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P. E. (Civil) License Review Manual, Volume V

9.5

THE WEIR
A weir is an orifice with its top face in the free surface of flow. It is a notch of geometric
shape through which water flows. The most common types are the rectangular, triangular (V-notch) and trapezoidal weirs.

9.5.1

THE RECTANGULAR WElR


By integration of a formula which includes area of discharge times velocity of flow through the area, the theoretical weir flow formula for rectangular weir is:

Where

Q = discharge in cfs
C = experimental weir coefficient
b = width of weir in ft
H = head on weir above weir crest in ft

h
= velocity head of approach stream in ft
= ~ : / 2 ~

The most frequently applied practical formula for rectangular weir is the Francis formula,

Where n = the number of contractions For a rectangular fully contracted weir with negligible velocity of approach: Q = 3.33 (b - 0.2H) H3I2 and for a suppressed weir with negligible velocity of approach:

Q = 3.33 b ~ ~ / ~ For these formulas to be applicable, the nappe must be ventilated so that the water jumps free on the crest creating a bottom contraction. If this does not occur, the discharge will be greater than calculated by the above equations.
9.5.2

THE TRlANGLllAR WElR


The triangular weir or V-notch handles low flows better than other types. For small flows on a rectangular weir, the nappe may not spring clear. In such a case, the V-notch becomes necessary. The theoretical formula is:

8 Ctan0 2

,& H5I2

Section 10, Hydraulics, Chapter 9

Where

8 = vertex angle C = weir coefficient which varies with head and 8. For 8= 90, C = 0.59
9.5.3

THE 'TRAPEZOIDAL WEIR

Many trapezoidal configurations are possible and of greatest importance is the trapezoidal weir of Cipolletti which has sides battered at 114 vertical to 1horizontal. This slope tends to increase the flow over that of a rectangular weir with the same width b to offset the decrease in discharge from end contractions. The formula is: A = 3.367 bH3I2 Where b is the length of the weir crest

Total Head

vf
h = ~

Figure 9.4 Components of Flow over a Weir

i
4

OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS
The equation for discharge over a spillway is essentially the same as for a rectangular weir:
Q = CLH~I~

Where Q = discharge (cfs) L = effective crest length (ft)

H = total head on spillway crest (ft)


C = discharge coefficient, ranging from 3 to 4.1.
Copyright O 1994, ProfessionalEngineering Development Publications, Inc., 5912 Bolsa Avenue, Huntington Beach, CA 92649

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l? E. (Civil) License Review Manual, Volume V

The ideal spillway takes the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharp-crested weir when the flow corresponds with the maximum design discharge of the spillway. An Ogee weir is close to the ideal shape. For an Ogee-spillway, the discharge coefficient C can be approximately determined from the followingFigure 9.5 in which H' = design head for the spillway at the design discharge; Hd = height of the spillway. Figure 9.6 H' ratios. shows the variation of weir coefficient, C for various Hd

+ \
Head on Weir (a) Sharp Crested Weir

(b)

Ogee Spillway a t Design Capacity

(c) Ogee Spillway When Flow

Exceeds Design Capacity

Figure 9.5 Sharp Crested Weir and Ogee-Spillway

Copyright O 1994, Professional Engineering Development Publications,Inc., 5912 Bolsa Avenue, Huntington Beach, CA 92649

Section 10, Hydraulics, Chapter 9

Figure 9.6 Weir Coefficients for various H'/H~ ratios

Copyright O 1994, Professional Engineering Development ~ublications, Inc., 5912 Bolsa Avenue, Huntington Beach, CA 92649

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l ? E. (Civil) License Review Manual, Volume V

9.7
9.7.1

EXAMPLE PROBLEM
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1

- SHARP-CRESTED WEIR

A sharp-crestedweir 4 ft high is constructed across the entire width in the end of a rectangular concrete canal 12 ft wide. The walls of the canal extend beyond the top of the weir, and the nappe is sufficiently ventilated. If the depth of water a short distance upstream from the weir is 5.25 ft, how much water is flowing?
Solution

Apply the Francis formula assuming no velocity of approach:


Q = 3.33 x 12 (5.25 - 4)3/2= 55.82 cfs
Next determine an approximate velocity of approach
V, Then
=

55.82 12 x 5.25

0.886 fps

This value is for all practical purposes negligible. However, if it is desired to include it, recalculate the flow to include velocity of approach.

Q = 3.33 (12 - 0.1 x 0 x 1.25) [(1.262)~/~ - (0.012)~/~]56.60 = cfs

Copyright O 1994, Professional Engineering Development Publications, Inc., 5912 Bolsa Avenue, Huntington Beach, CA 92649

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F ! E. (Civil) License Review Manual, Volume V

7.9.2

EXAMPLE PROBLEM 2 -WEIR ACROSS RECTANGULAR CHANNEL


Arectangular channel for which Q = 64 cfs, b = 4 ft, n = 0.013, So = .01. Aweir extends across the channel. The weir has a height of 4 ft. The discharge for the weir is given by the equation Q = 3.4 L H ~ / ~ -

Find:

A. Depth upstream from the weir. B. Normal depth y, in the channel. C. Critical depth yc in the channel. D. Depth immediately downstream from the jump. E. Length of the channel from the depth in part (d) to the depth in part (a). Plot a graph showing the energy gradient, water surface, and the channel bottom of the reach.
Solution

Fig. P7.9.2 (a)

Depth upstream from the weir Dw = 2.81 B. Section factor:

+ 4 = 6.81 ft

From the Figure 6.8 (V T Chow, pg. 130), Normal depth:


y, = 4 x 0.385 = 1.54 ft
C. Critical depth:

1 b

0.385.

Copyright 0 1994, Professional Engineering Development Publications, Inc., 5912 Bolsa Avenue, Huntington Beach, CA 92649