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Earliest times !!!!

Britain became an island after the end of the last ice age 10000. BC: small groups of hunters, gatherers and fishers 5000. BC: became heavily forested a disaster for the wanderer-hunter culture 3000. BC: New Stone Age: people from the Iberian (Spanish) peninsula /flsziget/ Iberic or the North-Africa coast small, dark and long-headed people settled in the western parts of Britain and Ireland the first invasion (England had a different climate from Europe people went there for the good lands) Stonehenge: - after 3000. BC maybe it was a centre of religious, political and economic power it was built in separate stages over a period of more than a thousand years during the 2nd phase of building huge bluestones were brought to the site from South-Wales ( the movement of these bluestones was an extremely important event from generation to generation) it was almost certainly a sort capital, to which the chiefs of other groups came from all over Britain after 2400 BC: new invaders from Europe round-headed, strongly built, taller military and metalworking skills bronze tools they added a new circle of 30 stones columns, connected by stone cross-pieces they became leaders of British society Beaker Folks about 1300 BC: farming society

The Celts !!!!


700-300. BC tall, fair or red hair , blue eyes probably came from central Europe /Germany/ technically advanced, work with iron began to control all the lowland areas of Britain they are the ancestors /s, eld/ of many of the people in Highland Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Cornwall today they were organised in different tribes /trzs/ they continued the same kind of agriculture as the Bronze Age people before them, but they used iron technology as well they were highly successful farmers, growing enough food for a much larger population hill-forts /dombra plt erd/ with houses smaller towns, local economic centres just leaders, no kings always fighting among themselves Iberic people moved back, they were pressed by Celts Britain became an important food producer because of its mild climate

The Romans !!!!


next great invasion Britain: comes from Pretani (Greco-Roman word for the inhabitants of Britain) Great Roman army: very organized, fighting system Celts help Galls Julius Caesar goes over to the British Isle 55. BC: moves over to England - many ships sank, before reaching England not success 54. BC: tries to get the Celtic chiefs to his side goes to the country, but doesnt like it theres not much to take home he moves back AD 43. : Claudius Romans were determined to conquer the whole island established a Romano-British culture across the southern half of Britain, from the River Humber to the River Severn. This part of Britain was inside the empire leaves: 1. roads 2. sight of London on the Thames (Londons name is Celtic) commercial centre 3. Welsh Christianity sight of London: - 6 Roman roads met in London (capital city) - 20000 people live there - the most important trading centre of northern Europe - outside the towns large farms villas belonged to richer Britons strongest resistance /ellenlls/ the Romans had from Welsh and Piets (Caledonians), Briganties the Romans couldnt conquer Caledonia (Scotland) they built a strong wall (dyke / tlts/) along the northern border, named after the Emperor Hadrian who planned it it was the border between the two later countries, England and Scotland separates English/Roman Christianity from Welsh Christianity people in cities be inhabitants, not soldiers Romans leave cities are not defended anymore AD 350-400.: decline /hanyatls/ of the Roman empire

Rome was falling apart already many of the legions started to go back home British Isle remained open

The Saxon invasion !!!!


mid. IV. century: Angles came from Denmark Saxons came from Anglo-Saxony (Germany) warriors /harcos/ came first 8warriors, but no military once they won they settled down) A-S started to push people more to Wales and the North (now Scotland) after warriors farmers and families came, too Celts fought, Britain didnt 5. century: Anglo-Saxon Invasion = Nordic Invasion British Isles become Anglo-Saxon, only Celts remained Irish, Welsh and some Scottish Roman roads make quicker the invasion 5-6. century: we know nothing before Welsh Christianity they were barber Vikings God: Tor, Woden spreading Chr. Is not easy Celts: druids, Celtic cross : St. Patrick wanted to unite Chr. And druids Chr. in Ireland is monastic( in monasteries) copying codexes, illuminations 690.: Pope Gregory the Great sent a monk to re-establish Chr. in England. Augustine went to Canterbury and became the first archbishop of Catholic he established churches all over Britain Welsh Chr. and Augustines Roman Chr. are different: e.g. way of shaving their head Celtic Chr. wasnt organised couldnt survive slowly the whole island became to Chr.

The Vikings !!!!


8-10. century warriors not one country or its people: Norwegians: to Scotland, the Hebrides, Iceland, Ireland England Swedes: through Russia 1st Russia empire Danish: England no one was travelling like the Vikings: the whole Europe belongs to them, best fighting system, ships, professional warriors Eric the Red : Iceland-Greenland A-S: no war for many 100s of years, they were farmers Vikings attacked then settled down Vikings established their own territory Dane law: was recognised in the east and north of England the land where the law of the Danes ruled Dane geld: or Danish money the English paid to Vikings as a tax in the 10. century heathens /pognyok/, nobody liked them

First English King: Alfred the Great ruled Wessex in 9. century Ethelred (Saxon King) died, Cnut (or Canute) - the leader of the Danish Vikings - controlled much of England the Witan (the royal council) chose Edward, one of the Saxon Ethelreds sons Edward the Confessor was more interested in building church he started a new church fit for a king at Westminster, just outside the city of London he died in 1066 who should be the king? (on of the most important in English history) Harold, a Godwin son the Witan chose him he had no royal blood, but he seemed a good choice for the throne Duke William of Normandy King Edward had promised the throne to him Harold promised him not try to take the throne for himself two dangers for Harold: Danish Vikings and Williams army not to wait for the whole Saxon army he was killed in battle /csata/ near Hastings !!!! 1066: Battle of Hastings Normans win fighting system: horses, ships to take people to the channel it was the greatest fights after this there will be French kings they need to go London to kill everybody

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Norman Kings 1066 : !!!! William I (1066-1087) was crowned king of England in Edwards new church of Westminster Abbey after this they were not united, dont know or meet each other they started to built castles, churches that never been before William places sheriffs in each shires/counties /megye/ get the taxes, represented the king the king starts to have a legal court (kings curia) feudalism, languages: roman French, Anglo Saxon, Latin, Celtic languages William was the first of the Norman kings William organised his English kingdom according to the feudal system 1086: !!!! Domsday Book he wanted to know exactly who owned which piece of l and, and how much it was worth built the Tower of London and rebuilt the Palace of Westminster William II (1087-1100) William the Conquerors 2. surviving son His father gave Normandy to his elder brother He neither married nor had any heirs /rks/ Henry I (1100-1135) William Is fourth son 1106: he reunited Normandy and England under one ruler Stephen I (1135-1154) son of William Is daughter, Adela fights for the throne with Henry Is daughter, Matilda anarchy, the country is falling into chaos Plantagenet Kings !!!! Henry II (1154-1189) Matildas son tried to control the power of the clergy /papsg/ and the barons /br/ introduced trial /trgyals/ by jury English Common Law: the beginning of English parliament called like this, because its now a common one, before that every place had their own law is based on Case Law /esettanulmnyozs/ big collection of the cases everybody know whats the law Henrys law sets the whole country in commons /a np/ he is the father of law Richard I (1189-1199) the Lion Heart goes to a crusade /keresztes hadjrat/ one of the most popular kings was killed in France, had no heirs his brother, John played king in the kingdom

John (1199-1216) taxed the barons heavily to finance his war with France !!!! 1215: the barons forced him to sign a new agreement outside London Magna Carta : o it was symbol of political freedom o the king promised all freemen protection from his office, and right to a fair and legal trial o guaranteed the freedom of church o ensured /biztost/ feudal rights o the rights of the king o no taxation without representation o first law that even the king is under it after Johns death they loose Normandy the kings of England started to be only the king of England Ireland, Scotland, Wales Celtic territories in Welsh: Marcher Lords Welsh Archers /nyilasok/ they separate Ireland to 2 different places: 1. western part: just like England, remains tribal /trzsi/ 2. Dublin and surroundings: English dominant Henry III (1216-1272) the begins of parliament no house of lords/commons but everything was secret Edward I (1272-1307)

the first real parliament: House of Commons: knights, other wealthy freemen from the shire, merchant from the towns

!!!! 1337-1453: The 100 Years War the parliament could extra tax collect first war between nations: English and French the certain king war lords: paid their own knights, castles, killing to get money French were badly organized, didnt used archers, long bows /nyilak/ Jean DArc gets the French together to fight the English the Parliament stopped to vote more money for the war they English lose everything except Calais (the most of the transport to England goes through Calais) 1349: plague, the black death 50% of the people died came from China, carried by rats

!!!! 1455-1485: The War of the Roses the biggest war on the British Isle between 2 families: Lancaster (red rose) and York (white rose) Richard III : kills everybody around himself (House of York) finally the earl of Richmond Henry Tudor defeated him at the Battle of Bosworth he would be Henry VII. Tudor Kings and Queens Henry VII (1485-1509) united the two houses by marriage peaceful and prosperous /virgzs/ Henry VIII (1509-1547) against protestant at the beginning marries Catherine of Aragon daughter: Mary, no boys he wanted divorce, needed to get it from the Pope (II Philip) separation from the Roman Church establish /megalapts/ the Anglican Church (mix of Catholic and Protestant) next queen: Anne Boleyn H. chopped of her head established the royal navy puts cannons /gy/ on the ships, mess /rbc/ a haj harmada they were semi-legal pirates England becomes a naval power Edward VI (1547-1553) persecutes /ldz/ the Catholics Mary I (1553-1558) daughter of Catherine of Aragon, elder sister of Edward VI starts repainting churches persecutes the protestants Book of Martyrs trying to get closer to Spain married to Philip II parliament invalided it called Bloody Mary no children Elisabeth I (1558-1603) daughter of H. VIII and Anne Boleyn makes the country strong again Golden Age of England fairly stabile state 25 years cant rules by herself William Cecil helps her she got married to England rebuilds the navy she knew about piracy it earned a lot of money for England she didnt overtax people piracy helped 1558: Spanish armada attacks England England wins defeat of Catholicism time of the renaissance (Shakespeare) no children

Stuart Kings James I (1603-16259 ~ of England and James VI of Scotland as well Stuart dynasty: pretty much destroyed England James grew up in Scotland, knew nothing about England, Stuart Marias son he ignores /semmibe vesz/ the Parliament more and more becomes an autochratic king Stuarts quarrelled with Parliament and this resulted in civil war Great English Revolution he loves fun, parties, Shakespeare writes for him too theatre: court mask, lot of groups even people of the royal family performed Parliament becomes very week he was more affiliated /kapcsolatot ltest/ with Catholicism the Scottish had a revolution against him 1638-39: they didnt want to be Cath. it spread in England as well Charles I (1625-1649) continues the footsteps of his father: quarrelled over money with the parliament finally he dissolved / feloszlat/ it 1642: civil war Oliver Cromwell lord protector : reorganized the parliament army the first regular force (soldiers pay) they won against the king 1649-1660: no king in England Britain became republic 1660: British Commonwealth /nemzetkzssg/ the parliament leads the country the country needs a leader, Cromwell couldnt crown himself Cromwell died Restauration

Charles II (1660-1688) at first he promises religions freedom, hides his Catholic feelings 1665: great plague 70000 people died First political parties from 1680s: Whigs: group of Mps Scottish outlaw (cattle drivers) religious freedom they were against the king Tories: Irish outlaw (Irish name for thieves) conservatives later supported the king - restoration: the king is being restored /visszahelyez/ to the throne James II (1685-1688) Charles I s brother tried to bring back Catholic Church he wanted to rule without parliament runs away to France 1688: Glorious Revolution /forradalom/ Mary (Charles daughter and her husband William of Orange ruled the country together) 1689: Bill of rights: the parliament became stronger: it met every year no roman catholic can be the monarch of England only protestant no standing army in time of peace no taxtation without the parliament consent fixed the royal line Constitutional /alkotmnyos/ monarchy XIV. Luis tries to help James to get the throne back William III (1689-1702) and Mary II (1689-1694) 1689: war breaks out between France and England 1701-1714: War of Spanish Succession /rksdsi hbor/ religion tolerance in the country William tries to have equality it doesnt work, Catholics are excluded /kiz, kitilt/ Queen Anne (1702-1714) 1713: Marlborough War Jacobites insurrection /felkels/ 1715 easily because England, Scotland and Wales are united, everyone is under the same law the leadership of the Scottish chieftains /trzsf/ is weakening. Many of the Scots decide to leave for America Virginia 13 settlements in America the original states called New England puritans established people try to get west, but natural barrier /akadly/ - Appalaches way of thinking is ruled by the Italians and French Louis XIV rules most of Europe

Hanoverian Monarchs George I, II 1756-1763: Seven Years War against Frances trade went on all over the world to secure /biztost/ rights overseas in Canada took British Quebec gave the control of the important fish, fur and wood trades in India defeated French armies many Britons go there to make their fortune British-Indian relations slowly went sour British get Canada and many territories Madras (in India): tried to play off the different kings against each other British rules started with East India Company George III (1760-1820) reform of the parliament: system of prime minister, cabinet at the beginning the cabinet was supposed /feladata volt/ to deal with the 1689-1713 war !!!! Industrial Revolution (from 1750) result of voyages more money to spend on industrial products invention of the Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves) - easier to make clothes lots of people lose jobs in the villages all the population go to the cities to work at industries many children were baggers 1774: James Watt: steam engine in locomotives, ships travelling becomes easier 1763: he made peace with France 1769: Australia will be British territory (James Cook) 1770: Boston Massacre /ldkls/ (5 people were killed) !!!! 1773: Boston Tea Party throw tea into the sea rather than pay tax on it 1775-1783: American War of Independence American won at Yorktown !!!! July 4, 1776: Congress adopts Declaration of Independence 1760-1820: population was growing: 7 million 14 million 1793: British went war to France invaded the Law countries (Belgium, Holland) European countries were defeated by Napoleon Britain decided to fight France at sea Br. Had the strongest navy at that time: Admiral Nelson 1805: Battle of Trafalgar big victory for Nelson and England: destroyed French and Spanish fleet British army landed in Portugal to fight the French commanded by Wellington 1815-1832: prices increased, many unemployment, cheaper imported corn, hungry crowds ( 1 million died, 2 million emigrated) Corn Law: they prohibited /megtilt/ the import of corn, protect the farmers prices of corn went high !!!! 1845-47: Irish potato famine /hiny, hnsg/ caused by bad weather potatoes was the main food for the poor 1.5 million people died from hunger at the same time Ireland had enough wheat /bza/ to feed the entire population, but it was grown for export to England 1 million left during these years, most settled in the USA the Irish population has still not yet grown to the same level Charles Parnell, a protestant Irish MP demanded /kvetel/ fuller rights for the Irish people fights George IV (1820-1830) and William IV (1830-1837) huger and crime marks of poverty /nsg/ - 1829: regular police in London 1851: Great Industrial Exhibition: 6 million British buy tickets for this show first state aid /tmogats/ for education bankers, bank clerks middle class own their shops gentry money leasure people Victoria (1837-1901) married to Prince Albert they become a model of life for British people high morals, industrial and empirical expansion /nvekeds/ national wealth /gazdagsg/ and urban squalor /vrosi szenny/ workhouses for poor her husband patronized culture and had the first Christmas tree brought to Britain

The House of Windsor George V (1910-1936) population boom lucrative /jvedelmez/ trade British invested /befektet/ abroad More and more universities were founded !!!! 1914-1918: First World War - Reasons: Britain looses his power, Germany is united and very strong by 1914 Germany and Austria-Hungary had made a military alliance /szvetsg/ Russia and France, frightened of German ambitions, had made one also Britain had no choice stand by France if it was attacked by Germany July, 1914: a murder in Sarajevo, Serbia Russia had promised to defend Serbia declared war with AustriaHungary and Germany August, 1914: Germanys attack on France took its army through Belgium Britain as Belgiums defender declared war to Germany; Britain feared of Germanys ambitions to completely change the map of Europe as well

- trench war /lvszrok/


- his was Britains 1st European war for a century - at first all those who joined the army were volunteers /nkntesek/, but in 1916 the government forced them to join the army - ANTANT: France, England, Russia - the war at sea was more important than the war on the land, because defeat at sea would have inevitably / elkerlhetetlen/ resulted in Britain surrender - from 1915 German submarines started to sink merchant ships bringing supplies to Britain America joined the war against Germany it ended Germanys hopes, and Germany surrendered /megadja magt/ in November, 1918 the looser side had to pay reparation /jvttel/ money for the winner 1920: League of Nation /Npszvetsg/ - created from the winner countries protect the peace 1908-16: some reforms: old age pensions, introduction of school-meals new parties in Great Britain: Communist Party: the Labour Party not cooperate with it; poor people came to the party Fascist Party: Conservatives refused to connections to the fascist; wore black shirts; British Union of Fascists Labour Party: new reforms insurance was widened, dole /mukanlkli segly/ New York stock exchange /rtk tzsde/ crashed in 1929 many engines were sold to Germany Ireland gets freedom Edward VIII and George VI !!!! 1939-1945: Second World War - Reasons: 1936: civil war in Spain 1931 Japan conquested Mandzsuria 1935: Italy attacked Ethiopia (Abessinia) League of Nation said that Italy was an aggressor but nothing happened Germany, Italy and Japan wanted to seize /megszerez/ more territory Neville Chamberlain (Prime Minister 1937-40) 1938: letter of friendship with Hitler this was the politics of appeasement /megbkt/ of Germany meeting in Munich: Ch. accepted and co-operated in the takeover /hatalomtvtel/ of German-speaking parts of Czechoslovakia by German. He reassured / megnyugtat/ Britain that he had Hitlers written promise that Germany had no more territorial ambitions (6 months later G: occupied /elfoglal/ the rest of Cz.) Chamberlain was widely blamed but he expressed the feelings of many people in Br. to avoid /elkerl/ war at all costs September, 1939: Germany invaded the British protected Poland Britain entered the war At Dunkirk, a small French port, the British army was saved by thousands of private boots Winston Churchill: the new Prime Minister The British air force won an important battle against German planes in the air over Britain bombing the towns of Britain 1941: Japan, Germanys ally /szvetsges/, attacked British colonial possessions (Malaysia, Burma, India) by 1943 The Soviet army was pushing the Germans out of the USSR 6th June, 1944: D-Day May, 1945: Germany finally surrendered Britain and USA defeat Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs