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Calculations

a. Single phase half wave controller


Sample Calculation

For Delay angle =

Output Voltage

VL(V)(Theoretical) 44.11 43.88 43.23 42.64 41.66 40.73 35.89 30.88 24.45 22.49 17.70 15.82 13.66 10.82 6.27

VL(V)(Practical) 42 40 40 38 36 34 28 22 12 11 8 6 4 3 1

Delay angle ()(Deg) 1.596 8.357 16.297 21.048 27.290 32.182 51.163 66.426 83.763 88.875 101.405 106.440 112.372 120.619 135.693

Following are the observed wave forms of, Load voltage with diode Load voltage with-out diode

Anode to cathode voltage of SR1

Gate voltage

Output Voltage Vs Delay Angle


50

45

40

35

30

Voltage (VL)

25 Theoretical Practical 20

15

10

0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

Delay angle ()(Deg)

Both practical and theoretical values decrease when delay angle increases. However practical value (Voltage) is lesser than the theoretical value. Probable reasons might be voltage drop in the diodes, input voltage fluctuations, reading errors etc. Also it can be noted that there is large gap between practical values and theoretical values when output is low. This might cause due to the presence of unwanted harmonics

b. Single phase full wave controller

Sample Calculation

For Delay angle =

Output Voltage

VL(V)(Theoretical) 86.43 87.06 86.60 85.56 84.04 82.39 80.09 77.25 72.15 67.68 60.97 50.67 42.49 33.26 25.41 19.03 14.01 12.46

VL(V)(Practical) 84 82 82 80 76 72 69 62 58 50 39 22 19 11 7 4 2 2

Delay angle ()(Deg) 0.482 6.362 10.495 16.379 22.397 27.512 33.471 39.732 49.287 57.712 67.539 82.133 92.676 104.691 115.813 125.259 133.527 136.320

Following are the observed wave forms of,

Load voltage

Anode Cathode voltage of thyristor SR1

Anode Cathode voltage of thyristor SR2

Gate voltage

Output Voltage Vs Delay Angle


100

90

80

70

60

Voltage (VL)

50 Theoretical Practical 40

30

20

10

0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

Delay angle ()(Deg)

Both graphs have same shape i.e. Value decreases when the delay angle increases. However practical value (Voltage) is lesser than the theoretical value. Probable reasons might be voltage drop in the diodes, input voltage fluctuations, heat, reading errors etc.Also it can be noted that there is large gap between practical values and theoretical values when output is low. This might cause due to the presence of unwanted harmonics

c. AC voltage controller

Sample Calculation

For Delay angle =

Output Voltage

VL(V)(Theoretical) 98.00 97.98 97.67 97.02 95.93 91.66 86.85 77.35 71.53 67.50 59.72 51.49 43.46 36.52 28.87

VL(V)(Practical) 97 97 95 93 89 80 69 48 44 40 31 24 19 15 11

Delay angle ()(Deg) 0.296 7.209 18.221 26.439 39.002 53.185 65.715 81.078 88.956 94.810 103.802 112.772 121.261 128.157 136.378

Following are the observed wave forms of, Load voltage

Anode Cathode voltage of thyristor

Output Voltage Vs Delay Angle


120

100

80

Voltage (VL)

60 Theoretical Practical

40

20

0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Delay angle () (Deg)

Both practical and theoretical values decrease when delay angle increases. However practical value (Voltage) is lesser than the theoretical value. Probable reasons might be voltage drop in the diodes, input voltage fluctuations, reading errors etc. Also it can be noted that there is large gap between practical values and theoretical values when output is low. This might cause due to the presence of unwanted harmonics

Discussion Give a short discussion on the application of the thyristor voltage control in practice
There are many controller applications of thyristors due to their flexibility of operation and compact design. Half wave and full wave conversation is use to get controlled dc output over the conventional uncontrolled diode conversion. These types of controllers inject large harmonic in to the system particularlysmall output value. Furthermore these types of converters produce notches in the line voltage waveform.In the past this thyristor controlling mechanism is used in many applications for controlling the flow of electric power. But with the development of power electronic field better devices came to the industry which can mitigate above pit hols of the thyristors. Followings are some of practical application of thyristor voltage controllers Battery chargers Modern battery chargers use three stages for charging the battery namely bulk stage, absorption stage and float stage. Battery charger need to identify the prevailing level of the battery voltage and apply correct required voltage. In order to apply different dc voltages according to the stage these chargers use thyristor voltage controlling technique to obtain controlled dc output. Motor speed controllers Speed of the induction motor can be controlled by controlling the stator voltage. This type of speed controllers uses thyristor control mechanism to control output voltage (AC controller) by changing the delay angle. This concept is heavily used in locomotive drivers to control the speed of the application. The simplified thyristor controlled version of the 25 kV AC electric locomotive traction system employed in UK can be illustrate as follows