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Sample Quiz Problems

Quiz Problem 1. Prove the expression for the Carnot eciency for a perfectly reversible Carnot cycle using an

ideal gas.

Solution: The ideal Carnot cycle consists of four segments as follows (1) An isothermal expansion during which

heat Q

H

is added to the system at temperature T

H

; (2) an adiabatic expansion during which the gas cools from

temperature T

H

to T

C

; (3) An isothermal compression during which heat Q

C

is extracted from the system to a cold

reservoir at temperature T

C

; (4) Adiabatic compression during which the temperature of the gas rises from T

C

to T

H

.

The eciency of the engine is given by = W/Q

H

, where W is the useful work done by the system and Q

H

is the

heat added to the system. This is a thermodynamic cycle provided it is carried out reversibly (i.e. kept very close

to equilibrium), and then the internal energy is the same at the beginning and the end of the cycle. In that case,

dU = 0, and W

total

= Q

H

Q

L

, so we can also write the eciency as

= 1

Q

L

Q

H

= 1

T

L

S

T

H

S

= 1

T

L

T

H

(1)

The introduction of Entropy by Clausius greatly simplied understanding of engines.

Quiz Problem 2. Show that in the eigenfunction basis, the von Neuman entropy S = k

B

tr( ln( )) reduces to

the Gibbs form S = k

B

i

p

i

ln(p

i

) where the sum is over all eigenstates.

Solution. See Eq. (20) of Lecture notes.

ln(

_

N

n

_

) N[pln(p) + (1 p)ln(1 p)], where p = n/N (2)

Solution. Using Stirlings approximation we have,

ln(

_

N

n

_

) = ln(N!) ln(n!) ln(N n)! = Nln(N) N nln(n) +n (N n)ln(N n) + (N n) (3)

which reduces to

ln(

_

N

n

_

) = Nln(N) nln(n) (N n)ln(N n). (4)

Dening p = n/N gives,

ln(

_

N

n

_

) = Nln(N) pNln(pN) N(1 p)ln(N(1 p)) = N[pln(p) + (1 p)ln(1 p)] (5)

Quiz Problem 4. If S = k

B

N[pln(p) + (1 p)ln(1 p)], by doing a variation with respect to p nd the value

of p that gives the maximum entropy. Demonstrate that it is a maximum by showing that the second derivative with

respect to p is negative.

Solution. Taking a derivative with respect to p gives,

S

p

= k

B

N[ln(p) ln(1 p)] (6)

2

The extrema occur at values of p = p where this expression is zero, which yields p = 1/2. To determine whether

this is a minimum of maximum, we take the second derivative to nd that,

2

S

p

2

= k

B

N[

1

p

+

1

1 p

]

p=p

= k

B

N (7)

Since the second derivative is negative the extremum at p = 1/2 is a maximum. We have thus found the value of

the probability at which the entropy is a maximum.

Quiz Problem 5. Use the Master equation to prove the second law of thermodynamics, i.e. in a closed system

dS/dt 0.

Solution. see lecture notes page 10.

Quiz Problem 6. Give three examples of systems where the ergodic hypothesis fails. Explain why it fails in these

cases.

Solution. Non-interacting classical gas, as in the absence of interactions the systems is non-chaotic. Coupled

harmonic oscillators with no other interactions, as the normal modes do not share energy. Any system with spon-

taneous symmetry breaking at low temperature, e.g. magnetic systems. Once in the up magnetized state at low

enough temperature the system stays in that state. Similarly once a crystal has formed from the gas phase at low

temperature it almost never transforms to another crystal phase.

Quiz Problem 7. Why is the ideal gas law still a good starting point for high temperature gases, even though a

non-interacting gas is non-ergodic?

Solution. Even very small interactions can make the system chaotic. These interactions have little eect on

the equilibrium thermodynamic behavior though they are critical to the transport properties.

i

= e

Ei

/Z in the Gibbs form for the entropy, show that F = k

B

Tln(Z), where

F = U TS is the Helmholtz free energy. Here Z =

i

e

Ei

is the canonical partition function.

Solution. The Gibbs formula for the entropy is

S = k

B

i

p

i

ln(p

i

). (8)

Using the Boltzmann probability in the canonical ensemble p

i

= exp(E

i

)/Z, we have,

S = k

B

i

p

i

[

E

i

k

B

T

ln(Z)] =

U

T

+k

B

ln(Z) so U TS = k

B

Tln(Z), (9)

where we used

i

p

i

= 1, U =

i

p

i

E

i

Quiz Problem 9. If x = e

(EiEj)

, so that w

ji

f(x). Show that the Metropolis algorithm is given by

f(x) = min(x, 1).

Solution With this notation, the Metropolis algorithm is: If x > 1, w

ji

= 1, and if x < 1, w

ji

= x. This can be

put in one equation as w

ji

= f(x) = min(1, x).

3

(EiEj)

, so that w

ji

f(x). Show that detailed balance is satised for any f(x)

satisfying f(x)/f(1/x) = x. Moreover, show that f(x) = x/(1 +x), the heat bath algorithm, is one such solution.

Solution Since w

ij

= 1/w

ji

, if f(x) = w

ji

, and if f(1/x) = w

ij

, then detailed balance is satised provided

f(x)/f(1/x) = x. For the heat bath case,

f(x)/f(1/x) = (x/1 +x)/(1/x/(1 + 1/x)) = x (10)

Quiz Problem 11. For a monatomic interacting classical gas, with interactions that only depend on the particle

co-ordinates, derive the Maxwell Boltzmann distribution of velocities and show that the average kinetic energy is

given by < KE >= 3Nk

B

T/2.

Solution. See page 23 of the notes.

2

=< E

2

> < E >

2

= k

B

T

2

C

V

show that E/E is proportional 1/N

1/2

.

Solution. See page 28 of the notes.

Quiz Problem 13. Write down the central dierence form of the second derivative. Using this expression for the

acceleration, write down the basic form of the Verlet algorithm for Molecular dynamics.

Solution. See. page 21-22 of the notes.

k

p

k

r

k

. Explain why the average of its time

derivative is expected to be zero at long times.

Solution. The average of the time derivative of the virial gives,

<

dG

dt

>=

1

_

0

dG

dt

dt = (G() G(0))/

where the average is taken over the time interval . Since G is bounded, as goes to innity, the average of the time

derivative of G goes to zero.

Quiz Problem 15. The ground state structure of Argon is a fcc crystal. If a MD simulation is carried out where

a high temperature structure is quenched to a low temperature where the fcc structure is the equilibrium state. If

the starting high temperature state in your MD simulation is a liquid phase, do you expect the simulation to nd the

correct fcc state? Explain.

Solution. For most particle systems it is dicult to nd the low temperature ground state, so the fcc single crystal

state is usually not found. In experiments a polycrystal is quit often found but it is harder to make single crystals.

In MD simulations, the timescale is very short so unless special conditions are applied, the low temperature state is

a frozen glass state.

4

Quiz Problem 16. In a MC calculation of the ferromagnetic Ising model on a square lattice, you calculate the

magnetization as a function of temperature as accurately as you can. However your simulations remain rounded

at the critical point, instead of showing the behavior |T

c

T|

physical origins of the rounding that you observe. Your experimental colleague does a measurement of a model Ising

magnet that consists of quantum dots with around 1000 spins in each quantum dot. She also observes a rounding

of the behavior of the magnetization. Provide some reasons why her magnetization experiment also gives a rounded

behavior near the critical point.

Solution. Three reasons for rounding of the transition are nite size eects, sample inhomogeneity and non-

equilibrium eects. Non-equilibrium eects occur when the system is not fully equilibrated. In experiments all three

eects occur, while in simulations the sample inhomogeneity eect is avoided.

PV = Nk

B

T +

1

3

internal

k

r

k

F

k

(11)

Explain the physical origin of each of the three terms. This relation is not always true for periodic boundary condi-

tions, though rather fortuitiously it is true for periodic boundaries provided the interaction potential is a pair potential.

Solution. See page 23-24 of the notes.

(E)

2

= k

B

T

2

C

V

(12)

Solution. See page 28 of the notes.

Solutions to assigned problems

Problem 1. Find the relation between pressure and volume for an ideal gas under going an adiabatic process.

Solution:. In an adiabatic process no heat is added to the system, so dU+dW = 0, where dW = PdV . Combining

the ideal gas law and the equipartion theorem, we have

dU = Nk

B

dT = d(PV ) = (V dP +PdV ) (13)

where = DOF/2. Using the rst law, we then have,

PdV = (V dP +PdV ) or

dP

P

= ( + 1)

dV

V

(14)

Integrating gives,

P

P

0

= (

V

0

V

)

1+1/

(15)

which may be written in its most common form,

PV

= constant where =

+ 1

(16)

For a mono-atomic ideal gas in three dimensions there are three translational degrees of freedom, so DOF = 3,

= 3/2, and = 5/3.

5

Problem 2: Derive the ideal monatomic gas law using kinetic theory. You may use the equipartition result

U =

3

2

Nk

B

T.

Solution: The internal energy of an ideal gas is purely kinetic energy, so that,

U =

3

2

Nk

B

T =

1

2

i

m < [(v

i

x

)

2

+ (v

i

y

)

2

+ (v

i

z

)

2

] >=

1

2

Nm < v

2

> (17)

The pressure is calculated by considering a particle incident normally on a perfectly reecting wall,

F

x

= ma

x

= m

p

x

t

=

2mv

x

t

(18)

The time taken for the particle to strike the wall again is t = 2L/v

x

, so that

F

wall

=

2mv

2

x

2L

so that P =

i

F

i

x

A

=

m

i

(v

i

x

2

)

AL

(19)

Noting that V = AL, with

i

(v

i

x

)

2

=

1

3

< v

2

> and combining (12) and (14) yields,

PV = m

i

(v

i

x

)

2

= Nk

B

T (20)

Problem 3. Find the degeneracy (E, N) for N a spin 1/2 Ising system with Hamiltonian H = h

i

S

i

.

Solution: The energy of a spin state depends only on the number of up spins N

u

, and the number of down spins

N

d

, but not their arrangement. We then have,

E =

h

2

(N

u

N

d

), with degeneracy (E) =

N!

N

u

!N

d

!

(21)

We also have N = N

u

+N

d

, so that

E =

h

2

(2N

u

N) or N

u

=

N

2

E

h

, N

d

=

E

h

N

2

(22)

Since entropy is the k

B

ln((E)), we use Stirlings approximation to write,

ln((E)) = NlnN N N

u

lnN

u

+N

u

N

d

lnN

d

+N

d

= NlnN N

u

lnN

u

N

d

lnN

d

(23)

It is useful to introduce the fraction f = N

u

/N, so that N

d

/N = 1 f and

ln() = NlnN fNln(fN) (1 f)Nln[(1 f)N] = N[fln(f) + (1 f)ln(1 f)] (24)

which shows that the entropy in this model is extensive. In terms of f, E = (Nh/2)(2f 1). We dene = E/N, so

that f = 1/2 /h. Finally the entropy is,

S = k

B

ln((E)) = k

B

N[(1/2 /h)ln(1/2 /h) + (/h 1/2)ln(/h 1/2)] (25)

6

Problem 4. Consider a random walk on a one dimensional lattice where the probability of stepping to the right

or to the left is 1/2. Find the probability that after N steps the walker is at position x lattice units from the starting

position. Use Stirlings approximation to show that for large N the probability distribution is a Gaussian in x. Find

the average mean square distance the walker is from the origin as a function of N.

Solution: Let us dene the number of steps that the student takes to be N = t/t. The number of steps taken in

the positive x-direction, n, and the number taken in the negative x-direction, m, must add up to N, so that,

N = n +m (26)

The x position of the student at time t = Nt is given by x = dx, where

d = (n m). (27)

But what is the probability that the student reaches this position at time t?

P(d, N) =

1

2

N

N!

m!n!

=

1

2

N

N!

((N +d)/2)!((N d)/2)!

(28)

Stirlings approximation:

Log(n!) nln(n) n (29)

We then have,

Ln(P(d, N)) NLn(2) +NLn(N) N

N +d

2

Ln((N +d)/2) + (N +d)/2

(

N d

2

)Log((N d)/2) + (N d)/2 (30)

This reduces to,

Ln(P(d, N)) NLn(2) +NLn(N)

N +d

2

[Ln(N) +Ln(1 +d/N) Ln(2)]

(

N d

2

)[Ln(N) +Ln(1 d/N) Ln(2)] (31)

Dening y = d/N and expanding for small y yields,

ln(P(d, N)) =

N

2

[(1 +y)ln(1 +y) +(1 y)ln(1 y)]

N

2

[(1 +y)(y

1

2

y

2

) +...) +(1 y)(y

1

2

y

2

) +...)] (32)

To leading order this yields

ln(P(d, N)) Ny

2

=

d

2

N

(33)

or,

P(d, N) e

d

2

/N

e

x

2

t/(x)

2

t

. (34)

Comparing to the solutions to the continuum diusion equation in one dimension, this shows that the diusion

constant is related to the stochastic parameters x and t through,

D (x)

2

/t. (35)

From the probability distribution (28), it is easy to see that the average displacement of an ink particle is < x >= 0,

but the typical distance from the origin is (< x

2

> < x >

2

)

1/2

N

1/2

x.

7

Problem 5. Prove the central limit theorem for a set of N independent subsystems that each have an energy E

i

drawn from a Gaussian distribution with standard deviation . You will need to use the integral,

_

e

ax

2

+bx

dx = (

a

)

1/2

e

b

2

4a

(36)

Solution: Consider any intensive thermodynamic variable X

i

(e.g. E/N) that has a dierent value in each of N

subsystems. Consider each subsystem to have the same volume and that each subsystem is statistically equivalent.

Each subsystem is assumed to have a statistical behavior that is Gaussian distributed, so that,

P

1

(X

i

) =

_

2

2

_

1/2

e

X

2

i

2

2

(37)

where we assumed that each subsystem has the same statistical variations, quantied by . We would like to calculate

the statistical behavior of the quantity

X

N

=

1

N

N

i=1

X

i

(38)

The statistical behavior of X

N

is given by,

P

N

(X

N

) =

_

2

2

_

N/2

_

i

dX

i

e

X

2

i

2

2

(

i

X

i

NX

N

) (39)

Using the delta function representation,

() =

1

2

_

e

iy

dy (40)

we nd,

P

N

(X

N

) =

_

2

2

_

N/2

_

1

2

_

dy

i

dX

i

e

X

2

i

2

2

e

iy(

i

XiNX

N

)

(41)

which is equivalent to

P

N

(X

N

) =

_

2

2

_

N/2

_

dy

2

e

iyNX

N

[I]

N

(42)

where

I =

_

dXe

X

2

2

2

e

iyX

=

_

2

2

_

1/2

e

2

y

2

2

(43)

Finally,

P

N

(X

N

) =

_

dy

2

e

iyNX

N

e

N

2

y

2

2

=

1

(2N)

1/2

e

X

2

N

/2

2

N

(44)

where

N

= /N

1/2

Problem 6. Find the entropy of mixing for a system consisting of m dierent atom types, with n

i

of each atom

type and with the total of atoms, N =

m

i

n

i

.

Solution: The number of ways of arranging the system is given by the multinomial,

({n

i

}) =

N!

n

1

!n

2

!...n

m

!

(45)

8

Using Stirlings approximation we nd,

ln() = NlnN N [

i

(n

i

ln(n

i

) n

i

)] = NlnN N [

i

(Np

i

ln(Np

i

) Np

i

)] (46)

where p

i

= n

i

/N. Using

i

p

i

= 1 this simplies to,

S = k

B

ln() = k

B

N

i

p

i

ln(p

i

) (47)

which is the same form as the Gibbs entropy, though the interpretation of p

i

is dierent here as it is not the probability

of an individual many body state.

Solution. Expanding the logarithm of N! as a sum we write,

ln(N!) =

N

i=1

ln(i)

_

N

1

ln(x)dx = [xln(x) x]|

N

1

= Nln(N) N + 1 (48)

In the large N limit the constant one is negligible.

Problem 8. Find the entropy of a system of N non-interacting gas particles in a box of volume V = L

d

, where d

is the dimension. Consider two cases: Where the particles are distinguishable; and where they are indistinguishable.

Is the entropy extensive in both cases? Assume that all conguration of the particles have the same energy, so we

can ignore the kinetic energy term.

Solution

In the case where all of the particles are distinguishable, the number of available congurations is V

N

as each

particle can be at any position in the volume. The entropy is then S = k

B

Nln(V ), which is not extensive. Gibbs

realized that identical particles are not distinguishable so the naive calculation of the number of states V

N

is not

valid. Instead, we must order the co-orindates to eliminate overcounting of indistinguishable particles.

Consider a set of particles with co-ordinates r

1

...r

N

. If we order one component of these co-ordinates, say the

x-component so that x

1

x

2

x

3

... x

N

then the co-ordinates of the particles are always dierent hence ensuring

that there is no overcounting. The integration over the spatial co-ordinates then becomes,

= L

d1

_

L

0

dx

1

_

x1

0

dx

2

...

_

x

N1

0

dx

N

= L

(d1)N

L

N

N!

=

V

N

N!

(49)

The entropy of indistinguishable particles is then,

S = k

B

N[ln(V ) ln(N) + 1] Nk

B

ln(V/N) (50)

which is extensive for V/N nite.

Problem 9. Prove the central limit theorem holds for any distribution provided it has a nite standard deviation.

i.e. extend the solution to problem 5 to arbitrary distributions that have a nite second moment.

Solution We consider that the statistics of an extensive quantity X obeys a distribution g(X) that has mean X

behavior of X

N

is given by,

P

N

(X

N

) =

_

2

2

_

N/2

_

i

dX

i

g(x

i

)(

i

X

i

NX

N

) (51)

9

Using the delta function representation,

() =

1

2

_

e

iy

dy (52)

we nd,

P

N

(X

N

) =

_

2

2

_

N/2

_

1

2

_

dy

i

dX

i

g(X

i

)e

iy(

i

XiNX

N

)

(53)

which is equivalent to

P

N

(X

N

) =

_

2

2

_

N/2

_

dy

2

e

iyNX

N

[I]

N

(54)

where

I =

_

dXg(X)e

iyX

(55)

Now X is extensive, so the exponential is a rapidly oscillating function and the integral is dominated by the region

near y = 0. We then expand the exponential to nd,

I =

_

dXg(X)e

iyX

dXg(X)(1 iyX

1

2

y

2

X

2

+...) (56)

Assuming that g(X) is symmetric, this reduces to,

I =

_

dXg(X)e

iyX

(1

1

2

y

2

2

+...) e

1

2

y

2

2

(57)

Finally, this is of the same form as that of Problem 5 and hence the result there applies,

P

N

(X

N

) =

_

dy

2

e

iyNX

N

e

N

2

y

2

2

=

1

(2N)

1/2

e

X

2

N

/2

2

N

(58)

where

N

= /N

1/2

Problem 10. Which of the following is an exact dierential? a) dU(x, y) = 2xdx + 3xydy; b) dU(x, y) =

(1/y)dx + (x/y

2

)dy; c) dU(x, y) = ydx + xdy ? For these three examples, set dU = 0 and solve the dierential

equations to nd y(x). In cases where the dierential is exact, nd U(x, y).

Solution:

a) We have

U

x

= 2x; and

U

y

= 3xy (59)

so that

2

U

xy

= 1/y

2

=

2

U

yx

= 3y (60)

Therefore dU IS NOT an exact dierential.

b) We have

U

x

=

1

y

; and

U

y

=

x

y

2

(61)

10

so that

2

U

xy

=

1

y

2

=

2

U

yx

=

1

y

2

(62)

Therefore dU IS an exact dierential.

c) We have

U

x

= y; and

U

y

= x (63)

so that

2

U

xy

= 1 =

2

U

yx

= 1 (64)

Therefore dU IS NOT an exact dierential.

Now we solve the three cases and if possible nd U.

a) We nd,

dy

dx

=

2

3y

, with solution y =

4

3

(c x)

1/2

; or y =

4

3

(c +x)

1/2

(65)

b) In this case,

dy

dx

=

y

x

, with solution y = cx (66)

This is an exact dierential, where U(x, y) = x/y.

c) The solution for dU = 0 is the same as b), but for nite U, it is not an exact dierential so we cannot nd

U(x, y) to satisfy the equation.

N

_

S

N

_

V,U

+V

_

S

V

_

N,U

+U

_

S

U

_

N,V

= S (67)

and hence that N = U +PV TS.

Solution. Taking a derivative with respect to lambda of the homogeneous equation,

S(U, V, N) = S(U, V, N) (68)

and then setting = 1 yields Eq. (68). From the fundamental thermodynamic relation we have,

dS =

1

T

dU +

P

T

dV

T

dN =

_

S

U

_

N,V

dU +

_

S

V

_

N,U

dV +

_

S

N

_

V,U

dN (69)

Using the relations inferred from this equation in Eq. (68) yields N = U +PV TS.

Problem 12. Using the fundamental thermodynamic relation and N = U + PV TS prove the Gibbs-Duhem

relation.

Solution. From the fundamental thermodynamic relation we have,

dU = TdS PdV +dN = d(TS PV +N) (70)

From the equality of the last two expressions we deduce

SdT V dP +Nd = 0 (71)

11

_

P

_

S,N

=

_

V

N

_

S,P

. (72)

Solution: Since the independent variables are S, P, N, we choose the enthalpy and write,

dH = TdS +V dP +dN =

_

H

S

_

P,N

dS +

_

H

P

_

S,N

dP +

_

H

N

_

S,P

dN (73)

hence,

_

H

P

_

S,N

= V ;

_

H

N

_

S,P

= . (74)

By doing a derivative with respect to N of the rst equation in (75) we nd,

_

N

_

H

P

_

S,N

_

S,P

=

_

V

N

_

S,P

. (75)

while a derivative with respect to P of the second equation in (75) yields

_

P

_

H

N

_

S,P

_

S,N

=

_

P

_

S,N

. (76)

Because dH is an exact dierential, the order of the derivatives of H in Eq. (76) and (77) does not matter so these

expressions are equivalent hence proving the Maxwell relation (73).

_

C

P

P

_

T,N

= T

_

2

V

T

2

_

P,N

. (77)

Solution: Since the independent variables in the expression are T, P, we consider the Gibbs free energy G(T, P, N),

so that,

dG = SdT +V dP +dN =

_

G

T

_

P,N

dT +

_

G

P

_

T,N

dP +

_

G

N

_

T,P

dN (78)

hence,

_

G

T

_

P,N

= S;

_

G

P

_

T,N

= V. (79)

This leads to the Maxwell relation,

_

S

P

_

T,N

=

_

V

T

_

P,N

(80)

Now take a temperature derivative at constant pressure of this equation, to nd,

_

T

_

S

P

_

T,N

_

P,N

=

_

2

V

T

2

_

P,N

(81)

12

We can change the order of the derivatives of the expression on the left hand side, and use the fact that C

P

=

T(S/T)

P

to write,

_

(C

P

/T)

P

_

T,N

=

_

2

V

T

2

_

P,N

; or

_

C

P

P

_

T,N

= T

_

2

V

T

2

_

P,N

(82)

which solves the problem.

Problem 15. The equipartition theorem states that for a classical particle system of volume V with N particles,

described by Hamiltonian H, the following relations hold,

< s

i

H

s

j

>= kT

ij

(83)

where s

i

can be either the spatial or momentum co-ordinate. Using the canonical partition function, carry out the

integrals explicitly to verify this theorm for a system described by the quadratic Hamiltonian,

H =

i

p

2

i

2m

+

i

1

2

kq

2

i

. (84)

Find the internal energy of this system as a function of temperature. Is this consistent with the equipartion theorem?

Solution We need to evaluate the following quantities explicitly,

< q

i

H

q

j

>= k < q

i

q

j

>; < p

i

H

p

j

>=

1

m

< p

i

p

j

> (85)

It is convenient to dene,

I

(l)

i

=

_

(q

i

)

l

e

kq

2

i

/2

dq

i

; J

(l)

i

=

_

(p

i

)

l

e

p

2

i

/(2m)

dp

i

(86)

It is then evident that,

< q

i

q

j

>=

_

dq

i

q

j

e

H

_

de

H

(87)

Reduces to,

< q

i

q

j

>=

I

(1)

i

I

(1)

j

I

(0)

i

I

(0)

j

, for i = j; < q

i

q

j

>=

I

(2)

i

I

(0)

i

, for i = j; (88)

Now note that I

(

i

l) and J

(

i

l) are zero for l odd, and also that they are independent on the index i, we thus nd,

< q

i

q

j

>=

ij

_

q

2

e

kq

2

/2

dq

_

e

kq

2

/2

dq

(89)

Now we use the standard integrals,

_

q

2n

e

q

2

dq =

(2n 1)!!

(2)

n

(

)

1/2

(90)

where (2n1)!! = (2n1)(2n3)... and is one for n = 0 or n = 1. Using this result veries the equipartition formula.

The calculation for the momentum is essentially the same.

The internal energy is < H > and since we have found that k < q

2

i

>=< p

2

i

> /m = k

B

T, the internal energy

of this problem is 3Nk

B

T. This is consistent with the equipartition formula that assigns k

B

T/2 for every quadratic

degree of freedom. Here there are six degrees of freedom of that type.

13

Problem 16. You discover a new state of matter that has equation of state and internal energy given by,

P = AT

3

/V, U = BT

n

Ln(V/V

0

) +f(T) (91)

where B, n, V

0

are constants while f(T) only depends on the temperature. Find a numerical value for n, and nd a

relation between the constants B and A.

Solution It is convenient to dene an entropy that is a Legendre transform of the conventional entropy so that,

S

L

= S

U

T

(92)

We then have,

dS

L

=

P

T

dV +

U

T

2

dT (93)

where we used dS = dU/T +PdV/T. The Maxwell relation derived from dS

L

in combination with the functions given

in the problem denition yield,

T

(

AT

2

V

) =

V

(BT

n2

ln(V/V

0

) +

f(T)

T

2

) (94)

This equation is satised provided n = 3 and B = 2A.

Problem 17. From the fundamental thermodynamic relation show that (here we use = 1/T)

T

_

N

T

_

V,

=

_

E

_

T,V

(95)

Solution: Since the independent variables are , V, , we start with the entropy form of the fundamental relation,

dS = dU +PdV dN (96)

where = 1/T. Since the independent variables in the desired expression are , V, , we dene, Y = SU+()N,

so that,

dY (, V, ) = Ud +PdV +Nd() =

_

Y

_

V,

d +

_

Y

V

_

,

dV +

_

Y

_

,V

d() (97)

hence,

_

Y

_

V,

= U;

_

Y

()

_

,V

= N, (98)

that leads to the Maxwell relation,

_

U

()

_

,V

=

_

N

_

V,

(99)

Since is constant for the left hand side derivative, we can take it outside. For the right hand derivative, we use the

chain rule to nd

1

_

U

_

,V

=

_

N

T

_

,V

_

T

_

,V

(100)

which reduces to the equation posed in the problem.

14

1

T

2

_

T

_

E,V

=

_

N

E

_

,V

and

2

_

(S/N)

_

T,N

=

_

P

T

_

,N

(101)

where = N/V is the number density.

Solution: For the rst equation, the variables held constant are and E, so we use the entropy form of the

fundamental relation, dS = dU + PdV dN. We also dene Y = S + ()N to nd a relation that has as

an independent variable. We then have,

dY (U, V, ) = dU +PdV +Nd() =

_

Y

U

_

V,

dV +

_

Y

V

_

U,

dV +

_

Y

_

U,V

d() (102)

which leads to the Maxwell relation,

_

()

_

U,V

=

_

N

U

_

V,

(103)

Using the chain rule on the left hand side yields,

_

()

_

U,V

=

_

T

_

U,V

_

T

()

_

U,V

=

1

T

2

_

T

()

_

U,V

(104)

which is the rst relation of Eq. (101). The second relation of equation (101) has T, V, N as independent variables,

so we use the Helmholtz free energy,

dF = SdT PdV +dN =

_

F

T

_

V,N

dT +

_

F

V

_

T,N

dV +

_

F

N

_

T,V

dN (105)

leading to the Maxwell relation,

_

S

V

_

T,N

=

_

P

T

_

V,N

(106)

The expression on the left hand side may be rewritten using the chain rule,

_

S

_

T,N

=

_

S

V

_

T,N

_

V

_

T,N

=

V

2

N

_

S

V

_

T,N

(107)

Equation (106) is then,

N

2

V

2

_

(S/N)

V

_

T,N

=

2

_

(S/N)

V

_

T,N

=

_

P

T

_

V,N

=

_

P

T

_

,N

(108)

which is the second relation in Eq. (101)

_

P

_

S/N,N

=

_

P

_

T,N

+ [

_

P

T

_

,N

]

2

NT

2

C

V

(109)

Solution: We use the relation for a non-natural derivative,

_

P

_

S/N,N

=

_

P

_

T,N

+

_

P

T

_

,N

_

T

_

S/N,N

(110)

15

Using the triple product rule, we have,

_

T

_

S/N,N

_

(S/N)

T

_

,N

_

(S/N)

_

T,N

= 1 (111)

This yields,

_

T

_

S/N,N

=

_

T

(S/N)

_

,N

_

(S/N)

_

T,N

=

NT

C

V

1

2

_

P

T

_

,N

(112)

Using the second expression in (101) and (112) in (110) yields the desired result.

Problem 20. Consider a system with an order parameter, x. If the volume(V ), energy(E) and particle number(N)

are xed, then the system will choose the value of x with the maximum entropy. Now consider that the same system

is connected to a reservoir that has temperature T and chemical potential , so it can exchange energy and particles

with the reservoir. Show that the total entropy, that is the sum of the entropy of the reservoir and the system, is

maximized when

_

P

x

_

T,,V

= 0 (113)

Hint: You can assume the system and reservoir are at the same temperature and chemical potential as required by

equilibrium. Moreover you may use PV = TS E +N.

Solution: Since the variables that are kept xed are T, , V , we use the grand potential

G

= U TS N, so

that,

d

G

(T, V, ) = SdT +PdV Nd = d(PV ) (114)

Now we take a derivative of this expression with respect to x at xed T, V, . Since the entropy is maximized, the

Grand potential is minimized, so that

_

G

x

_

T,V,

= 0 = V

_

P

x

_

T,V,

(115)

Problem 21. Consider a system where the thermodynamics are a function of temperature and another variable x

which can be varied by an experimentalist. Assuming that

_

E

S

_

x

= T; and using F = E TS (116)

show that,

_

E

x

_

S

=

_

F

x

_

T

(117)

Solution: We take a derivative of the equation F = E TS with respect to x at constant T, to nd,

_

F

x

_

T

=

_

E

x

_

T

T

_

S

x

_

T

(118)

Using the formula for a non-natural derivative, we have,

_

E

x

_

T

=

_

E

S

_

x

_

S

x

_

T

+

_

E

x

_

S

(119)

Using this result, along with the rst of Eq. (116), in Eq. (118) proves Eq. (117).

16

C

V

= T

_

2

F

T

2

_

N,V

(120)

Solution: The specic heat at constant volume is given by,

C

V

= T

_

S

T

_

V,N

(121)

The Helmholtz free energy is given by,

F = U TS; so dF = SdT PdV +dN =

_

F

T

_

V,N

dT +

_

F

V

_

T,N

dV +

_

F

N

_

T,V

dN (122)

so that,

S =

_

F

T

_

V,N

; and

_

S

T

_

V,N

=

_

2

F

T

2

_

V,N

(123)

Multiplying by T and using Eq. (121) proves the relation (120).

U =

_

(F/T)

(1/T)

_

N,V

(124)

Solution: Dening = 1/T, we have,

_

(F)

_

N,V

= F +

_

F

_

N,V

= F T

_

F

T

_

N,V

(125)

where the last expression on the right hand side is found using the chain rule. We also have,

dF = SdT PdV +dN =

_

F

T

_

V,N

dT +

_

F

V

_

T,N

dV +

_

F

N

_

T,V

dN (126)

so that

_

F

T

_

V,N

= S. (127)

Therefore,

_

(F)

_

N,V

= F +TS = U (128)

as posed in Eq. (124).

V

_

P

T

_

,N

= S; and V

_

P

_

T,N

= N (129)

17

Now express the pressure of the ideal classical gas in terms of the variables and T and using this expression verify

the equations above.

Solution: We use the fact that the Gibbs free energy is N to write

_

G

P

_

T,N

= N

_

P

_

T,N

(130)

We also have,

dG =

_

G

T

_

P,N

dT +

_

G

P

_

T,N

dP +

_

G

N

_

T,P

dN = SdT +V dP +dN (131)

so that

_

G

P

_

T,N

= V. (132)

Using this relation in Eq. (130) proves the second identity in (129). To prove the rst relation in (129), we use the

triple product identity,

_

P

T

_

,N

_

P

_

T,N

_

T

_

P,N

= 1. (133)

From Eq. (134) and G = N, we have,

S =

_

G

T

_

P,N

= N

_

T

_

P,N

(134)

Using the second relation in Eq. (129) for the second term in the product (133) and using (134) leads to the rst

relation in (129).

_

S

P

_

T,

=

_

V

T

_

P,

(135)

Solution: The fundamental thermodynamic relation is dU = TdS PdV +dN, so the independent variables are

S, V, N. To nd the desired expression using a Maxwell relation approach, we need independent variables T, P, , so

we dene Y = U TS +PV N, so that,

dY = SdT +V dP Nd =

_

Y

T

_

P,

dT +

_

Y

P

_

T,

dP +

_

Y

_

T,P

d (136)

so that,

_

Y

T

_

P,

= S;

_

Y

P

_

T,

= V ;

_

Y

_

T,P

= N (137)

and hence,

_

P

_

Y

T

_

P,

_

T,

=

_

S

P

_

T,

_

T

_

Y

P

_

T,

_

P,

=

_

V

T

_

P,

(138)

Since the order of dierentiation does not matter, as dY is an exact derivative, the relation (135) is proven.

18

Problem 26. Consider a single harmonic oscillator with energies

n

= h(n+1/2). Find the average energy of the

system as a function of temperature. Find the average occupancy of each energy level as a function of temperature.

Is there are regime where your result for the average energy is in agreement with the equipartition theorem?

Solution The energy levels of the Harmonic oscillator are given by

n

= h(n + 1/2), so the canonical partition

function is given by,

Z

1

=

n=0

e

h(n+1/2)

=

e

h/2

1 e

h

(139)

so the average energy is,

< E >=

lnZ

=

1

2

h +

h

e

h

1

(140)

This can be written as,

< E >= h(< n > +1/2); where < n >=

1

e

h

1

(141)

In the high temperature limit, this reduces to < E >=

1

2

h + k

B

T which has the equipartition term (2 degrees of

freedom) plus a quantum correction that is negligible at high temperature.

2

= (142)

Also show that for a mixed state this identity fails.

Solution For a pure state,

( )

nm

= a

nk

a

mk

(143)

and

(

2

)

nm

=

l

a

n

a

l

a

l

a

m

= a

nk

a

mk

(144)

where we used

l

a

l

a

l

= 1 for an orthonormal wavefunction. For a mixed state the elements of the density matrix

are given by,

( )

nm

=

k

p

k

a

nk

a

mk

(145)

so the elements of the square of the density matrix are,

(

2

)

nm

=

kk

l

p

k

p

k

a

nk

a

lk

a

lk

a

mk

(146)

which is clearly not the same. The purity of the mixed state is,

P

u

= tr(

2

) =

kk

ln

p

k

p

k

a

nk

a

lk

a

lk

a

nk

(147)

19

Problem 28. Consider two single particle pure states with wavefunctions

| >

=

1

2

1/2

(|0 > |1 >) (148)

Write down the density matrix for each of these pure states and verify that they have purity equal to one. Now

consider the density matrix of a mixed state consisting of = p

+

+

+p

, where p

+

+p

this state, and the value of the mixing probability p

+

at which the purity is smallest.

+

=

1

2

_

1 1

1 1

_

=

1

2

_

1 1

1 1

_

(149)

(

+

)

2

=

1

4

_

2 2

2 2

_

(

)

2

=

1

4

_

2 2

2 2

_

(150)

which conrms the identity. The purity is clearly P

u

= 1. For the mixed case we have,

=

p

+

2

+

+

p

(151)

From which we nd,

( )

2

= (

p

+

2

+

+

p

)

2

= (p

+

)

2

+

+ (p

)

2

= (p

+

)

2

+ (1 p

+

)

2

= 1 2p

+

+ 2p

2

+

1 (152)

the minimum occurs at p

+

= 1/2 and the maximum at p

+

= 1.

Problem 29. Show that Eqs. (179) of the lecture notes reduce to Eqs. (178) in the eigenvalue basis.

Solution We use the relation

U

H

U

E

(153)

where U is a unitary matrix and

E

is the diagonal matrix with the eigenvalues of the hamiltonian H on the diagonal.

We then have,

Z =

i

e

Ei

= tr(e

E

) = tr(

E

U) = tr(e

E

U

) = tr(e

H

) (154)

where we used the trace property tr(ABC) = Tr(BCA) and the property of unitary matrices

U

U =

U

U

=

1, where

1 is the identity matrix. The other expressions are transformed in a similar way.

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