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ME 3012


INSTRUCTED BY: Mr. W.D.I.G.Dassanayaka


Gunasekera N.P.A. B.Sc. Engineering 090160U 04 Mechanical 05.04.2012

INTRODUCTION Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control is the most common control algorithm used in industry and has been universally accepted in industrial control. The popularity of PID controllers can be attributed partly to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity, which allows engineers to operate them in a simple, straightforward manner. As the name suggests, PID algorithm consists of three basic coefficients proportional, integral and derivative which are varied to get optimal response.


Basic understanding of PID controllers Understand the behavior of P, PI and PID controllers.


The PID control scheme is named after its three correcting terms, whose sum constitutes the manipulated variable (MV). The proportional, integral, and derivative terms are summed to calculate the output of the PID controller. Defining of the PID algorithm is, as the controller output, the final form

Where, Kp Ki Kd T = = = = Proportional gain, a tuning parameter Integral gain, a tuning parameter Derivative gain, a tuning parameter Time or instantaneous time (the present)

( Error )

1. The proportional term (P) The proportional term produces an output value that is proportional to the current error value. The proportional response can be adjusted by multiplying the error by a constant Kp, called the proportional gain. The proportional term is given by,

2. The integral term (I) The contribution from the integral term is proportional to both the magnitude of the error and the duration of the error. The integral in a PID controller is the sum of the instantaneous error over time and gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral gain ( ) and added to the controller output. The integral term is given by,

3. The derivative term (D) The derivative of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of the error over time and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain . The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term to the overall control action is termed the derivative gain, . The derivative term is,

DISCUSSION A proportionalintegralderivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems a PID is the most commonly used feedback controller. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired set point. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs.

The transfer function The transfer function of the PID controller looks like the following,

C(s) = Kp +

Kp = Proportional gain
KI = Integral gain Kd = Derivative gain

Advantages of PID controllers Quick response, fast action and easier to use than other methods. Eliminate the offset Comparatively cheap Easy to manipulate It is a robust and popular method

Disadvantages of PID controllers Tuning a PID controller can be quite challenging(One more parameter to tune) While PID controllers are applicable to many control problems, and often perform satisfactorily without any improvements or even tuning, they can perform poorly in some applications, and do not in general provide optimal control. Oscillatory or unstable with integral control The design procedure is somewhat complex in comparison to other methods

Applications The PID controllers are the most used feedback controller in industry. 80% of all controllers are PID systems. Any time you want to control something in a process you can use a PID controller, for example, temperature, flow, pressure, speed, level, weight and so on. There are many feedback controller in the control theory but most of them need a good mathematical model of the plant you want to control in order that they work.PID control is commonly used in Chemical, Petrochemical, Pulp & Paper, Oil & Gas, Food & Beverage, Municipal Water/Sewerage Facilities etc. Industrial automation Temperature Control using a Digital PID controller to close or open thermo-plug valves that are controlled by temperature variations. The temperature can be controlled to get the desired set value. Turbine Speed Controller uses PID controllers to maintain constant speed. PID controllers are used to control process variables ranging from fluid flow, level, pressure, temperature, pH, consistency, density, position Air Flow Rate Controller - Uses a PID controller to maintain constant air pressure in many petrol driven super cars to achieve the most effective Fuel-Air mix. Automotive paint industry.


PI type

PD type

PID type


PI type

PD type

PID type