1
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Output Equations Main Dimensions  KVA output for
single and three phase transformers Window space
factor Overall dimensions Operating characteristics
Regulation No load current Temperature rise in
Transformers Design of Tank Methods of cooling of
Transformers.
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INTRODUCTION:
A transformer is essentially a static electromagnetic
device consisting of two or more windings which link with
a common magnetic field.
The primary is connected to an alternating voltage
source, an alternating flux is produced whose amplitude
depends on the primary voltage andthe no. of turns.
A transformer is not an energy conversion device, but a
device that transforms electrical energy from one or
more primary a.c circuits to one or more secondary a.c
circuits with changed values of voltage and current.
The transformer is extremely important as a component
in many different types of electric circuits, from small
signal electronic circuits to high voltage power
transmission systems.
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IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF A TRANSFORMER:
Changing voltage and current level in an
electric system.
Matching source and load impedances for
maximum power transfer in electronic and
control circuitry.
Electrical isolation.
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PARTS OF A TRANSFORMER
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TYPES OF CORES
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CLASSIFICATION:
Based on construction,
i. Core type and
ii. Shell type
Based on application,
i. Distribution and
ii. Power transformers.
CORE TYPE:
The magnetic core is built of laminations to form a
rectangular frame.
The windings arearranged concentrically with each other
aroundthelegsor limbs.
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The top and bottomhorizontal portion of the core are
calledyoke.
The yokes connect the 2 limbs and have a cross
sectional area>or =tothat of limbs.
Eachlimbcarriesonehalf of primaryandsecondary.
The 2 windings are closely coupled together to reduce
theleakagereactance.
Thelowvoltagewindingiswoundnear thecoreandthe
h.v winding is wound away fromthe core in order to
reducetheamount of insulatingmaterialsrequired.
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SHELL TYPE:
Thewindingsarteput aroundthecentral limb& the
fluxpathiscompletedthroughthe2sidelimbs.
Central limbcarriestotal mutual flux.
Sidelimbs formapart of aparallel magnetic circuit
& carryhalf thetotal flux.
Thecrosssectional areaof thecentral limbis twice
that of eachsidelimbs.
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DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER:
These are transformers upto 200kVA(or 500kVA)
are used to step down distribution voltage to a
standardservicevoltage.
They are kept in operation all the 24 hours a day
whether carryinganyloador not.
Theloadvariesfromtimetotime& it will beonno
loadmost of thetime.
Socopper lossismorecomparedtocoreloss.
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Distribution transformers are designed with less
iron loss and haveamaximumefficiency at aload
muchlesser thanthefull load.
It should have good regulation to maintain the
variation of supply voltage within limits. So it is
designedwithsmall valueof leakagereactance.
POWER TRANSFORMER:
Usedinsubstationsandgeneratingstations& have
ratingsabove200kVA.
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A substation has number of transformers working
inparallel.
During heavy loads all the transformers are put in
operation & during light loads some of themare
disconnected.
So power transformers should bedesigned to have
amaximumefficiencyat or near full load.
Designed to have a greater leakage reactance to
limit fault current.
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COMPARISON OF CORE TYPE AND SHELL TYPE:
CORE TYPE
SHELL TYPE
1. Easy in design and
construction.
2. Has low mechanical
strength due to non
bracing of windings.
3. Reduction of leakage
reactance is not easily
possible.
4. The assembly can be
easily dismantled for
repair work.
1. Comparatively complex.
2. High mechanical
strength.
3. Reduction of leakage
reactance is not highly
possible.
4. The assembly cannot be
easily dismantled for
repair work.
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5. Better heat dissipation from
windings.
6. Has longer mean length of
core and shorter mean
length of coil turn, hence
best suited for EHV
requirements.
5. Heat is not easily
dissipated from windings,
since it is surrounded by
core.
6. It is not suitable for EHV
requirements.
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LOW VOLTAGE WINDING HIGH VOLTAGE
WINDING
HH L H L H L H L
H
H
L
L
CORE
CORE
HIGH VOLTAGE AND LOW VOLTAGE WINDING OF A TRANSFORMER
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17
CROSS SECTION OF SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
W
w
H
w
W
w
W
w
H
w
CROSS SECTION OF CORE
TYPE SINGLE PHASE
TRANSFORMER
CROSS SECTION OF SHELL
TYPE SINGLE PHASE
TRANSFORMER
WINDOW
AREA
WINDOW
AREA
WINDOW
AREA
CORE
CORE
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OUTPUT EQUATION OF SINGLEPHASE TRANSFORMERS
Theequationwhichrelates theratedkVA output of
a transformer to the area of core and window is
calledoutputequation.
In transformers the output kVA depends on flux
density& ampereturns.
Theflux density is related to thecoreareaand the
ampereturnsisrelatedtothewindowarea.
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The induced emf in a transformer, E= 4.44f
m
T volt
Emf per turn, E
t
=E/T
= 4.44f
m
volts
The window in a singlephase transformer contains one
primary and one secondary winding.
Window space factor K
w
is the ratio of conductor area in
window to the total area.
K
w
=A
c
/ A
w
Conductor area in window, A
c
=K
w
A
w
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Thecurrent densityisthesamefor boththewindings.
Socurrent density, = I
p
/ a
p
=I
s
/ a
s
Area of cross section of primary conductor, a
p
=I
p
/
and
Areaof crosssectionof primaryconductor, a
s
=I
s
/
Ampereturns, AT=T
p
I
p
=T
s
I
s
A
w
=total windowarea;
K
w
=windowspacefactor =A
c
/ A
w
A
c
=conductor area =K
w
A
w
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The total copper area in the window:
A
c
=Copper area of primary winding+Copper area of
secondary winding
=(no. of primary turns area of cross section of primary
conductor)+(no. of secondary turns area of cross
section of secondary conductor)
A
c
=T
p
a
p
+T
s
a
s
=T
p
I
p
/+ T
s
I
s
/ (since a
p
=I
p
/ & a
s
=I
s
/ )
=( T
p
I
p
+T
s
I
s
)/
= 1/ (AT+AT)
= 2AT/
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On equating equation (1) & (2), we get
K
w
A
w
= 2AT/
Ampere turns, AT =K
w
A
w
/2
KVA OUTPUT OF SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER:
Rating in kVA ,Q = V
p
I
p
x 10
3
(1) = E
p
I
p
x 10
3
=E
p
( T
p
I
p
)/ T
p
x 10
3
=E
t
AT x 10
3
On substituting the value of E
t
& AT,
Q = 4.44 f
m
(K
w
A
w
) /2 x 10
3
where
m
=B
m
A
i
Q =2.22 f B
m
A
i
K
w
A
w
x 10
3
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OUTPUT EQUATION OF THREEPHASE TRANSFORMERS
The induced emf in a transformer, E= 4.44f
m
T volt
Voltage per turn, E
t
=E/T
= 4.44f
m
volt
In case of a threephase transformer, each window contains
two primary and two secondary windings.
The total copper area in the window:
A
c
=2T
p
a
p
+2T
s
a
s
=( T
p
I
p
+T
s
I
s
)2/
= 4AT/
since ap =I
p
/ and a
s
=I
s
/
since AT=T
p
I
p
=T
s
I
s
( neglecting magnetizing current)
A
w
=total window area ;
K
w
=window space factor =A
c
/ A
w
A
c
=conductor area =K
w
A
w
= 4AT/
ampere turns, AT =K
w
A
w
/4
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KVA OUTPUT OF THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER:
Rating in kVA ,Q =3 x V
p
I
p
x 10
3
=3 x E
p
I
p
x 10
3
=3 x E
p
( T
p
I
p
)/ T
p
x 10
3
=3 x E
t
AT x 10
3
Q= 3 x 4.44 f
m
(K
w
A
w
) /4 x 10
3
where
m
=B
m
A
i
=3.33 f B
m
A
i
K
w
A
w
x 10
3
Using the output equation it can also be shown that
E t = K kVA
where K = 4.44 f r x 10
3
r = m / AT
r is a constant for transformer of a given type ,service and
method of connection, since m determines the core section
and AT fixes the total copper area.
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Value of K
( 1.0 to 1.2) for single phase shell type
1.3 for threephase shell type (power)
(0.75 to 0.85) for single phase core type
(0.6 to 0.7) for three phase core type (power)
0.45 for threephase core type (distribution)
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Output Equations Main Dimensions  KVA output for
single and three phase transformers Window space
factor Overall dimensions Operating characteristics
Regulation No load current Temperature rise in
Transformers Design of Tank Methods of cooling of
Transformers.
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WINDOW SPACE FACTOR
Definedas theratioof copper area in the window of the total
window area.
It depends upon the relative amounts of insulation and
copper provided, which in turn depends upon the voltage
ratingandoutput of transformer.
Empirical formula:
For below 50kVA Kw=8/(30+kV)
For 50kVA to200kVA Kw=10/(30+kV)
For 1000kVA Kw=12/(30+kV)
WhereKvisthevoltageof highvoltagewindinginkv
27
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MAIN DIMENSIONS
(i) Design of core.
(ii) Design of yoke.
(iii)Design of winding
28
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DESIGN OF CORES
The core section of the core type transformer may be
rectangular, squareor stepped.
Shell type transformers use cores with rectangular cross
section.
In core type transformers with rectangular core the ratio of
depthtowidthof thecoreis1.4to2.
In shell type transformers with rectangular core the width of
thecentral limbis2to3timesthedepthof thecore.
Whencircular coils arerequiredfor highvoltagetransformers
,squareandsteppedcoresareused.
Circular coils are preferred because of their superior
mechanical characteristics.
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CROSSSECTION OF TRANSFORMER CORES
RECTANGULAR
CORE
SQUARE
CORE
STEPPED CORE
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SQUARE CORE:
Let d=diameter of the
circumscribing circle.
Also d=diagonal of the square
a=side of the square
Diameter of the circumscribing circle,
d = a
2
+a
2
= 2a
2
= 2a
Side of the square, a= d/2
Gross area of the square, A
gi
=area of the square=a
2
=
(d/2)
2
=0.5d
2
Let stacking factor, Sf=0.9
a
a
a a
d
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32
Net core area, Ai=Stacking factorGross core area
=0.9 0.5d
2
= 0.45d
2
Gross core area is the area including the insulation
area.
Net core area is the area of iron alone excluding
insulation area.
Area of circumscribing circle = /4d
2
The ratio, Net core area/ Area of
circumscribing circle
=0.45d
2
/( /4d
2
) =0.58
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Theratio, Grosscorearea/ Areaof
circumscribingcircle
=0.5d
2
/( /4d
2
) =0.64
Core area factor is the ratio of net core area and
squareof thecircumscribingcircle.
Coreareafactor=Net corearea/squareof the
circumscribingcircle
=Ai/d
2
=0.45d
2
/d
2
=0.45
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TWO STEPPED CORE (or) CRUCIFORM CORE:
Insteppedcorethedimensionsof thestepsshouldbe
chosen, such as to occupy maximumarea within a
circle.
Thedimensions of the2 step to givemaximumarea
for the core in the given area of the circle are
determinedbelow:
Let, a=lengthof therectangle.
b=breathof therectangle.
d=diameter of thecircumscribingcircle.
Also d=diagonal of therectangle.
=Anglebetweenthediagonal & the
lengthof therectangle.
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b
d
b
a
a
b
d
b
a
b
ab/2
ab/2
b
b
d
CROSS SECTION OF TWO
STEPPED CORE
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The maximum core area for a given d is obtained
when is maximum.
Cos= a/d; so a=dcos (1)
sin =b/d; so b=dsin (2)
The 2 stepped core can be divided into 3 rectangles.
The area of three rectangles give the gross core area.
Gross core area, A
gi
=ab+[(ab)/2]b+[(ab)/2]b
=ab+abb
2
=2abb
2
(3)
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Substitute for a and b in equation (3),
A
gi
=2(dcos)(dsin)(dsin)
2
=2d
2
cossind
2
sin
2
=d
2
(2cossinsin
2
)
=d
2
(sin2 sin
2
)
=d
2
sin2 d
2
sin
2
(4)
To get maximum value of , differentiate A
gi
w.r.t ,
and equate to zero,
i.e.,d/d A
gi
=0
On differentiating equation (4) w.r.t we get,
d/d A
gi
=d
2
cos22 d
2
2cossin
Put d/d A
gi
=0
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So d
2
cos22 d
2
2cossin =0
d
2
2cossin =d
2
cos22
d
2
sin2 =d
2
cos22
sin2/cos2 =2
tan2=2; 2=tan
1
2
=1/2 tan
1
2 =31.72
When =31.72, the dimensions of the core will give
the maximum area for the core for a specified d.
a=d cos ; b=d sin
=d cos31.72; =d sin31.72
=0.85d; =0.53d
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Substitute the values of a &b in equation (3) we get,
Gross core area, A
gi
=2abb
2
=0.618d
2
Let stacking factor, Sf=0.9
Net core area, Ai=Stacking factorGross core
area
=0.9 0.618d
2
=0.56d
2
The ratio, Net core area/ Area of
circumscribing circle
=0.56d
2
/( /4d
2
)=0.71
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The ratio, Gross core area/ Area of
circumscribing circle
=0.618d
2
/( /4d
2
) =0.79
Core area factor=Net core area/square of the
circumscribing circle
=Ai/d
2
=0.56d
2
/d
2
=0.56
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41
CHOICE FLUX DENSITY and CURRENT DENSITY ( B
m
and )
B
m
determines the core area.
Higher B
m
smaller area smaller Lmt saving in
the cost of iron and copper.
But higher B
m
increases the iron loss and temprise.
For Distribution transformer B
m
=1.1 to 1.35Wb/m
2
.
For Power transformer B
m
=1.25to 1.45 Wb/m
2
.
The area of conductors for the primary and secondary
windings determined after choosing a suitable value for
which depends on the methodof cooling.
Current density value depends on method of cooling and
range is 1.1 to 2.2 A/mm
2
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TYPES OF WINDINGS
Cylindrical windingwithcircular conductors.
Crossover windingwithcircular or rectangular
conductors.
Continuous disc typewindingwithrectangular
conductors.
Helical winding.
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DESIGN OF WINDING
Thedesignof windinginvolvesthedeterminationof
no. of turns & areaof cross sectionof theconductor
used.
Theno. of turns is estimatedusingvoltagerating&
e.m.f per turns.
The area of cross section is estimated using rated
current& current density.
Usually theno. of turnsof L.V windingisestimated
first using the given data & it is corrected to the
nearestinteger.
Thentheno. of turns of H.V winding arechosen to
satisfythevoltageratingof thetransformer.
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Number of turns in a low voltage winding,
T
LV
=V
LV
/ E
t
or AT/I
LV
where,
V
LV
=rated voltage of low voltage winding.
I
LV
=rated current of low voltage winding.
Number of turns in a high voltage winding,
T
HV
=T
LV
V
HV
/ V
LV
where,
V
HV
=rated voltage of high voltage winding.
Rated current in a winding =
kVA per phase 10
3
/voltage rating of the winding
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DESIGN OF YOKE
The purpose of the yoke is to connect the legs
providing a least reluctance path. In order to limit the
iron loss in the yoke, operating flux density is
reduced by increasing the yoke area.
Generally yoke area is made 20% more than the leg
area.
In case of rectangular yoke ,
depth of yoke =the depth of core.
In square or stepped ,
depth of core =width of largest stampings
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DESIGN OF YOKE
Area of yoke =depth of yoke x height of yoke
= D
y
x H
y
D
y
= width of largest core stamping = a
H
y
=(1.15 to 1.25) A
gi
for transformers using grain
oriented steel
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OVERALL DIMENSIONS OF A TRANSFORMER
The main dimensions of a transformer are:
Height of the window (H
w
) and
Width of the window (W
w
)
Other important dimensions are:
Width of the largest stamping(a)
Diameter of the circumscribing circle(d)
Distance between the core centres(D)
Height of the yoke(H
y
)
Depth of the yoke(D
y
)
Overall height of transformer frame(H)
Overall width of transformer frame(W)
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OVERALL DIMENSIONS
a =width of the largest stamping ;
d =diameter of the circumscribing circle;
D =distance between centres of adjacent limbs;
W
w
, H
w
=width and height of the window ( length of the
window);
Hy =height of the yoke;
For core type: D =d +W
w
; D
y
=a,
W =D+a ;
H =H
w
+2 H
y
Width over two limbs=D + outer diameter of h.v.windings
Width over one limbs=outer diameter of h.v.windings
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For three phase transformers :
D=d +W
w
, D
y
=a,
H=Hw+2Hy ;
W=2D+a;
Width over 3 limbs=2D+outer diameter of h.v.winding
Width over one limb =outer diameter of h.v.winding
For Single phase shell type :
Dy =b ;
Hy =a ;
W = 2W
w
+4a ;
H =H
w
+2a
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Output Equations Main Dimensions  KVA output for
single and three phase transformers Window space
factor Overall dimensions Operating characteristics
Regulation No load current Temperature rise in
Transformers Design of Tank Methods of cooling of
Transformers.
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OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
Resistance of winding
L
mts,
L
mtp
=length of primary & secondary windings,m;
r
p
,r
s
=resistance of primary and secondary winding respectively,m
Total I
2
R loss in windings
Total resistance (per phase) of transformer referred to primary side
Per unit resistance
p mtp
s mts
p p
p s
T L
T L
r andr
a a
= =
2 2
c p p s s
P I r I r = +
2
2
2
.
p
c s
p p s p s
p p s
T
P I
R r and r r r
I I T
 
 
= = + = +



\ .
\ .
p p
r
p
I R
V
=
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Leakage reactance of winding
The estimation of leakage reactanceis the primarily the
estimation of the distribution of leakage fluxand the resulting
flux leakages of the primary and secondary windings
The distribution of leakage flux depends uponthe geometrical
configuration of the coilsand the neighboring iron massesand
permeability of the latter
Leakage reactance of core type transformer
Leakage reactance of sandwich coils
Leakage reactance of core type transformer
Per unit leakage reactance
2
3
p s
mt
x o
t c
b b
L AT
f a
E L
+
 
= +

\ .
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
53
Note on Reactance:
Useful flux: It is the flux that links with both
primary and secondary windings and is responsible
in transferring the energy Electromagnetically from
primary to secondary side. The path of the useful
flux is in the magnetic core.
Leakage flux: It is the flux that links only with the
primary or secondary winding and is responsible in
imparting inductance to the windings. The path of
the leakage flux depends on the geometrical
configuration of the coils and the neighboring iron
masses.
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
54
Leakage reactance of sandwich coils
The idealized flux distribution in shell type transformers
Each of n coils is sandwiched between two coils of L.v.winding.
Per unit reactance
6
p s
o mt
x
t
b b
f L AT
a
n E w
+
 
= +

\ .
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
55
Output Equations Main Dimensions  KVA output for
single and three phase transformers Window space
factor Overall dimensions Operating characteristics
Regulation No load current Temperature rise in
Transformers Design of Tank Methods of cooling of
Transformers.
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
56
REGULATION
Onno loadthesecondary terminal voltageVp=Vp. Thedrop
insecondary terminal voltagefromno loadto full loadcanbe
calculatedbyusingthephasor diagram.
At laggingpower factor cos,
Assuming that the angle between Vp and Vp is very
small, we have
, 2 2
( cos sin ) ( cos sin )
p p p p p p p p p p
V V I R I X I X I R = + + +
sin cos
'
p p p p p p
X I R I V V + + =
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
57
REGULATION
The p.u regulation, for full load rated output Q and full load
current I
p
is :
If the regulation is large and the phase shift between Vp and Vp
is not justified. For this case:
p
p p p p
p
p p
V
X I R I
V
V V
sin cos
,
+
=
=
sin cos
p r
+ =
2
) sin cos (
2
1
sin cos
r p p r
+ + =
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
58
Output Equations Main Dimensions  KVA output for
single and three phase transformers Window space
factor Overall dimensions Operating characteristics
Regulation No load current Temperature rise in
Transformers Design of Tank Methods of cooling of
Transformers.
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
59
ESTIMATION OF NO LOAD CURRENT OF
TRANSFORMER
No load current of a transformer has 2 components:
Magnetizing component depends on the mmf required
to establish the desired flux.
Loss component depends on the iron losses.
NO LOAD CURRENT OF A SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER:
Total length of core=2l
c
Total length of yoke=2l
y
l
c
=H
w
=height of the window
l
y
=W
w
=width of the window
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60
mmf for core = mmf/metre for max. flux density in core
total length of core
=at
c
2l
c
=2 at
c
l
c
mmf for yoke = mmf /metre for max. flux density yoke
total length of yoke
=at
y
2l
y
=2 at
y
l
y
Total magnetizing mmf,AT
0
=mmf for core + mmf for yoke + mmf
for joints
=2 at
c
l
c
+2 at
y
l
y
+mmf for joints
Maximum value for magnetizing current =AT
0
/ T
p
If the magnetizing current is sinusoidal, rms value for
magnetizingcurrent,
I
m
=AT
0
/2T
p
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
61
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
62
NO LOAD CURRENT OF THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER:
Total lengthof core=3l
c
Total lengthof yoke=2l
y
l
c
=H
w
=height of thewindow
l
y
=W
w
=widthof thewindow
mmf for core= mmf/metre for max.flux density in core
total length of core
=at
c
3l
c
=3 at
c
l
c
mmf for yoke = mmf /metre for max. flux density in yoke
total length of yoke
=at
y
2l
y
=2 at
y
l
y
Total magnetizing mmf,AT
0
=mmf for core + mmf for yoke + mmf
for joints
=3 at
c
l
c
+2 at
y
l
y
+mmf for joints
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
63
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
64
Output Equations Main Dimensions  KVA output for
single and three phase transformers Window space
factor Overall dimensions Operating characteristics
Regulation No load current Temperature rise in
Transformers Design of Tank Methods of cooling of
Transformers.
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
65
DESIGN OF INSULATION
Basic consideration in design the insulation
ELECTRICAL INSULATION: Dependsontheoperatingvoltage, eddy
current lossintheconductorsandtank walls.
MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONS: depends on the capable to with
standmechanical Stressesduringfault .
THERMAL CONSIDERATIONS: depends on Safe operating of
temperaturevaluesandtypesof coolingemployed
Insulation of transformers divided in to four types
Major , Minor , insulation relative to tank , insulation between phases
MAJ OR INSULATION : Betweenwindings andcore(grounded).
MINOR INSULATION :Betweenturns, coilsandlayers.
MATERIALS : cottonthread, cottontape, leatheroidpaper,
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
66
TRANSFORMER OIL AS A COOLING MEDIUM
Thespecific heat dissipation due to convection of oil
conv
= 40.3 ( /H)
W/m
2
 C ;
where,
= temp difference of the surface relative to the oil, C
H =height of the dissipating surface, m.
Average values
0
2 0
20 . . 0.5 1
80 100 /
conv
C and H to m
to W m C
= =
=
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
67
TEMPERATURE RISE IN PLAIN TANKED WALLS
The transformer core and winding is placed inside a container
called tank
The tank will dissipate the heat byboth radiation and
convections
For temperature rise over 40
0
C over the ambient temperature
20
0
C,
The specific heat dissipation are follows,
Due to radiation 6.0 W/m
2
C and
Due to convection 6.5 W/m
2
c
Thus a total of 12.5 W/m
2
 C is taken.
.
.
. . . . . . .tan
.
12.5
i c
t
total loss
Temperature rise
sp heat dissipation heat dissipation surface of the k
P P
Temperature rise
S
=
+
=
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
68
Where,
S
t
=heat dissipatingsurfaceareaof thetank.
=Specificheat dissipation
Pi =Ironloss; Pc=copper loss
Heat dissipatingsurfaceof thetank=Total areaof vertical sides+
1/2areaof topcover.
Theareaof bottomof thetank shouldbeneglectedas it has very
littlecoolingeffect.
Transformers rated for larger outputs must be provided with
meanstoimprovetheconditionsof heat dissipation. Thisachieved
byprovidingcoolingtubesandradiators.
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
69
Output Equations Main Dimensions  KVA output for
single and three phase transformers Window space
factor Overall dimensions Operating characteristics
Regulation No load current Temperature rise in
Transformers Design of Tank Methods of cooling of
Transformers.
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
70
DESIGN OF TANK WITH COOLING TUBES
For small transformers,plain walled tank is enough to
dissipatethelosses.
Thetransformers areprovidedwithcoolingtubes to increase
theheat dissipatingarea.
Tubesmountedonvertical sideof thetank
Other hand, thetube will improve the circulation of oil. This
improves the dissipation of loss byconvection
Theimprovement in
loss dissipation by convection = loss dissipated by 35% of tube surface area.
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
71
Let,
Dissipating surface of the tank = S
t
Dissipating surface of the tubes =xS
t
Loss dissipated by the tank surface =(6+6.5) S
t
=12.5 S
t
Loss dissipated by the tubes =(135/100 x 6.5)x S
t
by convection =8.8 x S
t
Total loss dissipated by the walls and tubes
=(12.5 S
t
+8.8 xS
t
)
=(12.5 +8.8 x) S
t
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
72
Actual total area of tank walls and tubes
=S
t
+x S
t
=S
t
(1+x)
Loss dissipated per m
2
of dissipating surface
=Total loss dissipated/ Total area
=(12.5 +8.8x) S
t
/ S
t
(1+x)
=(12.5 +8.8x)/(1+x)
Temperature rise in transformer with cooling tubes,
= Total loss/ Total Loss dissipated
Total loss, P
loss
=Pi +P
c
Hence,
= ( P
i
+P
c
)/ (12.5 +8.8x) S
t
12.5 +8.8x = ( P
i
+P
c
)/ S
t
x = [{( P
i
+ P
c
)/ S
t
}12.5] (1/8.8)
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
73
Total areaof coolingtubes=xS
t
=(1/8.8) [ {(Pi +Pc)/ } 12.5S
t
] S
t
Thetotal number of tubes=n
t
=Total tubearea/ Areaof eachtube
=Total tubearea/( d
t
l
t
)
n
t
= (1/8.8 d
t
l
t
) [ {(P
i
+ P
c
)/ } 12.5 S
t
]
The arrangement of the tubes on tank side walls should be
madeuniformlywithaspacingof usually75mm.
Thestandarddiameter of thecoolingtubes is 50mmandthe
lengthof thetubedependsontheheight of thetank.
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
74
The dimensions of the tank are decided by the
dimensions of the transformer and the clearance
requiredonall sides.
Let
C
1
=clearancebetweenwinding& tankalongthewidth
C
2
=clearancebetweenwinding& tankalongthelength
C
3
=clearancebetweenthetransformer frame& thetankat the
bottom
C
4
=clearancebetweenthetransformer frame& thetankat the
top.
D
oc
=outer diameter of thecoil.
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
75
DIMENSIONS OF TRANSFORMER TANK
H
T
L
T
W
T
D
OC
D
OC
H
D D
C3
C
4
C
2
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
76
With reference to the figure we get,
Width of the tank, W
T
=2D+D
oc
+2 C
1
(3phase)
=D+D
oc
+2 C
1
(1phase)
length of the tank , L
T
=D
oc
+2 C
2
Height of the tank , H
T
=H+C
3
+C
4
The clearance on the sides depends on voltage and power rating
of the winding
Voltage KVA rating Clearance in mm
C1 C2 C3 c4
Up to 11KV <1000KVA 40 50 75 375
Up to 11KV 10005000KVA 70 90 100 400
11KV to 30KV <1000KVA 75 100 75 450
11KV to 30KV 10005000KVA 85 125 100 475
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
77
Output Equations Main Dimensions  KVA output for
single and three phase transformers Window space
factor Overall dimensions Operating characteristics
Regulation No load current Temperature rise in
Transformers Design of Tank Methods of cooling of
Transformers.
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
78
METHODS OF COOLING OF TRANSFORMERS
The losses developed in a transformer are converted
into heat energy & cause heating of corresponding
transformer parts.
The heat dissipation in a transformer occurs by
conduction, convection& radiation.
Thepathof heat flowinatransformer are:
Fromthe internal most heated spots of a given
part(core or winding) to their outer surface in
contactwiththeoil byconduction.
Fromtheouter surfaceof atransformer part tothe
oil that coolsit byconvection.
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79
From the oil to the walls of the cooler by
convection(Eg. wall of atank)
From the walls of the cooler to the cooling
medium air or water by both convection &
radiation.
Thevariousmethodsof coolingtransformersare:
Air natural(AN)
Air blast(AB)
Oil natural(ON)
Oil natural Air forced(ONAF)
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0
80
Oil natural Water forced(ONWF)
Forcedcirculationof oil(OF)
Oil forcedAir natural(OFAN)
Oil forcedAir forced(OFAF)
Oil forced Water forced(OFWF)
The choice of cooling method depends upon the,
size,
typeof application&
typeof conditions obtaining at thesitewherethe
transformer isinstalled.
Natural coolingissuitableupto10MVA
Theforcedoil andair circulation 30MVA
IFETCE/EEE/M.SUJ ITH/III YEAR/VI SEM/EE 2355/DEM/VER 1.0