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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Dravida, a region

in India. For other uses, see Dravid ian. South India Thumbnail map of India with South India highlighted South India shown in red Population 252,621,765 Area 635,780 km2 (245,480 sq mi) Population density 397 /km2 (1,030 /sq mi) States and territories States: Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Kerala Tamil Nadu Territories: Lakshadweep Puducherry Capital cities (2011) Of States: Hyderabad Bangalore Thiruvananthapuram Chennai Of Territories: Kavaratti Pondicherry Top 15 most populous cities (2011) 1. Bangalore 2. Hyderabad 3. Chennai 4. Coimbatore 5. Visakhapatnam 6. Vijayawada 7. Madurai 8. Hubli 9. Mysore 10.Tiruchirappalli 11.Salem 12.Thiruvananthapuram 13. Guntur 14. Warangal 15. Kochi Official languages Andhra Pradesh: Telugu Karnataka: Kannada Kerala: Malayalam English Tamil Nadu: Tamil Lakshadweep: Malayalam English Puducherry:

Tamil French Malayalam Telugu Birth rate 20.4 Mortality rate 7.7 Infant mortality rate

48.4

^* Lakshadweep and Puducherry are Union territories of India and under the direc t command of the President of India French and English are official languages of Puducherry. See also Official langu ages of India. Jog Falls are the highest plunge waterfalls in India. precinct of a temple with sculptures on either side Sculptures inside Kanchi Kailasanathar Temple the oldest existing temple in the city Gurubhaktulakonda Buddhist Monastery Remnants at Ramatheertham, Andhra Pradesh South India is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka , Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pudu cherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area (635780 km or 245476.030 mi). The region is also known as Dravida as is used in the National anthem.[1] South India lies in the peninsular Deccan Plateau and is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Bay of Bengal in the east . The geography of the region is diverse, encompassing two mountain ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, and a plateau heartland. The Godavari, Krishna, Tunga bhadra, Kaveri, and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Bangalore, Chennai and Hyderabad are the largest and most industrialised cities in the region. A majority of Indians from the southern region speak one of the languages: Tamil , Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and cultures of modern sovereign states such as Sri L anka, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. The region w as colonised by Britain and gradually incorporated into the British Empire. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independ ence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have impro ved in some socio-economic metrices,[2][3] economic disparity, illiteracy and po verty continue to affect the region much like the rest of the country. Agricultu re is the single largest contributor to the regional net domestic product, while Information technology is a rapidly growing industry. Literary and architectura l styles, evolved over two thousand years, differ from other parts of the countr y. Politics in South India is dominated by smaller regional political parties ra ther than by national political parties. South India ranks the highest in terms of social and economic development in are as such as fertility rate and infrastructure; the fertility rate of South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.[4] Contents 1 2 3 4 5 Etymology History Geography Flora and fauna Subdivisions

6 Demographics 7 Economy 8 Politics 9 Culture and heritage 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References and bibliography 13 External links Etymology Apart from the English language terms South India and Peninsular India, southern India has been known by several other historic names. Adi Shankara coined the n ame Dravida in the 8th century as he called himself Dravida Shishu, meaning a ch ild from South India (see etymology of Dravida). The term Deccan, an Anglicised form of the word "Dakhhin" which is a derived from the word dakshina meaning sou th, refers only to the area covered by the Deccan Plateau, a volcanic plateau th at covers most of peninsular India excluding the coastal areas.[5] The Carnatic is an English term derived from "Karnad" or "Karunad", meaning high country. The terms Karnad and Carnatic have long overgrown particular association with the p lateau and refer to all of South India, including the coasts, the western of whi ch is named the Carnatic coast. The name Karnataka is derived from the same root .[6] History Main article: History of South India See also: Middle kingdoms of India and History of India The Gopuram of Nellaiappar Temple, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. Vembanad, the largest lake in Kerala Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with neolithic cultures in Southern India date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, and minor copper ob jects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron tec hnology spread through the region; however, there does not appear to be a fully developed Bronze Age preceding the Iron Age in South India.[7] South India was a crossroads of the ancient world, linking the Mediterranean and the Far East. Th e southern coastline from Karwar to Kodungallur near Kochi was the most importan t trading shore in the Indian subcontinent resulting in intermingling between lo cals and traders.[8] The South Indian Malabar Coast and the people of the Sangam age traded with the Graeco-Roman world. They were in contact with the Phoenicia ns, Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Syrians, Jews, and Chinese.[9] Traditionally the Sout h Indian coastline along the Arabian Sea was described as a part of Sapta Konkan referring to the diverse regions along coastal south west India.[10] Buddhism w as at its peak during 4th Century BCE to 8th Century CE in South India. The Stat e of Andhra Pradesh has the majority of Buddhist Remnant Sites at present (app 1 60) both documented and undocumented. Buddhism reached to far east countries fro m the Sea Ports of Andhra Desa. There were several significant rulers and dynast ies in southern Indian history. Dynasties such as Cheras, Cholas, Pallavas, Pand yas, the Satavahanas of Amaravati, Kadambas of Banavasi, Western Ganga Dynasty, Chalukya dynasty of Badami, Western Chalukyas, Eastern Chalukya, Hoysalas, Kakat iya dynasty, and Rashtrakutas of Manyaketha have ruled over South India. The late medieval period saw the rise of Muslim power in South India. The defeat of the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal by Tughlaq forces of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE heralded a new chapter in South Indian history. The struggle of the per iod was between the Bahmani Sultanate based in Gulbarga (and later, Bidar) and t he Vijayanagara Empire with its capital in Vijayanagara in modern Hampi. With the fall of Vijayanagara and the break-up of the Bahmani sultanate, the Qut b Shahi dynasty of Golconda and Hyderabad became the dominant power in the regio n. Qutb Shahi dominance of the region continued until the middle of the seventee

nth century, when the Mughals under Aurangzeb made determined inroads into the D eccan. Following Aurangzeb s death, Mughal power weakened, and South Indian rulers gained autonomy from Delhi. The Wodeyar kingdom of Mysore, the Asaf Jahis of Hy derabad, and Marathas all gained power. In the middle of the eighteenth century, the French and the British initiated a protracted struggle for military control of South India. Shifting alliances betw een the two European powers and the local powers marked the period with mercenar y armies being employed by all sides causing general anarchy in South India. The Vellore Mutiny on July 10, 1806, was the last major act of resistance. After th e British army crushed the attempt, the British consolidated power over all of p resent day South India. This allowed them to conquer much of the Indian subconti nent, over the next fifty years. The British allowed the French to retain posses sion of Pondichry. The four Anglo-Mysore wars and the three Anglo-Maratha Wars sa w Mysore, Pune and Hyderabad allying themselves with the British or the French. South India during the British colonial rule was divided into the Madras Preside ncy, Hyderabad state, Mysore, Thiruvithamcoore (also known as Travancore), Kochi (also known as Cochin or Perumpadapu Swaroopam), Vizianagaram and a number of o ther minor princely states. British Residents were stationed in the capitals of the important states to supervise and report on the activities of the rulers. The States Reorganisation Act (1956) created new states (Andhra Pradesh, Karnata ka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu) by reorganising parts of British-era Madras State along linguistic lines. Additionally, the enclaves of French India, which were ceded to India in the 1950s, were constituted into the union territory of Puducherry. Geography Main article: Geography of South India Shivanasamudra Falls on the Kaveri River near Mysore. South India is a peninsula in the shape of a vast inverted triangle, bounded on the west by the Arabian Sea, on the east by the Bay of Bengal and on the north b y the Vindhya and Satpura ranges. The Narmada flows westwards in the depression between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges. The Satpura ranges define the northern s pur of the Deccan plateau. The Western Ghats, along the western coast, mark anot her boundary of the plateau. The narrow strip of verdant land between the Wester n Ghats and the Arabian Sea is the Konkan region. The Western Ghats continue sou th, forming the Malenadu (Canara) region along the Karnataka coast, and terminat e at the Nilgiri mountains, an inward (easterly) extension of the Western Ghats. The Nilgiris run in a crescent approximately along the borders of Tamil Nadu wi th northern Kerala and Karnataka, encompassing the Palakkad and Wayanad hills, a nd the Satyamangalam ranges, and extending on to the relatively low-lying hills of the Eastern Ghats, on the western portion of the Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh bo rder. The Tirupati and Annamalai hills form part of this range. The low lying co ral islands of Lakshadweep are off the south-western coast of India. Sri Lanka l ies off the south-eastern coast, separated from India by the Palk Strait and the chain of low sandbars and islands known as Rama's Bridge. The Andaman and Nicob ar islands lie far off the eastern coast of India, near the Tenasserim coast of Burma. The southernmost tip of mainland India is at Kanyakumari (Cape Comorin) o n the Indian Ocean. The Deccan plateau is the vast elevated region bound by the C-shape defined by a ll these mountain ranges. No major elevations border the plateau to the east, an d it slopes gently from the Western Ghats to the eastern coast. The plateau is w atered by the east flowing Godavari and Krishna rivers. The other major rivers o f the Deccan plateau are the Pennar and the Tungabhadra, a major tributary of th e Krishna. Vaigai and Thamirabarani River are major rivers which emerge from the southern part of the Western ghats, flow eastward and empty into the Bay of Ben gal. The three major river deltas of South India, the Kaveri, the Godavari and t he Krishna, are located along the Bay of Bengal. These major rivers provided irr igation to much of the land which provided food grain to Southern India. In part

icular the coastal detla regions traditionally constituted the rice bowls of Sou th India. The region has a very tropical climate with the monsoons playing a maj or part. The South West Monsoon accounts for most of the rainfall in the region and much of it falls from about June to October. The south-west monsoon starts f rom Kerala during June and moves up towards the northern parts of India. Tamil N adu and southeast Andhra Pradesh receive rains from the North East Monsoon from about November to February. Much of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka has a distinct dry season from about October May when there is not much rainfall. This region a lso experiences cooler nights from October to March while the days are pleasantl y warm. In the northern parts of the region temperatures can fall below 10 degre es Celsius on occasions at night during this time. Days are very hot from March to June when temps can go over 40 degrees. The southern coastal region has an av erage minimum temperature of 20 degrees and maximum of 35 degrees. Flora and fauna Main articles: Wildlife of Karnataka, Wildlife of Tamil Nadu, Wildlife of Kerala , and List of birds of South India There is a wide diversity of plants and animals in South India, resulting from i ts varied climates and geography. Deciduous forests are found along the Western Ghats while tropical dry forests and scrub lands Deccan thorn scrub forests are common in the interior Deccan plateau. The southern Western Ghats have high alti tude rain forests called the South Western Ghats montane rain forests. The Malab ar Coast moist forests are found on the coastal plains.[11] The Western Ghats it self is a biodiversity hotspot.[12] Some of India's famous protected areas are found in South India. These include P roject Tiger reserves Periyar National Park, Kalakad Mundanthurai and Nagarjunsa gar Wildlife Sanctuary. Important ecological regions of South India are the Nilg iri Biosphere Reserve, located at the conjunction of the borders of Karnataka, K erala and Tamil Nadu in the Nilgiri Hills including Mudumalai National Park, Ban dipur National Park, Nagarhole National Park Silent Valley National Park, Wayana d Wildlife Sanctuary and Nugu Wildlife Sanctuary and the Anamalai Hills includin g the Eravikulam National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Parambikulam Wildlif e Sanctuary and the adjacentThe Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Pa rk of the Western Ghats. Important bird sanctuaries including Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary, Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary, Neelapattu Sanctuary and Pulicat Sanctuary are home to numerous migratory and local birds. Other protected ecological sites include the backwaters like the Pulicat Lake in Andhra Pradesh, Pitchavarum in Tamil Nadu and the famed backwaters of Kerala fo rmed by the Vembanad Lake, the Ashtamudi Lake and the Kayamkulam Lake. Banana, M usaparadisiaca and Moringa oleifera are found extensively in Lakshadweep while c oconut plantations provide economic support to the islands. Lashadweep has been declared a bird sanctuary by the Wildlife Institute of India.[13] Crabs, chiefly hermit crabs, parrot fish and butterfly fish are also found on the islands.[cit ation needed] Subdivisions The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve,one of the most important sancturies in India. Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh South India consists of the four southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karna taka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Puducherry and t he Lakshadweep archipelago. Together with Puducherry, each South Indian state ha s an elected state government, while the Lakshadweep islands are centrally admin istered by the President of India. The modern states of South India were created as a result of the States Reorganisation Act[14] (1956), which established stat es and union territories based on linguistic boundaries. As a result of this act :

Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-s peaking districts of Hyderabad State. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod tal uk of South Canara district, Madras State with Travancore-Cochin State. Karnataka -The existing Mysore State was reorganised and the districts of Ba ngalore, Bellary and South Canara (excluding Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal t aluk of Coimbatore district from the then Madras State, the districts of Belgaum , Bijapur, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority dist ricts of Bidar, Raichur and Gulbarga in the then Hyderabad State and the provinc e of Coorg were included in it. Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the enclave s of Pondichry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mah in French India The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar di stricts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of La kshadweep. The remaining parts of Madras State were retained under the same administrat ion with the same name. The state was subsequently renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. Each subregion is further divided into districts; the region of South India has over 100 districts. Each state is headed by a Governor, who is a direct appointe e of the President of India, while the Chief Minister is the elected head of the state government and represents the states ruling party or coalition (the role of the Governor is largely ceremonial). Demographics Main articles: Dravidian peoples and Dravidian languages

Proto-Dravidian

Proto-South-Dravidian Proto-South-Central Dravidian

Proto-Tamil-Kannada

Proto-Telugu

Proto-Tamil-Toda Proto-Kannada Proto-Telugu

Proto-Tamil-Kodagu Kannada Telugu

Proto-Tamil-Malayalam

Proto-Tamil Malayalam

Tamil This tree diagram depicts the genealogy of the primary Dravidian languages spoke n in South India. The estimated population of South India is 252 million: which is around one fift h of the total population of India, as per the 2011 census of India. South India has made significant progress in demographic indicators,when compared to the re st of India. For instance, of the three demographic related targets of the Mille nnium Development Goals, which are expected to be achieved by 2015: Kerala and T amilnadu had already achieved the goals, related to improvement of maternal heal th and of reducing infant mortality and child mortality, by 2009. The Total fert ility rate, was less then the replacement level of 2.1 for all the states in the South India, by 2009. Kerala and Tamilnadu had the lowest TFRs for India, of 1. 7.[15] This perhaps means that the population of South India as a percentage of India, is reducing. Also in absolute numbers, the population numbers of South In dia, are stabilising, and perhaps shrinking over the long term. The largest linguistic groups in South India include the Telugus, Tamils, Kannad igas, Malayalis, Tuluvas and Kodavas. About 83% of South Indians follow Hinduism . Islam has the second-highest number of followers in the region, with 11%, whil e 5% follow Christianity. Kerala has the highest number of Christians, of all th e states in the Indian Union. As per the 2001 census, Kerala had 6,057,427 Chris tians:[16] which constituted around one fourth of all Christians in India, which was estimated to be 24,080,016.[17] Kerala is particularly noted for St. Thomas Christians.[citation needed] A pillar at Ahobilam temple in Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh . The average literacy rate of South India is approximately 73%, considerably high er than the Indian national average of 60%.[18] Kerala leads the nation with a l iteracy rate of 92%. The sex ratio in South India is fairly equable at 997; Kera la is the only state in India with a favourable sex ratio of 1,083 women per 100 0 men.[19] The population density of the region is approximately 463. Scheduled Castes and Tribes form 18% of the population of the region. Agriculture is the m ajor employer in the region 47.5% of the population is involved in agrarian acti vities. About 60% of the population lives in permanent housing structures. 67.8% of South India has access to tap water. Wells and springs are other major forms of water supply. Warangal fort in Andhra pradesh Jambukeswarar Temple, Thiruvanaikaval,Trichy,Tamil nadu Sangameshwar Temple at Alampur, Andhra Pradesh The languages of South India are the Dravidian represented by Tamil, Kannada, Te lugu and Malayalam, besides Gondi and other minor dialects, and the Austro-Asiat ic by the Munda languages.[20] South India's predominant language family is Drav idian, a family of approximately seventy-three languages[21] spoken in South Asi a.[22] The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 divided states in India along lingu istic lines and led to the creation of separate states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnat aka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu in areas where Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Tamil r espectively were dominant. Tamil (2004), Telugu (2008) and Kannada (2008) were granted classical language s tatus by the government. In the 2001 Census, Telugu had the third largest base o f native speakers in India (74 million), after Hindi and Bengali.[23] Kannada ha

s about 38 million native speakers,[23] while Malayalam which has 33 million nat ive speakers was accorded the status of classical language in 2013.[24][25] Each of these languages is listed as an official language of India, per the Official Languages Act (1963). Urdu is spoken by over half of the 25 million Muslims in southern India.[25][26] South Indian Muslims in some regions of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka speak a di alect of Urdu called Dakhni, while some in the Dakshina Kannada region of Karnat aka and regions in Kerala speak Beary bashe.[27] Both Dakhni and Beary bashe are influenced by other South Indian languages.[25] Tulu, a Dravidian language prev alent in coastal Kerala and Karnataka, is spoken by about 1.5 million people in the region, while Konkani, an Indo-Aryan language, is spoken by over half a mill ion people in the region. English is also widely spoken in urban areas of South India.[28] Economy Main article: Economy of South India India's economy after independence in 1947 conformed to a socialist framework, w ith strict governmental control over private sector participation, foreign trade and foreign direct investment (FDI). Through 1960 1990, South Indian economies ex perienced mixed economic growth. In the 1960s, Kerala achieved above average eco nomic growth, while Andhra Pradesh's economy declined during this period. Simila rly, Kerala experienced economic decline in the 1970s while the economies of Tam il Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka consistently exceeded national average gro wth rates after 1970. Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka were noted by som e to be more reform-oriented in terms of economic policy when compared to other Indian states.[29] Over 48% of South India's population is engaged in agricultur e, which is largely dependent on seasonal monsoons[19] Some of the main crops cu ltivated in South India include paddy, sorghum, pearl millet, pulses, sugarcane, cotton, chilli, and ragi. Areca, coffee, tea, vanilla, rubber, pepper, tapioca, and cardamom are cultivated on the hills, while coconut grows in abundance in c oastal areas. Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of rice in India,[30] while Karnataka produces 70% of India's coffee. Frequent droughts in northern Karnata ka, Rayalaseema and Telangana have left farmers debt-ridden, forcing them to sel l their livestock and sometimes even to commit suicide.[31] The region also suff ers from water scarcity, especially during summer. Since the liberalisation of t he Indian economy, South India has seen a decrease in revenue from agriculture a nd agriculture related services.[32] Traditionally, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu have been home to large, public sector i ndustries (referred to as Public Sector Undertakings, or PSUs), with both states posting above average growth rates in this sector following economic liberalisa tion. Bangalore and Hyderabad, the IT hubs of India are home to software giants. Bangalore, also known as the Silicon Valley of India, hosts majority of the IT companies of the world.[32] Chennai, the Detroit of South Asia, accounts for abo ut 35% of India's overall automotive components[33] while the registered headqua rters of 39% of all Central PSUs in South India are located in Karnataka and 25% each in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.[34] Additionally, the growth of informat ion technology (IT) hubs in the region have spurred economic growth and attracte d foreign investments and job seekers from other parts of the country. Bangalore and Hyderabad, the IT hubs of India are home to software giants. In fiscal 2006 2 007, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka attracted the third and fourth highest total FDI a pprovals in India, respectively, totalling to over INR41,700 crore (US$7.2 billi on)[35] Software exports from South India grossed over INR64,000 crore (US$11 bi llion) in fiscal 2005 06.[36] [hide]Economic and demographic indicators[37] Parameter South India National Per capita net state domestic product (SDP) INR27,027.75 (US$460) INR23,22 2 (US$400) Percentage share in total FDI approved (1993 2003) 5.48 NA

Average annual growth of SDP 5.6 5.6 Percentage of population below poverty line Percentage of urban population 32.82 27.81 Percentage of households with electricity Literacy rate 72.87 61[38] Politics Main article: Politics in South India

17.41 89.32

26.10 67.9

Politics in South India is dominated by a mix of regional parties and larger nat ional political parties like the Indian National Congress (INC), the Bharatiya J anata Party (BJP) and the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) . With the exclusion of Karnataka, each state has at least two parties dominating politics in that state.[citation needed]. The Politics of Karnataka is dominated by three major political parties, the Ind ian National Congress, the Janata Dal (Secular) and the Bharatiya Janata Party. The Indian National Congress is in power in the state since May 2013. Sidharamay ya of INC is the current chief minister. The Janata Dal has been far more succes sful in Karnataka than it has been in national politics. National political part ies such as the BJP and INC have experienced more comparative success in Karnata ka than they have in other states of South India. Karnataka's political environm ent is dominated by two rival caste groups the Vokkaligas and the Lingayats.[39] Karnataka consists of 28 parliamentary constituencies from which 28 members of parliament get elected to the Lok Sabha. Several politicians and bureaucrats fro m Karnataka have served at the center at various times in different capacities. Deve Gowda, who hails from Hassan served as the Prime minister of India in 1996. C.K. Jaffer Sharief from Bangalore is a veteran Congressman and 9-time MP and f ormer Minister of Railways of Government of India.B. D. Jatti from Bijapur serve d as the Vice President and also as acting President in the past. S.Nigalingappa was Congress I president. Pre-independence politics in the Madras Presidency was dominated by the Justice Party and the Indian National Congress. The Justice party was formed in 1917 to represent the interest of non Brahmins: petitioning the imperial administrative bodies and British politicians for more representation for non-Brahmins in admin istration and in the government. When the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms started all owing elected representatives to take part in governance, the Justice party took part and won its first direct elections in 1920. During the pre war period, up to 1937, the Justice Party was in power for thirteen out of the seventeen years. It was the main political alternative to the nationalist Indian National Congre ss in the Madras presidency, up to the beginning of the Second World War. The In dian National Congress swept to power in the Madras Presidency legislative assem bly election, 1937, under the leadership of C.Rajagopalachari. Periyar Ramasami who started the Dravidian movement was elected leader of the Justice Party in 19 38. In 1944, Periyar who had started the Self-Respect Movement transformed the p arty into a social organisation, renaming the party Dravidar Kazhagam:and withdr ew from electoral politics. The initial aim was the secession of Dravida Nadu fr om the rest of India on independence.[40] Following independence from British ru le in 1947, Periyar strongly believed that the party should not participate in e lections in the newly created Indian republic, something his closest followers d isagreed with. In 1948, C. N. Annadurai, a follower of Periyar and a Joint Secre tary of Dravidar Kazhagam parted ways with Periyar to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam political party.[40] The Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu led to the rise of the DMK, which formed its first government in 1967- inaugurating the "D ravidian era" of Tamil Nadu politics. Dravidian parties have been ruling the sta te since these elections. In 1972 a split in the DMK resulted in the formation o f the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), led by M. G. Ramachandr an. Dravidian parties continue to dominate Tamil Nadu electoral politics - with the national parties,usually aligned as junior partners to the major dravidian p arties, AIADMK and DMK.[41] These "Dravidian politics" incorporates elements of

Tamil Nationalism and seem to have has struck root only in Tamil Nadu.[42] Tamil Nadu has also contributed to a number of Indian Presidents. The list would include C. Rajagopalachari, the first Indian Governor General of India, post in dependence of 1947: Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the first Indian Vice President an d President during a tumultuous period of 1962 to 1967, which saw three prime mi nisters, two wars and the anti Hindi agitation in Tamil Nadu: R. Venkataraman, w ho had the unique distinction of working with four prime ministers, during his t erm from 1987 to 1992, and A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, the first Indian scientist to b e elected as a President. Prominent politicians from Tamil Nadu who have influen ced national politics include K. Kamaraj, who was credited to being a "king make r" who ensured the selection of Prime Ministers Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira G andhi: and Chidambaram Subramaniam, who is credited with the political leadershi p of the Green Revolution : which lead to self-sufficiency in food production in India, during the decades of the 1960s/1970s. Former Telugu actor Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (NTR) broke the dominance of the I NC in Andhra Pradesh politics. NTR successfully challenged the INC's supremacy i n the state and his party was voted into power a total of four times. In 1996, a year after winning the state assembly election by a landslide, a dispute betwee n NTR, his wife Lakshmi Parvati and his immediate family resulted in a split in the TDP. Concerned over undue influence over NTR and his policies, the bulk of t he party favoured the family under the leadership of NTR's son-in-law, N Chandra babu Naidu, who later became Chief Minister of the state. At present, INC and TD P are the major political contenders in the state. Prominent leaders from Andhra Pradesh who left their mark on Indian national pol itics would include V. V. Giri, the first president to be voted as a "dissident candidate" in 1969: and his opponent Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, the only President to be elected unopposed in 1977.P. V. Narasimha Rao, the Prime Minister from 1991 to 1996, is credited with introducing the current policies of economic liberalis ation in India Kerala hosts two major political alliances: the United Democratic Front (UDF, le d by the Indian National Congress) and the Left Democratic Front (LDF, led by th e Communist Party of India (Marxist)). Kerala numbers among India's most left-wi ng states. An interesting phenomenon of Kerala politics is the alternate electio n of Congress and the Communists to power. E. M. S. Namboodiripad, the first elected chief minister of Kerala, in 1957, is sometimes credited as being the leader of the first democratically elected commu nist government in the world. He is credited with building the Communist Party o f India (Marxist) into a major political force. K. R. Narayanan was the first Ma layali and the first Dalit to be elected to the post of President in 1997. Palani Murugan Temple,Palani, Dindigul district , Tamil Nadu. Thillai Natarajah Temple,Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu a Kuchipudi dancer performing on stage A Bharatanatyam dancer. Culture and heritage Main article: South Indian culture Annamalaiyar Temple ,( Pancha Bhoota Stalas, and specifically the element of fir e, or Agni),Thiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu India. Tirumala Temple and Vaikuntam Queue Complex (main srinivasa temple in india)(sem icircular building in the foreground) as seen from Srivari Padalu on Narayanagir i hill, Tirupathi, Andhra pradesh A Telugu Lady wearing Sari and Vaddanam Mahamagam Festival is a holy festival celebrated once in twelve years in Tamil N adu. Mahamagam Festival, which is held at Kumbakonam. This festival is also call ed as Kumbamela of South.[43][44] Nasranis or Syrian Christians of Kerala in ancient days (from an old painting).

Photo published in the Cochin Government Royal War Efforts Souvenir in 1938 Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, A famous temple located in Tirupati, Andhra Prades h. Rock-cut Buddha at Bojjannakonda, Andhra Pradesh Nallamalla Hills in Prakasam District of Andhra Pradesh According to some experts, the weltanschauung of South Indians is essentially th e celebration of the eternal universe through the celebration of the beauty of t he body, and motherhood, which is exemplified through their dance, clothing, and sculptures.[45][46][47][48][49][50] South Indian women traditionally wear the S aree while the men wear either a white pancha or a colourful lungi with typical batik patterns. Rice is the staple diet, while fish is an integral component of coastal South In dian meals. Coconut is an important ingredient in Kerala whereas Andhra Pradesh cuisine is characterised by pickles and spicy curries. Hyderabadi cuisine a lega cy of the past, is popular for its Biryani. Dosa, Idli, Uttapam are popular thro ughout the region. There are large coffee estates in southern Karnataka and part s of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The traditional music of South India is known as Carnatic music, which includes rhythmic and structured music by composers like Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasa, Tya gayya, Annamacharya, Bhakta Ramadasu, Muthuswami Dikshitar, Shyama Shastri, Kshe trayya, Subbaraya Shastri, Mysore Vasudevachar and Swathi Thirunal. The contempo rary singer Dr. K. J. Yesudas is a cultural ambassador of Carnatic music.Thiruva rur Bakthavathsalam is a cultural ambassador of carnatic instrumentals. The moti on picture industry has emerged as an important platform in South India, over th e years portraying the cultural changes, trends, aspirations and developments ex perienced by its people. Some movie classics like Nammukku paarkkaan munthiri th oppukal (1986) by Padmarajan, Adi Shankara (1984) by director G V Iyer, and Peru mthachan (1990) by Ajayan have gained worldwide acclaim. When it comes to cinema , due to the difference in languages compared to northern India, Bollywood does not have much of an audience in the region. Rather films in the language native to each state are dominant, this includes Tamil cinema, Telugu cinema, Kannada c inema and Malayalam cinema. South India is home to several distinct dance forms the Koodiyattam, Bharatanatyam, Kuchipudi, Vilasini Natyam, Kathakali, Yakshagan a, Theyyam, Ottamthullal, Margamkali, Oppana, Kerala Natanam and Mohiniaattam. The earliest epigraphic record of the Telugu language dates to the late 6th cent ury CE. However, there have been proposals of traces of Telugu recorded before t hat date. Some Telugu words appear in the Maharashtri Prakrit anthology of poems (the Gatha Saptashati) collected by the 1st century BCE Satavahana King Hala.[5 1] South India has an independent literary tradition going back over 2500 years. Th e first known literature of South India are the poetic Sangams, which were writt en in Tamil between 2500 to 2100 years ago. These include the oldest South India n epics of Silappatikaram and Manimekalai written in Tamil. Tamil Buddhist comme ntators of the tenth century CE Nemrinatham make references to Kannada literatur e of the fourth century CE. Distinct Malayalam and Telugu literary traditions de veloped in the following centuries. South India has two distinct styles of rock architecture, the pure dravida (Tami l) style of Tamil Nadu and the Vesara style (also called Karnata dravida style) present in Karnataka. The inspirational temple sculptures of Srirangam, Chidamba ram, Kanchipuram, Mahabalipuram, Thiruvannamalai, Tanjore, Madurai, Rameswaram, Sri Kalahasti, Tirupati, Hampi, Badami, Bhattiprolu, Simhachalam, Pattadakal, Ai hole, Belur, Halebidu, Lakkundi, Shravanabelagola, and the mural paintings of Tr avancore and Lepakshi temples, also stand as a testament to South Indian culture . The paintings of Raja Ravi Varma are considered classic renditions of many a s

cenes of South Indian life and mythology. The temple at Srirangam is the largest functioning Hindu temple in the world, while Rameswaram is considered as one of the holiest temple in India. The main spiritual traditions of South India include both Shaivite and Vaishnavi te branches of Hinduism, although Buddhist and Jain philosophies had been influe ntial several centuries earlier. Shravanabelagola in Karnataka is a popular pilg rimage center for Jains. Ayyavazhi is spread significantly across the southern p arts of South India.[52] Its followers are more densely populated in South Tamil Nadu[53] and Kerala.[54] There is a large Muslim community in South India, particularly in the Malabar Co ast, which can trace its roots to the ancient maritime trade between Kerala and Omanis and other Arabs. The Muslims in Kerala of Arab descent are called Jonaka Mappila. Christianity has flourished in coastal South India from the times of St. Thomas the Apostle who came to Kerala in 52 and established the Syrian Christian tradit ion today called as Saint Thomas Christians or Nasrani Mappila.[55][56][57][58][ 59][60][61][62][63] Kerala is also home to one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world who are supposed to have arrived in the Malabar coast during the ti me of King Solomon.[61][64][65][66] The Jews from Kerala are called Yuda Mappila or Cochin Jews. The oldest surviving Jewish synagogue in the Commonwealth of Na tions is the Paradesi Synagogue in Kochi, Kerala.The cities of South India is al so home to the Anglo-Indian community, the Eurasian descendants of the various E uropeans-Portuguese, Dutch, British,Danish and French-who have at different time s acquired territory in peninsular India.[67]