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The Mole-Volume Relationship

Objective 1. Identify the volume of a quantity of a gas at STP.

Mole-Volume Relationship
Look at 1 mol of table sugar, 1 mol of table salt. Notice that the volumes of one mole of different solid substances are different. Molar volumes of different liquids are also different. How about molar volumes of gases?

Avogadros Hypothesis
In 1881 Avogadro first proposed the following idea: Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal number of particles. The reverse of Avogadros hypothesis is that equal number of gas particles at the same temperature and pressure have the same volume.

Volume of a Gas
In each container, the volume occupied by the gas molecules is extremely small compared to the volume of its container. Therefore the volume of gas particles are negligible. Whether the gas particles are large or small, they occupy the same volume at same temperature and pressure.

Gas Volume and Temperature


How does temperature affect the volume of a gas? Volume of a gas varies with a change in temperature

When temperature increases, volume increases. When temperature decreases, volume decreases.

Gas Volume and Pressure


How does pressure affect the volume of a gas? Volume of a gas varies with a change in pressure When pressure increases, volume decreases. When pressure decreases, volume increases.

Standard Temperature and Pressure


Because the volume of a gas varies with temperature and pressure, the volume of a gas usually measured at a Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP). STP means 00 C and a pressure of 101.3 kPa or 1 atm

Molar Volume of a Gas


At STP, one mol of any gas occupies volume of 22.4 L At STP 6.02 x 1023 representative particles of a gas occupies 22.4 L. The quantity, 22.4 L is called molar volume of a gas.

Gas

Molar Volume of a Gas


Unlike solids and liquids, the molar volume of gases is predictable, but is affected by temperature and pressure What unit is used for the mass of a mole? What unit is used for the volume of a mole? Molar volume of a gas is 22.4 L/mol

Assessment: Gas Volume


All three gases are at STP

1 L H2

1 L CH4

1 L N2

Is the volume of these gases equal? Is the number of molecules of these gases equal? Are the masses of these gases equal? Is the number of moles of these gases equal?

Mole Volume Relationship

Practice Problems
1. What is the volume of these gases at STP? a. 3.20 x 10-3 mol CO2 b. 3.70 mol N2 At STP, what volume do these gases occupy? a. 1.25 mol He b. 0.335 mol C2H6 c. 1.34 mol SO2 How many moles of nitrogen gas will be contained in a 2.00L flask at STP?

2.

3.

1. (a) 7.17 x 10-2 L CO2 (b) 82.9 L N2 2. (a) 28.0 L He (b) 7.50 L C2H6 (c) 30.0 L SO2 3. 0.09 mol

Practice Problems
4. What volume will 0.416 g of krypton gas occupy at STP? 5. What volume in milliliters will 0.00922 g of H2 gas occupy at STP? 6. How many grams of carbon dioxide gas are in a 1.0 L balloon at STP?

Practice Problems
4. What volume will 0.416 g of krypton gas occupy at STP? 5. What volume in milliliters will 0.00922 g of H2 gas occupy at STP? 6. How many grams of carbon dioxide gas are in a 1.0 L balloon at STP?

(4) 0.111 L (5) 102 mL (6)2.0 g

Practice Problems
7. A gas has density of 0.902 g/L at STP. What is the molar mass of this gas? 8. What is the density of oxygen gas at STP? 9. Sulfur dioxide has a density of 3.58 g/L at STP. What is the molar mass of this gas? 10. What is the density of krypton gas at STP?

7. 20.2 g/mol 8. 1.43 g/L

9. 80.2 g/mol 10. 3.74 g/L

The Mole Road Map