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3 E>ther Street
Vancouver. Washington
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The- ohO'P photo tom' of thco laboratory IUL t"QUtPmtnf utd to tHI the parts and wlrln
of mod .. rn rtrcoivt'l"
Lines of
in Radio
force Are
and Television
You are now entering a pha:-;e of
."ltudy which is most interesting and
faHcinating-in fact, when you
th01oughly comprehend the full
significance of the actions set forth
in this Jesson, you will have a good
of more of the basic
principles which make radio and
t<levisiou possible. Once these
basic Jaws are thoroughly under-
stood. it will be comparatively easy
for you to follow the <xpansion and
development of these same princi-
ples as applied to more advanced
tadio and television circuits. Thus.
you can sec how vitally important
it if; that vou and study
this lesson in car eful detail.
Do not expect to understa nd t he
broad application of these pl'inci-
pleil at ome. Only basic fundamen-
tal principles will be tnken up in
this le:-:son. \'arious practical ap-
plication!! will be taken up in full
detail in other lessons.
Radio Hlld teledsion make URC of
two ty prs nf forct',.. These are called
electromahYJWtk and elect rost a tit.
In this lesson both subjtct:; will be
considered, takin!!' up mn_gnrtism
ElectromngJwtk force mav also
l1c refcrrNl to as
and ,ery often tlw wtwd magnetic
force is URetl to denote the same
thing. You will become accustomed
to these various terms as you make
N '
I I riG. 1.1
which prove that magnetism
part of the universe, just as air
a part of it. With the proper
ground obtained by the study
natural magnet, you may then Pl'6o
ceed with the study of Dl&Petil18(
produced by electrical means aa ft)
is utilized in radio and
Long ago in Asia Minor (in the
province of Magnesia) a certaba
iron ore having very peculiar
properties was found. It was die-
covered that this particular ore
would act on certain other
at a 4is .. It- is not known who
1lr8t itbJa pariicular action,
but it -. bean ol>served sinee the
earliest tim& From the name of
the provblce of the word
-magnet is obtained. Thus, when
certe,in. ubibtt the charao-
teristic 6f aifectfng other objects
I FIG.2.l
at a distance, they are called mar--
nets, and, of course, from magnet
the words magnetism and magnetic
are derived.
It has been found that if an ob-
long length of magnetic iron is sus-
pended in the center by a thread
so that the iron is free to rotate it
will alway;:; exhibit a very defin'ite
characteristic. One end of the iron
will (when it comes to rest) point
to the approx-imate geographical
North Pole of the earth. The other
end will point towards the approxi-
mate South Pole of the earth. (See
Fig. 1.) This proves that the poles
of the earth have a very definite
power over the magnetic iron.
Scienti:;ts think of this power as
lines of [o1ce. That is, it seems that
these lines of force exist between
the North and South Poles of the
earth spreading out so as to cover
the whole surface of the earth. A
concept of these lines is shown in
Fig. 2. The area over which the
lines of force ctct is called mag-
netic field, or more commonly, this
is shortened to fielcl.
It has been proved that these
magnetic lines of force of the earth
acting on (or going through) the
Magnesian iron ore deposit mag-
netize the iron ore, and by this ac-
tion cause the mineral to also ex-
hibit magnetic lines of force. That
is the explanation of how this par-
ticular mineral or any other, ob-
tains its appnrent natural magnetic
effects. It is important to note at
this point that the natural magnetic
lines of force from the earth, in
passing through great masses of
iron, imparts to the iron a per-
manent magnetic effect. All this
has been accomplished by invisible
magnetic lines of force passing
the iron. As a result the
Itself becomes a magnet
1!1 turn radiates its own
of There is another way
of Impartmg magnetism from one
magnetic substance to another. If
a small metal tool such as a screw-
driver is stroked briskly several
times across a permanent bar mag-
net, the sc1ewdriver will take on
magnetism from the bar magnet.
(See Fig. 3.) It, should be clear that
magnetism may be imparted to
suitable metals through the me-
clium of magnetic lines of force or
by mechanical action is illustrated
in Fig. 3, where the screwd1iver is
rubbed across the length of the bar
magnet. Further on it will be
shown how metal may be magne-
tized electrically.
The question naturally comes up
as to why the Magnesian iron ore
shows magnetic effects (due to the
earth's lines of force) while other
iron ore deposits may not show the
same effect. The answer to this is,
that the magnetic field of the earth
is relatively weak and will not show
measurable effect on impure
iron ore deposits. The effect is best
noticed where there is a large con-
These expressions are often
shortened to simply nor th
lN) pole and south (S)
vole. Thus, every magnet
has a north and south pole.
' '
.. ........
..... __
\ ' ..... .. .,.,. .,
- /
' , , ., I
..... ....
- _, .;1
' ,;
... .,
..... __ _
The first compass was
just such a device as shown
in Fig. 1. The basic form of
the compass has not changed
appreciably to this day. An-
cient sailors used the com-
pas" for navigat ion for
many years. During all this time
nothing was known about the mag-
netic sliver of iron ore except that
it would always indicate North and
Since a magnet exhibits this pro-
perty of ath-action by the poles of
the earth, a very important law of
magnetism was logically deduced.
Further confirmation of this law
consisted in placing two magnets
11ear each other. The result was
t hat when the north poles of the
magnets were near each other, the
magnets pushed each other away.
When the south poles were brought
together a similar result obtained.
However, upon bringing the south
pole of one magnet near the north
pole of the other. it was discovered
that the magnets came together.
The important magnetic law which
sums up this demonstration, and
applies to all magnets and magne-
tic poles is :
1. Like magnetic poles repel one
2. Unli ke magnelic poles attract
one another.
little practical value. However,
from the study of the simple natur-
al magRet, man bas learned to cre-
ate large, strong, useful magnets.
This is usually accomplished elec-
trically, as you will learn as you
progress with your studies. But
before going into this, it will be
necessary for you to study more
about the laws which govern mag-
netic lines of force.
By cateful research and study it
has been found that the lines of
force about a magnet have a very
definite path and extend in certain
directions. Inside a straight bar
magnet, the lines of force extend
from the south to the north pole.
This means that they leave the
magnet at the north pole and re-
enter at the south pole. Thus, there
is a continuous mass of magnetic
lines in and about a permanent
magnet all the time. By perma-
nent magnet is meant one like the
Magnesia iron ore - one that
permanently shows magnetic ef-
fects. There are temporary mag-
nets which ~ r e called
1/.e.ts-you Will study these in detail
'l'hir- iR the basic law of magnetic 1 t a et.
repulsion and attraction, and When magnetic lines of force
should be kept in mind at all times about a magnet are referred to
when studying magnetism. reference is made to just a f e ~
Magnesian iron is called a na- lines. (See the lines of force in Fig.
tural magnet. Such a magnet has 4.) Likewise, when these are repre-
FIG. 5
sented on paper, only a few lines onstrations have been made over
are shown. But this does not 1epre- and over again, so it is not neees-
sent actual conditions. Even if a sary for you to make the set-ups to
large number of lines could be prove these things unless you wish
shown on paper, this would serve to do so for your own personal sat-
only to indicate direction and in- isfaction.
tensity. The important point you Natural magnets are often refer-
should understand is the fact that red to as lodestones, meaning lead-
magnetism is intangible. The near- ing stones (used by the ancients tD
est approach to making it tangible lead them in the right direetion}.
is to show lines on paper which A natural lodestone or an ordinary
represent this force. Magnetism is bar magnet and a few iron filings
not a thing that you can divide in- may be ued to demonstrate the at-
to unit lines. The expression lines tracting qualities of magnetiJJm.
of force is usP.d simply for conven- Iron filings are tiny bits of iron or
lenee aU other electrical litera- steel obtainable from any me}lhrA
tare ia written from the same view- shop where drill pres'es, ... ,
poillt--tJms, the expression is not etc., are used. Half a pound of
new. Jlaanetiam is a continuous filings is entirely sufficient tor
unblterrupted force in its normal experiment. If you place a
&tate, extending out in all diree- stone or small bar magnet
tioDe, butt of C01.U'8e, limited in its the filings, you will And
:btteuity at a dWance. filings are immediately
DBKON8'.l'RATING THE LINES to the magnet.. Further
OF FOR find the areatest *UI'
CB two ends of the
'.l'ber& are several ellllical ex. there will be a
which m&J be performed atlckiq to
the proof ot you ean maOfb'
re at torce. Such ... map.q tz.o:m
. Figure 5 shows this effect
in detail.
There is n good reason why the
tiling . ..: cling to the ends of the mag-
net and not so well to its center.
The metal oj which the. bar magnet
is made is a good conductor of -mag-
netism, wlzerea.s air is not. Thus
within the length of the bar mag-
net the of force have a good
path over which they can travel
with little opposition. At the ends
of the magnet the lines of force
spread out over a wide area be-
cause there is no good conducting
medium to confine them to a given
path. It should be clear, then, that
at the ends of the bar magnet the
lines of force converge as they en-
tel' or leave the magnet, and at
these ends there is the greatest
concentration of lines of force any-
where outside of the magnet itself.
Thus, attraction at these points is
greatest and that is the reason
there is the greatest mass of filings
at the magnet ends. Inside the bar
magnet the lines of force are con-
centrated along the iron path and
there is little or no external mag-
netic effect along the length of the
In Fig. 4 you saw au imaginary
grouping of magnetic lines of force
in and about a bar magnet. An im-
portant point to remembe1 about
fhiB is thaf the rnag11etic lines of
external to the magnet- are
exactly equal to those within the
magilef. Those outside of the mag-
net spread out in ever-widening
circles growing weaker and less
dense as they proceed away from
the source.
In order to get a fundamental un-
derstanding of magnetism, it is
to study the magnetism
associated with electrons and
From this study you can
bmld up a concrete conception of
magnetism which will go a long
way in helping you to understand
other radio principles. You will no
doubt 1ea1ize the significance of
this as progress is made from one
lesson to another.
An in motion has a mag-
netic field about it. There is no
getting away from this fact--when
an electron moves it sets up a mag-
netic field. The field is strongest at
or near the electron and decreases
at greater distances from the elec-
tron. This magnetic field about a
moving electron is shown in Fig. 6.
Note that as the distance from the
electron increases, the lines repre-
senting magnetic force become fur-
ther apart-this is a practical
method of illustrating the decreas
ing intensity at further distances
f1om the electron. In Fig. 6 the elec-
tron is represented as coming out of
the paper. Note that the electric
lines of force are polarized in a
clockwise direction. If the speed of
the electron is increased, the in ten-
/ '
/ ---........ '
/ / '-..
I / _.-........_ ""' \
I 1;/ .--... '\ \ \
I ( //--.. \ \ \ \
I I (t{)\\ I I
\ \ \ \ '- ) I I
\ \ " ....__ / /
\ """ ....__/ / I
'\ '- / /
"' --- /
............ /
(FIG. 7.1
s1ty of the magnetic field increases
-of course, the field will then be
measurable at a greater distance
from the electron, also. The magne-
t"c field which accompanies a tra-
veling electron has a definite direc-
tion with respect to the electron. By
experiment it has been proven that
the magnetic field of an electron in
motion is at right angles to the di-
rection in which the electron is
moving. Thus if an electron is mov-
ing along a horizon tal straight line,
the magnetic field will lie in a verti-
cal plane. In Fig. 6 this is clearly
shown by the arrow heads indicat-
Ing the direction of the lines of
force representing the magnetic
You may further illustrate this
relationship by pushing a pencil
through a piece of paper. The pen-
eil represents the Hne of electron
travel; the magnetic linea would all
Be on the paper. A well-known rule
wiD always estabJ"sh the direction
of the magnetic lines of force about
a slnale wire conductor-if you will
remember to apply it. It is called
the left Jumd rule and applies in
every ease, if you comider electnm
current flow to be from negati1Je to
positive. To apply this rule, use
your left hand, as shown in Fig. 7.
Imagine your thumb to point in the
direction of electron current flow
and grasp an imaginary wire as
shown. Your fingers then point in
the direction which the magnetic
lines of force tal'e in circling about
the wire.
Every electron in motion then,
carries its magnetic field along
with it. You know that in an atom
there are several electrons spinning
about the nucleus. Each electron
has its own magnetic field. Refer
to Fig. 8. Here you see several elec-
trons in their orbits about the nu-
cleus of an atom, each with its field.
Now, since they are all traveling
in the same direction you see that
at the center of the orbits, the mag-
netic fields add. Thus a single
atom may be magnetic.
Now consider two electrons mov-
ing together in a conductor. Both
will have magnetic fields u:hich will
merge or combine somewhat as pic-
tured in Fig. 9A. Three electrons
will have an even greate1 combin-
ing effect, the total field wiU ap-
pear sometohat a$ shown in Fig.
DB. Fina11y, when there are many
millions of electrons moving at
hi.v.h velocity (as, for instance, cur-
rent flow along a wire), the mag-
netic field would appear somewhat
as in Fig. 9C, were it visible.
If you consider an entire wire,
remembering that many millions of
electrons are flowing and that the
speed or velocity of the electron
determines the distance which the
field reaches, then you may easily
imagine that the magnetism ex-
tends out to a considerable distance
away from the wire. This field is
in circular form extending outside
or the wire, as well as through it,
as pictured in Fig. 9D. Here, again,
the lines simply indicate the direc-
tion of the pressure, stress or in-
fluence which is called magnetism.
Now, if the electrons are forced
to stop flowing along a wire (they
can be made to do this by opening
a switch) their external magnetic
field w ll disnppear. If the electrons
, .........
. '
' '
I ,...... '
.I ' \
".-. " .. 0
i '
,_ tt:t:;; :a ?I

....... I
'..., ,' I
' ..... ,
' .... ,.K'
are made to reverse their direction
of travel, the magnetism Wt'U re-
verse as indicated by the linea of
force in Fig. 9E. It is important to
remember that these lines of force
extend out and away from the wire
to considerable distances. You will
soon see in the progress of your
studies how these lines of force will
affect wires, first at several inches
away through air or space, then
many feet away an indication will
be noticed and then from a few
miles to many thousands of miles.
This same magnetism carries radio
signals around the earth.
The gradual reduction of the in-
tensity or strength of a magnetic
field may be compared to the shell
of atmosphere surrounding the
earth. The air becomes thiJmer
(less dense) up from the earth, but
there is no sharp dividing line be-
tween the atmosphere and outer
space. Thus the magnetic field
about a wire carrying current ex-
tends out until its intensity is so
small that it cannot be measured.
To have a basis from which to de-
termine the relation between the
current intensity and the magnetic
field produced by it, a point may
be chosen at a definite distance
from the wire, say one inch. By
using this system it has been found
that the magnetic field is exactly
proporti' to the current flow in
the w r , providing no magnetic
materials are present. If the cur-
rent is doubled, the force of the
field is also doubled, or if the cur-
rent is reduced ten times, the field
IS in like manner reduced ten times
tn intensity. Thus there is a true
proportion between current flow
and magnetism.
It is impossible for an electron to
be in motion without its magnetic
field accompanying it. If moving
electrons (comprising current flow)
are stopped, the magnetic field at
the source must also stop. If a mag-
netic field is created by electrons
in motion, it will tend to make all
electrons in the area of influence
move. Just as surely as the elec-
tron tn mot on wz1l produce a. ma.g-
Mtic field, a. magnetic field in mo-
Ciot& will tend to produce moving
uag electrons, or in other words
eause an electric current to flow.
Here i an tmportant fact-be
sure to remember tt. In a magnetic
fteld of fiud tttteftsitv, there is no
'IIUJI11U1tic motion. Thus a magnetic
fteld produced by the flow of di-
rect cnwrent is fixed and steady-
its presaure or area of influence is
merely being exerted in a definite
clirection. With AC, on the other
hand, the magnetic lines of force
change their direction and of course
in this case there is motion or a
changing magnetic field-but more
about this later. Do not confuse the
arrows used in Fig. 6 through 9
(which indicate the direction of the
magnetic force), with the idea of
continuous motion. This idea of a
fixed magnetic field is analogous to
a compressed coil spring. A coil
spring may be compressed and may
remain quite stationary, and yet
the direction in which its force is
exerted may be represented with an
arrow. In many ways a magnetic
field in and around a straight
length of wire, such as described in
the foregoing, will be useful, but
for other uses there must be magne-
tic fields of different kinds and of
different i n t e n s i t i ~ .
In further consideration of this,
suppose a length of wire is looped
as shown in Fig. 10. If this is done
there will be two lengths of wire
passing close to one another, both
having magnetic fields, and it will
be noticed that for a short distance
the two loops of wire are parallel.
Current is flowing in the two ad-
1 r1G.1o.1
nt lengths of the \\ 1re in the
J&C .
same d rect10n.
in exactly the ame manner
that the two individual fields of a
pair of electrons combine to form a
ingle field, as shown in Fig. 9A,
the t\\O fields about the two lengths
of "ire will also comb me as shown
in Fig. 10.
If you should wind more turns
1 re alongside one another, all
oJ thr separate fields of the indi-
aual wires tcill combine or merge
o tiler forming one big magnetic
fi d Several turns of wire are
sh1m n in cross section form in Fig.
11. ns though all of them were cut
in the center. By forming a coil
(v; rapping several turns together),
various lengths of wire will all con-
tribute to the forming of a single
field (which is very strong in the
center of the coil) and all of the
lines of force will act in the same
direction, just as explained for the
electrons in Fig. 9.
While magnetism also exists out-
side of the coil and away from it,
1t spreads over so much space that
it is not very strong or intense at
I ,' I
/ I
, '
- "
,, /I II _,
,,,,, ..
I t!G
'"' ,,' I \ .. -
I '
. -


. '
. '
' '
. '
' I o
\ :.

I F'JG.12l
any one place. The total outside
field extending indefinitely from
the coil, however, is equal to the
total inside field in intensity. Each
tum of wire that is added to thia
coil will add to the total magne.
Consider another type of coil
with a great many turns of wire
wound layer after layer as shown
in Fig. 12. If it has 50 times the
number of turns of wire that the
one in Fig. 11 has, it will have a
magnetic field 50 times the strength
of the coil in Fig. 11, provided, of
course, that the same value of cur-
rent is fiowing in both coils.
You are now prepared to con-
sider the effect that a magnetic
field will have on various other BUb-
stances. Although it is necessary to
get down to considerable detail in
the following study, it will all
naturally follow the principles al-
ready covered in this Ieason. If you
understand the foregoing, the fol-
Io\\ ing will not be at all difficult.
material in n nomtal state is such
that no lotnl magnetism will be de-
veloped. This is because the posi-
tion of lhe atoms (with their elec-
tron orbit:;) will not be disturbed.
In thtse ?WII-magllciic substances
he magnetism is contpletely bal-
ancC'Il out, dllC to the fact that the
'IICI'IIY of tht rlecfl'fllls i1l one di-
rPctlou i:{ equal to that in all other
dirccfitMs so that no external mag-
tiel ism exist:;. Therefore, when
maguetic lines of force are im-
pressed through them no change is
made in the material. The magnetic
force will pass right through the
empty space (ether) between the
atoms of the non-magnetic sub-
st:mce "ithou\ changing the atoms
<>f the substance in anyway. If the
same magnetic field is impressed
upon iron or some other magnetic
.mbstnnce, the behavior of the
molecules and atoms will be quite
tlifl't>tent. Remember this point, as
it will be useful to you in the future.
Ev>ry known substance is mnrle
up of electrons which are in \'arious
stat<' of motion-these move either
in orbits of atoms or they are in
thE' net of forced motion as for in-
stance, along a conductor. Or-
dinarily, the of the electrons
of various substnnce;; are in various
directions relati\e to one another.
There are, of course, a number of
electron! in ench atom except that
of h.rdr?gen which has only one
electron. Furtho:rmore. may
be revoll'ing around the nucleus in
opposite directions, with the mag-
nrtic forces of one exactly balanc-
ing out those of nnnther. The atom
as a unit may thus contribute no ex-
ternal magnetic influence whatever
to the substauce of which it is a
part. lll'nce. the individual or unit
of the atom contributed
Ly the revolving eltctron may be in
anv direction whatever or may be Practical usc is made of these
baianced out completely. For a sub- JH'indples throughout radio. For ill-
stance not under magnetic stress stance the coil in Fig. 12 is very
every electron moving in the North similat to a dynamic speaker field
direction will have a corresponding winding. Au iron core iiZBafed in it
electron moving in the South direc- Jl'ill coucmltl'llle a powerful magne-
t on. For every one or more moving tic field iu a .'lmnll area . .Many other
in the up direction, there will be type::; of radio coi ls make use of
one or an number moving in \'arious types of iron cores. For the
the down direction. There are so opposite etl'ect, coils are wound on
many billions of electrons in each wood and other types of non-
substance that, for each one having 111agnetk mntedals. These merely
1ts force in one direction, there will sene as forms to support the coil
be another one exerting its force in winding. From this you can see that
the other direction which is to sav it is important for you to have a
that in a normal the mag- general knowledge of these pr in-
netic forces are balanced. ciples.
The effect for any non-magnetic An imagina ry view of a magnetic
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7 -t ;:; z;< -t .:t- * .:\. %


I FIG.13.I
before magnetizing is
shown in Fig. 13A. This represents
tre condition of its atoms before
any extemal magnetism acts on it.
The short arrows represent the
magnetic field of each atom. While
it is true that every atom directed
\'ertically or evc11 approximately
so, adds (its i11tenc;ity) to the total
external magnetism, yet every one
pointing down or approximately so,
subtracts (its own intensity) from
the total field. Thus, before any ex-
ternal magnetism 1-s applied the
substance has no e;dernal ma[lnetic
effects. Non-magnetic substances
are not like thi!=i, because the atoms
of which they are composed are
non-magnetic to begin with, a
wooden coil form, for instance.
Materials in this condition neither
hinder nor help the magnetic field
applied through them.
If you should place a piece of
:;oft iron, steel, cobalt, or nickel
through the coil of Fig. 12 while it
is carrying current, something
quite different will happen. The
magnetism produced by the coil
carrying a current will rotate the
orbits of many of the electrons of
the magnetic metal substances so
that their effects will be impressed
in one direction-namely, the di-
1 n of th e rnal f1eld actmg
on them. See F1g. 13B. For balanced
atom in a magnetic substance,
ome of the electrons may be re-
versed in their orbits so that the
atom will be sensitive to magnetic
influence. The external or applied
magnetism will then tend to turn
th orbits so that the separate
direction of the applied lines of
magnetic influence of each atom
will be aligned or impressed in the
direction of the applied lines of
force. The force which builds mag-
n tism by aligning the influences
of moving electrons is called ma.g-
tomotive force. Using a piece of
oft iron, the field originally caused
by the coil alone will be intensi-
fied many thousands of times. This
is because the soft iron is a better
conductor of magnetic lines of force
than air. The iron core concentrates
the lines of force in a minimum
area. All of this is due to the cho:nge
n poBition of many of the orbits of
the electrons in the iron. Moreover,
if the iron is removed from the coil
some of the atoms of the iron will
temporarily remain in their new
pomtions and the iron will display
eame magnetic properties as the
hard steel is used for this ex-
periment JDOBt of the atoms will re-
main their new positions and the
lteel will be permanently magna-
sed. 'l'bua JOU eee how electricity
may be Ull8ll to mapetlze a bar
mapet. Tbia tne also for some
few other aabilf! nc, neb as eo-
bait, Jdekel UM1 1lfauW oxygen, but
to a lelller de8ree. IPla liB shows
a paphic ~ t l o n of the
paBtioDB of the atom& flf the iron
... after tUJ: haw been IOb-
jlztecJ to az ?! 1.
You can further demonstrate
hat this condition exists through-
out the entire length of the iron or
steel by cutting a bar magnet into
several pieces. Each piece will be-
come a separate magnet as shown
in Fig. 13C. This is further proof of
the inherent magnetic nature of the
atom and molecule, because no
matter how many times you divide
the bar magnet in Fig. 13C and no
matter how small the individual
pieces become, each piece will still
show the effects of a north and
south pole.
This individual nature of a limit-
ed number of substances seems to
have a definite relation to mechan-
ical motion. If you hold a magnetic
substance in a magnetic field,
either that of the earth or one pro-
duced by a coil of wire, and tap it
sharply with a hammer (create mo-
tion) the tapping seems to aid the
molecules in assuming their correct
positions. On the other hand, if you
magnetize a piece of steel, take it
away from the field used for the
process and then tap it, it will lose
some of its magnetism.
If you bring a bar magnet near a
piece of iron such as a nail, its
field will immediately extend into
the nail, and will align many of the
molecules in the nail. The north
pole of one magnet will attract the
south pole of another-similar to
the law of electrons and protons-
like charges repel, unlike chargeS
attract. Thus like magnetic poles
repel tl1ld unlike magnetic polu
GttrGCt. The nail or a piece of iron
or steel will, therefor e, be drawn
to the magnet pole, as pictured in
Fig. 14. The other end of the maa--
net will attract iron for the DIP
reason, but in this ease, id1 of the
I FIG.\4.1
s poles of the atoms of the magnet
\Vill be attracting the N poles of
the smaller piece of metal. The
piece of iron or steel will a
magnet itself, at first strong wh1le
under the direct influence of the
magnet and then weaker as is
removed-but as was explamed
many of the atoms will now ?;ain-
tain theit newly acqui'red posttwns.
An ordinary piece of steel will
become magnetic if placed in line
with the N-S poles of the earth. If
a steel needle is magnetized and
ftcaterl on a cork or piece of wood
in water it will turn its poles to-
ward the poles of the earth. In
other words it will act as a compass.
Both permanent and electromag-
nets are used widely in radio; these
use.:; are on the foregoing ex-
planation of how iro11 or steel is
affected by magnetism.
Consider now some of the more
common applications of
employed in radio. w1ll see
how the force of magnetism, called
magnetomotive force, can be eon-
verted to electrical force called
electromotive force, or voltage. Al-
so vou will see that electric and
magnetic energies can be
into mechanical energy and viCe
versa. 'I'his study is most important
l)Pcause the principles are em.
plo.rcd ove1 and over again in radio
and televiswn circuits. So make
sure you unilerstnnd these pl'in-
ciples as you advance with your
Wherl) a conductive path, such
as a copper wh-e circuit, is provided
for a voltage, electrons will move
in the whc, forming a current of
electrons, or simply a ftow of cur-
rent. It has been explained that,
clue to the nature of an electron,
when it. moves it creates a magnetic
field. Remember also that an elec-
tron is always in motion. \Vhen it
is not traveling along a conductor
by jumping from one atom to
another, it is revolving around the
nucleus of an atom at an extremely
high speed estimated at several
million tcvolutions per second.
Thus, in the normal state the elec-
tton always has its magnetic field.
Howeve1, \Vhen there is no voltage
to shift electrons away from their
atoms, all of these fields are in
various directions (as explained
formerly) giving no total external
magnetic field. When a voltage is
apvlied to a conductor, electrons
are caused ttJ flow through the con-
ductor. It is these electrons which
er.:!ate the useful magnetic fields in
tadio. The magnetism due to the
random motion of the electron in
their individual orbits is not in-
cluded in practical considerations.
So, for the remainder of this leRson,
only electron motion throug-h a
conductor will be considered.
assume an electron lo be
moving through a magnetic field
the direction indicated by the soh_d
arrow (A) in Fig. 15. The magnetic
lines of force will from the
north pole to the south pole shown
thP d indicateu by the arrow
B, wh1ch IS the resulting direetio
of. travel. You are familiar
this If you throw
MAGNET stone, has two velocities, one du:
to gravity and the other due to th
force you exert on it. The stone will
outward and downward,
n the figure. Now consider the
magnetic lines due to the electron
motion. They are in a circular pat-
tern, vertical to the direction of
flow (A) of the electron. Above the
electron, the lines of force due to
electron motion are in an opposite
direction to the lines produced by
the magnetic poles. The net result
is that the forces tend to cancel,
leaving a weaker field above the
electron. Below the electron, the
l'nea of force due to electron flow
those of the magnetic poles are
the same direction. This results
a additive effect, which pro-
a stronger force below the
There is now an unbal-
fllure, with a greater
lfl._,.etr.i)n than there
tbat if two
obJM; the object
weed upWard
contmumg to travel away from you
until it strikes the ground. The
electron acts in a similar manner
!n this case bt!ing forced upward
m addition to its original direction.
You have here mechanical force, or
motion, being produced by an elec-
tron passing through a magnetic
field. This is very important-in
television you will see a very prac-
application of this basic prin-
Ciple. In fact, without this principle
the completely electronic television
system, so common today, would be
absolutely impossible.
The direction in which a moving
electron is forced by a magnetic
field is perpendicular to the origin-
al direction in which the electron
was traveling, and perpendicular to
the direction of the lines of force of
the magnetic field. This is a very
important statement as it covers
the deflection of an electron mov-
ing in a magnetic field, regardless
of the circumstances.
Now take the free electron dis-
cussed in the foregoing paragraphs
Ref rnng back to Fig 17, .) ou
can reahze that all of the free elec-
tron m t n luct r '' 111 be af-
fec:ted n t the s m way ns
th 1 gl ron mentioned m
d. u n he g 1erator principle.
T c mb1 ed mo\ ement of all of
t ron \\ 111 form an elec-
tron c rret flo\\ m the conductor.
\\ n an electron or group of elec-
tr 1 di placed-that i!(, moved
rom one place to another, they
ke the1r charges with them and
add a negath e charge to the
r"al in \\ h1ch they are found. Th1s
i one \\ay in which electricity can
be cau ed to exist in a conductor by
means of magnetic lines of force.
Th"s is an elementary principle,
nd later on it will be shown how
rae 1cal u e is made of this prin-
ip e.
When electrons are removed
rom one place, that same place
comes pos1tivels and 1s
laced in such a conditiOn as to
cause 1t to attract electrons. For
example, if you utilize the principle
Fig. 17 and cause a number of
lectron to move toward point B
-r--r .. - ... ..... .-
. . . . . . . . . . .. . ..
. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .
E 0
FIG. 18
Referring again to Fig. 18, if
the electrons are prevented from
drifting back to the left by the volt-
age created in the conductor, and
an e:\:ternal circuit iR connected
such as the wire C, D, E, F and G,
the electrons will press themselves
out into the external circuit and
force their way around the circuit
and back to the left end, as there
are fewer of them in the wire at
the left end. It is assumed here
that, before connecting the external
circuit of B-G of Fig. 18, the
electrons in the connecting circuit
were originally distributed as for
Fig. 18A. As soon as some of the
electrons move from B to C, in Fig.
18 those at C will become crowded
and since they cannot move against
the pressure of electrons at B, they
will move to a less crowded section
of the wire at D. Those at D wi!J
in turn move along to E, etc. until
they are all equally distributed in
the external circuit and the con-
ductor G-B. No more voltage will
then exist anywhere along the cir-
cuit. Thia is the action which takes
place in a conductor when magne-
tic lines of force are caused to in-
duce a voltage in the conductor by
the motion of the conductor
through the lines of force.
the conductor (in which they
were originally equally distributed,
aa Fig. 18A), a voltage will be
e.tabliahed between the ends of the
conductor. Since more of the elec-
trons aecumulate at end B of the
conductor it ia negative, as each
electron hall a negative charge. (See
G-B of Fig. 18). The other end is
positive because IDilDJr of the atoms
have lost their electrons and hence
become positive. This ia the condi-
tion in a conductor when magnetic
lines of force an ltlled t1o eauae cur-
rem flow in a eireaft in which no
CUI I eDt oriP1aJly existed.
There is a rule to be used in
showing the direction of current
flow in a conductor which is mov-
mg through a magnetic field. This
rule is called the left-hand gener-
ator rule and is similar to the right-
hand motor rule. Using the left-
hand, the thumb represents the di-
rection of motion of the conductor,
the middle finger represenl'l the
direction of the magm tic field. The
forefinger (.lt right angles to the
thumb nne! middle finger) indi-
cates the direction of current flow.
There is another important con-
sideration you should understand
about magnetically induced volt-
ages; that is the importance of di-
rection in which the conductor is
moving through the field. In Fig. 19
is shown a uniform magnetic field
represented by the vertical lines
and spaces. The entire space is con-
sidered to be filled with magnetism
and the vertical lines show that it
is impressed vertically and that it
is uniformly distributed. The Jines
are used to simply indicate the
space the field occupies, not as a
measure of magnetism.
In this figure the end view of a
wire conductor is considered to be
at (0). Next consider what hap-
pens when it is moved in various
directions such as (0-A), (0-B),
(0-C), etc. When the conductor
moves from (0) to (A) it is direct-
ly in line or parallel with the direc-
tion of the field. No matter how
fast it moves in this direction M
ooltage wiU be induced in it, be-
eause it has not cut or swept across
any lines of force.
Now, If this aame conductor is
moved from (0) to (F), at right
angles to the field force, it has cut
through a section of the entire field.
'-ssurne that it has moved fast
cmough to have ten volts induced
into it. Suppose now the conductor
( 0) is moved from (0) to (E), the
same dtstance as (0-F) and in the
ame Hme. It has cut through only
a littl? more than 8% of the 10
umts from (0) to (F). The value
of the induced voltage depends on
the rate at 'vhich the conductor
cuts across the magnetic Held. It
should be clear therefore, that the
\"Oltage induced in this case will be
only about 8.5/10 or 857o of the
voltage induced by the motion from
{0) to (F). Thus only about 8.5
volts would be induced.
In moving from (0) to (D) the
conductor cuts through even fewer
lines of force (about 70%), in-
ducing only 7 volts. Similarly a
movement (0-C) would induce
about 5 volts and a movement
(0-B) would induce less than 2
To induce 10 volts by moving in
the direction ( 0-D), for example,
the conductor would have to con-
tinue to (D') and it would have to
move the entire distance (0-D') in
the same time it formerly required
to move from (0) to (F). This is
about 30% farther, and hence the
conductor would have to move
30% faster.
On the other hand, to induce only
, z J .,. s ., , If
li'IG. 18
I volts in the conductor, moving in
the direction (0-F), it would have
to move only half way, or to (G)
in the same time that it must reach
(C) along the line (0-C). Although
the distance (0-C) is twice that of
(0-G), the same voltage will be
induced in either ease.
From this and the foregoing it
may be seen that the amount of in-
duced voltage in a wire from a
macnetie field depends on three
things. They are:
(1) The length of wire. A greater
length of wire or more turns of
wire in a given coil or loop in-
creases the induced voltage.
(2) The rate of speed at which
the wire passes through the magne-
tic field, or the rate of speed at
which the magnetic field passes
through the wire. This may be
compared roughly to the wind
bending a slender tree--the strong-
er the wind, the more the tree will
(8) The direction in which the
wire passes through the field. A
.,.,... tJWBt pa88 through a magnetie
tJ1 f'igl&t angles to the lines of
to in41u:e a mazimum 'Voltage.
JiiiD be deacribed an im-
'=l:fi which must be
.JI 1:n order to diaplace
a voltaae, the
1\i.,mapel:ic Aeld
respect to
! the
displace the free electrons of the
Now, the magnetic field and the
electrons in the conductor have no
way of knowing which is moving.
Thus, if the magnetic field is mov-
ing past the conductor, the same
results obtain (that is, electron
flow) as if the conductor were mov-
ing through the field. Refer to Fig.
20. Here you see a conductor A-B
connected to a battery through a
switch. Placed near this conductor
is another conductor (C-D in Fig.
20) connected to an ammeter which
indicates current flow in either di-
rection. The instant the switch is
closed, current will flow through
the conductor A-B in the direction
A to B. A single electron is shown
in Fig. 20, to illustrate the magne-
tic field set up about the conductor
as determined by the left hand rule.
Now this field cannot just begin to
exist. It must start from zero and
gradually build up to its full in-
tensity. This takes only a small
fraction of a second in an actual
circuit. Now as the magnetic field
due to electron flow builds up
around conductor A-B, it extends
outward in all directions from the
conductor. In so extending, it cuts
acros8 the conductor as indicated
by the arrow M. The effect is the
same as though CD were moved
through a stationary fteld in the
direction indicated by the dotted
arroW N. Recalling thde left Ju:nd CD in the opposite direc-
ule for a generator, an assummg twn to that m which they ex-
[he conductor CD to be moving in- pauded. Again, it may be assumed
of the magnetic field you that. the field is stationary and the
ha\c: (1) Flux (forefinger of the condudor is moving through it--
left hand) pointed directly into the the relationship of motion between
paper between the conductors. (2) the conductor and the field is all
Thrust (direction of assumed mo- that is of importance here. The
tion of the conductor CD-indi- conductor is assumed moving in the
cated by the thumb) to the left. (3) direction indicated by the dotted
The elt'ctrons in the conductor CD arrow labelled 0 in Fig. 20. Apply-
will then move in the direction in- ing the generator (left hand) rule,
dicated by the milldle finger-di- you see that the electron pictured
rectly up, or from D toward C. in this figure will move do\vnward.
Since lhere are millions of elec- This electron represents many elec-
tron.-; in the conductor CD, and trons. so when it moves downward
:,ince many of them will be affected an electron current exists. The me-
in exactly the same way a::; the ter will show a deflection. Again
single electron in the illustration the current is short lived-remem-
this large number of electrons in bm it can only be induced as long
motion will compose a measurable .as the magnetic :field and the con-
current. ductor CD are in relative motion .
.As soon as the field has completely
Once the cunent has set-up its collapsed, 110 more current will be
magnetic field about conducto1 AB, induced in CD and the meter will
the lines of force no longer expand cease to register.
and cut past conductor CD. The
magnetic field has reached a stable By referring back to the discus-
condition-therefore, with no rein- sion of Fig. 20 you can readily 5ee
tive motion behveen the conductor how voltasres are built up in CD as
and the magnetic field, no electron n result of electron movement. You
motion results in conductor CD. can see immediately that, when the
The meter then, "'ill register a switch of Fig. 20 is closed, it will
slight reading for a split second cause point D of Fig. 20 to become
afte1 the switch is closed, then will positive with respect to point C.
read zero. Now, as the switch is opened, the
tielrl collapses, the electron motion
Now assume the switch in Fig. is in the opposite direction (or f1om
20 to be opened after having been c
closed for a short time. While the to D) thus C will become positive
wilh resprct to D.
switch was closed it allowed cur-
rent to flow and thjs current set up Now look hack over Fisr. 20 and
a magnetic field about AB. When note the following facts. 'When the
lhe switch is opened, it will prevent switch is closed, current llows from
current flow. thus the magnetic A to B in the conductor connected
about AB will collapse-there tn the battery. In the conductor CD
no electron motion, no mag- (called the secondnry) the current
field C:xist. In collapsing, tlow is D to C-just opposite
e magnetic hnes of force cut to that In the primary conductor
FIG. 21
(A-B) . ): ou have read in this les-
son that any electron motion is ac-
companied b) a magnetic field.
Thus for the :>hort time that cur-
rent is induced h1 conductor CD, it
too ,.,.ill have a magnetic field about
it. See Fig. 21 where this is illustra-
ted. The two fields, that due to the
current in A and that due to the
current in B, are in opposite di-
rections, as you would naturally
expect, !';ince the currents them-
selves are opposite. These points
are very important anu will be en-
larged upon later in the course, so
be sure that you understand them
and remember them.
The effect which is obtained by
the use of two parallel straight con-
ductors as discussed up to this point
is very, very small, and is not of
practical value in radio circuits. In
radio work coils are used to utilize
the previously described effects in
such a way that they are caused to
produce actions which make pos-
sible the fine radio transmission
and reception which is so familiar
You will recall that the amount
of magnetism which can be pro-
duced by a coil is very much great-
er than that produced by a straight
wire, dm> to the accumulation of
magneti,;m. In Fig. 22 the two coils
are hown in the same relative posi-
tion so that the field of one (A)
will e::-.:tend into the other (B).
From your study of Fig. 20 you will
recognize how this circuit will
operate. When the switch is closed,
the field about (A) will momentar-
ily build up as the electrons force
their way through the winding, and
t h i ~ field will extend over into the
coil (B). Voltage will be induced
or created f1om magnetism in coil
(B) and the meter will indicate the
resulting current flow. Think this
over a bit. ~ o t e particulal'ly that
this has caused a voltage to be
transferred from one circuit to a
second circuit in which there is no
ba tte?y or other source of electri-
cal power. This is the important
point of this discussion. You should
ttnderstnnd why this action is pos-
Hible because this principle of voll-
arle induction will be referred to
In all of the preceding examples,
the amount of current flow will be
quite Rmall. An extremely sensitive
instrument would be necessary to
give an indication in Figs. 20, 21
and 22. All of these experiments
baNe actually been conducted in
u h the arne manner a tlw.
" 1 h 1 E'-the,:. I
i h \ u "I ould remember .
IRON C'ORg:::;


F TG. 23
You "ill recall the e.XJJlmJntiOn
the mnnne1 in "hich iron or
ma metals acted when tiUh-
t t a magnetic field. Tht>
tr c o magnetism on ordinary
ttl at 'th d' cul'l'ent in the opposite direction.
1 1 so grea 1. w1 or wary
truments and smaU curr ent:", When electrons s1 op tlowing (due
defimte indications are ob- to opening the s\vitch) it simply
m d. One "ny to place iron in means that there is no longer a flow
e field of Fig. 22 is to bend se>- of elect ricity, and as you know,
raJ large nails U shaped to fit in under such a condition t here is a
b th co1ls, or select a ring of iron, tendency among the atoms to re-
uch as a large washer or binder :-tore balance. Thus the f ree elec-
ring, winding the wire on it as trons start revolving about the
ho\\n in Fig. The r ing set-up is atom with which t hey happen to
In far the best, as there is iron in be associated. The fiel d t hat is
the entire magnetic path. By clos- built up in the iron of Fig. 23 van-
mg the switch in Fig. 23 an enorm- ishes as quickly as t he electrons
u,o momentary field is pr oduced as :stop Jl owing in the circuit, and in
compared to the same arrangement so doing sweeps across all of the
'' ith air, wood or lead or any other wires, inducing large voltages in
non-magnetic substance. This dem- t hem. Remember, a moving field is
onstrates the princi ple on which all t he only one that wiU induce volt-
electrical transformers operate. ages from one circuit to another
\\ hen you come to t he practical ap- when the circuits are sta.tiona.ry.
lication of t ransformers in radio, That is the reason in Figs. 22 and
th s basic principle should be re- ., , that voltage in !nduced in the
membered. econd circuit (B) only when cur-
If you were watching the meter rent is first turned on and when it
needle in an actual circuit, similar i.:; cut off. These are the only times
o Figs. 22 and 23, you would see there is a changing magnetic ftel4,
that it would indicate current im- s ince the battery current is of the
mediately on closing the switch. DC type. While the meter indicates
The needle would then drop t o t he presence of current in circuit
zero rapidly. This, of course, checks B), there will be a large apa:tk
with your understanding of mag- across the contacts of the switch in
netism; you already know that the circuit (A) as it is opened. This
magnetic field, due to the rising r esults from a large voltage produc-
current, is expanding and sweeping tion at this time, due to the collape-
hrough the wires of circuit (B). ing lines of force (faat rate of
As the switch is opened, the meter change). With just the battery and
needle will kick back, indicating a switch in the circuit there wfl1 be
17.- of coiJa and olt .- In radio eqalpment. (A) and (8): Tranomltlln tanlaa ooilo, B of l)'pe. I C) aad (D): c.a .. for clllhrent froqaenriea with dllfennt powtr ratla Ma1 1M
D.aed in eitlaer r.c:elvera or traaslttera. (): Sinl lQer choke wlnclln ...
a small spark, showing that the
spark or arc is not due to the volt-
age of the battery. Another lesson
on "nduction will treat this subject
in detail.
Radio signals are transmitted
o er great distances by making the
maanetic field about a wire change
very rapidly. Power is supplied to
receivers and transmitters by
means of transformers which con-
netism which were unknown
twenty-five or fifty years ago.
It has been mentioned before
that the electron has its own inher-
ent electrical charge which is pres-
ent all the time, regardless of
whether it is stationary or in
motion. This charge is of negative
polarity and is just as fundamental
as the electron itself. The electron
vert power into magnetism, and can not, under any circumstances,
from magnetism back to electricity lose this charge. The electron will
again. Signals are carried from one repel another electron at a distance
circuit to another by magnetism, or, by the same token, be attracted
speakers operate by the simple laws at a distance through the influence
and principles just described. Many of a positive charge-for instance
new things have been learned about the unbalanced charge of an atom
magnetism in the past twenty-five which has lost free electrons due to
years. Today there are literally chemical or electrical action. These
thousands of things done by mag- facts are definite proof of an in-
ble force at work. Too, when
consider the fact that external
is only associated with
an le tron when it is in dynamic
motion, and also that an electron
11 repel another electron no mat-
r what its state of motion, you
ha\le further proof of another type
f force ''hich definitely is not of
a magnetic character. Investigators
long ago discovered this electric
cl arge of the electron. They com-
ared it with the magnetic effect
of the electron, and were able to
1 rove that this electric charge was
a t{)tally different type of force
than Magnetism. Since it was
known that this second force is
due to the inherent, or natural elec-
trical charge of the electron, it was
given the name of electrostatic
charge to distinguish it from mag-
ICtic effects. The word static
means stationary, or standing, thus
an electrostatic field is an electric
field due to stationary electrons.
Actually this field exists about an
electron in motion also, but the
cld is used in practice as the result
of a group of stationary electrons,
and thus its name more closely fits
s function. Experiment proved
that this electric charge exerted
hnes of force which would act at a
distance from the electrons, just as
experiment proved that there were
magnetic lines of force which
would act similarly. Thus, lines of
force due to the electric charge of
the electron are called electrostatic
li es of force and those due to mag-
netic action are, of course, called
electromagnetic lines of force, as
You have already learned. To avoid
the use of a longer word electrosta-
tic is usually shortened to the
Word electric. When reference is
made to the electrostatic lines of
force, the term electric or static
ield is usually used. This is con-
mon practice in the radio profes-
!t has been shown previously in
this lesson that magnetic lines of
force are circular in nature, and
that they exist about an electron as
in Fig. 6, or around a conductor in
rings as in Fig. 7. The electric lines
of force, on the other hand, exert
their influence in eve1y direction.
Figure 24 shows how the electric
lines of force about an electron ex-
ert their force outward from the
electron. Note, however, that this
shows only one side view since a
drawing cannot show all sides of
a sphere or ball. If you will think
of a perfectly round pin cushion
with pins stuck into it from every
possible angle (representing lines
of electric force) you wiD get a
better mental picture of the electric
lines of force about an electron.
The same principles apply if you
consider a group of electrons or a
wire conductor either single or in
coil fonn.
From this explanation it should
be clear that the greatest differ-
ence between the electric and mag-
netic lines of force is the direction
in which they make their forces
felt; you should also remember that
FIG. 24
(L!SS 1lWI
external mapettsm is only asaoci-
ated with the electron while it is
in whereas the electric
linea of baa are ever-present.
In JOur future lessons you will
have occasion to study these two
twa. eeparately, as well as to-
l*"'er. For tbia reason it is most
lnpa tant that you understand the
dUrwwaa between them and the
-tlJnctlon in which they act.
leientlata have proved that elee-
lipea of force cross magnetic
111 as of fozee at right angles when
tbe two forces are asaoeiated with
:!f1111J another. It is important that
.,_, have anniy fixed in your own
mind .Just what is meant by a right
aqle direction; "Jf one straight
,18ta another to form equal
Mll18 81og!4!8 tllQ: . , ... ua are
extending outward from an
tron. Around this electron (it Ia
assumed to be in motion) is a line
of magnetic force-represented by
the circle. You see that the circle
may be assumed to be made up of
many short lines. Several of these
lines are illustrated in the fiaure
at the points where the electric
lines of force strike the circle. This
illustrates for you the fact, stated
in the preceding paragraphs, that
the electric lines of force extending
from an electron are always per-
pendicular (at right angles) to the
Dl&Ciletic lines of force which exist
about the electron when it is in
motion. Actually, there are thous-
ands of magnetic and electric lines
of force associated with a moving
electron, or about a wire through
which current is flowing. The elec-
tric lines of force move outward
away from the electron in every
directon, and instead of one circle
representing one magnetic line of
force as in Fig. 26 there are thous-
ands of them. They are not all at
the same distance away from the
ectron. but occupy all space
el und the electron. These definite
aro !ideation should be kept in mind
qua F' 26
with reference to 1g. .
u will have very little occasion
to consider electrostatic and mag-
netic lines of force together except
when considering the transmission
of radio signals. However, you will
have numerous occasions to consid-
er them separately. In the study of
condensers, you will consider elec-
trostatic lines of force and in the
study of inductance, you will be
more concerned with magnetic
lines of force. Later lessons will be
devoted to each of the subjects.
It is practically impossible to
show all the effects of electric lines
f force around one electron. If
you could collect a large number of
electrons you would find that they
would all repel each other as they
all have an equal and like negative
charge. Their repelling force will
press out into space in &11 direc-
tions. Obviously the more electrons
gathered together, the greater is
their combined pressure, which is
called voltage. In a substance hav-
ing a normal number of electrons
there is no accumulated pressure
because with each electron there is
a corresponding equal positive
charge to counteract it.
For the purpose of illustration
assume that you could collect a
large number of free electrons in a
fiat metal plate. With a wire con-
such a metal plate (it mar
be of as a atorag(\ tank or
as w1l1 be brought out later. To get
an idea of the action of electrons
under pressure consider a flat sur-
face, such as that shown in Fig. 27,
which represents a segment of a
plate into which many electrons
have been crowded. Electrons (A)
and (C) will both repel electron
(B). Under this condition, (B) can-
not move because of equal pres-
sures. However, if the three are re-
arranged in the position shown in
Fig. 28 (as they would be at the
end of a wire attached to a metal
plate), so that (B) is crowded
near the pointed part of the sur-
face, electron (A) and (C) will re-
pel (B) in approximately the same
direction. The net effect is a large
repelling force on (B) in one direc-
Electron (B) will tend to jump
out into the air from this sharp
pointed surface. If a sufficient
number of electrons do this, sound
will be heard and delicate violet
sparks will be seen. This is called a
corotta. discharge. It eo1nmGD]y oc-
curs in high voltqe television cir..
cuits. It will take place until the
conpstion of the electrons is re-
duced (such a condition ean tqti
place in a manner to be deeiCrib!
later) to a degree where the
sure is not areat enough to
the corona discharge. A
amount of this action is
ways oecurri1Ja
ed 8urface where a 1arp

..-- --- ......
;-" .... ,
-... ___ _., /
............ --- _,.. ..,.,
electrons are collected. Many more
electrons can be crowded together
on a :rounded or flat surface for this
Now consider two spheres, as
lihown in Fig. 29, each connected to
one terminal of a large voltage.
The sphere connected to the posi-
termi.Dal of the voltage source
up electrons to the voltage
1IDtil the sphere has a de-
electrons, leaving it at
potential. The
to the negative
terminal of the voltage source will
have a great number of surplus
electrons forced upon it, placiDa it
at a high negative potential. B&.
tween the spheres then, there ex-
ists a very strong electric field. This
electric field may be said to be
the result of a charge stored on the
spheres. This is an important prin-
ciple and you should remember it
-electric charges can be stored
on pieces of metal connected to a
voltage source. This principle is the
basis of the condensers found in all
radio and television circuits. It is
not possible to go into all the de-
tails of this subject in one lesson,
for this lesson is designed merely
to acquaint you with some of the
fundamental principles which you
will study further in the course.
It cannot be stresed too strongly
that this Ieason is one of the moat
important in your entire Spray-
berry Course. Do not by any meana
regard it lightly, for to do so will
defeat your understanding of radio
principles. Study this lesson again;
be patient and proceed slowly.
malring sure that you understand
each point brought out, for these
principles provide the foundation
for an radio and television work
which is to follow.
nese questions are deaiped to test your knowledge of w. leaoa. ...... .a':lr.
0.,. nr:-t to see if you can answer them. If you feel confident that :roa
then wr1te out answer., numberinr them to correspond to the qul&d
If you are not. confa::nt that '!ou can answer the questions, re-study the hiiDil
one f wrttinr out your answers. Be sure to answer nery
quesUon, or 1 you a . to answer a question, it will reduce your grade on this
aes&on When all quesuons have been answered. mail them to us for grading.
No. 1. Does a magnetic lield exist about a stationary electron?
No. 2. What are the two typa of forcn_ difcuased in ?,tis lesson 1
If the north pole of one mapet is placed Jear the south pole of another No. a.
magnet, how will the mapeta react?
No. -&. Do the mapetlc Hnes of force stop at the ends of a mquet. er do tJae,
exist in space around the mapet as well as Inside it!
No. 5. If a mapet is suspended 80 that It is free to 8
tions wiD the enda of the macnet point7
No. 6. If a bar mar:et is broken in two, will each piece ...,_-.,. a .. "._.
No. 8. What wiD bap
netic field?
Atty electron m moS. VfDltd bJ' a mapedc 8eld.
of the electron I ..... atnnlth of the mapetlc tild laereelt
or decl'eue!
No. 9.
Ma. 10. U the tip of a aerew dlfMr Ia ....._. C!D a mapet, wiD the ....., drtr
tip aa mapetlsedf