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BATCH-02

UNDER GUIDANCE OF MR.V.VIJAYARAMARAJU PROFESSOR, DEPT. OF EEE

QUASAR METER

RS-485 C0MMUNICA TION CIRCUIT

PC

Contents
Introduction QUASAR METER QUASAR MODBUS DETAILS NI LABVIEW MODBUS

DESIGN OF RS-485 COMMUNICATION CIRCUIT


LABVIEW SIMULATION AND RESULTS. DSP METER

CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION
Smart metering generally involves the installation of an intelligent meter at

residential customers , offices etc., and the regular reading , processing and feedback of consumption data to the customer. The intelligence of the meter is incorporated in the electricity meter which uses DSP technology. Energy meter is an electrical measuring device, which is used to record Electrical Energy Consumed over a specified period of time in terms of units. The electricity meter communicates by means of a communication circuit and reads all parameters that measured by a meter.

QUASAR METER
QUASAR is a 96 x 96 mm , flush mounted , single screen

multiple parameter display digital panel meter for measuring electrical parameters.

The parameters are displayed over all screens which can be

scrolled up and down by front panel push buttons.

The meter is designed with DSP technology.

The front panel has one LCD display , 4 PBs and a LED. The LED flashes at a rate proportional to the kwh in the feeder.

FRONT PANEL PUSH BUTTONS


There are four Push buttons (PBs) on the front panel to do following functions:

a) scrolling thro display


b) c) d)

min/max/present values selection reset of min/max values front panel programming.

FUNCTIONS OF FRONT PANEL PUSH BUTTONS


Display scroll PBS & All screens of display can be viewed by pressing or PBs of front panel. Pressing & simultaneously will take display to auto scroll mode. The display will scroll through all screens at a fixed rate of 3 secs. Max / min values selector PB MODE The PB designated as 'MODE is meant to read max/min values. Normally latest updated values will be displayed. By pressing the push button MODE, the display can be switched to Min., Max. or present values one after the other. The display will remain in Min & Max modes until the PB is pressed again.

Reset push button


Resets the max/min values, except power demand & energies. Pressing reset key on front panel clears off all the max./min. values except the following parameters. a) Power demand max. value can be cleared only in the programming mode. b) Energy counters can be cleared only in programming mode. Programming mode can be entered from front panel by pressing simultaneously and Mode keys. Meter restarts after coming out of programming mode.

QUASAR MODBUS DETAILS


MODBUS Protocol: The RS485 interface uses MODBUS Protocol in RTU

mode. Communicating with the meter involves sending commands to the meter for reading and writing the particular register. The meter can be addressed with specific user defined meter address (slave ID) from 1-255.

MODBUS DETAILS
MODBUS is a serial asynchronous protocol. The Modbus protocol does not specify the physical interface. The typical physical interfaces are RS-232and RS-485. The Interface Module uses the RS-485 interface. RS485 interface is available to communicate with the meter. The interface is available at the terminals.( refer slide 9)

CONT
Interface Standard: The configuration details to communicate with the meter are given below Standard RS485 (half duplex) Baud rate Selectable- 9600, 4800 bps Parity Selectable- None, odd or even

Start bit 1 Stop bit 1

There are various things to be considered in this modbus protocal:

Details of communication interface

Details of MODBUS protocol Exception responses Explanation of various functions Memory map

CONT
PROTOCOL The RS485 interface uses MODBUS Protocol in RTU mode. Communicating with the meter involves sending commands to the meter for reading and writing the particular register. The meter can be addressed with specific user defined meter address (slave ID) from 1-255. MODBUS protocol uses half-duplex communications, regardless of the hardware.

NI LABVIEW MODBUS
The MODBUS protocol follows a client/server

(master/slave) architecture where a client will request data from the server. The client can also ask the server to perform some action.
Serial Implementation In Modbus: There are two serial modes that the MODBUS

application layer can follow: RTU and ASCII.

Mod bus library

RS-485 COMMUNICATION CIRCUIT


In this communication circuit we design a pcb which converts

quasar meter output to TTL logic (using max485) and thereafter converting TTL logic to usb mode (using ft232rl) .

MAX-485
The MAX485 is low-power transceivers for RS-485 and RS422 communication. The IC contains one driver and one receiver. The driver slew rates of the MAX485 is not limited, allowing them to transmit up to 2.5Mbps. These transceivers draw between 120A and 500A of supply current when unloaded or fully loaded with disabled drivers. All parts operate from a single 5V supply.

CONT..
Drivers are short-circuit current limited and are protected against excessive power dissipation by thermal shutdown circuitry that places the driver outputs into a high-impedance state. The receiver input has a fail-safe feature that guarantees a logic-high output if the input is open circuit.

The MAX485 is designed for half-duplex applications.

FEATURES
Low Quiescent Current: 300A -7V to +12V Common-Mode Input Voltage Range Three-State Outputs 30ns Propagation Delays, 5ns Skew Operate from a Single 5V Supply Allows up to 32 Transceivers on the Bus Data rate: 2.5 Mbps Current-Limiting and Thermal Shutdown for Driver Overload Protection The transmitter outputs and receiver inputs are protected to 15kV Air ESD

APPLICATIONS
Low-Power RS-485 Transceivers Low-Power RS-422 Transceivers

Level Translators
Transceivers for EMI-Sensitive Applications Industrial-Control Local Area Networks

PIN CONFIGURATION

RS-485 COMMUNICATION
With this option, the meters can be networked and various parameters can be monitored on a central PC. All parameters will be available via the RS 485 port. Set up configuration is also possible through this port. Protocol: MODBUS in RTU mode.

QUASAR OUTPUT TO TTL LOGIC


The chips' data sheets label the non-inverted RS-485 line as line A, and the inverted line as line B. An RS-485 receiver must see a voltage difference of just 200mV between A and B. If A is at least 200mV greater than B, the receiver's output is a logic high. If B is at least 200mV greater than A, the output is a logic low. For differences less than 200mV, the output is undefined.

RS-485 TO USB CONVERTER

Cont`d
When a network needs to transfer small blocks of information

over long distances, RS-485 is often the interface of choice. The network nodes can be PCs, microcontrollers, or any devices capable of asynchronous serial communications. An RS-485 network can have as many as 32 unit loads, with one unit load equivalent to an input impedance of 12k. By using high-impedance receivers, you can have as many as 256 nodes. An RS-485 link can extend as far as 4000 ft., and can transfer data at up to 10 Mbps, but not both at the same time. At 90 kbps the maximum cable length is 4000 ft; at 1Mbps, it drops to 400 ft, and at 10Mbps, to 50 ft. For more nodes or very long distances, you can use repeaters that regenerate the signals and begin a new RS-485 line.

Cont`d
The Each USB-RS485 cable contains a small internal

electronic circuit board, utilizing the FT232R, which is encapsulated into the USB connector end of the cable. The other end of the cable is bare, tinned wire ended connections by default, but can be customized using different connectors to support various applications. RS232 or RS485 and are compatible with all popular commercial software programs that support the Modbus RTU protocol. The series provide computer monitoring and control of devices through solid-state relays or TTL signals. The status of digital inputs and outputs is communicated to the host in Modbus RTU

FTDI Driver Installation


Follow the steps below to install driver of USB-High Speed Serial Converter: 1. Power on your computer and make sure that the USB port is enabled and working properly. 2. Plug in the USB-High Speed Serial Converter into the USB port, the PC should then detect the new hardware, or if not, then run the Add New Hardware Wizard to assist you in setting up the new device. 3. If the PC detect the new hardware it ask you to insert the USB-HS Serial

Converter software driver (FTDI USB driver) into the CD-ROM drive and click next to continue. It is also a possible to download the driver from Web site www.jvl.dk/download. 4. Windows will now detect the driver (FTSER2K.SYS). The Path on the CD_ROM is D:\Driver\ATC820\For Windows 98&Me \For Windows Vista x 64 \For Windows XP Click Next to continue installation.

LABVIEW SIMULATION & OUTPUT

from QUASAR meter

Uploading to ethernet
To create an interactive Excel

web page that takes advantage of Microsoft's Office Web Components.

The spreadsheet web page is created by embedding an

Excel XML file in a Html file

Excel sheet saved as web page

CONT

We don't need to spend money on web design programs.

Although HTML, the code for making webpages, may look complicated, it's quite easy. The only thing needed to make a website is a browser and a simple word processor such as notepad.

Web Server
Once you have a website put together you need a web

address to go with it. Now that you have made your website you require the services of a web host. Web hosts provide a place on the internet where folks like you can put a website so that everyone can see it. This web space is called a "web server".

Uploading
Once we have a place for our website

we need to copy our website files from our computer to the web server, either by means of a control panel in your web hosting account or by a program called ftp. This process is referred to as "uploading".

FTP
What is FTP? How to Transfer Files from Your Hard Drive to Web

Site? FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. There are lots of FTP software programs available, and they will work on similar principles.

CONT
With each we need the IP address of our web host,

your username and your password. There are a number of good free FTP programs available. In fact many website design programs come with in-built FTP "publishing" tools.

DSP METER
DESIGNING A CIRCUIT FOR GENERATING A

VOLTAGE LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 3.3V. SIMULATING IT IN MULTISIM. DESIGNING OF THE PCB IN EAGLE.
BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR SENSING VOLTAGE AND

CURRENT SIGNALS

CONT
DSP circuit is designed so that it can modify the rated

3-phase voltages and currents (obtained from the supply 415V, 50Hz) in such a way that they can be given to the DSP. The DSP works only with inputs with values less than 3V. Also, the signals given as inputs to the DSP must be entirely positive, i.e., there should not be any zero-crossing in the signal waveform. The offset given is then removed using software programming, i.e., after signals have been acquired by the DSP.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & SIMULATION RESULTS

Generation of 3.3v usind dsp technology.

Block Diagram for sensing voltage signals

Pin diagram of LM1458N dual OpAmp

Voltage and current signals data acquisition.


The 3-phase voltages are first sensed using 230V/3V

potential transformers and the 3-phase currents by using 5A/0.038A current transformers. The currents thus sensed are converted to voltage signals using a 100 ohm resistor in each phase. Sinusoidal signals of RMS value 3V are thus obtained from the current and potential transformers. Each signal is given to a potential divider made of three 1 Kohm resistors connected in series, thus giving a drop of 1V (RMS) across each resistor.

CONCLUSION
Details about QUASAR intelligent panel meter is studied. Interfacing of QUASAR meter with PC using RS-485

communication circuit is studied. Learnt about MODBUS protocol. Connections of block diagram in LabView software. Updating the data to WEB page using FTP software. Successful Hardware implementation by connecting Schematic and making Board layout in EAGLE . Voltage and current data acquisition using the designed pcb.

BY BATCH-02 GAYATRI DEVI B J JYOTHSNA Y THASLEEMA NASREEN SANTOSHI K V

08241A0210 0824140214 08241A0251 09245A0204