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Division 1

Sales Engineer University


11th 15th October 2004

Module:

We_51_54

UMTS basics
Date:
2004

13th October 2004

ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG Test & Measurement Division - Training Center This folder may be taken outside ROHDE & SCHWARZ facilities. ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH reserves the copy right to all of any part of these course notes. Permission to produce sections or pages of these notes or to translate them must first be obtained in writing form TZ-GB1-1MAT-040308-P-00.00-TS21-04-We_51_54

Principles of UMTS according to 3GPP

UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA


2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 1

2003 ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG Test & Measurement Division - Training Center This folder may be taken outside ROHDE & SCHWARZ facilities.

All rights reserved. To reproduce or translate sections or parts thereof, permission must first be obtained in writing from Training Center Mhldorfstr. 20 81671 Munich More information on R&S training available at www.rohde-schwarz.com/events/seminars.

Your Lecturer is:

Reinhold Krueger
Rohde&Schwarz Training Center Munich, Germany
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 2

Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA


l l l l l l l

Chapter 1

UMTS - Targets and Concepts


Chapter 2

Basics of mobile communication channels


Chapter 3

Signal spreading with orthogonal codes


Chapter 4

Signal scrambling with pseudo noise sequences


Chapter 5

Code scenarios and FDD air interface channel structure


Chapter 6

Cell search and selection


Chapter 7

Basic procedures - Transmit power control - Handover - Radio connection establishment


Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 3

UMTS Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA Targets and Concepts


Dipl.-Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krueger
R&S - TRAINING CENTER 2003 www.rohde-schwarz.com

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 1

ITU IMT-2000 Program


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l l l l

ITU call for proposals of radio transmission technologies (RTTs) for future public land mobile telecommunication systems (FPLMNs) ITU Rec. M.817
- Guidelines for core network design

ITU Rec. M.1034


- Guidelines for radio interface design

ITU Rec. M.816


- Guidelines for services and applications

ITU Rec. M.1036


- IMT-2000 frequency allocation (WARC-92)

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 2

Facing the globalisation process, in particular in international telecomms, the ITU (International Telecommunication Union ) considered a third generation global mobile communication standard. A set of guidelines have been issued on different aspects of mobile communication. The international mobile communication community has been asked to support ITUs IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telephony at 2000 MHz) program with appropriate proposals on all these issues.

Targets of ITU/IMT-2000 Program


IMT-2000
The ITU vision of global wireless access in the 21 st century
Global Satellite Suburban Urban In-Building

Macrocell

Microcell

Picocell

Basic Terminal PDA Terminal Audio/Visual Terminal

Flexible and global


-

Full coverage and mobility at 144 kbps .. 384 kbps Hot spot coverage with limited mobility at 2 Mbps Terrestrial based and satellite based radio systems
2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 3

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1

Flexibility and global coverage are the major requirements as specified by the IMT-2000 program. The system shall not be designed to support a single application or a limited set of applications, like GSM has been initially designed to support high quality speech services only. It rather shall provide a bearer platform which is independent from the mobile applications. This requires in particular full flexibility with respect to system parameters, like transmission reliability and speed.

Requirements of IMT-2000/UMTS
l

l l

High flexibility to introduce new (and yet unknown) services - Provision of a multiservice platform for the future which provides a range of quality levels (QoS) to match the different needs of the various data and multimedia services (e.g. wireless internet) - Rather than offering standardised digital bearers for specific services High spectrum efficiency High quality of service - (particularly speech quality) similar to that provided by fixed networks Provision of small, easy to use, low cost terminals with long talk time and long standby operation

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 4

One major target of the IMT-2000 program is the establishment of a bearer platform that is independent from the services, however, that allows any kind of mobile communication applications. As for instance GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication ) has been designed for speech services originally, the systems of the third generation shall allow any kind of service (e.g. telephony, e-mail, downloads etc.), thus provide suitable bearer services on demand. In addition multimedia services shall be supported. Thus, the 3G infrastructure shall be responsible for the provision of the required bearer parameters to ensure the required quality of service. Of course the default requirements, such as high spectral efficiency, low cost and simple, small terminals, are also on the list of the program.

Multiservice platform
Audio/Video

SINGLE physical link

Internet

Data
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 5

The problem mobile multimedia or multiservice platforms are facing, is the simultanous transmission of different kinds of data, i.e. sources with different requirements with respect to the transmission parameters, on a single physical radio link. Whilst a telephone call requires realtime connections with minimum transmissin delays, a file download of e-mail service doesnt allow transmission errors.

3G Timescales
ITU Task Group 8/1 EU Research Programmes RACE I, RACE II, ACTS (FRAMES) ETSI SMG Activites US PCS Activities Japan Activities

WARC'92 "ITU Letter" 5 modes approved 1986 1988 1992 1994 1998 1990 1996

Launch UMTS

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 6

The IMT-2000 family of radio access technologies (RAT) covering 5 different approaches is a result of global research and specification activities since the late 80's of the last century. Based on requirements set by ITU all over the world various institutions and manufacturers have been working on proposals for suitable RATs. Major Milestones - WARC92 (World Administrative Radio Conference) defined spectrum for 3G systems in 1992 - Letter from ITU sent to administrations in 1998 with request for proposals based on ITU M.1225 specification "Guidlines for Evaluation of Radio Technologies for IMT-2000" - November 1999 out of 11 proposals for terrestrial systems and 6 proposals for satellite systems 5 IMT-2000 flexible modes have been approved - 2001 first commercial prototype UMTS network launched on Isle of Man - 2002 first commercial launches of UMTS networks expected

2000

2002

Global Frequency Allocation (WARC'92)

ITU Japan
(Region 1)
T D D

IMT-2000

Sat. IMT2000

IMT200 0

IMT-2000

Sat. IMT2000

IMT-2000

MSS S-PCN (UL)

T D D

IMT-2000

MSS S-PCN (DL)

Europa
(Region 1)

GSM 1800 (DL)

DECT

T D D

UMTS FDD

MSS S-PCN (UL)

T D D

UMTS FDD

MSS S-PCN (DL)

USA
(Region 2)
1800

PCS (UL)
TDD/FDD

PCS Un. Lic.


TDD

PCS (DL)
TDD/FDD

MSS S-PCN (DL)

MSS S-PCN (UL)


f [MHz]

1900

2000

2100

2200

MSS: Mobile Satellite System/Service DL: Downlink Un.Lic: Unlicensed band


IMT-2000 frequency allocations (WARC-92)

S-PCN:Satellite Personal Communication Network UL: Uplink WARC92: World Administrative Radio Conference in 1992
UMTS_INT_INT_01.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 7

WARC92 conference allocated frequency spectrum for the 3G systems. However, a harmonised allocation across the entire globe was not possible due to regional restrictions. Thus, two regions have been identified with different allocations.

ITU FPLMN Vision


UMTS
Gateways and Interworking Functions

GSM (MAP)

ANSI-41 (IS-634)
CN RAT Mapping

IP-Net v4, v6

IMT-2000 CN (ITU-T)

IMT-DS
(Direct Spread)

IMT-TC
(Time Code)

IMT-MC
(Multi Carrier)

IMT-SC
(Single Carrier)

IMT-FT
(Freq. + Time)

UTRA FDD (WCDMA) 3GPP

UTRA TDD
(TD-S/CDMA)

cdma2000 3GPP2

3GPP

UWC-136 (EDGE) UWCC/3GPP

DECT ETSI

IMT-2000 RAT (ITU-R)


Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 8

The ITU vision for Future Public Land Mobile Networks (FPLMN) covers the radio network domain (Radio Access Technology, RAT) and the core network domain (Core Network, CN). Several inputs on both domains have been approved to become a member of the 3G family. Five radio access technologies have been approved, two of them belonging to the european approach UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System ). Those are the UTRA (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access) FDD mode (Frequency Division Duplex) and the appropriate TDD mode (Time Division Duplex ). In addition two american proposals (cdma2000 und UWC-136) and the DECT (engl. Digital European Cordless Telephone ) standard have been selected. Also different approaches of core network technologies have been approved. GSM-MAP (Mobile Application Part) and the american ANSI-41 concept completed by IP are valid IMT2000 members.

3GPP Partners

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2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 9

TTC (Japan) Telecommunication Technology Committee CWTS (China) China Wireless Telecommunication Standard Group ARIB (Japan) Association for Radio Industry and Business ETSI (Europe) European Telecommunications Standards Institute TTA (S. Korea) Telecommunications Technology Association T1 (USA) Standards Committee T1 Telecommunication TIA (USA) Telecommunication Industry Association

3GPP Agreement
The Partners have agreed to co-operate in the production of globally applicable Technical Specifications and Technical Reports for a 3rd Generation Mobile System based on evolved GSM core networks and the radio access technologies that they support (i.e., Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) modes). The Partners have further agreed to co-operate in the maintenance and development of the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) Technical Specifications and Technical Reports including evolved radio access technologies (e.g. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)). The Project is called the "Third Generation Partnership Project" and may be known by the acronym "3GPP". Source : www.3gpp.org
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 10

WCDMA vs. cdma2000 (IS-2000)


l

chip rate - WCDMA - cdma2000 synchronisation - WCDMA - cdma2000 core network - WCDMA - cdma2000

3.84 Mcps 3.6864 Mcps a-synchronous synchronous using GPS (global positioning system) signal GSM-MAP ANSI-41

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 11

The two CDMA based radio access technologies (WCDMA and cdma2000) have basic differences in key parameters. Different chip rates and different synchronisation methods are the most obvious ones.

UMTS Services
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144 .. 384 kbps up to max. speed of 500 km/h 384 kbps in urban areas up to speed of 120 km/h 2 Mbps inhouse service in business areas and city centers with very low mobility ( < 10 km/h ) (Realtime) Bearer services Circuit and packet switched services Asymmetric services Interworking with other radio access networks (e.g. GSM) Maintain compatibility to GSM, ATM, IP und ISDN

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2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 12

Initial concept considerations for UMTS services have been launched in the 80ies alrady. UMTS became a part of the global IMT-2000 family which has been specified by the ITU. 1992 the WARC92 conference has allocated the IMT-2000 frequencies. 230 MHz have been allocated: 1885-2025 MHz and 2110-2200 MHz. UMTS represents the european approach for third generation mobile communication. With respect to supported data rates a range of minimum 144 kbps up to maximum 384 kbps is specified for full mobility and coverage. Up to 2 Mbps are specified for inhouse, i.e. stationary services respectively very low mobility. Bearer services for realtime services shall be provided. From the switching point of view, circuit and packet switched services shall be supported as well as assymmetric and symmetric services. Interworking with other radio access and core networkss shall be achieved by maintaining minimum compatibility with those.
Note: Latest considerations (HSPDA - High Speed Packet Data Access) within the 3GPP community is planning data rates up to 10 Mbps downlink using e.g. adaptive modulation schemes. However, specifications on that issues are ongoing and will be covered by release 5.

UMTS QoS
l

(RT) Conversational class (eg. Voice) - preserve time relation - conversational pattern (RT) Streaming class (eg. Streaming video) - preserve time relation Interactive class - best effort (eg. Web browsing) - request - response pattern - preserve payload content Background class - best effort (eg. Email) - destination is not expecting data within a certain time - preserve payload content
2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 13

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1

UMTS follows the idea of providing a generic mobile communication platform. Thus, the quality of service requirements for all considerable applications must be supported. Four quality of service (QoS) classes have been defined. Regarding their individual technical requirements the following parameters are of interest: Transmission speed (bit rate), transmission reliability (bit error rate, BER), and transmission delay (e.g. realtime requirement). The transmission speed is limited by the available transmission bandwidth at the air interface, the transmission reliability depends on the available signal to noise ratio only. Transmission delay is not only given by propagation and processing delay, it also depends strongly on the switching technologies. Realtime transmission basically requires circuit switched lines, however, packet switched technologies also can maintain realtime transmissions (e.g. voice over IP).

3GPP Technical Specification Groups


TSG CN
Core Networks

TSG GERAN
GSM EDGE Radio Access Network

TSG RAN
Radio Access Network

TSG SA
Services & System Aspects

TSG T
Terminals

CN WG 1
MC/CC/CS (lu)

GERAN WG 1
Radio Aspects

RAN WG1
Radio Layer 1 specification

SA WG 1
Services

T WG 1
Mobile Terminal Conformance testing

RAN WG2 CN WG 2
CAMEL

T WG 2 SA WG 2
Architecture Mobile Terminal Services & capabilities

GERAN WG 2
Protocol Aspects

Radio Layer 2 spec. & Radio Layer 3 RR spec.

CN WG 3
Interworking with External Networks

GERAN WG 3
Base Station Testing and O & M

RAN WG3
lub spec, lur spec lu spec & UTRAN O&M requirements

T WG 3 SA WG 3
Security Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM)

CN WG 4
MAP/GTP/BCH/SS

GERAN WG 4
Mobile Station Testing

RAN WG4
Radio performance & Protocol aspects

SA WG 4
Codec

CN WG 5
OSA (Open Service Architecture)

SA WG 5
Telecom Management

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 14

The 3GPP specification work is organised in 5 technical specification groups (TSG). Each TSG takes care of a specific area and is divided in further sub working groups (WG). TSG CN (core network) is looking after network aspects. TSG GERAN is the successor of the former ETSI SMG group and maintains the GSM phase 2+ issues (e.g. GPRS and EDGE). TSG RAN (radio access network) specifies the WCDMA air interface incl. the lower protocol layers. TSG SA (service aspects) takes care of applications and services. TSG T (terminal) specifies all terminal related items. For the UMTS air interface in particular the outcome of the TSG RAN working groups WG1 (physical layer) and WG4 (radio parameters) is of interest.

SMG and 3GPP specifications

Requirements Service Aspects Technical Realisation Signalling US RSS Radio Aspects Codecs Data Services Signalling RSS CN SIM, USIM UE Test Specifications

ETSI 3GPP 3GPP SMG Release Release 4 Release 99 01.xx 41.xxx 21.xxx 02.xx 42.xxx 22.xxx 03.xx 43.xxx 23.xxx 04.xx 44.xxx 24.xxx 05.xx 45.xxx 25.xxx 06.xx 46.xxx 26.xxx 07.xx 47.xxx 27.xxx 08.xx 48.xxx 28.xxx 11.xx 51.xxx 31.xxx 34.xxx

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 15

The ETSI specifications of SMG (special mobile group), which define the current and future GSM enhancements (e.g. GPRS, EDGE), has been included into the 3GPP specification process. In particular this is reflected in a re-numbering of the specifications according to the 3GPP scheme. Above table illustrates the fusion of ETSI and 3GPP release 99 specifications into 3GPP release 4.

UMTS reference architecture

CN
Core Network (PS or CS)

Iu

UTRAN
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network

Uu

UE
User Equipment
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 16

Three major elements are to be considered: Core network (CN), offering e.g. switching services and gateways to other communication networks. There are circuit switched (CS) and packet switched (PS) approaches which shall be supported. The radio access network UTRAN ( UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) offers radio access to mobile communication network. All radio subsystem specific functions (e.g. handover and radio ressource administration) are covered by the UTRAN. The user equipment (UE) represents the mobile subscriber. It offers application interfaces towards the user and provides the radio link towards the network.

UMTS network concepts

Circuit Switched

Packet Switched
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 1 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 17

The evolution from the second (GSM) generation towards the third (UMTS) generation with respect to the core network and the radio network is illustrated above. Due to the enhancements with GPRS packet services, the CN of the GSM networks already include the required CS elements (MSC, Mobile Switching Center, GMSC, Gateway MSC, VLR, Visitors Location Register, HLR, Home Location Register, EIR, Equipment Identity Register ) and the PS elements (GSN, GPRS Service Node). The GSM radio subsystem (BSS, engl. Base Station Subsystem) incl. BSC (Base Station Controller) and BTS ( Base Transceiver Station) will be completed by the UMTS radio subsystem (RNS, Radio Network System) incl. RNC (Radio Network Controller) and Node B.

UTRAN architecture

Uu
Node B USIM Cu ME Node B Node B Node B

Iub
RNC

Iu Iur
RNC

UE

Node B UTRAN

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Tasks of the RNC - Radio Network Controller - Allocation of radio ressources (e.g. code channels). - control of one or several node Bs - traffic monitoring - admission control - OSI layer 2 of the air interface - Management of QoS radio aspects (e.g. management of channel coder) Tasks of Node B - Base Station - OSI layer 1 of the air interface (e.g. channel coding, CDMA and FDMA multiplexing, spreading, scrambling etc.) - Management radio links (e.g. transmit power control)

UTRAN network elements

Core Network
Iu Iu

RNS
Iur

RNS RNC
Iub Iub Node B Iub Node B

RNC
Iub Node B

Node B

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UMTS Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA Basics of mobile communication channels


Dipl.-Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krueger
R&S - TRAINING CENTER 2003 www.rohde-schwarz.com

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 1

Transmission principles

Transmitter
source coding channel coding modulation RF ...

Channel
delay attenuation multipath propagation fading interference ...

Receiver
demodulation detection estimation decoding ...

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 2

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 2

Above illustration shows the basic components of a transmission line: transmitter, channel and receiver. The channel specifies the available transmission ressources, such as time, bandwidth and signal-to-interference-ratio. Transmitter and receiver are trying to optimise the useage of the availble channel capacities with appropriate technologies for coding and modulation. Those technologies are in general selected according to the type of considered application (e.g. speech transmission) or to optimise single transmission parameters (e.g. data rate, bit error rate etc.). The receiver, in particular in a mobile communication system, faces fast changing channel quality due to fading which needs to be compensated by fast adaptive technologies. In digital systems the source data - after source coding - is a finite set of specified symbols, e.g. binary digits or binary sequences (e.g. ASCII binary representation for textual transmission). The receiver needs to detect those symbols, however, due to the statistical degradation of the signal on the mobile communication channel due to the superposition of noise and interference, the detection becomes an estimation of the most probable symbol.

General requirements

l l l l l l

Max data rate ( Bitrate R [bps] ) Min error rate ( Bit error rate BER ) Min transmission power ( Ebit/N0 ) Min bandwidth Max availability Min complexity, effort and costs

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 2

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 3

Above listed are the most common requirements to a communication system. Unfortunately, they contradict themselves, as usual. In addition some basic laws of communications (e.g. Nyquist criteria and Shannon laws) restrict the transmission capabilities as well as legal circumstances (e.g. emission laws, frequency regulations). Thus, the challenge of the standardisation of a communication system is to optimise the useage of available ressources under given circumstances.

Signal analysis

Fourier Analysis / Transformation

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2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 4

Periodic signals can be transformed into the frequency domain by Fourier analysis. Thus, they can be represented as a finite number of cosine signals with different amplitudes, phases and periods. Due to that, signals can be analysed in both domains, the time and the frequency domain, depending on the information required. The frequency domain analysis in particular is of interest to evaluate the frequency response of transmission components, such as transmitters and receivers as well as the transmission channel itself.

Signal representation

Time domain

Frequency domain

Constellation

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The representation of a signal in the complex plane, as the sum of an inphase and quadrature component, leads to a suitable format to evaluate the transmission reliability of a given signal shape. In addition it easily allows the design of digital modulation schemes, such as QPSK for WCDMA. The magnitude of the vector represents the instant signal amplitude, the angle the instant signal phase.

Modulation & Demodulation

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2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 6

In radio transmission technologies the data is carried by RF carriers. The carrier frequency in particular defines the range the transmission can achieve, and thus, it has a great impact on the required signal power. The data is manipulating the RF carrier by appropriate modulation schemes. Basically three RF carrier parameters can be modulated: Amplitude, frequency and phase. Those physical parameters can be detected by a receiver circuit and thus the data can be regenerated there. This leads to the basic modulation techologies, such as amplitude modulation, frequency modulation and phase modulation. Depending on the type of data, analog or digital modulation schemes are to be considered. Starting with the mobile communication systems of the 2nd generation, all user and control data to be transmitted are digital sequences. Thus, digital modulation schemes are requried, called amplitude shif keying ASK, frequency shift keying FSK or phase shift keying PSK, accordingly. The latter in particular is very robust against amplitude variations, as we face them in mobile radio channels due to multipath propagation. Thus, the quadrature phase shift keying QPSK has been selected for the UMTS air interface.

Signal-to-Noise ratio S/N noise Signal Ideal LP s(t) + n(t) Time domain Frequency domain

power density [W/Hz]

Signal power S N0

N = N0 B f [Hz] -B/2 B/2


Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 2

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 7

Assuming the wanted signal s(t) and the superposing interference signal n(t) are ergodic processes, the signal to interference ratio SIR is defined as the quotient of the mean signal power and the mean interference power. In case of additive white gaussian noise (AWGN) superposition, the signal to noise ratio SNR is to be considered as the quotient of the mean signal power S and the noise power N. White gaussian noise is evaluated in real, band limited systems modelled by an ideal low pass. Thus, the following relations are of interest: SNR = S/N = Ebit R/N0 B with R = Bit rate and Ebit = Energy per Bit. N0 = noise power density (which is equal to the variance of the gaussian noise amplitude distribution) and B = available channel bandwidth, with B wanted signal bandwidth. With R = 1 s-1 and B = 1 Hz the SNR is standardised with respect to one single bit per Hertz, and thus the following parameters are achieved: SNR bit = Ebit/N0 or SNR bit [dB] = 10log10 (Ebit/N0 ). SNR bit is an important value to evaluate the quality of a transmission system. The smaller the required SNR bit , the better, i.e. more efficient the system.

Bit Error Ratio (BER)


Ebit/N0 [dB]
-10 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -5 0 5 10 15

unipolar bipolar

BER 10 x

-7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12

3 dB

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 2

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 8

The bit error probability BEP, or the resulting bit error rate BER due to signal distortion by AWGN on the transmission chain is depending on the available SNR only, thus it is a function of the available Ebit/N0. Consequently the modulation schemes have direct impact on the BEP. For instance, a digital, unipolar signal (0 = +A Volts and 1 = 0) is 3 dB worse with respect to the BEP compared to a bipolar modulation scheme ( 0 = +A Volts und 1 = -A Volts). The same applies when comparing a BPSK signal with a QPSK signal, where the QPSK is more sensitive, however it allows the double data rate as the BPSK modulation at a given bandwidth.

Multipath propagation

Direct line of sight

Reflection

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2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 9

The mobile radio communicaton channel does suffer of various impacts due to the nature of mobility and radio propagation, which are not of interest in line based communication systems. Due to reflection and dispersion effects on the different possible signal paths from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna, the receiver has to deal with the superposition of multiple signal copies, rather than with a clean "line of sight" signal (which even could be not available at all for some time). The fading characteristics can be modelled by a multiple path model with an average channel impulse response, reflecting the statistical nature of the fading process. However, due to the complexity of the mathematical fading models, still empirical models are of interest, in particular when focussing on particular mobile communication systems. Based on that, various fading profiles have been specified by the ITU in order to allow the definition of unambiguous conformance testing scenarios. These are basically described by a sample impulse response reflecting the mean values of their statistical parameters (eg. path loss, delay spread) and by their dynamic performance (eg. Doppler shift, statistics like Rayleigh or Rice distributions etc.).

Channel impulse response

Origin impulse

Reflections

Scattering

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2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 10

Due to different path propagation delays caused by echo reflection and dispersive reflections, the origin signal arrives scattered and delayed at the mobile receiver. The impulse response of such a fading channel represents all different multi-path-propagations with their specific parameters delay and loss, however, it does not represent the dynamic behaviour of these parameters. However, for realistic description and thus simulation of fading performance, that must be taken into account also (Rayleigh, Rice Fading). The impulse response leads to a very important fading parameter, when evaluating the delay spread caused by the fading channel. This parameter describes the average widening of a channel input pulse (Dirac Pulse) over time. The calculation of the delay spread is equal to the calculation of the standard deviation, regarding the propagation delay t as the stochastic variable, and the normalised signal power P refers to the probability densitiy function of t. The reciprocal of the delay spread is also known as coherent fading bandwidth. The wider the fading channel impulse response is in time, the greater the delay spread and thus the smaller the coherent fading bandwidth. When the delay spread exceeds the symbol period of the transmitted signal, it will cause intersymbol interference (ISI). Since significant ISI obviously limits the maximum symbol rate on the radio channel it causes low pass behaviour with cut-off frequency the reciprocal of the maximum propagation delay. This kind of fading is classified as frequency selective. This matter is important for wideband systems as WCDMA in particular. For small delay spreads with respect to the symbol period the frequency selectivity can be neglected.

Doppler effect

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 2

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 11

The doppler effect is well known in acoustics. However, it must be considered in the world of electromagnetic wave propagation as well. Due to the mobility of the receiver in mobile communication systems, frequency shifts due to the doppler effect need to be compensated. With = 0 or 180 the receiver moves directly towards or away from the transmitter. In those cases a maximum frequency shift is achieved. Example: f = 2 GHz (UMTS frequency) c = 3108 m/s (velocity of light) v = 60 m/s ( 216 km/h, velocity of the receiver with respect to the transmitter ) gains a frequency drift of +/- 400 Hz.

Channel capacity
(Shannon-Hartley law )

Capacity in [bps] per [Hz]


14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -10 0 10 20

SNR[dB] = 10 log

S N

C = B log 2 1+

S N

S >> 1 N 1 C B SNR 3
30

-2

SNR [dB]
2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 12

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 2

The channel capacity of a frequency band limited channel, suffering of additional white gaussian noise (AWGN), assuming an equally distributed binary set of symbols, without any channel coding, is given by the Shannon-Hartley equation: C = B log2 (1 + S/N)
C = channel capacity in bits per second S/N = Signal to Noise power ratio B = bandwidth in Hertz

In most cases S/N >> 1 can be assumed. Thus, defining SNR = 10 log(S/N), the following simple approximation can be used: C = 1/3 BSNR This fundamental relation is the basis of transmission technologies. It outlines in particular, that with wide frequency bandwidth even very noisy channels still can transport data with specified reliability, which in fact is the basic principle for WCDMA. It is important to note, that this relation also is the basis for channel coding schemes, where the target is to reduce bit errors at a given SNR, and thus increasing the channel capacity for a give transmission reliability. Typical values: Classic telephony TV broadcast channel GSM WCDMA B = 3.1 kHz B = 5 MHz B = 200 kHz B = 5 MHz S/N = 40 dB S/N = 45 dB S/N = 15 dB S/N = 10 dB C = 40 kbps C = 75 Mbps C = 1 Mbps C = 16 Mbps

40

Multiple access schemes

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 2

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 13

Using the Shannon-Hartley equation, the maximum data volume that fits into a given channel can be represented by a simple block. The dimensions of that block are given by the physical channel parameters bandwidth, time frame and signal amplitude respectively the signal to noise ratio. To allow multiple access to that channel means in that model, to distribute the available block to multiple subscribers. In FDMA (frequency division multiple access) schemes the different users get distinct portions of the frequency domain. In case of TDMA (time division multiple access) the time domain is split into distinct slots. Those are allocated to different users then. To divide the block along the signal to noise domain, different users are coding their signal with suitable algorithms which is known as CDMA (code division multiple access). To achieve even more complex distributions, combinations of the mentioned multiple access schemes are possible. For instance GSM applies a combination of FDMA (200 kHz frequency channels are assigned to individual users) and TDMA (one out of 8 possible timeslots are assigned to individual users). UMTS FDD applies FDMA (5 MHz frequency channels) and CDMA. UMTS TDD applies all three of them.

Cellular networks: SDMA

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 2

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 14

Due to the natural attenuation of a radio signals depending on the receivers distance to the transmitter (~ 1/d, d = distance), the coverage of a base station is limited. This allows in cellular FDMA systems for instance the re-use of frequencies in other cells, in CDMA the re-use of scrambling codes is possible. Thus, the cellualre structure allows multiple access to a mobile network called SDMA (space division multiple access), however, the users cant be within the same cell coverage area.

Comparison access schemes

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - 2

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 15

UMTS Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA Signal spreading with orthogonal codes


Dipl.-Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krueger
R&S - TRAINING CENTER 2003 www.rohde-schwarz.com

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 1

Spreading of two signals


0 -> +1 1 -> -1

+1

d1(t)

0 1 t

+1

x 1 (t) = d 1 (t ) * c 1 (t)

-1

Multiplication
c1 (t)

-1

t
T 2T

+1

-1

t
T 2T +2 +1

x(t) = x1 (t) + x 2 (t)

Sum
T 2T

+1 -1

d2(t)

-1

0
T

0 t
2T

-2

+1

c2 (t)

Multiplication
t
T 2T

+1

x 2 (t) = d 2 (t ) * c 2 (t)

-1

-1 T 2T

Example of a transmitter

CDMA_PRI_03.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 2

The multiplication of binary data d - similar to exclusive OR resp. modulo2 operation to logical representation of data - with a higher rate binary code word c results in a binary sequence x that requires obviously more bandwidth than the original data d. This operation is known as signal spreading, due to the signal spreading over the bandwidth. In the illustrated example the upper transmitter multiplies the data d1 = {01} with the code word c1 = {0101}, which corresponds to an exclusive OR operation of the logical symbols. Another transmitter multiplies its data d2 = {00} with another code word c2 = {0110}. Then, the sum x1 + x2 is transmitted. This illustrates the principle situation on a mobile radio channel, where for instance a single base station needs to provide multiple mobile station with data at the same time on the same frequency channel, or a mobile station wants to send two different types of data (e.g. video and speech) simultaneously to its serving base station.

Despreading of two signals


+2 +1 y(t) +2 +1 y(t) * c 1 (t)
0 -> +1 1 -> -1

-1 -2

t
T 2T Multiplication

-1 -2

Average

2T

+1

c 1(t)

+1

(2+2+0+0)/4 > 0 => 0 (0+0-2-2)/4 < 0 => 1 T 2T

-1

t
T 2T

-1

+2 +1

y(t) Integration +1 (2+2+0+0)/4 > 0 => 0 (0+0+2+2)/4 > 0 => 0

-1 -2

t
T 2T

-1

t
T 2T

+1

c2 (t)

Multiplication
t
T 2T

+2 +1

y(t) * c 2 (t)

Average
t
T 2T

-1

-1 -2

Example of a receiver

CDMA_PRI_04.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 3

The receiver gets the total signal, however, is looking for one of the two data streams only. The multiplication of the received total signal r = x1 +x2 with the code word c1 again, results obviously in the original data d1 . The same applies to d2 when multiplying r with the code word c2 . This simple operation is known as de-spreading. However, to allow that technique of spreading and despreading, the codes need to fullfill a special requirement: They need to be orthogonal to each other. To explain orthogonality of codes, it makes sense to compare a code word of length n with a n -dimensional vector. When the vectors corresponding to the regarded code words are orthogonal to each other in a geometric sense, also the code words are orthogonal to each other in an abstract mathematical sense. This correspondance also leads to the method of verifying the orthogonality of two code words. The corresponding vectors are orthogonal when their scalar product is zero. The same applies to the code words by building an appropriate product to verify if this is zero or not. Thus, the multiplication of data with orthogonal spreading codes prior to transmission together with other spreaded data allows the simultaneous multiple access of receivers to the same frequency channel. Each receiver - providing the spreading code is known - can despread its own data.

Example with three signals


0 -> +1 1 -> -1

USER 1
User Data Code Tx Data
+1

USER 2
0

USER 3
User Data Code Tx Data
+1

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

User Data Code Tx Data


+1

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Tx Data
-1

Tx Data
-1

Tx Data
-1

+1

+1

+1

Sum
-1

Sum
-1

Sum
-1

-3

-3

-3

+1

+1

+1

Code
-1

Code
-1

Code
-1

+3

+3

Product

+1

Product

+1

Product

+1

-1

-1

-1

-3 (-1+3+1+1)/4 = 1; (1+1-1+3)/4 = 1; (-1-3-1+1)/4 = -1; (1-1+1+3)/4 = 1;

-3 (-1-3+1-1)/4 = -1; (1-1-1-3)/4 = -1;

User Data

=> 0

=> 0

User Data

=> 1

=> 0

User Data

=> 1

=> 1
CDMA_PRI_01.VSD

Example of spreading and despreading

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 4

Above illustration proves, that the CDMA principle is valid for any number of users. The only restriction is given by the number of available orthogonal codes. The binary symbols of spreading codes are called chips, in order to allow simple separation between spreaded data and original data.

CDMA Principles
l l l l l

All users use the same frequency for uplink and the same frequency for downlink (reuse factor = 1) Each user is assigned a unique code sequence (spreading code) This code is used to encode the information to be transmitted The spread signals of all users are summed and transmitted together The receiver knows the code sequence of the user in advance, decodes the received signal after reception and recovers the original data of the user This is possible since if the cross correlation between the code of the desired user and the codes of all other users are very small
2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 5

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

Spreading and Bandwith


30 kbps 3.84 Mcps
Spreading

3.84 Mcps 15 kbps

Spreading

3.84 Mcps

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 6

Regarding the spreading operation by multiplication of data with a spreading code in the time domain, the spectrum of the signal is modified in the following way: The origin, narrow band data signal will be spreaded over the bandwidth due to the spreading operation. Thus, after spreading operation, the required bandwidth is increased by the spreading factor which corresponds to the number of chips of the used code word. Since the spreading operation has no impact at all to the total signal energy, the spectral power densitiy after the spreading operation is reduced accordingly. When two spreaded signals are superposing over the same bandwidth, the total power density is increased. However, in the frequency domain there is no way to seperate the two origins again. The only way is the de-spreading operation. This is the way WCDMA in UMTS works. All user or control data are spreaded to a fixed bandwidth of 3.84 MHz. This is achieved by using a fixed chip rate of 3.84 MChip/s.

Processing gain

Channel 15 ksps

3.84 Mcps
Despreading

Processing gain

Processing gain increases with the spreading factor

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 7

The despreading operation recovers the part of the total received signal which has been spreaded by the used code word. In the frequency domain the origin narrow band signal arises again. The residual spreaded signals within the total wideband signal remain as they are, since they are not touched by the de-spreading operation at all due to the orthogonality of the spreading codes. However, their energy remains, and might be regarded as a wideband interference. They reduce the available SIR for the wanted signal. It is obvious, that the more spreaded signals are included, the worse the available SIR for the wanted signal becomes. This explains the theory of CDMA, which distributes the total SIR of a given channel to multiple users. It is obvious that the processing gain in the receiver due to the despreading operation is directly related to the used spreading factor. Finally the spreading factor SF can be definied in different ways: - Number of chips per code word - Relation between chip rate and user data rate - Relation between spreaded signal bandwidth and origin signal bandwidth The processing gain is specified by 10log(SF).

Properties of Spread Spectrum Signals


l

Multiple access capabilities


-

Receiver is able to distinguish between users provided each user has a unique code Many pathes between a transmitter and a receiver Received signals are copies of the transmitted signal but with different amplitudes, phases, delays, ... Spread spectrum modulation can combat and use multipath interference The receiver can only recover the data if the code is known to the receiver

Protection against multipath interference


-

Privacy
-

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 8

CDMA security aspects


l

Anti-jamming capability, especially narrowband jamming - See interference rejection Low probability of interception - Due to the low power density, it is not easy to detect and intercept the spread spectrum signal by hostile listeners Attractive for military applications

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 9

CDMA interference rejection


l l

Narrow band interference A CDMA receiver rejects that interference due to spreading

Interferer

Processing gain
Despreading

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 10

DS - CDMA - Spectrum

1/Ts

1/Tc
l

l l

The energy of a narrow band signal is spread over a wide bandwidth by multiplication of the low rate data with symbol period Ts and a code word with chip period Tc , while Tc >> Ts . Spreading factor SF = chip rate 1/Tc : symbol rate 1/Ts SF corresponds to the length of the code word
2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 11

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

DS- CDMA Transmitter and Receiver design

Ts
Spreading Up converter Down converter Despreading Data Demodulator

Data signal

Tc
Code synchronisation & tracking

Data signal

Code Generator

Carrier Generator

Carrier Generator

Code Generator

Tc << Ts Bt >> B i Constant Power spectral density

1/Ts = Data Rate 1/T c = Chip Rate


Direct sequence CDMA transmitter & receiver

B t = Transmission bandwidth B i = Information bandwidth

CDMA_PRI_10.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 12

The similar spreading and despreading operations allow very similar transmitter and receiver designs for CDMA. The most important issue for the receiver is the knowledge of the spreading code used in the transmitter.

Principle of Direct sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA)


1

Data signal
-1

Ts
1

Tc

Code signal
t -1

Spreaded signal
-1

1/Ts =Data rate 1/Tc =Chip rate

T s/Tc =Spreading factor

Chip Rate >> Data rate

Principle of signal spreading (Direct sequence)

CDMA_PRI_06.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 13

Generation of orthogonal, variable spreading codes (OVSF)

1
Repeat

1
Repeat

1 1 1
Invert

1
Invert

-1

-1

-1

-1
Repeat

-1

-1
Invert

-1

Generation of OVSF codes

UMTS_CDS_SPC_06.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 14

According to the definition of the UMTS WCDMA signal, the resulting chiprate of any spreading operation shall be 3.84 MChips/s always. Thus, regarding different data rates of the data sources, variable spreading factors are required. A very simple method to generate orthogonal spreading codes with varibale length is given by Hadamard functions, as illustrated above. By this method, orthogonal spreading codes of length 2k can be generated. Note: Another method found by Walsh, which is almost similar to the above illustrated, is used in IS-95 or cmda2000. Those codes are known as Walsh Codes accordingly. The Walsh method results in exactly the same spreading code sequences, however, their order in the code tree columns is different.

Code tree of OVSF codes


Cch,8,0 = (1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1)

Cch,4,0 = (1,1,1,1)
Cch,8,1 = (1,1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1)

Cch,2,0 = (1,1)
Cch,8,2 = (1,1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1)

Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)
Cch,8,3 = (1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,1,1)

Cch,1,0 = 1
Cch,8,4 = (1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,-1)

Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1)
Cch,8,5 = (1,-1,1,-1,-1,1,-1,1)

Cch,2,1 = (1,-1)
Cch,8,6 = (1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1,1)

Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)
Cch,8,7 = (1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1)

Code-tree for generation of OVSF codes

UMTS_CDS_SPC_02.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 15

The code tree allows a simple view of available orthogonal variable spreading codes at a glance.

Numbering of spreading codes


128,0 64,0 128,1 32,0 8,0 4,0 8,1 2,0 8,2 4,1 8,3 1,0 8,4 4,2 8,5 2,1 8,6 4,3 8,7 16,0 16,1 16,2 16,3 16,4 16,5 16,6 16,7 16,8 16,9 16,10 16,11 16,12 16,13 16,14 16,15 32,31 128,126 64,63 128,127 32,30 64,3 32,1 128,6 64,2 128,5 64,1 128,3 128,4 128,2 256,0 256,1 256,2 256,3 256,4 256,5 256,6 256,7 256,8 256,9 256,10 256,11 256,12 256,13 256,14 256,15 256,248 256,249 256,250 256,251 256,252 256,253 256,254 256,255

: :

128,7

128,124 128,125

64,62

SF= 1

SF= 2

SF= 4

SF= 8

SF= 16

SF= 32

SF= 64

SF= 128

SF= 256

Spreading code numbering

UMTS_CDS_SPC_01.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 16

According to the code tree representation a spreading code numbering scheme has been introduced for WCDMA. Thus, a single spreading code is identified by its spreading factor SF and a floating number 0 .. SF-1 to distinguish spreading codes of the same spreading factor.

Blocking
SF 4 Data C ch,4,2 SF 8 Data C ch,8,4 C ch,8,5 SF 16 Data C ch,16,8 C ch,16,9 C ch,16,10 C ch,16,11 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 SF 4 Data C ch,4,2 SF 8 Data C ch,8,4 C ch,8,5 SF 16 Data C ch,16,8 C ch,16,9 C ch,16,10 C ch,16,11 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1

0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1

0 0 1 1

1 1 0 0

0 0 1 1

1 1 0 0

0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0

0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0

0 1 1 0

1 0 0 1

0 1 1 0

1 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1

0 0 1 1

1 1 0 0

0 0 1 1

1 1 0 0

0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0

0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0

0 1 1 0

1 0 0 1

0 1 1 0

1 0 0 1

2,0 16,4 8,2 16,5 4,1 16,6 8,3 16,7 1,0 16,8 8,4 16,9 4,2 16,10 8,5 16,11 2,1 1,0

2,0 16,4 8,2 16,5 4,1 16,6 8,3 16,7 16,8 8,4 16,9 4,2 16,10 8,5 16,11 2,1

Blocking of codes

UMTS_CDS_SPC_07.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 17

Basically all spreading codes of the same spreading factor are orthogonal to each other. Also codes with different spreading factors can be orthogonal to each other, however, not all of them. A spreading code is neither orthogonal to its own child codes nor to its parent code. Thus, a single code is blocking defined branches of the code tree which must be considered during radio resource allocation.

Blocking
Legend 256,0 Used code Blocked code Free code 16,0 128,4 64,2 128,5 8,0 32,1 128,6 64,3 32,2 4,0 2,0 1,0 8,1 16,3
Blocking of codes
UMTS_CDS_SPC_09.VSD

128,0 64,0 128,1 32,0 128,2 64,1 128,3

256,0 256,1 256,2 256,3 256,4 256,5 256,6 256,7 256,8 256,9 256,10 256,11 256,12 256,13 256,14 256,15

128,7

16,1 32,3 16,2

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 18

This example shows the blocking of the complete upper branch of the code tree when using the 256,0 code (red branch). However, still the other codes (green) are available out of this subtree.

Correlation of binary sequences


l

Correlation Bit sequences get compared with each other. The correlation value is the amount of matching bits minus the amount of unmatched bits Auto Correlation A bit sequence is compared with itself and with all shifted versions of itself Cross Correlation Different bit sequences and the shifted versions of this sequences are compared with each other

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 19

Auto correlation

Bit sequence (S)

Bit sequence (S) Bit sequence (S) Bit sequence (S) Bit sequence (S) Bit sequence (S) Bit sequence (S)

Bit length (t) Sequence length (T)


Auto-correlation
BASICS_ACC_07.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 20

With respect to the synchronisation aspect the auto correlation properties of orthogonal codes are of interest. The auto correlation of a binary sequence is a measure of the similarity of a sequence with its own shifted versions. Of course, the similarity of a sequence with itself, i.e. with a non-shifted copy of itself, will gain the maximum. However, strong similarities with shifted versions have unpleasant impact on the synchronisation capabilities of such a signal regarding the multipath progpagation.

Auto correlation of orthogonal codes

0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 32

0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 8

0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1
Auto-correlation of orthogonal codes

-24

CODES_OCD_06.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 21

Above illustration explains the calculation of the auto correlation of a selected code, presented by its logical representation 001100110011...

Auto correlation function (ACF) of orthogonal codes


1,2 1

0,8 0,6 0,4

0,2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62

-0,2 -0,4 -0,6

-0,8 -1 -1,2 Bit shifts

Sequence length N = 64
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 22

Above illustration shows the auto correlation function of a ortogonal code sequence. The auto correlation value is drawn with respect to the relative shift of the sequence and its copy in chip durations. As expected, at the relative shift of zero a maximum of correlation is achieved, which then is normalised to 1. However, also non-zero relative shifts outline significant correlation which doesnt allow simple correlation reception.

Cross correlation

Bit sequence (T)

Bit sequence (T) Bit sequence (T) Bit sequence (T) Bit sequence (T) Bit sequence (S) Bit sequence (S)

Bit length (t) Sequence length (T)


Cross-correlation
BASICS_ACC_08.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 23

Cross correlation describes the similarity of two different sequences. In case of orthogonal spreaded sequences the cross correlation is zero when they are not shifted in time to each other, due to their orthogonality - in fact orthogonality means no correlation. However, the question is what happens to the required orthogonality when the spreaded sequences are not synchronised in time. Thus, it is of interest to evaluate the cross correlation properties of orthogonal code sequences.

Cross correlation of orthogonal codes

0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 0

0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 24

0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
Cross-correlation of orthogonal codes

CODES_OCD_09.VSD

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Cross correlation function (CCF) of orthogonal codes


1,2 1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62

-0,2

-0,4

-0,6

-0,8

-1

-1,2

Sequence length N = 64

Bit shifts

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The above illustration shows the cross correlation between two different orthogonal spreading codes. Per definition it is zero due to their orthogonality when the sequences are synchronised, i.e. zero relative shift. However, obviously the orthogonality is lost when the two different sequences appear shifted in time. Thus, the CDMA system using orthogonal codes as desribed up to now only works when the multiple spreaded signals are synchronuous. However, the consideration of the auto correlation properties does not offer sufficient synchronisation capability of such signals. Another signal processing stage is required in order to allow sufficient synchronsiation for the despreading operation: Scrambling

Summary Orthogonal Codes


l

Correlation Orthogonal codes have zero correlation if they are not shifted against each other Cross-correlation Shifted versions of different orthogonal codes have high correlation => Time alignment necessary Auto-correlation Shifted versions of the same orthogonal code have high correlation => Cannot be used for synchronisation in time Orthogonal Codes are ideal for channel separation if the codes are time aligned
2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 26

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 3

UMTS Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA Signal scrambling with PN sequences


Dipl.-Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krueger
R&S - TRAINING CENTER 2002 www.rohde-schwarz.com

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 1

Block Scrambling

a(k)

x(k)

c(k)

c(k) Channel

x(k)

a(k)

PN Sequence c(k) = a(k) x(k) Transmitter

PN Sequence a(k) = c(k) x(k) Receiver = modulo 2 (XOR)

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The statistics of a data sequence a(k) depends on the statistics of the origin source data. For instance appears the probability of a single letter with different probabilities in different languages, i.e. they have different a-priori probabilities. For instance the ASCII standard specifies a source coding scheme which represents individual letters with a specific 8 bit sequence. Thus, the probability of the binary digits is directly depending on the a-priori probabily of the individual ASCII coded letters. To achieve a reliable transmission of data in digital systems the bit clock is required at any time. The clock signal could be retrieved from a separate clock line, however, this is not very simple in radio systems. Thus, the clock must be retrieved from the received signal, i.e. altering bit sequences would be appreciated. However, this depends again on the a-priori probability of the source symbols. To avoid long constant bit sequences the data are scrambled prior to transmission using pseudo noise sequences. The statistics of such PN sequences is such that the probability of binary 0 and binary 1 is equal to 50% for a sufficient period of time. The receiver can descramble the received signal when the used PN sequence is known, however, synchronisation of the PN generators is required. This can be achieved by adding pilot sequences to the signal. In fact UMTS applies block scrambling by using special PN sequences introduced by Gold, so-called Gold codes.

Pseudo Noise Sequences


l l l

Pseudo Noise (PN) Sequenzes Simple, reproduceable generation Properties of random sequences Other names - PRBS - Pseudo Random Bit Sequences - PN sequences - Maximal-length (shift-register) sequences - m-sequences

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Pseudo Noise sequences are random with respect to their statistics and correlation properties, however, they can be easily reproduced and thus can be exactly predicted.

PN sequence generation with feedback shift register

1 xm xm-1

2 x m-2

3 xm-3
m

i xm-i

r xm-r
m-r

m-2 x m-(m-2)

m-1 x m-(m-1)

m xm-m

x +x +x

m-i

+1

ir = {i,r,m)
Feedback shift register for generation PN sequences
CODES_PCD_01.VSD

Polynomial representation of the register: xm +xm-i+x m-r+1 Feedback points: ir = {i, r, m}

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The generation of PN sequences is quiet simple using feedback shift registers. The feedback of shift register content at certain feedback points ir results in a PN sequence. In case of m cells the shift register can have 2m-1 states which represents the maximum length the PN sequence, since the state all 0 is excluded.

PN sequence with max length (m-sequence)


Ir = {1,4} y=x4+x3+1 Ir = {3,4} y=x 4+x+1 Ir = {2,4} y=x4+x2+1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0

1 2 3 4 5

0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1

1 2 3 4 5

0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

Length of sequence

Maximum-length sequences

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The maximum length of 2m-1 is not achieved with all possible feedback circuits. Only a few configurations produce sequences of the maximal length called m-sequences. Above illustrations show two m-sequence circuits producing maximum length sequences with L = 15 = 24 - 1. The third feedback proposal does not achieve maximum length.

Length of sequence

Length of sequence

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

CODES_PCD_02.VSD

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 5

Auto correlation PN sequence

1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 -1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 1
Auto-correlation

31

-1

-1

-1

x5 + x2 + 1

BASICS_ACC_02.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Trainings Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 4

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The auto correlation of m-sequences is almost ideal. There is maximum correlation for exact copies of the signal, and almost neglectable correlation - provided long sequences - in case of shifted copies.

Auto correlation of m-sequences


1,2

sequence length L
1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

- 1/L

-0,2

-0,4 t/T

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The auto correlation of m-sequences have very strong periodical maxima with the distance of L. In between the correlation is equal to - 1 /L. Thus, for large L this is neglectable. This is very much appreciated for synchronisation purposes.

Auto correlation of a sequence which is not a m-sequence


Auto-correlation of 5 x +x+1
1,2

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0 -1 -0,2 0 1

-0,4

-0,6

Auto-correlation

CODES_PCD_05.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Trainings Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 4

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The auto correlation of a PN sequence which is not a m-sequence is no more that interesting for synchronisation purposes as real m-sequences.

Cross correlation m-sequences

1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 1
Cross-correlation

-9

-7

x +x +1/x + x +1

BASICS_ACC_06.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Trainings Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 4

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Cross correlation of two m-sequences


1,2

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0 -1

-0,2

-0,4 t/T

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The cross correlation of m-sequences is a measure of mutual inteference. The mutual degradation is no neglectable, however a significant improvement compared to orthogonal codes sequences. Further studies of m-sequences (Gold codes) gained some improvements of the cross correlation which are applied by UMTS scrambling techniques.

Generation of downlink scrambling codes

x18 + x7 + 1
Initial condition: 00000...00001

218-1 downlink scrambling codes 0 ... 262 142

17

16

10

17

16

10

z- n

: :
0
38400

21 8-2 = 262 141


38400

x18

x10

x7

x5

+1
131 072

Initial condition: 11111...11111


Downlink scrambling code

Q
UMTS_CDS_SCC_03.VSD

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GOLD found that an Exclusive OR combination of two distint msequences, called mother codes, result in a new PN sequence with improved cross correlation properties. By simple relative shifting of the mother codes more distinct PN sequences can be achieved. Thus, a very simple method has been found to produce scrambling codes with sufficient cross correlation properties. The GOLD codes are used for UMTS scrambling.

Grouping of downlink scrambling codes

218-1 Scrambling Codes


(0 .. 262 142)

Left alternative scrambling codes for compressed mode (k+8192)

Right alternative scrambling codes for compressed mode (k+16384)

Scrambling Code Set #511 8176 0: Primary Scrambling Code 8177 1: Secondary Scrambling Code Scrambling Code Set #1 8191 15: 16 Secondary 0: Scrambling Primary Scrambling Code Code Scrambling Code Set #0 17 1: Secondary Scrambling Code 0 0: Primary Scrambling Code 1 1: Secondary Scrambling Code 31 15: Secondary Scrambling Code 15 15: Secondary Scrambling Code

Scrambling Code Group #63 8064 0: Primary Scrambling Code 8080 1: Primary Scrambling Code Scrambling Code Group #1 8176 7: 144 Primary 0: Scrambling Primary Code Scrambling Scrambling Code Group #0 Code 160 1: Primary Scrambling Code 0 0: Primary Scrambling Code 16 1: Primary Scrambling Code 256 7: Primary Scrambling Code 128 7: Primary Scrambling Code

Scrambling Code Sets


Grouping of the downlink scrambling codes

Scrambling Code Groups


UMTS_CDS_SCC_02.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Trainings Center - U M T S - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA - Chapter 4

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A set of 218 -1 scrambling codes are available for the downlink in UMTS. A subset of 213 codes are taken to build 64 code groups each containing 8 primary scrambling codes. The residual codes are used as secondary scarmbling codes. Thus, 8192 codes are divided into 512 code sets, each containing 16 scrambling codes, the first of them used as primary scrambling code. The residual 2 x 8192 codes are reserved for future applications. The allocation of scrambling codes to the base stations is a matter of network planning.

Generation of uplink scrambling codes

x25 + x3 + 1
Initial condition: 1 + Scrambling sequence number

224 uplink long scrambling codes 0 ... 16 777 216

24

23

0 0
38400 38400

225-2 = 33 554 430

24

23

0 16 777 232

Clong,1,n

Clong,2,n

x25

x3 +

x2

+x+1

Initial condition: 11111 ...11111

Uplink long scrambling code

UMTS_CDS_SCC_01.VSD

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For uplink scrambling the GOLD codes are produced as illustrated above. A single GOLD code is used and portions of 38400 chips are taken for scrambling. Two different portions Clong,1,n and Clong,2,n are used to scramble the I and Q branch separately.

Uplink scrambling
l l l l

UEs are using distinct scrambling codes, temporarily assigned by the node B Node B identifies UEs according to their scrambling code 224-1 Uplink scrambling codes available Scrambling process - I and Q branch are scrambled with complex GOLD sequences - Scrambling codes are selected such that the number of origin crossing due to modulation is minimised. (HPSK - Hybrid PSK)

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UMTS Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA Code scenarios and FDD channel structure
Dipl.-Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krueger
R&S - TRAINING CENTER 2003 www.rohde-schwarz.com
2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 1

Downlink Code Scenario

BS separation: Primary scrambling code

S1 el , Cod n M 2 Ch1 , Code x S Ch2 , Code M Ch3 , Code o Ch4

Primary scrambling code 1


Ch1 , Co Ch2 de l Ch3 , Code , Co n Ch4 de x , Co de o

MS separation: Spreading code

Primary scrambling code 2

MS1 MS2

Base station 1 Code scenario for thedownlink

Base station 2

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The combination of orthogonal spreading and block scrambling allows the following downlink scenario: Using orthogonal spreading codes, data for different mobile stations are channelized prior to transmission. The total signal of the node B then is scrambled and modulated. The scrambling allows synchronisation at the mobile station receiver due to sufficient correlation properties of the used GOLD codes. Each node B uses a unique scrambling code, selected from the available set of 512 primary scrambling codes. The cross correlation is sufficient to allow the mobile station receiver to identify the node B according to its primary scrambling code. The scrambling codes are assigned to the base stations as part of the network planning process.

Uplink Code Scenario

BS separation: Uplink scrambling code

MS1

el , Cod n Ch1 , Code Ch2

MS2

MS separation: Uplink scrambling code


Ch1 Ch2,, Code Code l n

Base station 1 Code scenario for theuplink

Base station 2

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On the uplink the node B selects individual mobile stations according to their unique scrambling code. The uplink scrambling code has been assigned temporarily by the node B to the mobile station during link establishment procedure.

UTRA Transmitter

S P

Cch,SF,m

Sdl,n

I+jQ


G1 G2

Channelisation and Scrambling of all DL channels (except SCH)

P-SCH S-SCH


GP GS

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Spreading of downlink signals is based on OVSF channelisation codes according to Hadamard functions. Allowed spreading factors are 4, 8, .. 512. The spreading or channelisation process gets analog values +1, -1 and 0 (0 indicates DTX - Discontinuous Transmission) as input. At the downlink all physical channels are scrambled seperate or altogether, except the synchronisation channels P-SCH und S-SCH, which are neither spreaded nor scrambled. Typically all physical channels are scrambled with the same primary scrambling code. However, along with the introduction of smart antennas secondary scrambling codes may apply in the future.

Downlink spreading code tree


Legend
256,0 256,1 256,8 128,0 256,0 256,1 256,2 256,3 256,4 256,5 256,6 256,7 256,8 256,9 256,10 256,11 256,12 256,13 256,14 256,15 256,248 256,249 256,250 256,251 256,252 256,253 256,254 256,255
UMTS_CDS_SPC_10.VSD

CPICH P-CCPCH DPDCH


4,0 8,1 2,0 8,2 4,1 8,3 8,0 16,0 16,1 16,2 16,3 16,4 16,5 16,6 16,7 16,8 16,9 16,10 16,11 16,12 16,13 16,14 16,15 32,31 32,30 32,1 32,0

64,0 128,1 128,2 64,1 128,3 128,4 64,2 128,5 128,6 64,3

512,16 512,17

1,0 8,4 4,2 8,5 2,1 8,6 4,3 8,7

512,24 512,25

64,62

: :

128,7

128,124 128,125 128,126

blocked
512,24

DPDCH

64,63 128,127

Codes used by the UTRAN


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QPSK Modulation Downlink

odd Bits ..1000.. ..11010100..

cos(t) RRC Filter

s(t) +

Serial / Parallel

even Bits ..1110..

RRC Filter

-sin(t)

scrambled sequence with user and signalling data

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QPSK Modulation groups a binary sequence into two parallel bit sequences by serial/parallel transformation. The resulting symbols are called di-bits and are mapped onto a RF symbol in the modulator. Di-bits can have 4 different states {00,01,10,11}, thus 4 different RF symbols are required which leads to QPSK as the suitable modulation scheme. Appropriate base band filtering reduces the intersymbol interference during transmission. For that purpose root raised cosine filters with roll-off factor 0.22 are used in both, the modulator and the demodulator.

UE Transmitter
cd,1 DPDCH1
cd,3 DPDCH3 cd,5 DPDCH5 d d

I
Sdpch

CHANNELISATION
cd,2 DPDCH2 cd,4 DPDCH4 cd,6 DPDCH6 d d d

I+jQ S

Q
SCRAMBLING
j

cc DPCCH

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IQ multiplexing is applied in the uplink. Thus, code channels are fully mapped either on the I branch or the Q branch. In particular the first data channel DPCCH1 is mapped onto the I branch, and the uplink DPCCH is mapped on the Q branch. Further data channels are mapped alternately onto the I and Q branch. The IQ multiplexing of user and control data avoids pulsed uplink signals which could cause troublesome interference with other electronic equipment.

UE spreading code tree


DPDCH
Spreading factor 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 4 4 Spreading code
32,0 64,0 128,1 16,0 16,1 16,2 16,3 16,4 16,5 16,6 16,7 16,8 16,9 16,10 16,11 16,12 16,13 16,14 16,15 32,31 256,0 32,30 64,3 32,1 128,6 128,4 64,2 128,5 64,1 128,3 128,2 128,0 256,0 256,1 256,2 256,3 256,4 256,5 256,6 256,7 256,8 256,9 256,10 256,11 256,12 256,13 256,14 256,15 256,248 256,249 256,250 256,251 256,252 256,253 256,254 256,255

64 32 16 8 4 2 1 1,2 1,2,3
1,0

8,0 4,0 8,1 2,0 8,2 4,1 8,3 8,4 4,2 8,5 2,1

Legend
4,3

8,6 8,7

: :

128,7

128,124 128,125 128,126

64,62

DPDCH

DPCCH
64,63

128,127

Codes used by the UE on DPCH

UMTS_CDS_SPC_08.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 8

2xBPSK Modulation Uplink


Data: BPSK Modulation of I branch

cos(t) ..1000.. RRC Filter Scrambling ..1110.. RRC Filter

s(t) +

-sin(t)

Signalling: BPSK Modulation of Q branch


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Due to the IQ multiplexing of uplink data also the modulator is different from the downlink. Basically both branches are BPSK modulated seperately. Finally, when there are data on both branches, i.e. user and control data, the modulator output is similar to a QPSK modulation.

3GPP FDD air interface channel structure

l l l l l

Frequency channels and radio frames Logical channels Transport channels Physical channels Selection of important channels

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Standardised mobile communication (wie z.B. GSM, UMTS, CDMAone, D-AMPS) consist of several components. Along with the definition of the radio transmission technologies comes also the definition of source coding schemes for instance for speech (speech codec), capacity parameters, core netowork design etc. However, the most difficult part is the definition of the air interface architecture, since this is obviously the bottleneck of the system with respect to capacity and data rates. The most important parameters are: - available bit rate (bandwidth) - capacity (number of subscribers) - requried cell density - costs for network implementation Except the latter one, all these parameters are restricted by the air interface in particular. The air interface not only needs to transport the data, however, a minimum of transmission quality, e.g. reliability, or simultaneous up- and downlink transmission (full duplex) must be provided.

FDD Frequency allocation Region 1 (e.g. Europa)


l l l

Frequency channel 5 MHz Channel raster 200 kHz Numbering scheme (UARFCN1): Nuplink = 5 * Fu ; 1920 MHz Fu 1980 MHz ie. 9612 Nuplink 9888 Ndownlink = 5 * Fd ; 2110 MHz Fd 2170 MHz ie. 10562 Ndownlink 10838

l
1)

Duplex distance190 MHz


UARFCN = UMTS Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 11

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FDD Frequency allocation Region 2


l l l

Frequency channel 5 MHz Channel raster 200 kHz Numbering (UARFCN1): Nuplink = 5 * Fu ; 1850 MHz Fu 1910 MHz ie. 9262 Nuplink 9538 Ndownlink = 5 * Fd ; 1930 MHz Fd 1990 MHz ie. 9662 Ndownlink 9938

l
1)

Duplex distance 80 MHz


UARFCN = UMTS Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 12

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

Radio frames and time slots

10 ms 38400 chips at a chip rate of 3.84 MChips/s

....

Radio Frame

....

Slot #0

Slot #1

....

Slot #n

....

Slot #13

Slot #14

666,6 s 2560 chips at chip rate of 3.84 MChips/s


Radio frame (FDD)
UMTS_PHL_PHC_43.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 13

Time on the UMTS WCDMA air interface is organised by means of 10 ms radio frames. Each radio frame is divided into 15 time slots of 2 / ms duration each. 3 Regarding the fixed chip rate of 3.84 MChip/s , each time slot contains 2560 chips, which cover - depending on the current spreading factor - more or less data bits. While time slots are numbered from 0 to 14, radio frames are identified by their system frame number (SFN = 0 .. 4095). This SFN is continuously broadcasted by the network on the P-CCPCH.

Lower layers
Service Access Point SAP

Radio Ressource Control RRC Control & Measurements

Logical channels
What to be transmitted Medium Access Control MAC

Transport channels
How to transmit PHYSICAL LAYER

Physical channels
Code, Frequency, etc.

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 14

According to the OSI layer model for communication, for WCDMA in particular the lower layers are of interest. Layer 1, the physical layer, is responsible for spreading, scrambling etc. Layer 2, the medium access control layer, controls the required transmission formats (data rates, channel coding etc.) and provides all data towards the physical layer by means of transport channels. In addition, layer 2 already performs data multiplexing, i.e. layer 1 has no knowledge at all about the data content. The lower end of layer 3, the radio ressource control layer, does provide the user and signalling data by means of logical layers towards layer 2. A direct link between layer 3 and layer 1 allows fast reactions of the network with respect to changes of the radio link quality, for instance. The lower layers according to the OSI mode are responsible for the unambiguous addressing and save transmission of user and signalling data. Therefore, radio interface protocols are specified, which control the communication in vertical direction (ie. from one layer to the upper or lower adjacent layer within one entity) and in horizontal direction (e.g. between node B and UE). The transmission of signalling data must be error free by default, whilst for instance speech data transmission allows bit errors up to a certain extend. Thus, signalling data need other channel coding schemes than user data.

Logical channels
Control Channel CCH (Signalling data) Broadcast Control Channel BCCH Paging Control Channel PCCH Dedicated Control Channel DCCH Common Control Channel CCCH Shared Channel Control Channel SHCCH (TDD mode only) Traffic Channel TCH (user data) Dedicated Traffic Channel DTCH Common Traffic Channel CTCH
2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 15

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

Basically it is distinguished between signalling channels and trafic channels. Traffic channels of the user plane are divided into two logical channel types, DTCH (dedicated traffic channel) and CTCH (common traffic channel). DTCH is used for mutual, dedicated communication between the node B and one UE: point-to-point connection. CTCH might be used for point-to-multipoint connections (e.g. advertising channel). Signalling channels of the control plane are also mapped onto different logical channels depending on their useage. BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel ) is used for downlink broadcasting of common system information, PCCH (Paging Control Channel) covers paging messages only (e.g. for initiation of mobile terminated calls).

Mapping of logical channels to transport channels in the UE


Service Access Point SAP

BCCH PCCH

DCCH

CCCH

CTCH

DTCH

BCH PCH

CPCH

RACH FACH

DSCH DCH

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 16

All UEs have to read system information on the BCCH ( broadcast control channel) and paging messages on the PCCH (paging control channel) on a regular basis. CCCH (common control channel) is a bi-directional channel which allows radio access. DCCH (dedicated contro channel ) is a bidirectional channel which operates in association with a DTCH to maintain a point-to-point connection. SHCCH (shared common control channel) is for TDD mode only, to deal with traffic peaks. All logical channels are mapped onto transport channels, which define the transmission characteristics, like data rates and channel coding. Transport channels are a service of the physical layer towards the upper layers for transportation of any data structures. The upper layers deliver the data at service access points (SAPs) representing a certain transport channel. Regarding the uplink, the physical layer delivers received data to the transport channel SAPs for higher layers for further processing. Transport channels offer flexible data rates and channel coding schemes, thus, they offer adaptation of higher layer data streams onto the available radio ressources. This includes for instance a suitable data multiplexing of various upper layer data streams onto an available transport data stream.

Mapping of logical channels to transport channels in the node B


Service Access Point SAP

BCCH PCCH

DCCH

CCCH

CTCH

DTCH

BCH PCH

CPCH

RACH FACH

DSCH DCH

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 17

A transport channel specifies the way how data is to be transmitted via the air interface. Since that transport format is variable, an identifier called TFI (Transport Format Indicator) indicates the current configuration. While mapping data from transport channels onto physical channels, all TFIs are converted onto a single TFCI (Transport Format Combination Indicator ), which is transmitted permanently on the DPCCH. However, in case of fixed data structures throughout a communication session, the transmission of TFCI might be skipped. Types of Transport Channels DCH (Dedicated channel) This bi-directional channel is used to transport dedicated user and signalling data. It covers the data of the logical channels DTCH and DCCH. For physical transmission the data are mapped onto the DPCH including the DPDCH and DPCCH. Broadcast BCH (Broadcast channel) This downlink only channel conveys the data of the logical BCCH using the physical channel P-CCPCH. It uses always the same format.

Transport channels

DEDICATED TRANSPORT CHANNEL


l

DCH

- Dedicated CHannel

COMMON TRANSPORT CHANNEL


l l l l l l

BCH FACH PCH RACH CPCH DSCH

Broadcast CHannel Forward Access CHannel Paging CHannel Random Access CHannel Common Packet CHannel Downlink Shared CHannel
2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 18

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

Forward Access Channel FACH This downlink only channel can be used to convey data of the logical channels BCCH, CCCH, DCCH and CTCH. Paging Channel PCH This downlink only channel conveys paging messages towards the UE. Random Access Channel RACH This uplink only channel is used for inital radio access by the UE. Common Packet Channel CPCH This is a pure packet channel to exchange packet data between node B and UE.

Mapping of transport channels to physical channels

BCH

PCH

CPCH
(FDD only)

FAUSCH

RACH

FACH

USCH
(TDD only)

DSCH

DCH

Transport Channels

PHY

P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH

PCPCH AP-AICH CSICH CD/CA-ICH

PRACH AICH

PDSCH CPICH P/S-SCH

DPDCH DPCCH Physical


Channels (FDD)

DPCH
UMTS_PHL_PHC_39.VSD

Overview of the channels of the physical layer

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 19

There are dedicated physical channels and common physical channels. A dedicated physical channel (DPCH) consists of two parts, the DPDCH ( Dedicated Physical Data Channel ), which conveys the user data and the associated signalling data, and a DPCCH ( Dedicated Physical Control Channel), which transmits pilot symbols for coherent detection, the transmit power control (TPC) command and the transport format identifier. Downlink common physical channels are P-CCPCH (primary Common Control Physical Channel ), which is broadcasting system information with a fixed rate continuously, and the S-CCPCH (secondary Common Control Physical Channel), which conveys e.g. paging information. For initial access by the UE the uplink only PRACH (Physical Random Access Channel), shall be used.

Timing of physical channels


Slots #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #1

Primary SCH Secondary SCH

Any CPICH (Primary/Secondary)

P-CCPCH, (SFN modulo 2) = 0

P-CCPCH, (SFN modulo 2) = 1

S-CCPCH,k PICH
AICH access slots #0 #1 #2 #3 #4

k:th S-CCPCH

PICH for k:th S-CCPCH

#5

#6

#7

#8

Any PDSCH

DPCH,n

n:th DPCH

One Frame = 10 ms
Frame timing of the downlink physical channels
UMTS_PHL_PHC_34.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 20

With respect to radio frame and time slot borders, the physical channels may have different and variable offsets. The CPICH and the P-CCPCH are the reference channels in that respect, since they are perfectly synchronised into the frame and slot scheme. All other physical channels may have a variable offset in time with respect to the radio frame borders. That offset can be selected between 0 and 10 ms in steps of 256 chips periods (i.e. 0 .. 38144 Chips in steps of 256 Chips). This is of interest to compensated for instance propagation delay offsets between different node Bs during soft handover. P-SCH and S-SCH are no spreaded code channels at all. They transmit well known synchronisation information to support the UE during cell search procedures. In addition, they are active only for 10 % of the time, however, always starting at the time slot borders.

Synchronisation Channel (SCH)

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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The primary and secondary synchronisation channels are used for the cell search procedure. Both synchronisation channels are no code channels. They are neither spreaded nor scrambled. They transmit periodically at the beginning of each and every time slot a known synchronisation code of length 256 chips.

Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)

Pre-defined symbol sequence


Tslot = 2560 chips, 20bits = 10 symbols

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i
Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

Frame structure for common pilot channel

l l

Fixed rate (30kbit/s, SF=256,0) Transparent transmission of scrambling sequence of 38400 Chips (synchronuous to radio frame boundaries)
2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 22

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

Properties of primary CPICH Spreading code (256,0) Primary scrambling code One per radio cell Covers complete radio cell Always phase reference for the following channels SCH, CCPCH, AICH, PICH Phase reference for all other channels by default Transmit code channel power -10 .. + 50 dBm Properties of (optional) secondary CPICH Fixed spreading factor - SF=256 Primary or secondary scrambling code No S-CPICH, one or multiple S-CPICH per radio cell Optional Phase reference channel for S-CCPCH and downlink DPCHs

Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH)

Primary & Secondary SCH instead 256 chips Tx OFF Data 18 bits
Tslot = 2560 chips, 20bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i
Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

Frame structure for primary common control physical channel

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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Properties P-CCPCH Always the same spreading code 256,1 Broadcast channel to distribute system information Scrambled with primary scrambling code Covers complete radio cell

Downlink DPCH

DPDCH Data1 Ndata1 bits

DPCCH TPC NTPC bits

DPCCH TFCI NTFCI bits

DPDCH Data2 Ndata2 bits

DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits

k bits (k=0..7) Tslot = 2560 chips , 10*2

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i One radio frame, Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

Frame structure for downlinkDPCH

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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DPCCH are DPDCH time multiplexed DPDCH transmits signalling from higher layers and user data DPCCH transmits layer 1 signalling (e.g. for transmit power control) Pilot bits Channel estimation, frequency and time synchronisation Changing pilot sequences in successive slots for frame synchronisation variable number of pilot bits depending on the channel quality TFCI bits (Transport Format Combination Identifier) Identification of current transport format Allows variable data rates Allows multi service Optional TPC bits (Transmit Power Control) Closed loop transmit power control

DPDCH and DPCCH data fields


Slot Channel Channel S F Format Bit Rate Symbol #i (kbps) Rate (ksps) 0 0A 0B 1 1B 2 2A 2B 3 3A 3B 4 4A 4B 5 5A 5B 15 15 30 15 30 30 30 60 30 30 60 30 30 60 30 30 60 7.5 7.5 15 7.5 15 15 15 30 15 15 30 15 15 30 15 15 30 512 512 256 512 256 256 256 128 256 256 128 256 256 128 256 256 128 Bits/ Slot DPDCH Bits/Slot DPCCH Bits/Slot N TFCI NPilot 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 0 2 4 4 0 0 0 2 4 4 4 4 8 4 8 2 2 4 2 2 4 4 4 8 4 4 8 Transmitted slots per radio frame NT r 15 8-14 8-14 15 8-14 15 8-14 8-14 15 8-14 8-14 15 8-14 8-14 15 8-14 8-14

N Data1 NData2 NT P C 10 10 20 10 20 20 20 40 20 20 40 20 20 40 20 20 40 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 4 4 8 2 4 14 14 28 12 10 24 12 12 24 10 8 20 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 4

:
13 13A 13B 14 14A 14B 15 15A 15B 16 16A

:
240 240 480 480 480 960 960 960 1920 1920 1920

:
120 120 240 240 240 480 480 480 960 960 960 32 32 16 16 16 8 8 8 4 4 4 160 160 320 320 320 640 640 640 1280 1280 1280 28 112 28 104 56 224 56 232 56 224 112 464 120 488 120 480 240 976 248 1000 248 992 4 4 8 8 8 16 8 8 16 8 8 8* 16* 16* 8* 16* 16* 8* 16* 16* 8* 16* 8 8 16 16 16 32 16 16 32 16 16 15 8-14 8-14 15 8-14 8-14 15 8-14 8-14 15 8-14

DPDCH and DPCCH fields

UMTS_PHL_PHC_23.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 25

Downlink multicode transmission


DPCCH

Transmission Power

DPDCH

T T F P C C I

DPDCH

P i l o t

DPCH 1

Transmission Power

DPDCH

DPDCH

DPCH 2

Transmission Power

DPDCH

DPDCH

DPCH N

One Slot (2560 chips)


Downlink slot format in case of multi-code transmission
UMTS_PHL_PHC_09.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 26

In case of multiple DPCH channels belonging to a single link, eg. in case of soft handover, only one DPCCH is used, however, with strong code channel power to ensure save reception.

Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH frame

DPDCH

Data Ndata bits


Tslot = 2560 chips, NData = 10*2k bits (k=0..6)

DPCCH

Pilot Npilot bits

TFCI NTFCI bits


Tslot = 2560 chips, 10 bits

FBI NFBI bits

TPC NTPC bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i
1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

Frame structure for uplink DPDCH/DPCCH

UMTS_PHL_PHC_03.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 27

DPCCH and DPDCH are IQ multiplexed Dedicated Physical Data Channel DPDCH transmits DCH Transport channel 0 .. 6 uplink DPDCHs possible Dedicated Physical Control Channel DPCCH transmits layer 1 Signalling info Pilot bits for channel estimation, frequency and time synchronisation TPC bits for transmit power control FBI bits for diversity control TFCI bits (optional) 1 uplink DPCCH per radio link

Uplink DPDCH data

Ndata bits Tslot = Ndata = SF = Ndata = 2560 chips (2/3 ms) 2560 / SF bits per Tslot 4 640 8 320 480 5 16 160 240 4 32 80 120 3 64 40 60 2 128 20 30 1 256 10 15 0

Rate[ksps] 960 slot format 6

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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Uplink DPCCH time slot forms SF = 256 ie. 10 bits per slot 0 1 slot form 2 3 4 5
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 29

Pilot

TFCI

TPC

FBI

12.2 kbit/s UL reference channel


Channel Coding
DTCH 12.2kbps 244 bits per TTI = 20 ms 260 + 8 tail bits per TTI

Rate Matching
804 bits per TTI

Radio frame alignment


490 bits per radio frame

CRC
+16 bits

R=1/3 coding R=1/3 coding


112 + 8 tail bits per TTI

22 % Repetition 22 % Repetition
360 bits per TTI

Inter leaving Inter leaving


110 bits per radio frame

49 kbps DPDCH 11 kbps


MUX

60 kbps SF = 64

CRC
+12 bits DCCH 2.4 kbps 100 bits per TTI = 40 ms

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 30

64 kbit/s UL reference channel


Channel Coding
DTCH 64kbps 1296 1280 bits per per TTI TTI = 20 ms

Rate Matching
3888+12 bits per TTI

Radio frame alignment


2294 bits per radio frame

CRC
+16 bits

R=1/3 coding R=1/3 coding


112 + 8 tail bits per TTI

17 % Repetition 17 % Repetition
360 bits per TTI

Inter leaving Inter leaving


106 bits per radio frame

229,4 kbps
MUX

240 kbps SF = 16

CRC
+12 bits DCCH 2.4 kbps 100 bits per TTI = 40 ms

10,6 kbps

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UMTS Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA Cell Search and Synchronisation


Dipl.-Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krueger
R&S - TRAINING CENTER 2003 www.rohde-schwarz.com

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 1

Introduction

?
Base Station Base Station Base Station Base Station

What does the mobile need to know? 1) Strongest base station 2) Slot border 3) Frame border 4) Base Station Primary scrambling code 5) BCCH information

Introduction to synchronisation

UMTS_PRC_SYN_04.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 2

After switching on the mobile station a suitable base station of the wanted operator must be found. Therefore, the mobile station first is looking for WCDMA signals. After synchronisation on that, it reads the broadcasted system information to identify the network operator. Four steps cover that cell search procedure.

Physical channels required for Synchronisation

2560 chips
Data TPC TFCI Data Pilot

Information

Spreading Code CC H,x,y CC H,a,b CC H,n,m

Scrambling Code Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Primary Secondary

DPCH1 DPCH2 DPCH3

User Info

User Info User Info

..........
Predefined pattern BCH Info Predefined code word (256 chips) Sequence of predefined code words (256 chips)

CPICH P-CCPCH P-SCH S-SCH 256 chips


Base Station

C CH,256,0 C CH,256,1 -----

Primary Primary -----

Slot #

10

11

12

13

14

One Frame = 10 ms (38400 chips)

Physical channels used for synchronisation

UMTS_PHL_PHC_37.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 3

For identification of WCDMA signals some known synchronisation channels are required. The downlink WCDMA signal includes therefore a primary (P-SCH) and a secondary synchronisation channel (S-SCH), which are neither spreaded nor scrambled, since the scrambling code of the base station is not known yet to the mobile station. The synchronisation channels allow synchronisation in time onto the WCDMA signal, i.e. on radio frame and time slot boundaries. Another, spreaded and scrambled common pilot channel (CPICH) allows the detection of the primary scrambling code. Thus, the broadcast information, transmitted by the primary common control physical channel (P-CCPCH) can be decoded and analysed.

P-SCH - Primary Sync Channel


l

Conveys primary Synchronisation code (CPSC) for base station selection and time slot synchronisation l CP S C
Base Station 15 Slots = 1 Frame = 10 ms (38400 chips)

- Known code word (256 chips) - Identical for all Base stations - Identical in all time slots

CPICH P-CCPCH P-SCH S-SCH 256 chips

Physical channels used for synchronisation

UMTS_PHL_PHC_38.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 4

The time domain in UTRAN FDD mode is organised in 10 ms radio frames and 15 time slots of 2/3 ms duration each, which are numbered from 0 to 14. For time synchronisation the first information required are the time slot borders. Therefore the base station transmits continuously the primary synchronsiation code PSC on the primary synchronisation channel P-SCH at the beginning of each and every time slot. The PSC is 256 chips long, ie. it lasts 1 /10 of a time slot duration. The PSC content is identical for each and every base station. The PSC is a so-called generalised hierarchical Golay Sequence with very good a-periodical auto correlation properties. It is built by a 16 times repetition of a 16 chip sequence. By multiplication of each chip with the complex value (1+j) the signal vector is turned by /4 which gains an almost constant signal envelope of the QPSK modulated signal. For detection of the PSC matched filters are useful which can generate exactly the time slot clock.

Selection of base station and time synchronisation

r(t) Matched Filter


BS 1

- Slot timing - Gross frequency error - BS presence


BS1 BS2

BS2

Slot x

Slot x+1

Slot x+2

t
UMTS_PRC_SYN_01.VSD

Sync step 1: BS selection and slot synchronisation

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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Matched filter
copy of signal
Integrate and Reset

Max SNR for sampling instant

1 -1

dt 0

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 6

An optimum receiver for AWGN channels gains maximum SNR at its output by definition. This can be achieved by matched filter circuits, which simply wait for the arrival of known data sequences.

Reception of spreaded signals


1 -1 1 1
Integrate and Reset

copy of sequence

Tc
1 -1 1 1

Max SNR at sampling instant

dt 0
T
1

T
1

/Tc
correlator

/T

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 7

Reception of spreaded, multipath signals


1 -1 1 1
Integrate and Reset

copy of sequence

Path 2

1 -1

Tc
1 1 -1 1

Max SNR at sampling instant

dt 0
T
1

Path 1

T
1

/Tc
correlator

/T

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 8

Reception of spreaded signals


1

/Tc

Path 2

Path 1

Despreaded energy of Path 1

Bandwidth of wanted signal Despreaded energy of path 2 due to loss of orthogonality Still spreaded energy of path 2 within the wanted signal bandwidth Still spreaded energy of path 2 out of the wanted signal bandwidth

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 9

RAKE Receiver
l l l

Collecting of all signal energy of different paths Each correlator builds a Finger of the RAKE receiver For synchronisation on single paths very good correlation properties and supporting pilot channels are required A common searcher detects pilots and regenerates symbol clocks

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 10

RAKE Receiver Principle


Clock regeneration

Searcher
Individual Path compensation (e.g. delay , attenuation)

Finger 1 Combiner or Selector Finger 2


Sum or Selection

Finger n
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 11

The RAKE receiver collects signal energy like a garden rake collects the leaves after a windy autumn day. On a multipath channel each finger of the RAKE receiver does take the portion of the signal energy that comes along on a single path. It is obvious, the more fingers a RAKE receiver does include, the more signal energy can be collected, however, each additional finger does obviously increase the complexity of the receiver implementation. Each finger might be designed as a correlation receiver, which gets the required clock from the searcher unit. The searcher unit, e.g. designed as a matched filter circuit does retrieve the symbol clock from the available synchronisation channels P-SCH and S-SCH within the downlink WCDMA signal. The following combiner or selector network might compensate the known timing offsets between the individual fingers and add up the signal energy portions delivered by the finger outputs, or just select the strongest finger output.

S-SCH Secondary Sync Channel


l

Transmits secondary synchronisation Codes (CSSC) for frame synchronisation and Identification of current Scrambling Code Group

Base Station 15 Slots = 1 Frame = 10 ms (38400 chips)

CS S C

CPICH P-CCPCH P-SCH S-SCH 256 chips

- 16 defined code words of 256 chips - 16 code words build identifiers for scrambling code groups

Physical channels used for synchronisation

UMTS_PHL_PHC_38.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 12

For frame synchronisation the secondary synchronisation channel is used. This channel does transmit a pre-defined sequence of secondary code words, which can be selected out of a set of 16 secondary synchronisation codes SSC resp. CSSC These are orthogonal code words which are Hadamard functions. All 16 possible SSCs are known to the receiver in the mobile station, and thus can be easily detected by correlation reception. Across a complete radio frame a pre-defined sequence of 15 SSCs is transmitted, which is then repeated radio frame by radio frame. There are in total 64 code groups defined, each containing 8 primary scrambling codes. Each code group does transmit its unique sequence of SSCs per radio frame, which in fact is used to identify the scrambling code group. Thus, the secondary synchronisation channel is used to identify the scrambling code group of the monitored node B, which reduces the number of possible primary scrambling codes to 8. Since the SSC sequences of each code group are synchronised to the radio frame, the radio frame borders are known to the receiver after detection of the scrambling code group.

Grouping of Downlink Scrambling codes

2 18-1 Scrambling Codes


(0 .. 262 142)

Left alternative scrambling codes for compressed mode (k+8192)

Right alternative scrambling codes for compressed mode (k+16384)

Scrambling Code Set #511 8176 0: Primary Scrambling Code 8177 1: Secondary Scrambling Code Scrambling Code Set #1 0: Primary Scrambling Code 8191 15: 16Secondary Scrambling Scrambling Code SetCode #0 17 1: Secondary Scrambling Code 0 0: Primary Scrambling Code 1 1: Secondary Scrambling Code 31 15: Secondary Scrambling Code 15 15: Secondary Scrambling Code

Scrambling Code Group #63 8064 0: Primary Scrambling Code 8080 1: Primary Scrambling Code Scrambling Code Group #1 0: Scrambling Primary Scrambling 8176 7: 144 Primary Code #0 Code Scrambling Code Group 160 1: Primary Scrambling Code 0 0: Primary Scrambling Code 16 1: Primary Scrambling Code 256 7: Primary Scrambling Code 128 7: Primary Scrambling Code

Scrambling Code Sets


Grouping of the downlink scrambling codes

Scrambling Code Groups


UMTS_CDS_SCC_02.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG- Training Center -UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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218 -1 downlink SCs (scrambling codes) are available. 213 = 8192, numbered by 0 .. 8191 are used for primary and secondary scrambling purposes. Those 213 codes are divided into 29 = 512 groups, each containing a 24 = 16 SCs. The first of that set of 16 SCs is always used as the primary scrambling code SC ( n = 16 i with i = 0..511) for that group and the residual 15 SCs are available as secondary scrambling codes. The number of 512 primary scrambling codes are organised again in 64 scrambling code groups, each containing 8 scrambling codes, of course. The following relation with respect to the code numbering applies: SC number = 16 8 j + 16 k with j = 0..63 (code group number) and k = 0..7 (primary SC number within the code group j).

Frame synchronisation and Scrambling Code Groups


15 Slots = 1 Frame = 10 ms (38400 chips) Table of secondary synchronisation codes

CPICH P-CCPCH P-SCH S-SCH 256 chips

Cssc,1 Cssc,2 Cssc,3 Cssc,4

: :
Cssc,13 Cssc,14 Cssc,15 Cssc,16 256 chips

Scrambling Code Group Group 0 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4

#0 1 1 1 1 1

#1 1 1 2 2 2

#2 2 5 1 3 16

#3 8 16 15 1 6

#4 9 7 5 8 6

#5 10 3 5 6 11

slot number #6 #7 #8 15 14 12 5 15 8 16 16 2 5 10 3 6 5 12

#9 16 10 11 8 1

#10 2 5 2 4 15

#11 #12 #13 #14 7 12 16 4 12 15 14 11 6 16 7 12 15 3 11 16 10 12 7 2

Sync step 2: Frame sync and identifying scrambling code group

UMTS_PRC_SYN_05.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 14

CPICH - Common Pilot Channel


l

Conveys well defined pilot sequence SF 256 (Cch,256,0) Scrambled, using primary scrambling code according to scrambling code group UE attempts possible scrambling codes (one out of eight) according to known scrambling code group

l l

Base Station 15 Slots = 1 Frame = 10 ms (38400 chips)

CPICH P-CCPCH P-SCH S-SCH 256 chips

Physical channels used for synchronisation

UMTS_PHL_PHC_38.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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The primary scrambling code sequence, when transmitted on the air interface, is cut down to 38400 chips, which obviously corresponds to the duration of a single radio frame of 10 ms. In fact, the primary CPICH channel, which is exactly synchronised to the downlink radio frame borders, does contain the plain scrambling code. The data on the CPICH, before spreading with (256,0) consists of the sequence 1111. After spreading with (256,0), which is a sequence of 256 1 the CPICH data contains simply 38400 1 per frame before scrambling. The scrambling operation then does multiply the data chip by chip with the 38400 chips of the scrambling code word. Obviously, then the plain primary scrambling code is sent radio frame by radio frame of the P-CPICH. Since the receiver, after detection of the scrambling code group does know out of which set of 8 possible primary scrambling codes the scrambled data on the P-CPICH comes from, it can detect the used SC on the P-CPICH.

Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH)


l

Includes system information and current SFN (System Frame Number) SF 256 (Cch,256,1) Scrambled by primary scrambling code UE can descramble and despread BCH system information

l l
Base Station 15 Slots = 1 Frame = 10 ms (38400 chips)

CPICH P-CCPCH P-SCH S-SCH 256 chips

Physical channels used for synchronisation

UMTS_PHL_PHC_38.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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After all, the physical cell search process is completed after three steps: 1. Time slot synchronisation by P-SCH 2. Frame synchronisation and code group detection by S-SCH 3. Detection of primary scrambling code by P-CPICH Now the receiver can descramble the downlink signal and look for further code channels. Since it is known, that the P-CCPCH, containing the BCCH broadcast system information, is spreaded by (256,1) by default, the receiver can finally despread and read the required system information to complete the cell selection process.

Summary cell search procedure


2 18-1 Scrambling Codes
(0 .. 262 142)

Left alternative scrambling codes for compressed mode (k+8192)

Right alternative scrambling codes for compressed mode (k+16384)

Scrambling Code Set #511 8176 0: Primary Scrambling Code 8177 1: Secondary Scrambling Code Scrambling Code Set #1 8191 15: 16Secondary 0: Scrambling Primary Scrambling Code Code Scrambling Code Set #0 17 1: Scrambling Code 0 0:Secondary Primary Scrambling Code 31 15 : 1 15 1:Secondary Secondary Scrambling Scrambling Code Code 15: Secondary Scrambling Code

Scrambling Code Group #63 8064 0: Primary Scrambling Code 8080 1: Primary Scrambling Code Scrambling Code Group #1 8176 7: 144 Primary 0 : Scrambling Primary Code Scrambling Scrambling Code Group #0 Code 160 1 Scrambling Code Code 0: 0: Primary Primary Scrambling 256 16 7: 128 1: Primary Primary Scrambling Scrambling Code Code 7: Primary Scrambling Code

Scrambling Code Sets


Grouping of the downlink scrambling codes

3
Cells and Slot boarder

Scrambling Code Groups


UMTS_CDS_SCC_02.VSD

CPICH

Primary synchronisation code (C PSC )

P-CCPCH

P-SCH

4
Frame border

Secondary synchronisation code sequence (C SSC,n)


(64 unique sequences of secondary synchronisation codes)

BCH information

S-SCH
The four synchronisation steps
UMTS_PRC_SYN_03.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 17

System information broadcast UE


SYSTEM INFORMATION

UTRAN

BCCH

PCCPCH BCH SCCPCH FACH

Elements of system information are grouped in System Information Blocks 1..18 (SIB) with variable order SIB order info available in master information block (MIB)
2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 18

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

The logical channel BCCH transmits via the transport channel BCH and the physical channel P-CCPCH continuously system information blocks to all mobile stations. The System information is distributed within max. 18 blocks - called system information blocks SIB - over the entire radio cell, scrambled with the primary scrambling code. The order of SIB transmission is written in a master information block MIB, which is sent out every 8 radio frames.

System Information Elements


l l l l l l l l l

Core Network (CN) information elements (IE) UTRAN mobility information elements User Equipment (UE) information elements Radio Bearer information elements Transport Channel information elements Physical Channel information elements Measurement information elements Other information elements ANSI-41 specific information elements Specified in 3GPP TS25.331
2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 19

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

The SIBs provide the UEs with all necessary technical and administrative information regarding the mobile radio network. Along with core network parameters also network operator information (e.g. mobile country and network codes) and location information are distributed. In particular very important technical parameters to control for instance the transmit power control algorithms or the cell selection and reselection process are sent within dedicated SIBs. For future applications the transmission of SIBs is very flexible and might include for instance network operator proprietary information.

Idle mode Processes


Automatic or manual

PLMN Selektion und Reselektion


select PLMN display available PLMNs

cell selection and Reselection


Location Registration Info

Location Registration

Changing location area

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After analysis of the system information of various node Bs, a list of available network operators is produced an offered to the subscriber. The PLMN selection then is done manually or automatically, depending on the terminal settings. After PLMN selection the registration process is initiated by the UE on the selected (or reselected) cell. The cell selection / reselection is a continuous process of the UE in idle mode, thus, a continuous monitoring of the node B neighbourhood is required.

Measurements for cell selection


l l

Different measurements in different RATs - Radio Access Technologies GSM - RXLEV (range 0 .. 63) - RXQUAL (range 0 .. 7) UTRA / FDD - CPICH Ec/N0 - CPICH RSCP UTRA / TDD - P-CCPCH RSCP

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For selection of a node B some basic physical measurements are required, which differ from RAT to RAT. For instance in GSM the downlink level, expressed in RXLEV parameter is measured and compared against a given cell selection threshold. In connected mode, the UE still estimates the current quality and reports this RXQUAL measure to the network. UMTS in FDD mode requries measurements on the downlink reference channel P-CPICH. The evaluated SNR on that channel, expressed by Echip /N0 , and the received code channel power on the CPICH (RSCP, Received Signal Code Power). Those measurements again are compared agains given thresholds for cell selection purposes.

Cell selection criterion


cell selection quality value [dB] Measured cell quality value FDD: CPICH Ec/No [dB] Minimum required cell quality value range -20 .. 0 dB

0 < Squal = Qqualmeas - Qqualmin

(FDD only)

0 < Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - Qrxlevmin - Pcompensation


cell selection RX level value [dB] Measured RX level value FDD: CPICH RSCP [dBm] Minimum required RX level value range -115 .. -25 dBm (2 dB step) max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH - P_MAX, 0)

max allowed UE TX power range: -50 .. +33 [dBm] Note: Default value is P_MAX

max UE TX power [dBm] { 33, 27, 24, 21 }

Note: Cell selection and reselection Info provided by SIB11/12


Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training Center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 22

Example: P_MAX = 24 dBm UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH = P_MAX i.e. path compensation = 0 Level selection criterion: Qrxlevmeas > Qrxlevmin Quality selection criterion: Qqualmeas > Qqualmin If UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH > P_MAX, i.e. a UE shall tranmist more power than possible, Qrxlevmin is reduced by the that difference. With Ebit /N0 = SF Echip /N0 the criterion Squal with respect to Ebit /N0 and SF = 256 24 dB for CPICH becomes 0 < Squal = Qqualmeas - Qqualmin , with Qqualmin = 4 .. 24 dB if looking at CPICH Ebit /N0

Cell ranking for reselection

Quality of cell

Rs = Qmap,s - Qhyst,s Rn = Qmap,n - Qoffset,n


Quality of neighbour cells

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Once a cell is selected, the UE continuously does monitor neighbouring cells for possibly better service conditions. The according to the given reselection criterions, does maintain a ranking, which, whenever a neighbour cell gets on top of the triggers a reselection process.

the UE, cell list,

The reselection of the UE must be reported to the UTRAN in case of changing the location area. Thus, the UTRAN always knows the rough location of the UE and can forward mobile terminated calls.

UMTS Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA Basic WCDMA Procedures


Dipl.-Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krueger
R&S - TRAINING CENTER 2003 www.rohde-schwarz.com

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 1

UMTS Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA Transmit Power Control

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 2

Transmit Power Control

Base Station

Power Control

CDMA_TPC_09.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 3

The need for fast and highly accurate transmit power control (TPC) may be regarded as the most serious (negative) issue of CDMA systems in total. There is a need for TPC on the downlink and the uplink, however, facing different requirements. The implementation of TPC is a great challenge for all parts, software and hardware, and must be realised with highest priority. The simple fact, that a single mobile transmitting too much power will block the complete radio cell, outlines the great importance of TPC in a very obvious way.

Transmit Power Control


DPCCH 15 ksps 3.84 Mcps
Spreading

3.84 Mcps DPCCH 15 ksps


Spreading

3.84 Mcps

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Looking at the spreading operation of CDMA systems in the frequency domain, a weak subscriber with respect to its transmit power, does contribute a very small portion of spectral power density to the total WCDMA signal at the air interface. Different contributions of spectral power density is simply caused by different distances of the mobiles to the node B receiver.

Transmit Power Control

3.84 Mcps
Despreading

negative SNR

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It may happen, that the processing gain in the node B receiver is not sufficient to achieve a positive SNR for the selected code channel. In that case, decoding and processing of those data is no more possible, the radio link for that code channel is cut.

Power Control
l l l l

l l

Most serious negative point Every mobile is an interferer for every other mobile Every base station is an interferer for every other base station A single overpowered mobile/base station could block a whole cell since every mobile/base station is an interferer for every other mobile/base station Power control is directly related to the capacity of the system Uplink
-

The output power of all mobiles must be controlled in a way that all signals arrive at the base station with the same mean power level The output power of the base stations should be minimised to minimise the interference to other cells

Downlink
-

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Uplink Power Control

ds man com ntrol er co Pow

Base Station

Power control in uplink direction

CDMA_TPC_01.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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TPC in uplink is responsible to maintain the full radio cell capacity. A single dB of SNR unnecessarily used by a mobile does reduce the residual cell capacity. Thus, a very loud user may block the entire cell. This is known as the near-far problem. On the other hand, when taking SNR away from a single mobile, the quality of serve (QoS) does suffer with respect to the transmission reliability. Thus, it is vital to meet exactly the required SNR for each individual subscriber. Due to the fast changing quality of a mobile channel, the SNR assignment must be controlled as fast as possible. The required fast power control is provided by the closed loop TPC algorithm. The target SNR for the individual mobiles must be provided by the radio network controller towards the node. This process is called outer loop TPC.

Uplink Power Control

ds man com ntrol er co Pow

Keep received power levels equal

Base Station

Power control in uplink direction

CDMA_TPC_02.VSD

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The TPC process is performed by exchanging continuously TPC symbols on the DPCCH. A number of bits, depending on the used time slot format, is reserved to indicate the required power control steps. Since the DPCCH is sent regularly each and every time slot, the transmit power can be modified 1500 times per second (compared to GSM this is 750 times faster). With that speed, even fast fading effects may be compensated.

Uplink Power Control

ands comm ntrol er co w o P

Base Station

Power control in uplink direction

CDMA_TPC_03.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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However, for the first UTRAN access by the mobile station on the PRACH, no closed TPC control is available yet. Thus, an open loop algorithm applies. To avoid any problems, the mobile starts transmitting PRACH preambles with the lowest power possible and increases the power in predefined steps until the UTRAN does acknowledge the reception of the access attempt and establishes the closed loop TPC.

Downlink Power Control

ds man com ntrol er co Pow

Base Station

Base Station
CDMA_TPC_04.VSD

Power control in downlink direction

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On downlink there is no near-far problem as in the uplink. However, in might be necessary to increase individual code channel power for individual mobile stations. However, it is important to monitor the total downlink signal power, since it determines the inter cell interference.

Downlink Power Control

ds man com ntrol er co Pow

Base Station

Base Station
CDMA_TPC_05.VSD

Power control in downlink direction

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Types of transmit power control TPC


(Transmit Power Control)

open loop Power Control

closed loop Power Control

For random access procedure

inner loop Power Control


Fast power control to compensate fading
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

outer loop Power Control


Slow power control to maintain required SNR
2003 / Dipl. Ing. ( Univ ) Reinhold Krger / 12

FDD Open loop power control

CPICH RSCP System Info BCCH P-CCPCH

- Primary CPICH DL TX power - UL interference - Constant Value - Power Ramp Step - Preamble Retrans Max

UE

P = Primary CPICH DL TX power CPICH_RSCP + UL interference + Constant Value (+ Power Ramp Step)

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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Parameters for open loop power control: Primary CPICH DL TX power = { -10 .. 50 } dBm UL interference = { -110 .. -70 } dBm PRACH Constant value = { -35 .. -10 } dBm Calculation of the inital PRACH Preamble power: Preamble_Initial_Power = Primary CPICH DL TX power CPICH_RSCP + UL interference + Constant Value The following preambles - i.e. as long there is no reception acknowledgement by the UTRAN on the AICH - shall be transmitted with the power increased by the PowerRampStep = {1..8} dB. The number of PRACH preamble attempts is limited by PreambleRetransMax = { 1..64 }.

FDD closed loop power control Downlink DPCH = DPCCH/DPDCH


Data

TPC TFCI

Data

Pilot

TPC Bit Pattern NTPC = 1 NTPC = 2 1 0 11 00

Transmitter power control command 1 0

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As soon as a DPCCH link is established the closed loop algorithm using the TPC symbols applies.

Parameters for Uplink TPC


l

UTRAN parameters of higher layers - SIRtarget - PCA PowerControlAlgorithm: {Algorithm1, Algorithm2} - TPC step size {1dB,2dB} OSI Layer 1 Parameter - TPC (derived from TPC step size) Operational parameters - SIR est (current SIR estimation) - TPC Symbol ( 0 if SIRest > SIRtarget ; 1 otherwise ) - TPC_cmd { -1 if TPC = 0 ; 1 otherwise }

- DPCCH

(Absolute step size for DPCCH transmit power in [dB], derived from TPC and TPC_cmd)

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Uplink TPC : Algorithm 1 Downlink DPCH = DPCCH/DPDCH


Data

TPC TFCI { 0, 1 }

Data

Pilot

TPC_cmd { -1, +1 }
DPCCH [dB] = TPC TPC_cmd
given by higher layers TPC_stepsize
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In case of TPC algorithm 1, the mobile station does decode the received TPC symbol into a TCP_cmd. The TPC_cmd does either request to increase or to decrease the transmit power by one TPC step size.

Uplink TPC : Algorithm 2


TPC TPC TPC TPC TPC

{5 time slots}
TPC_cmd (slot TPC_cmd (slot TPC_cmd (slot TPC_cmd (slot 1..4) = 0 5) = 1 if TPC (slot 1..5) = 1 5) = -1 if TPC (slot 1..5) = 0 5 ) = 0 otherwise

alternating TPC Symbol switches off TPC

{ -1, 0, +1 }
DPCCH [dB] = TPC TPC_cmd
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TPC algorithm 2 allows slower transmit power changes or even switching off the TPC to maintain constant transmit power.

UMTS Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA Handover

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 18

Handover Definition

BS1 (f1)

BS2 (f2)

BS1 (f1)

BS2 (f2)

MS

Step 1

Step 2

MS

Hard handover

UMTS_PRC_HOV_02.VSD

Forwarding of a mobile station from one radio cell to another, without interruption of the service.

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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Handover Types
l
BS1 (f1) BS2 (f1) BS1 (f1) BS2 (f1)

MS

Step 1

Step 2

MS

BS1 (f1)

BS2 (f1)

Step 3
Soft handover

MS
UMTS_PRC_HOV_01.VSD

BS1 (f1)

BS2 (f2)

BS1 (f1)

BS2 (f2)

Soft Handover - UE connected to several BSs at the same time - All BSs transmit on the same frequency Hard Handover - UE at any time connected to a single BS - BSs use different frequencies or belong to different RTTs

MS

Step 1

Step 2

MS

Hard handover

UMTS_PRC_HOV_02.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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Soft Handover
l
BS1 (f1) BS2 (f1) BS1 (f1) BS2 (f1)

MS

Step 1

Step 2

MS

l
BS1 (f1) BS2 (f1)

Step 3
Soft handover

MS
UMTS_PRC_HOV_01.VSD

Soft Handover - Handover to a cell with the same frequency Softer handover - Soft Handover within a single node B

BS1 (f1)

BS2 (f1)

BS1 (f1)

BS2 (f1)

MS

Step 1

MS

Step 2

BS1 (f1)

BS2 (f1)

MS
Softer handover

Step 3
UMTS_PRC_HOV_03.VSD

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Hard Handover
l l

Frequency-Handover
-

Cell A and cell B with different frequencies Handover to other RTTs e.g. WDCMA <> GSM

System-Handover
-

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Handover Parameter

Pil ot 1

l signa total t e s e Activ

Add timer

Drop timer Add threshold

t2 Pilo

Drop threshold

Add pilot 2 to the active set


Handover parameters

Remove pilot 1 from the active set


UMTS_PRC_HOV_04.VSD

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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UMTS Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA Radio link establishment

2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 24

random access procedure


Node B Layer 1 RACH Preamble
Repetition with alternating Signatures and increasing transmit power

UE Layer 1

UE MAC PHY-Data-REQ RRC PRACH RACH

AICH

positive aquisition indication

RACH message part


incl. establishment cause

RACH transmitted

Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA

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It is the higher layers which initiate the random access, since they know resp. decide what kind of connection is required for the requested service. The lower layers are asked then to establish first of all a physical connection, ie. to ask for physical ressources. When the physical ressource for communication via the radio interface is established, the higher layers will continue the communication on the assigned channel, until they ask the lower layers again to release the radio link. Initiated by the upper layer request, the physical layer initiates the random access procedure to ask for the establishment of a physical radio link. It transmits a PRACH preamble, starting with minimum power according to the opern loop power control mechanism, until there is an acknowledgement on the downlink, represented by the AICH. After AICH reception the physical layer transmits the RACH message part including higher layer information. The transmission of the message part is acknowledged to the higher layers.

L1 PRACH Preamble

1. Random selection of a Signature Ps out of s = 0..15 possible Hadamard codes of length 16 2. 256 times repetition of Ps builds preamble signature code Csig,s of length 4096 chips 3. Preamble scrambling code Sr-pre , n = Clong, 1, n n = 0..8191 (213 - 1) provided by system information 4. Build complex-valued random access preamble codes: Cpre,n,s = Sr-pre,n Csig,s exp( j(/4+ k/2)

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Random access

RACH Preamble with changing signatures

RACH message

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PRACH

Preamble with initial transmit power

Po open loop

AICH Preamble

AICH

Paging

UE

UTRAN

PAGING TYPE 1 or PAGING TYPE 12


TYPE 1: PCCH PCH S-CCPCH TYPE 2: DCCH FACH S-CCPCH

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The paging message for mobile terminated call establishment is provided by the logical channel PCCH. Via the transport channel PCH and the physical channel S-CCPCH it is transmitted towards all mobiles within the related location area. Two types of paging are specified PAGING TYPE 1 This RRC message is transmitted to mobile stations in idle mode. The message may include a paging message or an indication of changes in the system information (BCCH modification information) PAGING TYPE 2 This paging message is used to page mobile stations which already are in allocated mode, ie. already maintain a radio link. Identification of called mobile station GSM-MAP: IMSI, TMSI, P-TMSI (Packet-TMSI) ANSI-41: IMSI, TMSI

RRC link establishment

UE RRC CONNECTION REQUEST


CCCH RACH PRACH

UTRAN

RRC CONNECTION SETUP


CCCH FACH S-CCPCH

RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE


DCCH

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The radio link establishment is initiated by the random access procedure via the PRACH of the mobile station, e.g. as a response of a paging type 1 message. Important information, such as the establishment cause, the UE identity and a first measurement report are already known then to the UTRAN. With RRC CONNECTION SETUP message, provided by the logical CCCH via the transport channel FACH and the physical channel SCCPCH a dedicated control channel is assigned by the UTRAN. Therefore this L3 message transmits the necessary radio link data (spreading code, uplink scrambling code etc.)

Call setup steps

RRC or AS connection setup


Establishment of a Dedicated Common Control Channel

NAS call setup


Authentication and Security Procedures

RAB call setup


Assignment and enabling of target radio bearer

ref. 3GPP TS34.108 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 30

A call establishment may be regarded in three phases. First of all the radio link on the air interface between UE and UTRA is established. When a dedicated channel (DCCH) is available the next phase can start, which includes authentication and security procedures (i.e. establishment of ciphering algorithms). This already includes core network elements like HLR (home locatio register) which provides required subsriber data. When that phase is passed by the mobile, the final phase provides the final connection towards the called party. AS = Access Stratum NAS = Non-Access Stratum RAB = Radio Access Bearer

MT Call setup / CS
Paging (PCCH) RRC connection request (CCCH) RRC connection setup (CCCH) RRC connection setup complete (DCCH) Paging response (DCCH) Authentication request Authentication response Security mode complete Setup Call confirmed Radio bearer setup Radio bearer setup complete Alerting Connect Connect Acknowledge
ref. 3GPP TS34.108 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 31

Node B

Mobile terminated calls are initiated by the UTRAN by the paging procedure. The paging message is indicated by the physical paging indicator channel, which is monitored continuously by all mobile stations.

UE

Security mode command

MO Call setup / CS
RRC connection request (CCCH) RRC connection setup (CCCH) RRC connection setup complete (DCCH) CM service request (DCCH) Authentication request Authentication response Security mode complete Setup Call proceeding Radio bearer setup Radio bearer setup complete Alerting Connect Connect Acknowledge
ref. 3GPP TS34.108 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 32

Node B

A mobile originated call is directly initiated by the mobile station using the random access procedure.

UE

Security mode command

Registration
RRC connection request (CCCH) RRC connection setup (CCCH) RRC connection setup complete (DCCH) Location Updating request (DCCH) Authentication request Authentication response Security mode complete Location updating accept TMSI reallocation complete RRC connection Release RRC connection Relese Complete

Node B

ref. 3GPP TS34.108 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG - Training center - UMTS - Introduction to 3GPP WCDMA 2003 / Dipl. Ing. (Univ) Reinhold Krger / 33

Registration is required whenever the mobile is switched on or is changing its location. Like for a mobile originated call, first of all a radio link is establihed initiated by the random access procedure. The calling party for registration purposes in fact is the serving mobile network, thus, no phase 3 for through connection towards the called party is required.

UE

Security mode command

UMTS Abbreviations

Abbreviations
0-9
2G 3G 3GPP 2nd Generation 3rd Generation Third Generation Partnership Project

A
A-SGW AAL AAL2 AAL5 AC ACCH ACIR ACK ACLR ACS ADF ADM ADN AESA AI AICH AID AIUR AK ALCAP ALW AM AMF AMR AN AP APDU API APN ARP ARQ AS ASC ASN.1 Access Signalling Gateway ATM Adaptation Layer ATM Adaptation Layer type 2 ATM Adaptation Layer type 5 Access Condition Associated Control Channel Adjacent Channel Interference Ratio Acknowledgement Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio Adjacent Channel Selectivity Application Dedicated File Access condition to an EF which is under the control of the authority which creates this file Abbreviated Dialling Numbers ATM End System Address Acquisition Indicator Acquisition Indicator Channel Application Identifier Air Interface User Rate Anonymity key Access Link Control Application Protocol ALWays Acknowledged Mode Authentication Management Field Adaptive Multi Rate Access Network Access preamble Application Protocol Data Unit Application Programming Interface Access Point Name Address Resolution Protocol Automatic Repeat Request Access Stratum Access Service Class Abstract Syntax Notation One
Page 1 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

AT command ATtention Command ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATR Answer To Reset AuC Authentication Centre AUTN Authentication token AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise

B
B-ISDN BCCH BCFE BCH BER BG BGT BIC BID BLER BMC BOC BPSK BS BSC BSS BTS BWT Broadband ISDN Broadcast Control Channel Broadcast Control Functional Entity Broadcast Channel Bit Error Rate Border Gateway Block Guard Time Baseline Implementation Capabilities Binding Identity Block Error Rate Broadcast/Multicast Control Bell Operating Company Binary Phase Shift Keying Base Station Base Station Controller Base Station System Base Transceiver Station Block Waiting Time

C
CC-APDU C-RNTI C-TPDU CA CA CAA CAMEL CAP CB CBR CBS CC CC/PP ControlCommand APDU Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity Command TPDU Capacity Allocation Certification Authority Capacity Allocation Acknowledgement Customised Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic CAMEL Application Part Cell Broadcast Constant Bit Rate Cell Broadcast Service Call Control Composite Capability/Preference Profiles
Page 2 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

CCBS CCCH CCF CCH CCK CCM CCPCH CCTrCH CD CD CDA CDMA CDR CFN CGI CHAP CIM CLA CLK CMIP CMISE CN CNAP CNL CLNP CLNS CONS CORBA CP-Admin CP-TP CPICH CPCH CPCS CPS CPU CRC CRNC CS-GW CS CSCF CSE CTCH CTDMA SCTP CW CWI CWT

Completion of Calls to Busy Subscriber Common Control Channel Call Control Function Control Channel Corporate Control Key Certificate Configuration Message Common Control Physical Channel Coded Composite Transport Channel Capacity Deallocation Collision Detection Capacity Deallocation Acknowledgement Code Division Multiple Access Call Detail Record Connection Frame Number Common Gateway Interface Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol Common Information Model CLAss Clock Common Management Information Protocol Common Management Information Service Core Network Calling Name Presentation Co-operative Network List Connectionless network protocol Connectionless network service Connection-oriented network service Common Object Request Broker Architecture Certificate Present (in the MExE SIM)-Administrator Certificate Present (in the MExE SIM)-Third Party Common Pilot Channel Common Packet Channel Common Part Convergence Sublayer Common Part Sublayer Central Processing Unit Cyclic Redundancy Check Controlling Radio Network Controller Circuit Switched Gateway Circuit Switched Call Server Control Function Camel Service Environment Common Traffic Channel Code Time Division Multiple Access S Common Transport Protocol CHECK WITH wg3 Continuous Wave (unmodulated signal) Character Waiting Integer Character Waiting Time
Page 3 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

D
DAD DAM DC DCA DCCH DCH DDI DECT DF DHCP DHO diff-serv DL DMTF DN DNS DO DPCCH DPCH DPDCH DRAC DRNC DRNS DRX DS-CDMA DSCH DTCH DTMF DTX Destination Adress DECT Authentication Module Dedicated Control (SAP) Dynamic Channel Allocation Dedicated Control Channel Dedicated Channel Direct Dial In Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications Dedicated File Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Diversity Handover Differentiated services Downlink (Forward Link) Distributed Management Task Force Destination Network Directory Name Service Data Object Dedicated Physical Control Channel Dedicated Physical Channel Dedicated Physical Data Channel Dynamic Resource Allocation Control Drift Radio Network Controller Drift RNS Discontinuous Reception Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated Traffic Channel Dual Tone Multiple Frequency Discontinuous Transmission

E
E-GGSN E-HLR ECTRA EDC EDGE EFS EGPRS EIRP EF EM Enhanced GGSN Enhanced HLR European Committee of Telecommunications Regulatory Affairs Error Detection Code byte Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Error free seconds Enhanced GPRS Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power Elementary File Element Manager
Page 4 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

eMLPP ETNS ETSI etu

enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Pre-emption European Telecommunications Numbering Space European Telecommunications Standards Institute elementary time unit

F
FACH FAUSCH FAX FBI FCI FCS FDD FDMA FEC FER FFS FM FN FNUR FP FTAM Forward Access Channel Fast Uplink Signalling Channel Facsimile Feedback Information File Control Information Frame Check Sequence Frequency Division Duplex Frequency Division Multiple Access Forward Error Correction Frame Erasure Rate, Frame Error Rate For Further Study Fault Management Frame Number Fixed Network User Rate Frame Protocol File Transfer Access and Management

G
GC GGSN GID1 GID2 GMSC GMSK GP GPRS GSM GSN GTP GTP-U General Control (SAP) Gateway GPRS Support Node Group Identifier (level 1) Group Identifier (level 2) Gateway MSC Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Guard Period General Packet Radio Service Global System for Mobile communications GPRS Support Nodes GPRS Tunneling Protocol GPRS Tunnelling Protocol for User Plane

Page 5 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

H
H-CSCF HCS HDLC HE-VASP HF HHO HLR HN HO HPLMN HPS HRR HSCSD HSS HTTP HTTPS Home CSCF Hierarchical Cell Structure High Level Data Link Control Home Environment Value Added Service Provider Human Factors Hard Handover Home Location Register Home Network Handover Home Public Land Mobile Network Handover Path Switching Handover Resource Reservation High Speed Circuit Switched Data Home Subscriber Server Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure

I
I-Block I/O IC ICC ICGW ICMP ID IDL IE IEC IETF IF IFS IFSC IFSD IHOSS IIOP IK IMA IMEI IMGI IMSI IMT-2000 IMUN IN Information Block Input/Output Integrated Circuit Integrated Circuit Card Incoming Call Gateway Internet Control Message Protocol Identifier Interface Definition Language Information Element International Electrotechnical Commission Internet Engineering Task Force Infrastructure Information Field Sizes Information Field Size for the UICC Information Field Size for the Terminal Internet Hosted Octet Stream Service Internet Inter-ORB Protocol Integrity key Inverse Multiplexing on ATM International Mobile Equipment Identity International mobile group identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 International Mobile User Number Intelligent Network
Page 6 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

INAP INF IP IP-M IPv4 IPv6 IR IRP ISCP ISDN ISO ISP ISUP ITU IUI IWU

Intelligent Network Application Part INFormation field Internet Protocol IP Multicast Internet Protocol Version 4 Internet Protocol Version 6 Infrared Integration Reference Point Interference Signal Code Power Integrated Services Digital Network International Organisation for Standardisation Internet Service Provider ISDN User Part International Telecommunication Union International USIM Identifier Inter Working Unit

J
JAR file JD JNDI JP JPEG JTAPI Java Archive File Joint Detection Java Naming Directory Interface Joint Predistortion Joint Photographic Experts Group Java Telephony Application Programming Interface

K
kbps ksps kilo-bits per second kilo-symbols per second

L
L1 L2 L3 LA LAC LAI LAN LAPB LATA LCD Layer 1 (physical layer) Layer 2 (data link layer) Layer 3 (network layer) Location Area Link Access Control Location Area Identity Local Area Network Link Access Protocol Balanced Local Access and Transport Area Low Constrained Delay
Page 7 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

LCP LCS LEN LLC LN LNS LSA LSB LTZ

Link Control Protocol Location Services LENgth Logical Link Control Logical Name L2TP Network Server Localised Service Area Least Significant Bit Local Time Zone

M
MA MAC-A MAC-I context) MAC MAC MAHO MAP MCC MCML Mcps MCU MDS ME MEHO MER MExE MF MGCF MGCP MGT MGW MHEG MIB MIM MIP MIPS MM MMI MNC MNP MO MOHO MOS Multiple Access MAC used for authentication and key agreement (TSG T WG3 context) MAC used for data integrity of signalling messages (TSG T WG3 Medium Access Control (protocol layering context) Message authentication code (encryption context) Mobile Assisted Handover Mobile Application Part Mobile Country Code Multi-Class Multi-Link PPP Mega-chips per second Media Control Unit Multimedia Distribution Service Mobile Equipment Mobile evaluated handover Message Error Rate Mobile station (application) Execution Environment Master File Media Gateway Control Function Media Gateway Control Part Mobile Global Title Media GateWay Multimedia and Hypermedia Information Coding Expert Group Management Information Base Management Information Model Mobile IP Million Instructions Per Second Mobility Management Man Machine Interface Mobile Network Code Mobile Number Portability Mobile Originated Mobile Originated Handover Mean Opinion Score
Page 8 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

MP MPEG MRF MS MSB MSC MSE MSID MSIN MSP MT MTP MTP3-B MTU MUI

Multi-link PPP Moving Pictures Experts Group Media Resource Function Mobile Station Most Significant Bit Mobile Switching Centre MExE Service Environment Mobile Station Identifier Mobile Station Identification Number Multiple Subscriber Profile Mobile Terminated Message Transfer Part Message Transfer Part level 3 Maximum Transfer Unit Mobile User Identifier

N
NAD NAI NAS NBAP NCK NCP NDC NDUB NE NEHO NEV NITZ NM NMSI NNI NO NP NPA NPI NRM NRT NSAP NSCK NSDU NSS Nt NT NUI Node Address byte Network Access Identifier Non-Access Stratum Node B Application Part Network Control Key Network Control Protocol National Destination Code Network Determined User Busy Network Element Network evaluated handover NEVer Network Identity and Time Zone Network Manager National Mobile Station Identifier Network-Node Interface Network Operator Network Performance Numbering Plan Area Numbering Plan Identifier Network Resource Model Non-Real Time Network Service Access Point Network Subset Control Key Network service data unit Network Sub System Notification (SAP) Non Transparent National User / USIM Identifier
Page 9 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

NW

Network

O
O&M OCCCH OCF ODB ODCCH ODCH ODMA ORACH ODTCH OS OSA OSP OSP:IHOSS OVSF Operations and Maintenance ODMA Common Control Channel Open Card Framework Operator Determined Barring ODMA Dedicated Control Channel ODMA Dedicated Channel Opportunity Driven Multiple Access ODMA Random Access Channel ODMA Dedicated Traffic Channel Operations System Open Service Architecture Octet Stream Protocol Octet Stream Protocol for Internet Hosted Octet Stream Service Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor

P
PAD PAP PBP PBX PC PC PCB PCCC PCCH PCH PCK PCMCIA PCPCH PCCPCH PCS PCU PDCP PDH PDN PDN PDP PDSCH PDU PG PHF Packet Assember/Disassembler Password Authentication Protocol Paging Block Periodicity Private Branch eXchange Power Control Personal Computer Protocol Control Byte Parallel Concatenated Convolutional Code Paging Control Channel Paging Channel Personalisation Control Key Personal Computer Memory Card International Association Physical Common Packet Channel Primary Common Control Physical Channel Personal Communication System Packet Control Unit Packet Data Convergence Protocol Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Public Data Network Packet Data Network Packet Data Protocol Physical Downlink Shared Channel Protocol Data Unit Processing Gain Packet Handler Function
Page 10 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

PHS PHY PhyCH PI PICH PID PIN PLMN PMD PN PNP POTS PPM PPP PPS PRACH PS PSC PSCH PSE PSTN PTM PTM-G PTM-M PTP PU PUSCH PVC

Personal Handyphone System Physical layer Physical Channel Page Indicator Page Indicator Channel Packet Identification Personal Identification Number Public Land Mobile Network Physical Media Dependent Pseudo Noise Private Numbering Plan Plain Old Telephony Service Parts Per Million Point-to-Point Protocol Protocol and Parameter Select (response to the ATR) Physical Random Access Channel Packet Switched Primary Synchronisation Code Physical Shared Channel Personal Service Environment Public Switched Telephone Network Point-to-Multipoint PTM Group Call PTM Multicast Point to point Payload Unit Physical Uplink Shared Channel Permanent Virtual Circuit

Q
QoS QPSK Quality of Service Quadrature (Quaternary) Phase Shift Keying

R
R-APDU R-Block R-SGW R-TPDU R00 R99 RA RAB RACH RADIUS Response APDU Receive-ready Block Roaming Signalling Gateway Response TPDU Release 2000 Release 1999 Routing Area Radio Access Bearer Random Access Channel Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
Page 11 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

RAI RAN RANAP RB RDF RF RFC RFE RFU RL RLC RLCP RNC RNS RNSAP RNTI RPLMN RRC RRM RSCP RSSI RST RSVP RT RTP RU RX

Routing Area Identity Radio Access Network Radio Access Network Application Part Radio Bearer Resource Description Format Radio Frequency Request For Comments Routing Functional Identity Reserved for Future Use Radio Link Radio Link Control Radio Link Control Protocol Radio Network Controller Radio Network Subsystem Radio Network Subsystem Application Part Radio Network Temporary Identity Registered Public Land Mobile Network Radio Resource Control Radio Resource Management Received Signal Code Power Received Signal Strength Indicator Reset Resource ReserVation Protocol Real Time Real Time Protocol Resource Unit Receive

S
S-Block S-CSCF S-RNTI SAAL SACCH SAD SAP SAPI SAR SAT SCCH SCCPCH SCF SCF SCH SCI Supervisory Block Serving CSCF SRNC Radio Network Temporary Identity Signalling ATM Adaptation Layer Slow Associated Control Channel Source ADdress Service Access Point Service Access Point Identifier Segmentation and Reassembly SIM Application Toolkit Synchronisation Control Channel Secondary Common Control Physical Channel Service Control Function (IN context) Service Capability Feature (VHE/OSA context) Synchronisation Channel Subscriber Controlled Input
Page 12 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

SCP SDCCH SDH SDU SE SF SFI SFN SGSN SHCCH SIC SIM SIP SIR SMDS SMI SLA SMS SMS-CB SN SNDCP SNMP SoLSA SP SP SPCK SQN SRNC SRNS SS7 SSC SSCOP SSCF SSCF-NNI SSCS SSDT SSF SSSAR STC STTD SVC SW

Service Control Point Stand-Alone Dedicated Control Channel Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Service Data Unit Security Environment Spreading Factor Short EF Identifier System Frame Number Serving GPRS Support Node Shared Channel Control Channel Service Implementation Capabilities GSM Subscriber Identity Module Session Initiated Protocol Signal-to-Interference Ratio Switched Multimegabit Data Service Structure of Management Information (RFC 1155) Service Level Agreement Short Message Service SMS Cell Broadcast Serving Network Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol Simple Network Management Protocol Support of Localised Service Area Switching Point Service Provider Service Provider Control Key Sequence number Serving Radio Network Controller Serving RNS Signalling System No. 7 Secondary Synchronisation Code Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol Service Specific Co-ordination Function Service Specific Coordination Function Network Node Interface Service Specific Convergence Sublayer Site Selection Diversity Transmission Service Switching Function Service Specific Segmentation and Re-assembly sublayer Signalling Transport Converter Space Time Transmit Diversity Switched virtual circuit Status Word

Page 13 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

T-SGW T TA TC TCH TCP TD-CDMA TDD TDMA TE TE9 TEID TF TFC TFCI TFCS TFI TFS TFT TLLI TLS TLV TM TMF TMN TMSI TN TO TP TPC TPDU TR TrCH TS TSTD TTI TX

Transport Signalling Gateway Transparent Terminal Adaptation Transmission Convergence Traffic Channel Transmission Control Protocol Time Division-Code Division Multiple Access Time Division Duplex Time Division Multiple Access Terminal Equipment Terminal Equipment 9 (ETSI sub-technical committee) Tunnel End Point Identifier Transport Format Transport Format Combination Transport Format Combination Indicator Transport Format Combination Set Transport Format Indicator Transport Format Set Traffic Flow Template Temporary Link Level Identity Transport Layer Security Tag Length Value Telecom Management Telecom Management Forum Telecom Management Network Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Termination Node Telecom Operations Map Third Party Transmit Power Control Transfer Protocol Data Unit Technical Report Transport Channel Technical Specification Time Switched Transmit Diversity Transmission Timing Interval Transmit

U
U-RNTI UARFCN UARFN UART UCS2 UDD UTRAN Radio Network Temporary Identity UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Number Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter Universal Character Set 2 Unconstrained Delay Data
Page 14 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

UDP UE UER UI UICC UL UM UML UMS UMTS UNI UP UPT URA URA URAN URI URL USB USC USCH USIM USSD UT UTRA UTRAN UUI UUS

User Datagram Protocol User Equipment User Equipment with ODMA relay operation enabled User Interface Universal Integrated Circuit Card Uplink (Reverse Link) Unacknowledged Mode Unified Modelling Language User Mobility Server Universal Mobile Telecommunications System User-Network Interface User Plane Universal Personal Telecommunication User Registration Area UTRAN Registration Area UMTS Radio Access Network Uniform Resource Identifier Uniform Resource Locator Universal Serial Bus UE Service Capabilities Uplink Shared Channel Universal Subscriber Identity Module Unstructured Supplementary Service Data Universal Time Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network User-to-User Information Uu Stratum

V
VA VASP VBR VBS VC VGCS VHE VLR VoIP VPLMN VPN Voice Activity factor Value Added Service Provider Variable Bit Rate Voice Broadcast Service Virtual Circuit Voice Group Call Service Virtual Home Environment Visitor Location Register Voice Over IP Visited Public Land Mobile Network Virtual Private Network

W
Page 15 of 16

UMTS Abbreviations

WAE WAP WBEM WCDMA WDP WIN WSP WTA WTAI WTLS WTP WTX WWT WWW

Wireless Application Environment Wireless Application Protocol Web Based Enterprise Management Wideband Code Division Multiple Access Wireless Datagram Protocol Wireless Intelligent Network Wireless Session Protocol Wireless Telephony Applications Wireless Telephony Applications Interface Wireless Transport Layer Security Wireless Transaction Protocol Waiting Time eXtenstion Work Waiting Time World Wide Web

X
XRES EXpected user RESponse

Y
empty

Z
empty

Page 16 of 16