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MA 101 (Mathematics - I)

Tutorial Problems and Additional Practice Problems on Single-variable Calculus

Tutorial Problem Set - 1

1. Examine whether the sequences (x n ) defined as below are convergent. Also, find their limits if they are convergent.

(i)

1

x n = (a n +b n +c n ) n for all n N, where a, b, c are distinct positive real numbers.

(ii) x n =

1 2 (a 1 + ··· + a n ) and a n = n + n for all n N.

n

1

2. Let (x n ) be a sequence in R and let y n =

n 1 (x 1 + ··· + x n ) for all n N.

If (x n ) is

convergent, then show that (y n ) is also convergent. If (y n ) is convergent, is it necessary that (x n ) is (i) convergent? (ii) bounded?

3. For a R, let x 1 = a and x n+1 =

4 (x n + 3) for all n N. Examine the convergence

1

2

of the sequence (x n ) for different values of a. Also find lim

n x n whenever it exists.

4. Given a, b R, let x 1 = a, x 2 = b and x n =

2 1 (x n1 + x n2 ) for n = 3, 4,

that the sequence (x n ) is convergent and find lim

n→∞ x n .

Prove

5. Let (x n ) be a sequence of nonzero real numbers. Prove or disprove the following:

(i) If (x n ) is not bounded, then lim

n→∞

1

x n

= 0.

(ii) If (x n ) does not have any convergent subsequence, then lim

n→∞

1

x n

= 0.

Tutorial Problem Set - 2

1. Examine whether the following series are convergent.

(a)

(b)

(c)

n=1

n=2

n=1

1

n

1+

1

n

1

(log n) log n

(2n)!

n n

2. Let x n > 0 for all n N. Prove that the series

converges.

n=1

x n converges iff the series

n=1

x n

1 + x n

3. If α(

= 0) R, then show that the series

n=1

(1) n sin( α ) is conditionally convergent.

n

4. Let a n

> 0 and b n

n 0 N. If the series

> 0 for all n N such that

a n+1

a

n

b n+1

b

n

b n converges, then show that the series

n=1

for all n n 0 , where

n=1

a n also converges.

Use the above fact to examine the convergence of the series

n=1

n n

n!e n .

5. Find all x R for which the series

n=1

(1) n (x 1) n

2 n n 2

converges.

Tutorial Problem Set - 3

1. Let f : R R be defined by

f(x) =

x

[x]

if x Q,

if x R \ Q.

Determine all the points of R where f is continuous.

2. Let f : R R be continuous such that f (x) = f (x 2 ) for all x R. constant function.

Show that f is a

3. Let f : [0, 1] R be continuous such that f (0) = f (1). Show that

(i)

there

exist

x 1 , x 2

[0, 1] such

that

f (x 1 ) =

f(x 2 ) and

(ii)

there

exist

x 1 , x 2

[0, 1] such

that

f (x 1 ) = f(x 2 ) and

1 .

.

x 1 x 2 x 1 x 2 = 1

=

2

3

(In fact, if n N, there exist x 1 , x 2 [0, 1] such that f (x 1 ) = f(x 2 ) and x 1 x 2 = 1 However, it is not necessary that there exist x 1 , x 2 [0, 1] such that f (x 1 ) = f(x 2 ) and x 1 x 2 = 5 2 .)

n .

4. Let p be an odd degree polynomial with real coefficients in one real variable. If g : R R is a bounded continuous function, then show that there exists x 0 R such that p(x 0 ) = g(x 0 ).

(In particular, this shows that

every odd degree polynomial with real coefficients in one real variable has at least one real zero.

the equation x 9 4x 6 + x 5 +

x 2 = sin 3x + 17 has at least one real solution.

(iii) the range of every odd degree polynomial with real coefficients in one real variable

(i)

(ii)

1

1 +

is R.)

5. Prove or disprove:

(i) There exists a continuous function from [0, 1] onto (0, 1).

Tutorial Problem Set - 4

1. Let f : R R be twice differentiable at 0. and f (0).

1

If f ( n ) = 0 for all n N, then find f (0)

2. Let f : R R be such that f (x) f (y) (x y) 2 for all x, y R. Show that f is a constant function.

3. For n N, prove that the equation 1 x + x 2

2

x 3 + · · ·

3

n

+ (1) n x n = 0 has exactly

one real root if n is odd and has no real root if n is even.

4. : R R be differentiable such that f (0) = f (1) = 0 and f (0) > 0, f (1) > 0. that there exist c 1 , c 2 (0, 1) with c 1 = c 2 such that f (c 1 ) = f (c 2 ) = 0.

Let f

Show

5. Prove that (1 + x) α 1 + αx for all x ≥ −1 and for all α > 1.

6. Let f : R R such that f (c) exists, where c R. Prove that f(c + h) 2f(c) + f(c h)

lim

h0

h

2

=

f (c).

Give an example of an f but the above limit exists.

: R R and a point c R for which f (c) does not exist

Tutorial Problem Set - 5

1. Let f

: [1, 1] R be defined by

f(x) =

1

0

if x =

otherwise.

1

n for some n N,

1

Show that f is Riemann integrable on [1, 1] and that 1 f (x) dx = 0.

If F (x) = 1 f (t) dt for all x [1, 1], then show that F

tiable, and in particular, F (0) = f (0), although f is not continuous at 0.

x

: [1, 1] R is differen-

2. Let f : [a, b] R be continuous such that f (x) 0 for all x [a, b] and

a

Show that f (x) = 0 for all x [a, b].

b f (x) dx =

0.

(The above result need not be true if f is assumed to be only Riemann integrable on [a, b].)

3. Prove that

2

0

1

1

1+xx 2

1+x 4

dx

5

4 .

n→∞ b

a

4. If f : [a, b] R is continuously differentiable, show that lim

f (x) cos nx dx = 0.

(In fact, it is sufficient to assume only that f is Riemann integrable on [a, b].)

x

5. If f : [0, 1] R is continuous, then show that

0

(

u

0

f (t) dt) du =

x (x u)f (u) du.

0

Tutorial Problem Set - 6

1. Examine whether the following integrals are convergent.

(a)

(b)

0

1

0

sin(x 2 ) dx

log x

x

dx

2. Determine all real values of p for which the following integrals are convergent.

(a)

0

x

p1

1+x

dx

1

(b)

0

1

(log x ) p dx

3. Show that

1

sin x

x

p

dx converges absolutely if p > 1 and conditionally if 0 < p 1.

4. Find the area of the region that is inside the cardioid r = a(1 + cos θ) and (i) inside the circle r = 3 a, (ii) outside the circle r = 3 a.

2

2

x

5. Find the length of the curve y =

0

cos 2t dt, 0 x π

4 .

6. Consider the funnel formed by revolving the curve y =

x 1 about the x-axis, between

x = 1 and x = a, where a > 1. If V a and S a denote respectively the volume and the

surface area of the funnel, then show that lim

a V a = π and lim

a S a = .

Additional Practice Problems

1. Prove or disprove the following statements:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

If both (x n ) and (y n ) are unbounded sequences in R, then the sequence (x n y n ) cannot be convergent.

If (x n ) is a sequence in R which converges to 0, then the sequence (x n n ) must

converge to 0.

A monotonic sequence (x n ) in R is convergent iff the sequence (x n ) is convergent.

If a monotonic increasing sequence (x n ) in R has a convergent subsequence, then (x n ) must be convergent.

for all n N, then the sequence (x n ) is not convergent

although it has a convergent subsequence.

2

(e) If x n

(1

1

n ) sin nπ

2

=

(f) The series

(1) n ( n 2 + 1 n) is conditionally convergent.

n=1

(g)

If f : R R is not differentiable at x 0 R and g : R R is not differentiable at f(x 0 ), then g f : R R cannot be differentiable at x 0 .

: R R is differentiable, then for each c R, there exist a, b R with

a < c < b such

x f (x) = 0, then there

exists ξ (0, ) such that f (ξ) = 0.

(h) If f

(i) If f

that f (b) f (a) = (b a)f (c).

: [0, ) R is differentiable such that f (0) =

lim

(j)

n→∞ 1

lim

0

nx n1

1 + x

dx = 1

0

lim

n→∞

nx n1

1 + x

dx.

2.

Examine whether the sequences (x n ) defined as below are convergent. Also find their limits if they are convergent.

(a) x n = 1n+(1) n

2n+1

for all n N

(b)

(c) x n =

(d) x n =

x n = 3.5.7.··· .(2n+1) 2.5.8.··· .(3n1)

1

1.n +

1

for all n N

2.(n1) +

1

3.(n2) + ··· +

1

n.1 for all n N

1 2 ([α] + [2α] + · · · + []) for all n N, where α R.

n

3.

2

Let a > 0 and let x 1 = 0, x n+1 = x n + a for all n N. is convergent iff a

1

4 .

Show that the sequence (x n )

4. Let x 1

= 1 and let x n+1

= (

n+1 )x

n

convergent. Also, find lim

n→∞ x n .

2 for all n N.

n

Show that the sequence (x n ) is

5. If (x n ) is a sequence in R such that lim

n x n = 0, then show that the series

n=1

x

n

x n + n 2

2

is absolutely convergent.

6. If a series

x n is convergent but the series

n=1

x n is conditionally convergent.

series

n=1

2

x n is divergent, then show that the

n=1

7. Let the series

x n converge, where x n

n=1

following series converge.

(a)

n=1

n=1

x n

n

x n + 2 n

x n + 3 n

(b)

> 0 for all n N.

Examine whether the

8. If

n=1

x n is a convergent series, where x n

>

0 for all

n

N, then show that it is

9.

possible for the series

n=1

x n

n

to converge as well as to diverge.

Let f : R R be defined by f (x) =

Examine whether f is continuous at 0.

x sin x

0 if x = 0.

= 0,

1

1

if x

10.

11.

12.

Give an example (with justification) of a function from R onto R which is not contin- uous at any point of R.

Let f : R R be continuous such that for each x Q, f (x) is an integer. If f ( 1 2 ) = 2,

then find

f ( 1

3 ).

Let f : R R be continuous such that f ( 2 (x + y)) =

Show that there exist a, b R such that f (x) = ax + b for all x R.

1

2 1 (f (x) + f (y)) for all x, y R.

13. Let f : [0, 1] R and g : [0, 1] R be continuous such that sup{f (x) : x [0, 1]} = sup{g(x) : x [0, 1]}. Prove that there exists ξ [0, 1] such that f (ξ) = g(ξ).

14. Consider the continuous function f : (0, 1] R, where f (x) = 1 (1 x) sin x for

Does there exist x 0 (0, 1] such that f (x 0 ) = sup{f (x) : x (0, 1]}?

1

all x (0, 1]. Justify.

15. Let f : [a, b] R be continuous.

For n N, let x 1 ,

nonzero real numbers having same sign. Show that there exists c [a, b] such that

, α n be

,

x n [a, b] and let α 1 ,

f(c) n

i=1 α i = n

i=1 α i f(x i ).

(In particular, this shows that if f : [a, b] R is continuous and if for n N,

(f(x 1 ) + ··· + f(x n )).)

x 1 ,

, x n [a, b], then there exists ξ [a, b] such that f (ξ) =

1

n

16. Let p be an nth degree polynomial with real coefficients in one real variable such that

= 0) is even and p(0) · p (n) (0) < 0. Prove that p has at least two real zeroes.

n(

17. Let p be a non-constant polynomial of even degree with real coefficients in one real variable. Prove that exactly one of the following two statements holds.

(a)

There exists x 0 R such that p(x 0 ) p(x) for all x R.

(b)

There exists x 0 R such that p(x 0 ) p(x) for all x R.

18.

Let f (x)

f(x 0 ) f (x) and f (y 0 ) f (x) for all x R.

1

1+|x| +

1

1+|x1| for all x R. Find, if possible, x 0 , y 0 R such that

=

19. Let α R and let f : R R be defined by f (x) = cos

α

1

x

if x

if x = 0.

= 0,

Show that f has the intermediate value property iff α [1, 1]. Also, find all values of α for which there exists a function g : R R satisfying g (x) = f (x) for all x R.

20. Give an example (with justification) of a function f : R R which is differentiable only at 2.

21. Let f : R R be defined by f (x) = sin 3 x sin

0

1

x

if x

if x = 0.

= 0,

Examine whether (a) f is differentiable at 0, (b) f is continuous at 0 and (c) f is differentiable at 0.

22. Let f : R R be differentiable at x 0 R and let g(x) = |f (x)| for all x R.

Show

=

that g : R R is differentiable at x 0 iff either f (x 0 )

0 or f (x 0 ) =

f (x 0 ) = 0.

23. Let f

:

(a, b)

R and

g

:

(a, b)

R be differentiable at x 0

(a, b) such that

f(x 0 ) =

g(x 0 ) and f (x) g(x) for all x

(a, b). Show that f (x 0 ) = g (x 0 ).

24. For n N, let f : R R be defined by f (x) = x n+1

x n+1

if x 0, if x < 0.

Show that f is n times continuously differentiable but that f (n+1) (0) does not exist.

25. Let f : [0, 1] R be differentiable such that f (0) = 0 and f (1) = 1. Prove that there

26. Let f : (a, b) R be differentiable and let x 1 ,

,

x n , y 1 ,

, y n (a,

for i = 1,

n

, n. Show that there exists ξ (a, b) such that

n

(x i y i ).

(f(x i ) f(y i )) = f (ξ)

i=1

i=1

b) such that y i < x i

27. Prove that for each a (0, 1) and for each b R, the equation a sin x + b = x has a unique root in R.

28. If a, b, c R, then show that the equation 4ax 3 + 3bx 2 + 2cx = a + b + c has at least one root in (0, 1).

29. If p is a polynomial of degree n with real coefficients in one real variable, then show that the set {x (0, π ) : p(x) = sin x} has at most n + 1 elements.

2

30. Prove that between any two real roots of the equation e x sin x = 1, there exists at least one real root of the equation e x cos x + 1 = 0.

31.

Let a 0 , a 1 ,

a 0 + a 1 cos x + · · · + a n cos nx = 0 has at least 2n roots in [0, 2π].

,

a

n

R such that |a 0 | + |a 1 | + ··· + |a n1 | ≤ a n . Prove that the equation

32. Prove that for each n N, the equation x n + x 1 = 0 has a unique root in [0, 1]. If for each n N, x n denotes this root, prove that the sequence (x n ) converges to 1.

33. Let f : [a, b] R be twice differentiable and let f (a) = f (b) = 0 and f (c) > 0, where c (a, b). Show that there exists ξ (a, b) such that f (ξ) < 0.

34. Prove that

(i) x1

x

< log x < x 1 for all x > 0

(ii) 1 + x < e x < 1 + xe x for all x(

= 0) R

(iii)

2 sin x + tan x > 3x for all x (0, π ).

2

35.

Let f n (x)

f 2n1 (x) cos x f 2n (x) for all x R, n N.

1 x 2

2!

+ x 4

4!

2n

− · · · + (1) n (2n)!

x

=

for all

x

R, n N.

Prove that

36. Let p be an nth degree polynomial with real coefficients in one real variable such that p(x) 0 for all x R. Prove that p(x) + p (x) + ··· + p (n) (x) 0 for all x R.

37. Let f : R R be twice continuously differentiable with f (0) = 0 and let

g(x) =

Show that g : R R is continuously differentiable.

f(x)

f

x

(0)

if

if

R \ {0}, x = 0.

x

38. Let f : R R be differentiable such that f (0) = 0 and |f (x)| ≤ |f (x)| for all x R. Prove that f (x) = 0 for all x R.

39. Let f : [a, b] R be a bounded function. If there is a partition P of [a, b] such that L(f, P ) = U (f, P ), then prove that f is a constant function.

40. Let f : [0, 1] R be continuous such that |f (x)| ≤ that f (x) = 0 for all x [0, 1].

0

x f (t) dt for all x [0, 1].

Show

41. Prove that

(a)

(b)

π 2

9

3

8

π

2

π

6

π

3

π

4

x x dx ≤ 2π 2 sin 9 sin x dx ≤ √ 2 x
x
x dx ≤ 2π 2
sin
9
sin x
dx ≤ √ 2
x
6

n→∞ 1

0

42. If f : [0, 1] R is Riemann integrable, then find lim

n→∞ 1

0

43. If f : [0, 1] R is continuous, then find lim

f(x n ) dx.

x n f (x) dx.

x

44. Let f : R R be continuous and let g(x) = (x t)f (t) dt for all x R. Prove that g (x) = f (x) for all x R.

0

1 e x 2 x

x

0

45. Evaluate: lim

x0

46. Examine whether the following integrals are convergent.

e t 2 dt.

(a)

0

1+x 2 sin 2 x dx

x

2

(b)

1

log

x

x dx

47. Determine all real values of p for which the integral

0

e x 1

x

p

dx is convergent.

48. Find the area of the region enclosed by the curve y = |x + 1| and the line 5y = x+7.