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Digital Image Processing

Spring 2007
Sankalp Kallakuri elsanky@gmail.com
Books refererenced – Digital Image Processing by Gonzalez and Woods Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing by A K Jain Digital Picture Processing By Rosenfeld and Kak

Syllabus
• • • • • • • • Fundamentals Image Enhancement [spatial] Image Enhancement [frequency] Sampling and Quantization Image Restoration Color Image Processing Image Compression Image Reconstruction

10% .30% • Assignments: Matlab and C/C++ .20% .40% Homework Mid Term Final .Syllabus • Grading: Assignments .

sonograms. IR Imaging. License plates. MRI.IP 101 • • • • • Colour images Grey level images File formats JPG BMP TIFF 2D representations Examples of Fields that use IP X-Rays. UV Imaging. Satellite Images. TEMs . Water Marking. Microwaves. Astronomy.

Image Processing System network Image Displays Processors Mass storage Hard Copy IP software Specialized IP Hardware Image Sensors Problem domain From Gonzalez and Woods .

Human Eye .

Vision Details • • • • • • Lens Iris Pupil Cornea Retina Rods / Cones [distribution number use] Blind spot Photopic[bright]/ Scotopic[dim] Brightness adaptation Weber Ratio Ic I .

Examples of Brightness perception Figures from Gonzalez and Woods .

Light and EM Spectrum • • • • Wavelength = C/ frequency Energy = h * frequency Reflected light Radiance is total amount of energy that flows from the light source • Luminance is the perceived from light source • Sensor design .

Line and Array • Array Strips • Linear . circular Bayer and RGB Filter type CCDS From wikipedia .Image Sensing and Acquisition • Single .

Projection • Perspective • Orthographic .

y) < 1 .y) 0 < f(x.y)=i(x.reflectance 0 < i(x.y)r(x.y) <  f(x.Image Model • • • • • • f(x.y) i .illuminance r.y) <  0 < r(x.

Sampling and Quantization • • • • In 1 dimension In 2 dimension Effects of quantisation Colour levels and bit requirements .

Signals .

sampling .

Quantization levels .

Sampled & Quantized signal .

Continuous phenomenon Two orthogonal sine waves added to each other Continuos Image .

Sampled and Quantised in 1 Dimension Quantized and sampled Effects are contour lines .

Sampled and Quantised Contour lines appear on both X and Y dimensions .

Bit Requirements • L=2K • b= M x N x K • Example: 100 distinct colors needed to capture a phenomenon. How many bits would be needed to store an image of dimensions 49x10? 3430 .

• Optimal number to use is until there is no discernible difference by increasing the number. • Isopreference Curves : curves on the N k plane • More detail fewer grey levels. • The higher grey levels will mean better contrast perception.Resolution • Easier to change number of Pixels rather than number of grey levels. .

Aliasing fl 0 fr -Fs 0 Fs .

Repetition of pixels [integer zoom] Bilinear Interpolation v(x. Nearest neighbor interpolation.Zooming and Interpolation • • • • Simple zoom would leave blank spaces in the grid.y)=ax+by+cxy+d • Shrinking done by removal of columns and rows. Interpolation is performed and then rows and columns are stripped out. • In case of non integer shrink factor the grid Is zoomed out. . • Smoothing is useful before shrinking.

8 adjacency and m adjacency Digital path Connected Components Connected Set [region] Border Edge [may be local ] .Relationships between Pixels • • • • • • • Neighborhood N4(p) N8(p) ND(p) 4 adjacency .

z) • City block distance D4(p.Distance Measures • For Pixels p.z) < D(p.y) (s.q) + D(q.q) = D(q.q)=0 iff p=q) • D(p.w) • D(p.q)=max(|x-s| + |y-t|) .q) > 0 (D(p.q and z with coordinates (x.q) = |x-s| + |y-t| • Chessboard Distance D8(p.p) • D(p.t) and (v.

• Assignments shall be incremental. • So try and complete them by the deadlines. .Home Work & Assignment • Label all images • Scripts should be commented. • A read me file should be attached.

Homework -1 • Learn how to read and write an image in matlab. Populate every column with a sine wave which rides on a DC level of 10. which has exactly two cycles fit in a row. • Learn basic syntax in Matlab. • display this array as an image. • Create a 256x256 2D array. with PeakPeak amplitude 20. Populate every row with a sine wave which rides on a DC level of 128 with PeakPeak amplitude 220 . which has exactly 4 cycles fit in a column. • Add the two arrays • Display the sum array as an image . • Create a 256x256 2D array.