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LEADERSHIP Leadership is the process of influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation while operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization. Leadership is a great quality and every great organizational success besides other factors owes its credit to the leader who led it to glory. Every human endeavor needs a unifying and driving force for success and that driving force is ultimately traced to good leadership. It is also worth noting that every one of us in some capacity, sometimes, or somewhere is a leader. Leadership should not be confused with the role of only those who make headlines but in essence almost everyone have sometimes somewhere, somehow played a leading role. LEADERSHIP & ISLAM In the Holy Quran God addresses human beings as his representatives or vicegerents on the earth providing them with all the necessary skills, principles and tools to lead their lives towards glory and also to lead others towards realizing their fullest potential. Islamic Leadership Principles are primarily derived from the following key sources: The Holy Quran. The Holy Prophet PBUH. The Wise Caliphs. Pious Followers HOLY PROPHET PBUH AS LEADER Who is the Greatest Leader of all times? In intellectual debates, philosophical discussions, and the biographies of great people who ever lived on the earth one name always appears on the top Prophet Muhammad. The Quran also bears divine testimony and states that he is the best of leaders according to the following verse: "For you the life of the Prophet is a good model of behaviour" (33:21). There are many laws and principles and models but grouped together we can classify them into the following cardinal principles and values: o Faith and belief. o Knowledge and Wisdom. o Courage and determination. o Mutual consultation and Unity. (Fraternity and brotherhood.) o Morality and Piety. (Honesty and trust.) o Superior communication. o Justice and compassion. o Patience and Endurance. o Commitment and Sacrifice. o Lifelong Endeavour. o Gratitude and Prayers.

LEADERSHIP QUALITIES OF HOLY PROPHET PBUH In many of Hadiths the Prophet has directly and indirectly explained the leadership qualities and the importance of leadership. In one of his Hadiths the Prophet said: Each of you is a shepherd, and all of you are responsible for your flocks. (Saheeh AlBukhari, Saheeh Muslim) In yet another Hadith the prophet said: When three persons go on a journey, let them put one of their number in command." (Abu Da'ud on the authority of Abu Sa'id) The above two sayings of Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) emphasizes the importance of leadership while a number of his other Hadiths have identified key qualities and principles which shall account for a persons success. Some leadership secrets are given below: 1. Confidence to Succeed Confidence or Itiqad was taught by the Prophet. He always assured his followers that they are the true champions winner. Despite facing a strong enemy superpower even though. 2. Clear Vision and Mission Prophet had a vision, mission and strategy is very clear and bright. Vision is long-term goal or a dream in the future that we wish to achieve and present with a unanimous determination and tireless work. The strategy is a choice of ways to accomplish a vision or goal. 3. Brainstorming Prophet is a manager who is very astute in exploring the opinion of his subordinates. For example, in the Battle of Badr, he received input from Hubab ibn alMundhir for near springs and other springs hoard. This idea was very powerful. Muslims proved victorious in the fighting. 4. Discussion Al-Quran Surah Al-Imran: 159 and Ash-Syuua: 38 become the foundation deliberation in Islamic law. Prophet is a Prophet and Messenger who Mashum or maintained and always guarded by God. However, in managing his people, the Prophet still prioritize deliberations with her friends in making a decision. This is where one key to the success of the Holy Prophet as a leader. That pleased deliberation in resolving various problems of life. 5. Planning In carrying out various missions, the Prophet always done with full consideration, calculation and planning. Prophet started the mission and duties with stages that are very clear. Who does what, where, why, in what way and when is not unusual for the Prophet. The principles apply to the planning he was very good. So it is with many anticipated. 6. Strong Leadership Prophet and friend is a person who has strong leadership. Leadership is built upon the values, culture and norms of a solid. Built on science, love, obedience and affection. Enforced by law and discipline and be supported with a noble character and full of seriousness. 7. Team Work Teamwork is the key to a successful mission of the Prophet. Such cooperation often takes the form of large and small. For example in the hijra to Medina, the Prophet established a small team lead by He with the division of duties, responsibilities, authority and an awesome strategy. 8. Communication Prophet is a very communicative person. He communication involving the liver, the feelings, thoughts and actions are real. So that the messages conveyed greatly affect the heart, mind, and soul of his subordinates. Communications made by the Prophet is very diverse, ranging from good words, good deeds as an example, feed the needy, poor and occasionally joking with his friends embrace.

9. Participate in Joy and Sorrow Joy and sorrow are common in life. A leader must understand it all. So he demanded to have a sensitive nature and care for subordinates and colleagues. Prophet is the best example of a sensitive issue and concern for others. He participated in the joys and sorrows with his best friend. He is not the type of leader that delicious just as the leaders of today in general. 10. Assigned in rotation Messenger of God gave the task to his companions in turn. This primary objective is to train men to occupy a variety of assignments and a variety of different positions. Thus, candidates will be born leaders who are mature and have a high-flying hours. 11. Temporary Officials One of the Prophets tips for preparing a great cadre is to appoint temporary officials when he had to leave Madina. The appointment of such has many benefits. Among others to avoid a vacuum of leadership in an organization in performing their duties, responsibilities, and authority. To view and assess the competence of subordinates in a more serious task. And as a means for promotion or career development. 12. Good Administration Prophet also did a very good administration system. This is evidenced by the Charter of Medina, Hudaibiya agreement and preaching through a letter to the king. Even the Messenger of Allah has a personal secretary in charge of record and any revelation of what happened in Medina. 13. Giving Compliments Prophet is a human being the most giving praise and motivation to his companions. He has more reward than punishment. She provides a beautiful and good title, either to his wives and his friends. 14. Pray Anything as good as our expertise, no matter how hard we work, we plan whatever, whatever our strategy, and as much as any facility we have. Everything will not be supported with maximum without pray. Pray inseparable in human life. Holy Prophet understood this, therefore he prayed a lot. He taught us prayers for complete success. 15. Smile Messenger of Allah smiled when he met with his friend, when he was arrested anger, or when he is in the judicial council though. He smiled from his lips a soft, this pure noble nan, until the final seconds of his life. So, no wonder he was able to melt the heart his friends, his wives and everyone who met him. LEADERSHIP STYLE OF THE HOLY PROPHET (PBUH) Leadership has been defined in many ways but it is mostly agreed that leadership is about influencing others towards a common goal. According to Michael H. Harts book The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History (1978), Muhammad (s.a.w.) has been the most influential personality in the entire human history. It will be interesting and edifying to know what was his leadership style which made him the most influential person ever along with other factors. Bernard M Bass and his colleagues have differentiated five distinct styles of leadership. In Directive Leadership Style, the leader tells the followers or subordinates what to do and how to do it. This leadership style is quite authoritarian and dictatorial, and is often frustrating for the subordinates or followers whose creativity and initiative is often not valued in this style of leadership. The directive leadership style is also known as autocratic style and is mostly prevalent in Military and in Authoritarian Governments. This style is, however, important and effective in situations of urgency when there is no time for discussion or consultation.

In Delegative Leadership Style, the leader delegates his decision-making authority to his followers or subordinates. The competency of the followers, the availability of the requisite resources at their disposal and the trust and confidence of the leader in the followers are some of the pre-requisites for the success of the delegative leadership style. In Negotiative Leadership Style the leader usually puts his personal or party interests before the interest of an organization or the interest of the country or people as a whole, and uses carrots and sticks approach to further often his personal or party agenda. Most modern-day political parties and politicians use the negotiative leadership style. In Participative Leadership Style, the leader seeks the opinions and thoughts of the followers or subordinates to reach a collective or unanimous decision. If the decision is reached by a majority vote, this is a Democratic Style of Leadership. The responsibility of the decision is borne collectively and not just by the leader. The participative leadership style is mostly prevalent among the Boards of Governors of various organizations and among the cabinets of the many democratically elected prime ministers. In Consultative Leadership Style, the leader takes the opinions and thoughts of the followers or subordinates but he alone has the ultimate authority to make the final decision and also bears the responsibility of the decision. According to the Fiedler, different leadership styles may be effective in different situations. In a passage in the Quran, Allah has enjoined the Consultative Style of leadership to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) So by the Grace of Allah, [O Muhammad], you were soft and gentle with them. And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you. So pardon them and seek protection for them and consult them in the matter. And when you have decided, then rely upon Allah. Indeed, Allah loves those who rely [upon Him]. [Al-Quran 3:159] According to this verse, it is clear that the final decision had to be taken by the Prophet (PBUH) himself. Furthermore, the verse describes some additional leadership traits of the Prophet (PBUH), i.e. a. He used to be very soft and gentle with his followers b. He was never rude to them, c. He was very soft-hearted towards them d. He used to overlook their minor shortcoming and pardoned them, e. He also used to seek protection and security for them. It was indeed his consultative style of leadership along with some excellent traits that he became the most influential human ever in the history of mankind It is also clear from Al-Quran 42:38 that all the believers also adopt a consultative approach in their affairs. And (the believers conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation [Al-Quran 42:38] MILITARY LEADERSHIP OF HOLY PROPHET PBUH Islam is the religion chosen by God for humanitys individual and collective welfare in this world and the next. It is based on belief in and worships of God, without associating with Him any partners, whether in the form of something created, a person, or a concept. For an excellent example of good leadership in peace and war one must turn to the life of the holy Prophet (PBUH) and see his achievements during his lifetime and those of his companions thereafter. The holy Prophet was born in Makkah in the year 570 AD. The divine call came when he was 40

years old in the year 610 AD. The Prophet's wife Hazrat Khadeja was first convert to Islam. For the next twelve years up to 622 AD while he was at Makkah, he spread the message of God and the people embraced Islam as they believed in him and his message. At the age of 52 in the year 622 AD, the holy Prophet migrated to Medina, about 400 km to the north of Makkah, along with his followers. For the next ten years he set up the first Muslim state in the world, governed, administered and led by him under the new and emerging laws of Islam. Two years after migration to Medina in 624, the first battle of Islam was fought against the Makkans at Badr about 80 miles east of Medina towards the coast where 300 Muslims were pitched against 1000 unbelievers of Makkah. It was a crucial battle and the very existence of Islam itself was at stake. Before taking a final decision the holy Prophet always consulted his companions. In this case the Muslims wanted to return to Medina and fight there, but the holy Prophet wished to stand and fight at Badr and his desire prevailed. It was the correct decision from the tactical and political point of view. //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// JIHAD Jihad has the literal meaning of exerting our best and greatest effort to achieve something. A mujahid is one who is sincer4ely devoted to his or her cause; who uses all physical, intellectual, and spiritual resources to serve it; who confront any power that stands in its way; and, when necessary, dies for this cause. Jihad in the way of God is our struggle to win Gods go od pleasure, to establish His religions supremacy, and to make His Word prevail. a. Aspects of Jihad There are two aspects of jihad. i. One is fighting to overcome carnal desires and evil inclinations; this is called the greater jihad; ii. The other is encouraging others to achieve the same objective and is called the lesser jihad. The Muslim army was returning to Madina after they had defeated the enemy in a battle, when the Messenger of God said to them; We are returning from the lesser jihad to the greater one. When the Companions asked what the greater jihad was, he explained that it was fighting with the carnal self. The Prophets also instructed men in the Book and in Wisdom. The Prophet also teaches us what we do not know and humanity will continue to learn from the Prophet until the Day of Judgment. We learn from him how to purify ourselves of sins. By following his way, many great saints have attained their distinctions as saints. Jihad is the legacy of the Prophets, and Prophethood is the mission of elevating men to Gods favor by purifying them. Jihad is the name given to this prophetic mission, which has the same meaning as bearing witness to the truth. Just as judges listen to witness to the truth. Just as judges listen to witnesses to settle a case in a court of law, so those who have performed jihad have borne witness to the existence and unity of God by striving in His way. The lesser jihad, which has usually been taken to mean fighting for Gods cause, does not refer only to the form of striving done on battlefields. The term is comprehensive. It includes every

action done for Gods sake. The Messenger of God has taught us how to perform both forms of the jihad. He has established the principles of preaching the truth, which have application until the Day of Judgment. When we scrutinize the way he acted, we shall see that he was very systematic. This is actually another proof of his Prophethood and a wonderful example of following the way of God in behavior. The Prophet, upon him be peace, combined these two aspects of jihad in the most perfect way in his own person. He displayed monumental courage on the battlefields. Ali, who was one of the most courageous figures of Islam, confesses that the Companions took shelter behind the Prophet, upon him be peace, at the most critical moments of the fighting. b. Jihads main principles The first Revelation to God`s Messenger was the command: Read! Human beings are not composed only of their minds. God has endowed us with many faculties, each of which needs satisfaction. So while feeding our minds with the Divine signs in the universe, we seek to cleanse our hearts of sin. We live a balanced life in awareness of Divine supervision, and continuously seek His forgiveness. In this way, we eventually conquer our desire for forbidden things and, through prayer, ask God to enable us to do good deeds. Thus, read! Signifies action. For Gods Messenger, who already was absolutely pure in spirit and devoid of superstition, it meant that it was time to start his mission as a Messenger of God. He was to recite the Revelation in public and instruct people about His signs. By doing this, he would purify their minds of superstitions carried over from the Age of Ignorance, and their hearts of sin. He would enlighten them, intellectually and spiritually, by instructing them in the Revealed Book of God (the Quran) and His Created Book. These revelations ordered the Prophet to being preaching Islam. In Makka, Gods Messenger never resorted to or allowed retaliation. Islam came not to spread trouble or cause dissention. As Islam literally means peace, salvation, and submission, it obviously came to establish peace. This is established first in our inner worlds, so that we are at peace with God and natural environment, and then throughout the world and the universe. It was allowed only after the Prophet emigrated to Madina and established an independent state, for the Muslims had been wronged. Islam resorts to force only to defend itself and establish freedom of belief. Under Muslim rule, Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, Hindus, and adherents of other religions are free to practice their religion. c. Some Rules for Jihad 1. A believer is one from whom God has bought his or her life and wealth in exchange for Paradise. 2. Fight in the way of God against those who fight you, but do not transgress. God does not love transgressors. 3. Strive for that spiritual stage. 4. Moral strength. 5. Believers must equip themselves with the latest weaponry. 6. An Islamic state should be powerful enough to deter the attacks of unbelievers and oppressors, as well as their plans to subject weaker people.

7. When fighting is necessary, Muslims must report for duty. 8. The Companions, resulting consciousness of obedience made many previously impossible things possible. 9. Believers must remain steadfast and are forbidden to flee the battlefield Muhammad PBUH was sent as a mercy to mankind as is evident to us in the Holy Quraan. As like any other human he had possessed inherent qualities of various skills of life. this was channeled as the need of the time arose. His skills as military leader exude the brilliance of compassion and the pinnacle of mercy portrayed by any human being. //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// CONCLUSION Leadership is a great quality and every group of 3 people, organization, family, a company, or a country needs able and good leaders. On the global scene there is a need for good leaders too as today the world is mired by international conflicts, wars and mutual suspicions which if not corrected can demolish the whole world. The Islamic Leadership Model and the principles associated with it offer a leadership alternative which can open the door of excellence and achievement. The principles are gleaned from the Quran the words of the Mighty Wise, the practice and sayings of Prophet Muhammad, the character and deeds of the Caliphs and other great Muslim leaders who with meager means and enormous hurdles reached the zenith of excellence. These principles and their application are equally useful for every leader be they Muslim or non-Muslim as they transcend racial, religious, and temporal boundaries. Understanding, acquiring, and application of these mega principles can open up the doors to success and progress in every human endeavor. Prophet Muhammad, Caliph Abu Bakar, Umar, Othman, and Ali and their successors practiced these principles and achieved highest places in the annals of human history.