Research Group (400 Preda St., San Leandro, CA 94577) Ling, G.N. (1969) "A New Model for the Living Cell: A Summary of the Theory and Recent Experimental Evidence in its Support" in International Review of Cytology 26, pp. 1-61 Maugh II, Thomas H. (1978) "Soviet Science: A Wonder Water From Kaza" Science 202, p. 414 (8/27/78) Mikesell, Norman (1974) "Cellular Regeneration", pp. 2-16 Peschel, G. & P. Belouschek (1979) "The Problem of Water Structure in Biological Systems" Cell-Associated Water, (edited by W. Drost-Kansen & James S. Clegg) NY: Academic Press Pierralos, J.C. (1971) The Energy Field in Man and Nature, NY: Institute of Bioenergetic Analysis, p. 18 Ray, John (September 1984) Tapes from John Ray Lectures at Boulder, Colorado. Rees, M.L. Lambdoid, Cell Salt Line, p. 26 & 27 Richards, Shine E.E. (1983) Earth Power Spectrum and Its Potential As A Usable Energy Source, Pie Town, NM Richards, Shine E.E. (1984) Multi-Octave Harmonic Interconnections, Pie Town, NM Schul, Bill & Ed Pettit (1975) The Secret Power of Pyramids, NY: Ballantine Books Sykes, Egerton (1964) The Keely Mystery, London: Markham House Press LTD. Szent-Gyorgyi, A. (1973) "Electrons, Molecules, Biology and Cancer" in Acta Biochem et Biophysic Academy of Science, (Hungary) 8, pp. 117-127 Wiggins, P.M. (1972) "Intracellular pH and the Structure of Cell Water" Journal of Theoretical Biology 37, pp. 363-37

Disclaimer: These statements about structured water, filtration techniques, etc... have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained here about water filters is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Suggestions and ideas presented in this document should not be interpreted as medical advice, meant for diagnosing illness, or for prescriptive purposes. Readers are encouraged to consult their health care provider before beginning any "alternative" protocol. The information in this document is not to be used to replace the services or instructions of a physician or qualified health care practitioner. Structured water.

Water analysis-Determination of Physical parameters


To determine the physical parameters such as (Turbidity, pH, Conductance) of water sample.

It is needless to emphasize the importance of water in our life. We need water for different purposes; we need water for drinking, for industries, for irrigation, for swimming, for fishing etc. Thus water for different purposes has its own requirements for the composition and purity and each body of water has to be analysed on a regular basis to confirm to suitability. The types of analysis could vary from simple field testing for a single analyte to laboratory based multi component instrumental analysis. The measurement of water quality is very tedious process and a large number of quantitative analytical methods are used for this purpose.

Turbidity is the amount of particulate matter that is suspended in water. Turbidity measures the scattering effect that suspended solids have on light: the higher the intensity of scattered light, the higher the turbidity.

Material that causes water to be turbid includes:

Clay. Silt. Finely divided organic and inorganic matter. Soluble coloured organic compounds. Plankton. Microscopic organisms. The turbidity of sample solution can be measured by using Nephelometer. It is usually measured in nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) or Jackson turbidity units (JTU).

This method is based on a comparison of the intensity of light scattered by the sample under defined conditions with the intensity of light scattered by a standard reference suspension under the same conditions. The higher the intensity of scattered light, higher the turbidity. Commonly used primary standard reference suspension is Formazin polymer. The turbidity of a specified concentration of formazin suspension is defined as 400 NTU. (w.1)


The presence of floating debris and coarse sediments will give high readings. Air bubbles will cause high results. Coloured samples will cause low results.


1. Laboratory or process nephelometer consisting of a light source for illuminating the sample and one or more photoelectric detectors with a readout device to indicate intensity of light scattered at 90 to the path of incident light. 2. Sample cells: Use sample cells or tubes of clear, colourless glass or plastic. Keep cells scrupulously clean, both inside and out, and discard if scratched or etched.

Reagents: 1. Dilution water:

High-purity water will cause some light scattering, which is detected by nephleometers as turbidity. To obtain low-turbidity water for dilutions, nominal value 0.02 NTU, pass laboratory reagent-grade water through a filter with pore size sufficiently small to remove essentially all particle larger than 0.1m, the usual membrane filter used for bacteriological examinations is not satisfactory. Rinse collecting flask at least twice with filtered water and discard the next 200 mL.

2. Stock primary standard formazin suspension:

2.1 Solution (i):- Dissolve 1g hydrazinesulphate (NH2)2.H2SO4, in distilled water and dilute to 100 mL in a volumetric flask. [Caution: Hydrazine sulphate is a carcinogen; avoid inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact. Formazine suspensions can contain residual hydrazine sulphate.] 2.2 Solution (ii):- Dissolve 10.0g hexamethylenetetramine, (CH2)6N4, in distilled water and dilute to 100mL in a volumetric flask. 2.3 In flask, mix 5.0 mL solution (i) and 5.0 mL solution (ii). Let stand for 24 hr at 25 3C. This results in a 400-NTU suspension. Transfer stock suspension into an amber glass or other UV-light-blocking bottle for storage.

Make dilutions from this stock suspension. The stock suspension is stable for up to 1 year when properly stored. 2.4 Dilute turbidity suspensions:- Dilute 400 NTU primary standard suspensions with high-quality dilution water. Prepare immediately before use and after use. Working standards can be prepared by dilution of the following quantities of the stock formazin turbidity suspension (nominal 400 NTU) to 200 mL. Dilute to 200 Resultant mL NTU 10 mL 20 5 mL 10 2 mL 4 0.5 mL 1 0.2 mL 0.4 0.0 mL 0

3. Secondary standards:
Secondary standards are standards that the manufacturer has certified will give instrument calibration results equivalent (within certain limits) to the results obtained when the instrument is calibrated with the primary standard, i.e, the user-prepared formazin.

a) General measurement techniques:- Proper measurement techniques are important in minimizing the effects of instrument variables as well as stray light and air bubbles. Regardless of the instrument used, the measurement will be more accurate, precise, and repeatable if close attention is paid to proper measurement techniques. b) Nephelometer calibration:- Follow the manufacturers operating instructions. Run atleast one standard in each instrument range to be used.

Make certain the nephelometer gives stable readings in all sensitivity ranges used. c) Measurement of turbidity:- Gently agitate sample. Wait until air bubbles disappear and pour sample into cell. When possible, pour well-mixed sample into cell and immerse it in an ultrasonic bath for 1 to 2 S or apply vacuum degassing, causing complete bubble release. Read turbidity directly from instrument display. d) Calibration of continuous turbidity monitors:- Calibrate continuous turbidity monitors for low turbidities by determining turbidity of the water flowing out of them using a laboratory-model nephelometer. Or calibrate the instruments according to manufacturers instructions with formazin primary standard or appropriate secondary standard.

Drinking water Sea water

Between 5 NTU & 1 NTU Varies from 612 NTU

pH may be measured accurately using a pH meter. The pH meter must be calibrated before making pH measurements. For calibration standard buffers of pH 4.00, 7.00 and 10.00 are used. pH of water indicates the hydrogen ion concentration in water. The concept of pH was put forward by Sorenson in 1909. It is expressed as the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration in moles/litre at a given temperature. While the alkalinity or acidity measures the total resistance to the pH change or buffering capacity, the pH gives the hydrogen ion activity. The pH scale extends from 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very alkaline) with 7 corresponding to exact neutrality at 25C. pH is used in the calculation of carbonate, bicarbonate and CO2, corrosion, stability index etc.

Practically every phase of water supply and waste water treatment such as water softening, acid-base neutralization, coagulation, precipitation, disinfectant and corrosion control is pH dependent. The pH of a water sample measures its hydrogen ion concentration and indicates whether the sample is acidic, neutral or basic.

pH meter:

pH of various samples:
Samples Tap water Sea water Well water Distilled water pH 7 Varies from 7.5 8.4 Varies from 6.58.5 5.8

Electrical conductivity:
Electrical conductivity (EC) is a measure of how conductive the water is to electrical current. Greater the ion concentration, greater is the EC. Generally higher the EC, higher is the total dissolved solids. Electrical Conductivity is an indirect measure for finding the total dissolved solids in a water body. To convert the electrical conductivity of a water sample (micro Siemens per cm,

S/cm) to the concentration of total dissolved solids (ppm), the conductivity must be multiplied by a factor between 0.46 and 0.9 (depending on the unique mixture of the dissolved materials). A widely accepted conversion factor is 0.67. TDS (ppm) = Conductivity { (S/cm) x 0.67}.The instrument used for measuring conductivity is conductivity meter.

1. Conductivity water:- Any of several methods can be used to prepare reagent-grade water. Conductivity should be small compared to the value being measured. 2. Standard Potassium Chloride solution (KCl) mg anhydrous KCl in conductivity water and dilute volumetric flask at 25C and store in a CO2-free standard reference solution, which at 25C has S/cm. It is satisfactory for most samples when 0.01 M:- Dissolve 745.6 to 1000 mL in a class A atmosphere. This is the a conductivity of 1412 the cell has a constant

between 1 and 2 cm-1. For other cell constants, use stronger or weaker KCl solutions listed below table. Care must be taken when using KCl solutions less than 0.001 M, which can be unstable because of the influence of carbon dioxide on pure water. For low conductivity standards, standard reference material 3190, with a certified conductivity of 25.0 S/cm0.3 S/cm, may be obtained from NIST. Store in a glass-stoppered borosilicate glass bottle. Equivalent KCl concentration conductivity(cm2ohm(M) or equivalent/L 1 equiv-1) Conductivity, ks mho/cm

0 0.0001 0.0005 0.001 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1

149.9 148.9 147.7 146.9 143.6 141.2 138.2 133.3 128.9 124.0 117.3 11.9

14.9 73.9 146.9 717.5 1412 2765 6667 12890 24800 58670 111900

1. Determination of cell constant:- Rinse conductivity cell with at least three portions of 0.01 M KCl solution. Adjust temperature of fourth portions to 25.00.1C. If a conductivity meter displays resistance, R ohms, measure resistance of this portion and note temperature. Compute cell constant, C. C, cm-1 = (0.001412) (RKCl) [1+0.0191(t-25)]. Where, RKCl = measured resistance in ohms, and t = observed temperature in C. Conductivity meters often indicate conductivity directly. Commercial probes commonly contain a temperature sensor. With such instruments, rinse probe three times with 0.01M KCl as above. Adjust temperature compensation dial to 0.0191 C-1. With probe in standard KCl solution, adjust to read 1412 /cm. This procedure automatically adjusts cell constant internal to the meter 2. Conductivity measurement:- Thoroughly rinse cell with one or more portions of sample. Adjust temperature of a final portion to about 25C. Measure sample resistance of conductivity and note temperature to 0.1C.

Values of electrical conductivity:

Sample S/cm

Sample S/cm Totally pure 0.055 water Typical DI 0.1 water Distilled 0.5 water Raw water 50-100 Domestic 500-800 "tap" water Potable 1055 water (max) Sea water 56,000 Brackish 1,00,000 water