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# FLOWMETERS AND DATA ACQUISITION

## Ravi kumar, Ph.D.

Associare Professor Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engg Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee

## November 21, 2008

FLOWMETERS
Rotameters | Magnetic Flow Meters | Ultrasonic flow meters | Coriolis Flow Meters | Hall effect flow Meters | Turbine flow meter | Vortex flow meter | Thermal mass flow meter
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Ravi Kumar, IIT Roorkee
November 21, 2008

## Magnetic Flow meter

A magnetic flow meter is a volumetric flow meter which does not have any moving parts and is ideal for wastewater applications or any dirty liquid which is conductive or water based. Magnetic flowmeters will generally not work with hydrocarbons, distilled water and many nonaqueous solutions). Magnetic flowmeters are also ideal for applications where low pressure drop and low maintenance are required.
Ravi Kumar, IIT Roorkee
November 21, 2008

Principle of Operation
The operation of a magnetic flowmeter is based upon Faraday's Law, which states that the voltage induced across any conductor as it moves at right angles through a magnetic field, is proportional to the velocity of that conductor.
Faraday's Formula: E is proportional to V x B x D where: E = The voltage generated V = The velocity of the conductor B = The magnetic field strength D = The length of the conductor
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Ravi Kumar, IIT Roorkee
November 21, 2008

## 1 1 c + V cos c V cos 2V cos = = t1 t 2 L L L

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Ravi Kumar, IIT Roorkee
November 21, 2008

## Coriolis Mass Flow Rate Meter

The fluid to be measured runs through a U-shaped tube that is caused to vibrate in a direction perpendicular to the fluid flow. As the flowing fluid is made to run through the tube and interact with the vibration, causing it to twist. Because of the twist action the two limbs of the tube do not pass through the mean position simultaneously. The greater the angle of the twist, the greater the flow.

coriolis

Ks .t G= 2 8d

rate

is

directly

## Hall effect flow meter

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The flowmeter includes a housing including a first port, a second port, a chamber in fluid communication with the first port and the second port, and a fluid passageway extending from the first port to the second port. An impeller having a non-magnetized metal pole piece is located within the chamber of the housing and is rotatable about an axis in response to fluid flow through the fluid passageway. A Hall Effect sensor and a magnet are located outside of the fluid passageway. The magnetic field generated by the magnet enables the Hall Effect sensor to sense rotation of the impeller and thereby the rate of fluid flow through the fluid passageway.
Ravi Kumar, IIT Roorkee
November 21, 2008

## Turbine Flow Meter

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The turbine flow meter (better described as an axial turbine) translates the mechanical action of the turbine rotating in the liquid flow around an axis into a user-readable rate of flow (gpm, lpm, etc.). The turbine tends to have all the flow traveling around it. The turbine wheel is set in the part of a fluid stream. The flowing fluid impinges on the turbine blades, imparting a force to the blade surface and setting the rotor in motion. when a steady rotation speed has been reached, the speed is proportional to fluid velocity.
Ravi Kumar, IIT Roorkee
November 21, 2008

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## Vortex flow meter

A bluff body is placed in the path of the fluid. As the fluid passes this body, disturbances in the flow called vortices are created. The vortices trail behind the cylinder, alternatively from each side of the bluff body. The frequency at which these vortices alternate sides is essentially proportional to the flow rate of the fluid. Downstream there is a sensor for measuring the frequency of the vortex shedding. This sensor is often a piezoelectric crystal, which produces a small, but measurable, voltage pulse every time a vortex is created.
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Ravi Kumar, IIT Roorkee
November 21, 2008

vortex flow meter Since the frequency of such a voltage pulse is also proportional to the fluid velocity, a volumetric flow rate is calculated using the cross sectional area of the flow meter. The frequency is measured and the flow rate is calculated by the flowmeter electronics. With f= SV/L where,
f = the frequency of the vortices L = the characteristic length of the bluff body V = the velocity of the flow over the bluff body S = Strouhal number, which is essentially a constant for a given body shape within its operating limits

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## Thermal mass flow meter

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Thermal mass flow meters generally use combinations of heated elements and temperature sensors to measure the difference between static and flowing heat transfer to a fluid and infer its flow with a knowledge of the fluid's specific heat and density. Technological progress allows today to manufacture thermal mass flow meters on a microscopic scale as MEMS sensor, these flow devices can be used to measure flow rates in the range of nano litres or micro litres per minute.

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## November 21, 2008

Pressure Transducers
pressure transducer is a transducer that converts pressure into an analog electrical signal. 1. strain-gage base transducer 2. Piezoelectric transducer

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## November 21, 2008

Pressure Transducers
Millivolt Output Pressure Transducers (30mV) | Voltage Output Pressure Transducers 0-5 VDC; 0-10 VDC; -5 +5 VDC | 4-20 mA Output Pressure Transducers known as pressure transmitters (L>300 m)
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Pressure Sensors

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Data Acquisition

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## November 21, 2008

Signal Conditioning
z z z z z z

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## November 21, 2008

Electrical Isolation
Electrical isolation breaks the galvanic path between the input and output signal. That is, there is no physical wiring between the input and output. The input is normally tranferred to the output by converting it to an optical or magnetic signal then it is reconstructed on the output. By breaking the galvanic path between input and output, unwanted signals on the input line are prevented from passing through to the output. Isolation is required when a measurement must be made on a surface with a voltage potential far above ground. Isolation is also used to prevent ground loops.
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Ravi Kumar, IIT Roorkee
November 21, 2008

Amplification
When a signal is amplified, the overall magnitude of the signal is increased. Converting a 0-10mV signal to a 0 -10V signal is an example of amplification

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## Signal Conditioning Requirements for Thermocouples

Amplification for High-Resolution ADC Cold-Junction CompensationThermocouples require some form of temperature reference to compensate for unwanted parasitic thermocouples. FilteringA thermocouple can act much like an antenna, making it very susceptible to noise from nearby 50/60 Hz power sources. Therefore, apply a 2 Hz or 4 Hz lowpass filter to your thermocouple signal to remove power line noise. LinearizationThe output voltage of a thermocouple is not linear with temperature. Therefore, the system must perform linearization either through hardware or software.
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Ravi Kumar, IIT Roorkee
November 21, 2008

Excitation
Many sensors require some form of excitation for them to operate. Strain gages and RTDs are two common examples.

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## Digital Signal Conditioners

Digital conditioners are one of the more recent developments in signal conditioners. The output of a digital signal conditioner is converted to a digital format such as RS232, RS485. Digital signals have several advantages over analog signals. They provide a high degree of immunity from electrical noise, they can also support extended transmission distances and are easily connected to a computer. With an ethernet output, the input signal can be read across an entire network or even across the internet if so configured.
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Ravi Kumar, IIT Roorkee
November 21, 2008

Virtual Instrumentation
VI is a paradigm shift from a hardware centric approach of traditional instrumentation methods to a software centric approach where the users have the flexibility to develop his own measurement instruments.

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## November 21, 2008

NYQUIST THEOREM: Sampling Rate Versus Bandwidth The Nyquist theorem states that a signal must be sampled at least twice as fast as the frequency of the signal to accurately reconstruct the waveform; otherwise, the highfrequency content will alias at a frequency inside the spectrum of interest (passband). An alias is a false lower frequency component that appears in sampled data acquired at too low a sampling rate.

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Lab View

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## Block Diagram program for front panel Components wired together

November 21, 2008

THANK YOU
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