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In situ skid test, texture test and development of a relationship between skid and texture values
Attributes necessary in the road surface both to obtain and retain adequate resistance to skidding have been closely studied in the report. Since skidding is largely a wet road problem calculation and comparison of the coefficient of friction of the road in dry and wet condition using British Pendulum Tester has been carried out. The sand-patch method has been exercised to classify the texture of the road surface. In order understand the attributes relationship between coefficient of friction and mean texture depth, coefficient of friction and IRI, mean texture depth and IRI have been found. Introduction: The higher speeds of motor vehicles and comparatively low friction between rubber tyres and the types of urban roads surface produce an acute skidding problem indicated by a steady increase in the number and seriousness of skidding accidents. And hence it can be easily understood that the road texture and friction between the tyre and pavement surface dictate the safety in terms of operating speed, stopping sight distance requirement. The coefficient of friction varies due to pavement wetness, vehicle speed, temperature, tire wear, tire type etc.

Skid resistance:
Skid resistance is the decelerating force generated due to some properties of the pavement and the tyre. It can be measured in terms of friction factor or skid number. So, the skid resistance (in form of friction factor),
= F /W

Here, F = frictional resistance to motion in plane of interface between tyre and pavement surface, W = load perpendicular to interface. And, Skid number: SN = 100
Table1: Typical Skid Numbers (from Jayawickrama et al., 1996)

## Skid Number < 30 30 31 - 34 35

Comments Take measures to correct Acceptable for low volume roads Monitor pavement frequently Acceptable for heavily traveled roads

2 Surface texture: Surface texture is the most important feature of the road surface, affecting friction, tyre wear, vehicle noise emission, light reflection and rolling resistance. It follows that the description of texture very important when trying to quantify road surface condition and its potential effects on safety, economy and environment. Road surface texture is divided into: Micro texture Macro texture Mega texture (roads) Site Selection: The road stretch of 300m located besides the transportation engineering lab. and in front of the ceramic laboratory was selected as the site for conducting the experiment. wavelengths up to 0.5 mm wavelengths from 0.5 mm up to 50 mm wavelengths from 50 mm up to 500

Skid resistance test: British Skid Tester: Frictional properties of a surface can be obtained using British pendulum skid resistance tester on site. The instrument gives a measure of the friction between a tyre and road surface in terms of British Pendulum Number (BPN) which is direct reading and it varies from 0 to 150. There is a slider wt of which is 1500 gm and its width is 7.6 cm. During the test the slider freely slides over the road surface and the sliding length should fixed before between 12.5 to 12.7 cm for field testing. When it slides over the surface the spring and lever arrangement of the slider gives a normal force of amount 25 N.

3 Figure 2: British Pendulum tester Procedure: Before starting with an experiment check the instrument by releasing the pendulum from its Standard position and allow the slider to swing free of test surface and check the pointer Reading, it should be zero. If the pointer reading is zero then proceed with an experiment. If it is not zero then adjust it by using locking ring and friction ring. The next step is to level the instrument with the help of leveling screws. There is a spirit level which indicates the leveling of the instrument. Once the leveling is done the slide length of the slider on the surface is adjusted such that the slide length is in the range of 124mm-127mm. Next step is cleaning the road surface. Then allow the pendulum to fall freely and always catch the pendulum during early portion of its return swing. Note down the reading. Four readings are taken at every point and the average of this four reading is reported as the skid resistance of the point. Each reading is taken at 30m interval. Thus we have got 10 data point over 300m stretch of road.

Mechanism of pendulum:

4 Energy stored at the state 1 = m g H Energy stored after swing i.e. at the state 4 = m g h Energy loss due to friction =

m g H - m g h = m g ( H h)

## Energy loss = work done against the friction

m g ( H h) = N L
W ( H h) = NL

Where, 1,2,3,4 is the position of slider during swing W = weight of swinging arm (1.5 kg) H = initial height of center of gravity at release position (51.1 cm) h = final height of center of gravity after the slider has passed the test surface = coefficient of friction between slider and test surface N = average normal load between slider and test surface (25 N) L = slider path (12.7 cm)

## Table 2: BPN values of the pavement section (Wall side)

Distance 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 BPN 82 74 70 75 75 74 70 75 85 82 BPN 79 76 72 78 79 70 74 74 90 82 BPN 78 76 72 80 80 71 76 75 85 82 BPN 77 76 73 80 79 71 77 73 83 85 Avg. BPN 79 75.5 71.75 78.25 78.25 71.5 74.25 74.25 85.75 82.75

Table 3: Calculation of coefficient of friction for the bituminous pavement (Wall side)
Distance 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 Avg. BPN 79.000 75.500 71.750 78.250 78.250 71.500 74.250 74.250 85.750 82.750 Circum 12.640 12.080 11.480 12.520 12.520 11.440 11.880 11.880 13.720 13.240 Angle(rad.) 0.421 0.403 0.383 0.417 0.417 0.381 0.396 0.396 0.457 0.441 (H-h) 21.530 20.576 19.554 21.326 21.326 19.486 20.236 20.236 23.370 22.552 1.017 0.972 0.924 1.008 1.008 0.921 0.956 0.956 1.104 1.065 0.993 SN 101.717 97.211 92.382 100.751 100.751 92.060 95.601 95.601 110.408 106.545 99.303

## Surface Texture with Sand patch method

Used to determine surface texture of pavement surface.
Apparatus used: Sand of known volume (Passing through IS sieve no. 50 and retain in IS sieve no 100 ) One volume measuring cylinder Scale to measure the diameter of sand patch One bowl to spread the sand on pavement surface One brush to clean the road surface where the experiment is done

Procedure: Selection of the place where the experiment is to be done. Here we take the point @30 m interval along the wall side of the road. Cleaning the place with brush. Then we take 50cc of sand and placed on the road surface. After that we leveled the sand with the road surface so that the pavement surface becomes smooth. We have leveled it as much as possible. With a scale we have taken the diameter of the sand patch. After that we have calculated the depth (h) of the sand patch by the following formula.

h=

4V d 2

Where h = Mean Texture Depth (MTD) d = Diameter of sand patch V = known volume of sand (here 50 cc)

## Table 5: Mean texture depth for the bituminous pavement section

Dist(m )
0.00 30.00 60.00 90.00 120.00 150.00 180.00 210.00 240.00 270.00 Avg.

## Dia.(cm) Dia.(cm) Dia.(cm) Dia.(cm) Mean(cm)

23.00 25.00 23.00 22.00 23.00 21.00 18.40 23.00 19.00 21.40 23.50 23.50 23.00 22.00 23.00 21.00 19.00 22.00 19.50 22.00 23.50 24.50 22.50 22.50 23.00 21.00 18.40 22.20 20.50 22.00 22.00 24.00 22.00 21.50 24.00 21.00 18.00 22.00 19.00 21.50 23.000 24.250 22.625 22.000 23.250 21.000 18.450 22.300 19.500 21.725

Area(cm2)
415.265 461.629 401.834 379.940 424.342 346.185 267.216 390.373 298.496 370.501

MTD(cm)
0.120 0.108 0.124 0.132 0.118 0.144 0.187 0.128 0.168 0.135 0.136

## Relationship between and MTD (Wall side):

Skid resistance test at wet condition (Wall side): Table 6: BPN values of the pavement section (Wall side)
Distance 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 BPN 60 66 62 72 70 64 60 65 75 69 BPN 65 69 65 75 75 67 64 64 77 69 BPN 68 71 66 76 75 70 65 68 80 71 BPN 68 72 67 77 75 65 66 69 80 75 Avg. BPN 65.25 69.5 65 75 73.75 66.5 63.75 66.5 78 71

Table 7: Calculation of coefficient of friction for the bituminous pavement (Wall side)
Distance 0 30 60 90 120 BPN 65.25 69.5 65 75 73.75 Circum 10.440 11.120 10.400 12.000 11.800 Angle(rad.) 0.348 0.371 0.347 0.400 0.393 (H-h) 17.783 18.941 17.715 20.440 20.099 0.840 0.895 0.837 0.966 0.950 SN 84.013 89.485 83.691 96.567 94.957

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150 180 210 240 270 Avg. 66.5 63.75 66.5 78 71 10.640 10.200 10.640 12.480 11.360 0.355 0.340 0.355 0.416 0.379 18.123 17.374 18.123 21.258 19.350 0.856 0.821 0.856 1.004 0.914 0.894 85.623 82.082 85.623 100.430 91.417 89.389

Table 8: Comparison of values for dry and wet condition at different points Distance
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270

at dry condition
1.017 0.972 0.924 1.008 1.008 0.921 0.956 0.956 1.104 1.065 0.993

at wet condition
0.840 0.895 0.837 0.966 0.950 0.856 0.821 0.856 1.004 0.914 0.894

Avg.

Relationship between IRI, Skid resistance and MTD (Dry Condition): Table 9: Location Wall Side Dry Lab Side Dry Middle Road Dry IRI(m/km )
4.05 4.1 3.80 0.993 1.015 0.934

MTD(cm)
0.136 0.111 0.111

## Relationship between Skid resistance and IRI 8

9
1.02 1.01 1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.92 3.75

Friction coefficient

3.8

3.85

3.9

3.95 IRI

4.05

4.1

4.15

## Relationship between Skid resistance and MTD

0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 MTD 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 3.75 3.8 3.85 3.9 3.95 IRI 4 4.05 4.1 4.15

Conclusion:
1. A clean, dry asphalt surface may have a coefficient of friction of approximately 0.7, while we get average coefficient of friction value of the 300 m long bituminous pavement section as 0.993. But it also depends on the tyre condition. There is a small but generally negligible effect of temperature on the coefficient of friction; as temperature increases, the friction coefficient reduces minimally. 2. The skid number of the pavement section is about 100 i.e. greater than 35. So according to table 1 we can say that the road can take heavy traffic.

10 3. The average mean texture depth of the road surface is approximately 0.136, from table 4 we can classify this road texture as fine. Using the sand-patch method we cannot differentiate between micro and macro texture. 5. For the wet test we can see that values are lower than dry test.

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