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ENGM030/Autumn 2008/7pp (1 handout)

UNIVERSITY OF SURREY
Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences Undergraduate/Postgraduate Programmes in Civil Engineering Level M Examination

Module ENGM030 (SE1M54) ; 15 Credits BRIDGE DECK LOADING AND ANALYSIS Time allowed: 3 hours Autumn 2008

Answer THREE questions only

All questions carry equal marks unless otherwise stated; where appropriate the mark carried by an individual part of a question is indicated in brackets []. Additional materials: A set of handouts (38 Pages)

Please avoid the use of red and green inks. Use separate answer sheet for each question.

ENGM030 /Autumn 2008/7pp

Question 1 (a) Describe what is meant by idealisation of bridge decks for the purpose of analysis? Illustrate your answer using examples. List the main factors that should be considered when determining the type of analysis to be adopted. [4] (b) A 3-span railway bridge is supported on bearings at the piers and abutments as shown in Figure 1. The bridge is subject to live loading as shown in the figure. Using the moment distribution method calculate the moments generated and draw the bending moment diagram for the bridge deck. [8] Analysis of bridge decks is commonly undertaken using grillage analysis. Describe the advantages and limitations of this method. [2] For the three span bridge shown in Figure 2a and 2b, sketch, dimension and annotate a suitable grillage element arrangement for a 2D grillage analysis. Explain in what circumstances the transverse elements should be square and when skew to the longitudinal axis of the bridge, giving the reason why. [6]

(c)

(d)

Centreline of bearings

24m

Centreline of bearings

40m 2x250kN 15m 5m

Centreli

24m

Centreline of bearings

B A
UDL = 80kN/m

C D

Deck EI = 1.5

Deck EI = 2

Deck EI = 1.5

Figure 1: Longitudinal section of railway bridge for Question 1, part b

ENGM030 /Autumn 2008/7pp

Skew = 20o

Centreline of bearings

20.0m

Centreline of bearings

35.0m

Centreline of bearings

20.0m

Centreline of bearings

2.5m
Centreline of deck

2.5m

Centreline of bearings

a) Plan

0.5m

0.2m thick R.C. deck

0.5m

Cross girder at abutments and piers

1.0m

2.5m

2.5m b) Section at Pier

2.5m

1.0m

Figure 2: Bridge details for Question 1, part d; a) Plan, b) Section at Pier

[SEE NEXT PAGE]

ENGM030/Autumn 2008/7pp (1 handout) Question 2 The cross-sectional details and side elevation of a two span highway bridge is shown in Figure 3a and 3b. The carriageway width of the bridge is fixed at 7.6m. The deck is continuous over the intermediate support, and supported on bearings over the supports, as shown in the Figure. Using characteristic loads; (a) Determine the number of notional lanes on the bridge as per EN1991. Show the Load model 1 loading arrangement to obtain maximum longitudinal bending moment in the 60m span. Illustrate the arrangement using a sketch showing the magnitude and location of the loads. [4] Show the arrangement of the loads from part a to obtain maximum transverse moment in the deck. Illustrate the load locations on the cross-section of the deck. [2] Determine the number of notional lanes on the bridge as per BS5400. Show the HA only loading arrangement to obtain maximum longitudinal bending moment in the 60m span. Illustrate the arrangement using a sketch showing the magnitude and location of the loads. [4] Show arrangement of the HA+HB loads only on the bridge to obtain maximum longitudinal bending moment in the 60m span. Illustrate the loading arrangement (both the quantities and location of the loads) using an appropriate sketch. A 30 unit HB vehicle may be assumed for this purpose. [4] Discuss possible arrangements of the HA+HB loads only on the deck to obtain maximum longitudinal bending moment over support B. From this discussion, conclude the location and size of HB vehicle, and HA loading (locations, loaded lengths for each lane, and magnitude of loads). Illustrate the loading arrangement (including both the quantities and location of the loads) using appropriate sketches. [6] 1500 4600 1500

(b) (c)

(d)

(e)

2000 a) A Cross-sectional details B C

G.L. 60000 30000

b) Longitudinal section of the bridge Drawings not to scale; All Dimensions are in mm Figure 3: Details of the bridge for Question 2; a) Cross section b) Longitudinal section.

ENGM030 /Autumn 2008/7pp

Question 3 (a) A footbridge pier is supported by a piled foundation as shown in Figure 4. A vertical load of 1500kN and a transverse moment of 700kN are applied to the top of the pilecap through the pier columns. Using the Eurocode 2 strut and tie method determine the area of tie reinforcement required in the base of the pilecap due to the applied loads shown. Sketch how this reinforcement should be detailed in order to ensure that it forms an effective tie. [8] (b) Using the appropriate Pucher chart from the ones provided calculate the maximum transverse hogging moment that would occur over the webs of the U-beams indicated in Figure 5b when subjected to the dispersed wheel loads from 30 units of the HB vehicle. Explain the limitations and conservatism inherent in the Pucher method with reference to transverse design of the slab and of the beam webs in the section shown in Figure 5a and 5b. [8] Explain why integral bridges have become popular for bridges of short length. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of integral bridges. [4]

(c)

Assume : f ck = 45N/mm2 (c = 1.5) f yk = 460N/mm2 (s = 1.15) Cover to reinforcement = 50mm

700kNm 1500kN
500 dia. column base plate

400 1000

400

700 dia. bored pile All dimensions are in mm


1250 1250

Figure 4 : Details of Piled foundation for Question 3, part a [SEE NEXT PAGE]

ENGM030 /Autumn 2008/7pp

100mm thick surfacing 200mm thick R.C. deck slab

a) Typical Section (All dimensions in mm)

b) U10 Beam Detail All Dimensions in mm Figure 5 : Bridge details for Question 3, part b and Question 4, part c a) Deck cross section, b) U beam details

ENGM030/Autumn 2008/7pp (1 handout)

Question 4 (a) Determine the stress distribution along the depth (along Z axis), in a typical composite beam-slab element of the bridge deck, induced by the shrinkage of cast-in place concrete slab over prestressed concrete Y4 beams, as shown in Figure 6. The bridge consists of a 30m simply supported span. [10] Additional data: Youngs Modulus for Slab Concrete = 30 KN/mm2 Youngs Modulus for beam Concrete = 50 KN/mm2 Shrinkage strain in slab, cs =-200 x 106.
200 Slab Z X Y 1000 2000 2000 1000 1000

All dimensions are in mm Figure 6: Cross-section of the bridge deck for Question 4, part a Using BS5400-2, calculate the maximum Wind Gust Speed, Vd, without live load for a highway bridge in Guildford at a height of 50m above sea level and with the wind in the westerly direction. The bridge is a single span of 30m, located 10m [6] above the ground. Assume Sh = 1.0. Using the wind speed calculated in Part b, calculate the nominal transverse wind load on the deck of a single span bridge with a length of 30m and a deck section as given in Figure 5b. Consider the situation with no live load. Assume that the top of the parapet edge beam is 400mm above the top of the deck slab, and ignore loading on parapet posts and rails. Also ignore effect of sloping face of beams. [4]

(b)

(c)

Internal Examiner:

Dr M I Rafiq N Hewson A Hodgkinson Prof J G A Croll

External Examiner: