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JUN CARY V.

SUITOS, SN
Arellano University – 0900252
College of Nursing – Batch 2011

REVIEWER in NCM 100 SKILLS (FINAL EXAMINATION)

I. DEFINITION OF TERMS
a. Medication - treatment with drugs or remedies
b. Prescription – a written order, especially by a physician, for the preparation and
administration of a medicine or other treatment
c. Chemical Name – name of a chemical compound that shows the names of each of its
elements or sub compounds. For example, the chemical name of aspirin is
acetylsalicylic acid
d. Generic Name – official nonproprietary name of a drug, under which it is licensed and
identified by the manufacturer
e. Brand / Trade Name – a name used to identify a commercial product or service, which
may or may not be registered as a trademark. Also called brand name
f. Pharmacology – the science of drugs, including their composition, uses, and effects.
g. Pharmacy – the art of preparing and dispensing drugs
h. Pharmacopeia – drug handbook, originated in China
i. Pharmacodynamics – what the drugs does to human body
j. Phamacokinetics – what the body does to drugs
k. Pharmacotherapeutics – the therapeutic action, reaction, and interaction of drugs to
human body
l. Drug interaction - a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug
m. Abortion – termination of pregnancy and expulsion of an embryo or of a fetus that is
incapable of survival
n. Elicit Drugs – is a global black market consisting of the cultivation, manufacture,
distribution and sale of illegal drugs

ii. Pharmacokinetics
III. Therapeutic action of drugs:
ABSORPTION a. Palliative – temporary relief
b. Curative – heals completely
c. Supportive – supplement
DISTRIBUTION d. Substitute – replacement
e. Chemotherapeutic – destroys
malignant cells
BIOTRANFORMATION/ f. Restorative – return body to health
METABOLISM g. Diagnostic – used in drug testing/
allergy examination
h. Maintenance – keeps functional
EXCRETION state
i. Contraceptives – prevents
conception

IV. Drug effects


a. Side effect – unintended effect of drugs to human body
b. Adverse effect – severe unintended effect of drugs
JUN CARY V. SUITOS, SN
Arellano University – 0900252
College of Nursing – Batch 2011
c. Drug toxicity – deleterious drug effect
d. Drug allergy – inflammation; an uncommon and unwanted side effect of drug
e. Anaphylactic reaction – unintended drug effect that may result to death
f. Idiosyncratic effect - occur rarely and unpredictably amongst the population
g. Iatrogenic effect – unintentional drug misuse

V. Factors affecting drug actions:


1. Age 6. route of administration
2. gender 7. exercise
3. Body weight 8. GI motility
4. food 9. other drugs
5. drug form

VI. Principles in Administering drug administration:


1. Right drug 6. Right documentation
2. Right Client 7. Right assessment
3. Right dosage 8. Right to health education
4. Right route 9. Right to refuse
5. Right time/ frequency 10. Right evaluation

- Parenteral Medication
a. Classification:
6. SQ / Subcutaneous (hypodermic) – into the subcutaneous tissue, just underneath the
skin
7. IM / Intramuscular – into the muscle
8. ID / Intradermal – under the epidermis The client must not say “OUCH”!
9. IV / Intavenous – into a vein
b. Position In administering parenteral
1. SQ = 45º
medication, you must:
- 0.5 – I cc solution
- 5/8 inch or 25 gauge needle 1. Distract the client
2. IM = 90º 2. Apply cold compress
- used into the deep tissue 3. DO NOT HESITATE!
3. ID = 0º - 15º 4. Make sure that the needle is
- 0.1 cc
- 0.9 cc EXTREMELY SHARP.
- used for mantoux test
c. Sites
1. Vastus lateralis – anterior lateral aspect of the thigh
2. Ventrogluteal muscle – safe for all client
3. Dorsogluteal muscle – traditional site for IM injection; can’t be used at age of 5 y/o
and below.

- Syringe
d. Hypodermic – 1ml, 2ml, 3ml
e. Tuberculin – 1ml or 1cc
f. Glass syringe – ancient syringe
g. Insulin syringe – intended for insulin injection only
JUN CARY V. SUITOS, SN
Arellano University – 0900252
College of Nursing – Batch 2011 Parts of Syringe

IX. Types of Medication Errors:


1. Administration of unordered / not prescribed drug;
2. Over dosage;
3. Omission of ordered drug;
4. Wrong dose;
5. Wrong charting / documentation;
6. Wrong form and time of administration

X. Common cause of medication error:


1. Error in transcription of medical orders
2. wrong patient
3. misinterpretation of medical card
4. not reading the drug label
5. failure to use the medication card
6. miscalculation and mismeasurement
7. solution and administration of wrong medication
8. misunderstanding a verbal medical orders
9. incomplete or confusing medication order
10. misreading the dosage.

k. Medication card Coding


a. q8h – orange (8am – 4pm –12am –8am)
b. q6h – blue (6am – 12nn; 6pm – 12am)
c. q4h – green (8am –12nn; 4pm – 8pm)
d. q12h – red (8am – 8pm)
e. tid – pink (8am –1pm – 6pm)
f. bid – yellow (8am ; 6pm)
g. OD – white (8am or 9am)

XII. Conversion
a. Apothecary
1 oz 480 grains (gr) 1 quart 2 pint
8 drams (dr) 1 pint 16 fluid oz
1 dram 60 gr 1 fl. oz 8 fl. dr
Scruple 20 gr 1 fl. dr 6 minims
20 g I minim 1 gtt

b. Household
1 measuring cap 8 oz 240 ml
1 medical glass 8 oz 240 ml
1 coffee cup 6 oz 180 ml
1 oz 2 tbsp. 30 ml
1 tbsp. 3 tsp. 15 ml
1 tsp. 60 gtts 4 – 5 ml
I gtt 1 minim
JUN CARY V. SUITOS, SN
Arellano University – 0900252
College of Nursing – Batch 2011

c. Metric
60 mg 1 gr
1g 15 gr 1 ml 1 cc
4g 1 dr
30 mg; 30 ml 1 oz ; 2 tbsp.
15 ml 1 tbsp
1 ml 18 gtts
1000 ml 1000 cc 1L 1 quart
240 ml 1 measuring cup
1000 g 2.2 lbs 1 kg

XIII. Computation
a. Pediatric formula:
1. Fried’s rubi (0 –12 months)
Infant dose = age in months / 150 x adult dose

2. Youngs rule (1 y/o – 12 y/o)


Infant dose = age in years + 2 x adult dose

3. Clark’s rule (child weight)


Infant dose = wt in lbs. / 150 lbs x adult dose

b. Intravenous flow rate formula:


Gtts/min = total vol. of fluid to be infused x drop factor / hours of administration

e.g: order = 1 L of D5w in 8 hours


sol.:
1000ml x 15 gtts = 15000 = 31gtts/mins
8 hrs. (60mins) 480mins

XIV. Nursing Abbreviations:

A&P : ausculationa and percussion


A&W : alive and well
a.c.,ac : before meals
AB : abortion
Ab : anitbody
ABC : aspiration, biopsy, cytology
abd : abdomen
ACE : angiotensing coronary syndromes
ACL : anterior cruciate ligament
ACS : acute coronary syndroms
ACTH : adrenocorticotropic hormone
ad lib : freely as desired
ADD : attention deficit disorder
ADH : antidiuretic hormone
JUN CARY V. SUITOS, SN
Arellano University – 0900252
College of Nursing – Batch 2011
ADHD : attention deficit disorder
AIDS : acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Alb : albumin
alk phos : alkaline phosphatase
ALL : acute lymphocytic leukemia
ALS : amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
ALT: alanine transaminase
AML : acute myelocytic leukemia
AP or A/P : anteroposterior
Aq : water
ASD : atrial septal defect
ASHD : arteriosclerotic heart disease
AST : aspartate transaminase
AV : arteriovenous;atrioventricular
B cells : white blood cells
b.i.d., bid : twice a day
BaE : barium enema
BM : bowel movement, bone marrow
BMT : bone marrow transplant
BP,B/P : blood pressure
BPH : benign prostatic hypertrophy
Bronch : bronchoscopy
Bs : blood sugar; bowel sounds; breath sounds
BSE : breast self examination
BSO : bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
BUN : blood urea nitrogen
BW : birth weight
Bx, bx : biopsy
C&S, C+S : culture adn sensitivity
C-section, CS : cesarean section
c/o : complains of
c/w : consistent with
C1,C2 : first, second cervical verebra
Ca : calcium
CABG : coronary artery bypass graft
CAD : coronary artery disease
Cap : capsule
CAPD : continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
cath : catheter, catheterization
CBC : complete blood count
CC : chief complaint
CCU : coronary care unit; critical care unit
CF : cystic fibrosis
Chemo : chemotherapy
CHF : congestive heart failure
Chol : cholesterol
CIN : cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
CIS : carcinoma
CKD : chronic kidney diseaase
JUN CARY V. SUITOS, SN
Arellano University – 0900252
College of Nursing – Batch 2011
cm : centimeter
CML : chronic myelocytic leukemia
CNS : central nervous system
CO2 : carbon dioxide
COPD : chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CP : cerebral palsy, chest pain
CPD : cephalopelvic desproportion
CPR : cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CSF : cerebrospinal fluid
CT : computed tomography
CT (CAT) scan: computed axial tomography
CVA : cerebrovascualr accident (stroke)
CXR, CX : chest x-ray
cysto : cystoscopy
D&C : dilation and curettage
DES : diethylstilbestrol
DIC : disseminated intravascular coagulation
diff : differential
DKA : diabetic ketoacidosis
DM : diabetes mellitus
DNA : deoxyribonucleic acid
DOB : date of birth
DOE : dyspne on exdrtion
DRE : digital rectal exam
DT : delirium tremens
DTR : deep tendon reflex
DVT : deep vein thrombosis
Dx : diangosis
EBV : Epstein-barr virus
ECC : emergency cardiac care
ECG : electrocardiogram
Echo : echoardiogram
ECMO : extrcoporeal membrane oxygenator
ECT : electroconvulsive therapy
ED : emergency department
EDC : estimated date of confinement
EEG : electroencephalogram
EENT : eyes ears nose and throat
EGD : esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ELISA : enzyme linke immunosorbet assay
EMG : electromyogram
ENT : ear nose throat
Eos : eosinophil
ER : emergency room, estrogen receptor
ERCP : endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
ESR : erythrocyte sedimentation rate
ESRD : end stage renal disease
ESWL : extracoporeal shockwave lithotripsy
ETOH : ethyl alcohol
JUN CARY V. SUITOS, SN
Arellano University – 0900252
College of Nursing – Batch 2011
ETT : exercise tolerance test, endotracheal tube
F/U, f/u : follow up
FBS : fasting blood sugar
FDA : food and drug administration
Fe : iron
FEV : forced expiratory volume
FH : family history
FHR : fetal heart rate
FSH : follicle-stimulation hormone
FUO : fever of unknown origin
Fx : fracture
g (gm) : gram
Ga : gallium
GB : gallbladder
GC : gonococcus
Gd : gadolinium
GERD : gastroesophageal reflux disease
Grav. 1,2,3 : first second third pregnancy
gt, gtt : drop, drops
GTT : glucose tolerance test
GU : genitourinary
GVHD : graft versus host disease
Gyn : gynecology
H : hydrogen
H&P : history and physical
h, hr : hour
h/o : history of
HBV : hepatitis B virus
HCG, hCG : human chorionic gonadotopin
Hct : hematocrit
HCV : hepatitis C virus
HD : hemodialysis
HDL : high density lipoproteins
HEENT : head ears eyes nose and throat
Hg : mercury
Hgb : hemoglobin
HIPAA: health insurance portability and accountability
HIV : human immunodeficieency virus
HPV : human papilloma virus
HRT : hormone replacement therap
HSV-1,,2 : herpes simplex virus type 1,2
HSY : hysterosalpinggography
HTN : hypertension
Hx : history
I : iodine
I&D : incision and drainage
I&O : intake and outake
IBD : inflammatory bowel disease
IBS : irritable bowel syndrom
JUN CARY V. SUITOS, SN
Arellano University – 0900252
College of Nursing – Batch 2011
IM : intramuscular; infectious mononucleosis
INH : isoniazid
intensive care unit: ICU
IOL : intraocular lens
IUD : intrauterine device
IV : intravenous
IVP : intravenous pyelogram
K : potassium
kg : kilogram
KS : Kaposi sarcoma
KUB : kidneys, ureters, bladder
L&W : living and well
L, l : left, liter, lower
L1, L2 : first, second lumbar vertebra
LA : left atrium
lat : lateral
LBP : low back pain, low blood pressure
LDH : lactate dehdrogenase
LDL : low-density lipoproteins
LE : lupus erythematosus
LEEP : loop electrocautery excision procedure
LES : lower esophageal sphincter
LFT : liver function test
LLQ : lower left quadrant
LMP : last menstrual period
LP : lumbar puncture
LPN : licensed practical nurse
LTB : laryngotracheal bronchitis
LUQ : left upper quadrant
LV : left venticle
LVAD : left ventricle assist device
lymphs : lymphocytes
lytes : electolytes
m : meter, milli
MAC : monitored anesthesia care
MCH : mean corpuscular hemoglovin
MCHC : mean corpuscular hemoglobing concentration
MCV : mean corpuscular volume
MD, M.D. : medical doctor, muscular dystorphy
mets : metastases
mg : milligram
Mg : Magnesium
MH : marital history; mental health
MI : myocardial infarction
ml : milliliter
mm : millimeter
mm HG : milimiter of mercury, bp
mono : moncytes
MRA : magnetic resonance angiograpy
JUN CARY V. SUITOS, SN
Arellano University – 0900252
College of Nursing – Batch 2011
MRI : magnetic resonance imaging
MS : mitral stenosis, multiple sclerosis, mental status
MSW : medical social worker
MVP : mitarl valve prolapse
myop : myopia
N : nitrogen
N+V : nausea and vomiting
Na : sodium
NB : newborn
NED : no evidence of disease
NG tube : nasogastic tube
NICU : neonatal intensive care unit
NKA : no known allergies
NPO : nothing by mouth
NSAID : nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NSR : normal sinus rhythm
NTP : normal temperature and pressure
O2 : oxygen
OA : osteoarthritis
OB : obstetrics
OD, O.D. : right eye, eye doctor
OR : operating room
ORIF : open reduction, internal fixation
ORTH, ortho.: orthodpeics or orthopaedics
os : mouth
OS : left eye
OSA : obstructive sleep apnea
OU : each eye
OV : office visit
P : plan, posterior, pulse, phosphours, pupil, pressure
p.c.,pc : after meals
p.o., po : by mouth
p.r.n., prn : as needed
p/o : postoperative
PA: posteroanterior, pulmonary artery
PAC : premature atrial contraction
PaCO2 : arterial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood
PACS : picture achival communications system
palp : palpale
PaO2 : arterial pressure of oxygen in the blood
Pap smear : Papanicolaou smear
para : paracentesis
Para 1,2,3 : woman having produced one, two, three viable offspring
PCI : percutaneous cornary interventions
PE : physical examination; pulmonary embolus
PE tube : pressure-equalizing tube
PEEP : positive end-expiratory pressure
per : by
PERRLA : pupils equal, round and reactive to light and accommodation
JUN CARY V. SUITOS, SN
Arellano University – 0900252
College of Nursing – Batch 2011
PET : positive emmision tomography
PFT : pulmonary function test
PH : past history
PI : present illness
PID : pelvic inflammatory disease
PKU : phenyketonuria
PM : afternoon, postmortem
PMH : past medical history
PND : paroxysmal nocturnal dyspne; postnasal drip
polys : polymorphonuclear leukocytes
poplit : popliteal
post-op : after operation
PP : after meals; after birth
PPD : purified protein derivative
pre-op : before operation
prep : prepare for
pro time : prothromibin time
procto : proctoscopy
PSA : prostate specific antigen
pt : patient
PT : physical therapy;prothrombin time
PTA : prior to admission
PTCA : percuatneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PTH : parathyroid hormone
PTR : patient to return
PTT : partial thromboplastin time
PVC : permature ventricular contraction
PVD : peripheal vasular disease
PVT : paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia
PWB : partial weight bearing
q : every
q.h., qh : every hour
q.i.d., qid : four times a day
q.n.s.,qns : quantity not sufficient
q.s.,qs : quantity sufficient
q2h : every two hours
qt : quart
R,r : right, respiration
R/O, r/o : rule out
RA : rtheumatoid arthritis right atrium
rad : radiation absorbed dose
RBC, rbc : red blood cell
RIA : radioimmunoassary
RLQ : right lower quadrant
ROM : range of motion
ROS : review of system
RP : retrograde pyelogram
RR : recovery room; respiration rate
RRR : regular rate and rythm
JUN CARY V. SUITOS, SN
Arellano University – 0900252
College of Nursing – Batch 2011
RT : radiation therapy, recreational therapy, radiologic technologist
RUQ : right upper quadrant
RV : right ventricle
Rx : treatment
S-A node : sinoatrial node
s.gl. : without glasses
S/P, s/p : status post
S1,S2 : first, second sacral vertebra
SARS : severe acute respiratory syndrome
SBFT : small bowel follow through
sed. rate : erthrocyte sedimentation rate
segs : segmented white blood cells
SERM : selective estrogen receptor modulator
SH : social history;serum hepatis
SIDS : sudden infant death syndrome
Sig : let it be labeled
SIRS : systemic lupus erythematosus
SMA : sequential multiple analyzer
SOAP : subjective data, ovjective data, assessment, plan
SOB : shortness of breath
sp.gr. : specific gravity
SPECT : single photon emission computed tomography
SSRI : selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
staph : staphyloccci
STAT, stat : immediately
STI : sexually transitted infection
strep : streptococci
Sx : symptoms;signs
Sz : seizure
T : temperature, time
T cells : lymphocytes originating in the thymus gland
T&A : tonsillectomy and adenoidecotomy
t.i.d.,tid : three times a day
T1, T2 : first, second thoracic vertebra
T3 : triiodothyronine
T4 : thyroxine
tab : tablet
TAB : thearaputic abortion
TAH-BSO : total abdominal hysteretomy-bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
TB : tuberculosis
TEE : transesophageal echocardiogram
TENS : transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator
THR : total hip replacement
TIA : tranient ischemic attack
TLC : total lung capacity
TM : tympanice membrane
TNM : tumor ,nodes, metastasis
Tomos: tomograms
TPN : total parenteral nutrition
JUN CARY V. SUITOS, SN
Arellano University – 0900252
College of Nursing – Batch 2011
TRUS : transrectal ultrasound
TSH : thyroid-stimulation hormone
TUIP : transurethral incision of the prostate gland
TUR, TURP : transurethral resection of the prostate gland
TVH : total vaginal hysterectomy
Tx : treatment
U/O : urine output
UA, U/A : urinalysis
UE : upper extremity
UGI : upper gastointestinal
umb : navel
ung : ointment
URI : upper respiratory infection
US, u/s : ultrasound
UTI : urinary tract infection
UV : ultraviolet
V tach, VT : ventricular tachycardia
VA : visual acuity
VC : vital capacity of lungs
VCUG : voiding cystourethorgram
VF : visual field, ventricular fibrilalltion
VS, V/S : vital signs
VSD : ventrivular septal defect
VSS : vital signs stable
W/C : wheel chair
w/u : work up
wd : wound
WDWN : well developed, well nourished
WNL : within normal limits
WT, wt : weight
XRT : radiotion thearpy
y/o, yr : years old

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