You are on page 1of 43


Birla Institute of Engineering and Technology Pilani-333031

Summer Internship Repot for third year

Student Name : Praveen Kumar Roll No. 07EBKEE042


NTPC Limited (Formerly National Thermal Power Corporation) is the largest power generation company in India and was founded on November 7, 1975. Forbes Global 2000 for 2009 ranked it 317th in the world. National Thermal Power Corporation has been the power behind Indias sustainable power development since November 1975. Contributing 26% of countrys entire power generation, it has placed itself in the Nav - Ratan companies of Indian government and hence is the public sector company. The total installed capacity of the company is 31134 MW (including JVs) with 15 coal based and 7 gas based stations, located across the country. In addition under JVs, 3 stations are coal based & another station uses naphtha/LNG as fuel. NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. Although the company has 18.79% of the total national capacity it contributes 28.60% of total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency. NTPCs share at 31 Mar 2001 of the total installed capacity of the country was 24.51% and it generated 29.68% of the power of the country in 2008-09.

The company has set a future goal of having 50000 MW of installed capacity by 2012 and 75000 MW by 2017. The company has taken many steps like stepup its recruitment, reviewing feasibilities of various sites for project implementations etc. and has been quite successful till date.

Barh Super Thermal power Project Location P.O Barh District Patna Bihar 803213

Phone 06132 240011 / 12 / 13 Fax 06132 240010 , 240014 Regd.Off : NTPC Bhawan , Scope Complex, 7,Institutional Area,
Lodhi Road,New Delhi - 3


To study switchtard and its various equipment including testing of the equipments.


It was really hard to analyse the complex system of switchyard at that high level of system voltage . It was first time to work at a plant premises in disciplines and rules.


A Study Project Report On


Submitted By :Praveen Kumar B.Tech (3rd YR) Electrical Engineering

Submitted To :Mr. Amit Tripathi Sr. Engineer EE Department

B.K.B.I.E.T , Pilani Rajasthan 333031

NTPC , Barh Bihar - 803213

Barh Super Thermal Power Project , P.O-Barh, Dist.-Patna, Bihar-803213


I sincerely acknowledge the co-operation and complete support rendered by Mr.Amit Tripathi, Sr. Engineer(EE) of Barh Super Thermal Power Project (Barh STPP) who introduced me to detailed working of plant and switchyard and gave best possible information regarding the same . I would take my opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to Mr.Vajira Vel & Mr. Krishna Murthy (commissioning Er) for their active co-operation and kind consideration in every stage of training . Finally I express my sincere thanks to all team members of EED who directly or indirectly helped me to complete the training successfully.








Project name No. of units capacity : BARH STPP : 3 660MW(STAGE -I) 2 660MW(STAGE -II) : National thermal power corporation Ltd. (NTPC

Projects setting up by

Ltd.) Location: The project site is located about 3kms east of Barh town in Patna district in the state of Bihar, having a latitude and longitude of 25 deg 28' N and 85deg 45' E respectively. The plant and township are located between NH-31 and railway line. The ash disposal area is located in the south of the railway line.

Land requirement: Approximately 1200 acres of land has been identified between NH1 and railway lines for the plant area, switchyard, green belt, labour colony, ash based units and township. approximately 1750 acres of land has been identified for the ash disposal area in the south of railway line.

Coal availability and linkage:Coal requirement for Barh STPP, stage-1 is proposed to be met from Amarpali block of north Karanpura coalfields. Coal requirement for the project in estimated as 10 million tones/annum considering a GCV of 3350 kcal/kg and 80% PLF.

Coal transportation:Coal from amarpali block of north karanpura coalfields is proposed to be transported to the project site through Indian railways system for a distance of approximately 250kms via shorter route .

Water requirement: The project site is located near the river Ganges. The make up water requirement for the project is proposed to be drawn from river Ganges near

village Nawada, at a distance of 2kms. The make up water requirement for the project is estimated as 9200 m3/hr with ash water recirculation system and 10200 m3/hr once through ash water system respectively. A closed cycle cooling water system using induced draft cooling towers is proposed.

Construction power: The requirements of the construction power supply for the project would be met at 33Kv level from the nearby BSEB substations. Necessary 33kV substation and 11kV ring main /LT substations shall be provided for the power plant area.

Power Evacuation system: Power generated is proposed to be stepped up to 400kV by generator transformer and will be evacuated through the transmission system to be evolved and implemented by Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. The switchyard at power plant end is owned by NTPC.

Beneficiary states:The states & UTs of Northern & Western regions and state of Bihar.

Switchyard is considered as the HEART of the Power Plant. Power generated can be worthy only if it is successfully transmitted and received by its consumers. Switchyard plays a very important role as a junction between the generation and transmission. It is a junction, which carries the generated power to its destination (i.e. consumers). Switchyard is basically a yard or an open area where many different kinds of equipments are located (isolator, circuit breaker etc), responsible for

connecting & disconnecting the transmission line as per requirement (e.g. any fault condition). Power transmission is done at a higher voltage. (Higher transmission voltage reduces transmission losses resulting in higher utilisation of generating capacity and optimises the resource required for capacity addition.). Therefore, the power generated by the Turbogenerator of 1 to 5 units is 24KV which is stepped-up to 400KV by the Generating transformer & then transmitted to switchyard. In BSTPP there are two switchyards:(i) 400KV SWITCHYARD (ii) 132KV SWITCHYARD

Switchyard is classified in three categories : Conventional Air Insulated Type. Gas Insulated type. Outdoor Gas Insulated type.

At BSTPP 400 KV and 132 KV Switchyards are of type Conventional Air Insulated Type.


There are total 22 bay in 400 KV switchyard. A Bay is basically a way for the incoming power from generator as well as outgoing power for distribution. 5 Bay for each generating transformer

Bay for ICT(Inter Connecting Transformer)

Bay for PATNA line

2 Bay for KAHALGAON line 2 Bay for BALIA line


for FUTURE line


There are four main buses in 400 KV switchyard.

Main bus 1& 2

Main bus 3&4

There are total 11 Bay in 132 KV switchyard.

3 Bay for ICT (Inter Connecting Transformer)

5 Bay for S.T (Station Transformer) 2 Bay for MST (Miscellaneous Service Transformer) 1 Bay for Bus Coupler

There are two main buses in 132 KV switchyard. Main bus - 1 Main bus - 2


The current transformer is a step up transformer , it means current is stepped down to a very low value (generally 1 A or 5 A) so that it can be used for measuring and protection purposes . C.T is designed in such a way its Core Material could give high accuracy with low saturation factor. Core Material is generally made of CRGO Silicon steel For very low loss characteristics, material (Alloy of Ni-Fe) is used.

Current Transformer is used for basically two major functions:

Metering which means current measurement. Protection such as over current protection, overload earth fault protection, Bus-bar protection, Bus differential protection.

CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. There is not more difference between 132 KV and 400 KV C.T , only current ratio differs


Insulation resistance Winding resistance Polarity Knee point test or magnetising current

Turns Ratio test

Primary Current Injection Test Tan Delta test


o Standard o Highest System Voltage


IS2705 145 KV 275/650 KV 50 Hz 31.5 KA for 1 sec 1200 A 120%

Insulation Level

o Frequency o Short Time Current o Rated Primary Current o Extended Current

TERMINAL RATIO 1s1-1s2 1s1-1s3 1s1-1s4 2s1-2s2 2s1-2s3 2s1-2s4 3s1-3s2 3s1-3s3 3s1-3s4 4s1-4s2 4s1-4s3 4s1-4s4 5s1-5s2 5s1-5s3 5s1-5s4 300/1 A 600/1 A 1200/1 A 300/1 A 600/1 A 1200/1 A 300/1 A 600/1 A 1200/1 A 300/1 A 600/1 A 1200/1 A 300/1 A 600/1 A 1200/1 A

VA 20 20 20 -

CLAS S PS PS PS PS PS PS 0.5 0.5 0.5 5P20 5P20 5P20 PS PS PS

Kp 300v/160mA 600v/80mA 1200v/40mA 300v/160mA 600v/80mA 1200v/40mA 300v/160mA 600v/80mA 1200v/40mA 300v/160mA 600v/80mA 1200v/40mA

OHMS at 75 C 2.5 5 10 2.5 5 10

PURPOSE Protection protection Protection Protection Protection Protection Metering Metering Metering Protection Protection Protection Protection Protection Protection

2.5 5 10 2.5 5 10


o Standard o Rated Voltage


IS2705 420 KV 275/650 KV 50 Hz 31.5 KA for 1 sec 2000 A 200/120% 750 Kg 2500 Kg 40 kA for 1 sec 100 (kA peak) 5 3000-2000-1000/1-1 (Cores 1 & 2 ) 3000-2000-1000-500/1-1-1 (Cores 3, 4& 5)

Insulation Level

o Frequency o Short Time Current

o o

Rated Continous normal Current Extended Current

o Oil weight o Total weight o Short time thermal current withstand for o Dynamic current withstand
o o

No. of cores per CT Transformation ratio


630/1425 KV




Core number Rated primary current(A) Rated sec. Current(A) Output(VA) Accuracy class I.S.F/A.L.F Rct at 75 c (ohms) KPV (V) Lexc at Vk (mA)

1 1 PS 15 3000 20

3 3000 1 1 20 PS 0.2 5 10 5 2000 1000 30 60 -

1 1 PS PS 15 10 5 2.5 6000 4000 2000 1000 20 30 60 120


It is a step down transformer, which step down the high voltage to a lower value that can be measured using the measuring instruments . The CVT are connected between phase and ground in parallel to the circuit. The other most important function of C.V.T is that it blocks power frequency of 50Hz and allows the flow of carrier frequency for communication.

CVT Construction Details There are 280 300 elements in C1 & C2 as these are stacks of capacitors. C1 contains about 260 to 280 elements. C2 will be containing 15 to 20 elements. Ratio of C1/ C2 is about 20 400/ 20 = 20kV (Tap Voltage) CVT Secondary Voltage v = k * V * C1/ (C1+C2) V Primary Voltage , k Secondary Transformation ratio SPECIFICATIONS OF 400 KV CVT

o Standard o Primary voltage o Phase o Insulation level

IS:3156 400kv/sqrt(3) single 630/1425 KVP

o Highest system voltage o Temp cat. o Type o Weight o CN o C1 o C2

420 KV 50c outdoor 1130 Kg 4400 pF 4656 pF 80000 pF

Secondary terminal Secondary volts Rated burden(VA) Class Frequency(Hz)

1a-1n 1a-1n 110/sqrt(3) 200 3P 48-51

2a-2n 2a-2n 110/sqrt(3) 200 3P 48-51

3a-3n 110/sqrt(3) 100 0.2 49.5-50.5

Megger(IR) Winding resistance Ratio test Tan-delta test Capacitance

A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by any disturbance in power system. Its function is to interrupt continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. It can be used in off-load as well as on-load condition. When a circuit breaker is operated by sending an impulse through relay, C.B. contact is made or broken accordingly. During this making and breaking, an arc is produced which has to be quenched; this is done by air, oil, SF6 gas etc. Depending on the arc quenching medium being used C.B.s can be categorized into various types. In BSTPP for 400 KV/132 KV switchyard only one type is being used:

ACB (Air break circuit breaker):- operated as well as arc quenched through air. BOCB (Bulk oil circuit breaker):-arc quenching done through oil (Aerosol fluid oil). MOCB (Minimum oil circuit breaker):-arc quenching done through oil (Aerosol fluid oil). ABCB (Air Blast Circuit Breaker):- arc quenching done by blast of air SF6 circuit breaker:- arc quenching done through SF6 gas.

Hydraulic operated SF6 circuit breaker is the most efficient due to following reasons:1. Less maintenance. 2. Arc quenching capability of SF6 gas is more effective than air. 3. Heat transfer capacity is better in this C.B. TESTING OF A CIRCUIT BREAKER Insulation resistance CRM(contact resistance measurement) DCRM(Dynamic contact resistance measurement)

Closing time test Opening time test Closing coil & trip coil resistance

Pickup drop of coils Antipumping Relay operation

Pole discrepancy SF6 lock out N2 lockout

Hydraulic Oil lockout

SPECIFICATIONS OF A 132 KV CB o C.B type o Voltage o Lightning imp. With voltage o Power freq. With voltage o Frequency o Normal current o Gas pressure SF6 o Maximum working pressure o Operating device type o Breaking current o Making current o Short time current LTB145D1/B 145 KV 650 KV 275 KV 50 Hz 1250 A abs(+20c) 9.0 bar BLK222 31.5 KA 80 KA 31.5 KA

o Total mass o Mass of gas o Temperature class o First pole to clear factor o Operating sequence

1710 Kg 6.8 Kg -5c 1.3 O-0-3s-CO-3min-CO

SPECIFICATIONS OF A 400 KV CB o C.B type o Rated Voltage o Number of poles


3AT2 420 KV 3 Single pole unit linked together live tank design two 1050/1425 KVp 520/610 KV 50 Hz 3150 A 8.5 bar (+20c) 40 KA

Whether 3 pole or single pole unit

o Whether dead tank or live tank design o No. of breaks per pole
o o

Rated imp.Withstand voltage Rated Power freq. Withstand voltage

o Frequency o Rated Normal current

o o

Rated pressure of SF6 Breaking current (symmetrical)

o o o o o

Making current Short time current Short time duration Total weight Weight of SF6 gas

100 KAp 40 KA 1 sec 9290 Kg 67.5 Kg -5c 1.3 O-0.3secs-CO-3mins-CO 22010 VDC 22010 VDC 3133 bar 40 ms 120 ms Outdoor Electro Hydraulic 300 ms 300 ms

o Temperature class
o o

First pole to clear factor Rated Operating duty

o Rated trip coil voltage o Rated closing coil voltage o Rated pressure of hydraulic oper. Mech. o Rated break time o Closing time o Type of installation o Type of closing & opening mechanism o Minimum dead time for three phase reclosing o Minimum dead time single phase reclosing


It is a protective device, which protects the costly equipments such as overhead lines, poles or towers, transformer etc. against lightening impulses and switching impulse. As the name suggests it arrests the lightening of very high voltage (thousands of KV) and dump it into the ground. It works on the principle of easy path for the flow of current. S.A. is connected in parallel with the line with its lower end connected and the upper end projected above the pole of tower. Lightning arrestor on its continuous operation drives a small amount of driving current usually of magnitude 0.1 to 0.8 mA . for monitoring this leakage current we use a surge monitor as this leakage current increases with time which indicates the aging of arrestor.





o Arrestor class o Type o Rated arrestor voltage o Nominal discharge current o Continuous operating voltage at designed temperature o Line discharge class as per IEC

station class gapless type 390 KV(rms) 10 kA 303 kV

class III

o One minute power freq. Withstand voltage 630kV(rms) o Impulse current withstand(high current 4/10sec wave long duration) o Lightning impulse withstand voltage 1.2/50 sec wave 1425 kVp 100kAp


Insulation resistance Counter Leakage current monitor test Capacitance test

An isolator is one, which can break an electrical circuit when the circuit is to be switched on no load. These are normally used in various circuits for the purposes of isolating a certain portion when required for maintenance etc. It is always used in OFF-LOAD condition. "Switching isolators" are capable of Interrupting transformer magnetized currents; Interrupting line charging current; and Load transfer switching.

Generally we have a provision for a earth switch associated with a isolator .Earth switches are devices which are normally used to earth a particular system to avoid accident, which may happen due to induction on account of live adjoin circuit. These do not handle any appreciate current at all.


Insulation resistance

CRM(contact resistance measurement)

Open time Close time Closing coil resistance Opening coil resistance Pickup drop of coils

Bus bar are used to interconnect the loads and sources of electrical power . It connects incoming and outgoing transmission lines.It also connect generator and main transformer in power plant. Copper or Aluminium are generally used for busbar The bus bars of 400 kV switchyard are generally made up 4 IPS aluminum tube or Quad Moose rated for 3000 A. The bus bars of 220/132kV switchyard are generally made up of 3 IPS aluminum tube or quad/ twin moose conductor. Bus bars are placed at right angles to the feeders for tapping the power. There are different bus schemes for a switchyard, depending on certain factors such as feeder fault, bus fault and redundancy in design. Single sectionalised bus Main and transfer bus

Sectionalised Main bus with transfer bus Sectionalised double main and transfer bus Double Bus Scheme Ring bus One and a half breaker Double bus, double breaker

One and a half breaker bus scheme is adopted for 400 KV switchyard at BSTPP. While for 132 KV switchyard one Main and transfer bus scheme is adopted.

It is an equipment used to trap the high carrier frequency of 20Hz to 20 KHz and above and allow the flow of power frequency (50 Hz). High frequencies also get generated due to capacitance to earth in long transmission lines. The basic principle of wave trap is that it has low inductance (2 Henry) & negligible resistance, thus it offers high impedance to carrier frequency whereas very low impedance to powerfrequency hence allowing it to flow in the station. Generally there are two class of linetrap depending upon the value of inductance. Inductance value may be of 1.0 mH or 0.5 mH.

PLCC(Power Line Carrier Communication)

As the name suggests, P.L.C.C. is basically a method in which the line used for power transmission is also being used for communication. P.L.C.C is employed for performing following two functions: (i) Communication purposes. (ii) Protection Communication Purpose: There are two types of electrical frequency which flow in a line- 50Hz power signal & 20 KHz of carrier signal. In order to isolate these two frequencies (so that they do not hinder each other) tapping of the frequencies is done as per the requirement. Since in the buses and bays we need only power frequency, wavetraps are being used to block high frequency carrier signals. C.V.T. blocks the power frequencies and due to the capacitance present it allows the high frequency carrier signals to pass through co-axial cables.

Protection Transmission line between two sub-stations is bi-directional. When a fault occurs and a trip command is given at one end, the breaker gets opened. Now the other end breaker should also be opened to completely isolate the line from supply. For this the other end should also give the trip command. This is when the P.L.C.C. comes into play. From the P.L.C.C. room present at the tripping end along with the carrier signal, a signal of a lesser frequency is superimposed and sent to the P.L.C.C. room present at the other end. Now this will be demodulated and the other end will come to know that tripping has occurred. Now it will give a command, which will energize the relay, contact will be made and the breaker will operate.


Generally we use two types of insulator in a switchyard o Suspension type insulators o Post type insulators Suspension insulators or string insulators are used to align aluminium conductors . each individual disc has a rated voltage of about 16kV. Post type insulators provide horizontal support to the aluminium tube busbar.




IS:2544-1973/IEC 168-1994 solid core post type three 400 kV(rms) 420 kV(rms) 1550 kVp >1175kVp 8 KN 160 KN 300 Kg

o Type o No. of units per stack o Nominal system voltage


Highest system voltage

o Lightning imp. withstand voltage o Switching surge withstand voltage o Ultimate cantilever strength(Min) o Ultimate tensile strength

Net weight

Earthing is to be provided in substations due to following reasons: The object of earthing is to maintain a low potential on any object.

The purpose of a earthing system in a substation area is to limit the potential gradient within and immediately outside the area to a value ,

safe for the working personnel. Safety is to be ensured under normal as well as under abnormal conditions To provide a means to carry electric current into the earth under normal and fault conditions , without exceeding any operating and equipment limits or adversely affecting continuity of service . At BSTPP solid earthing is done in 132 KV and 400 KV switchyard.

Following basic require are to be satisfied so as to ensure a proper earthing system

o The earth resistance for the switchyard area should be lower than a certain limiting value in order to ensure that a safe potential gradient is maintained in the switchyard area and protective relay equipment operate satisfactorily. For major switchyards and substations in India this limiting value of earth resistance is to be taken less than 0.5 ohm.

The grounding conductor material should be capable of carrying the maximum earth fault current without over-heating and mechanical damage. The maximum fault level in the 400KV has been estimated to be 40kA and this value of fault current is is to be used in design of earth mat for the 400 kV substation.

o All metallic objects which do not carry current and installed in the substation such as structures, parts of electrical equipments, fences, armouring and sheaths of low voltage power and control cables should be connected to the earthing electrode system.

The design of ground conductor should take care of the effect of corrosion for the total life span of the plant .

Shunt reactors installed at a switchyard serve two purposes : Whenever there is a increase in system voltage due to capacitance formation it injects inductive power to the system and thus neutralizes it. Shunt reactor also limits the faults current .


o Type o Cooling

core type ONAN 80 MVAr 109.97 A 3 Yn 50 Hz 1300kVp(line),550kVp(neutral) 1050 kVp 364kVp(line),230kVp(neutral) 40780 litre 128755 Kg

Rated power

o Rated current
o o

Phase Connection symbol

o Frequency o Lightning impulse

o o

Switching impulse Power frequency

o Oil quantity o Total weight


Control panel mostly consists of meters and protective relays. The meters include ammeter, voltmeter, wattmeter, energy meter etc. The relays include over voltage relay, over current relay , over frequency relay , under voltage relay , under frequency relay , earth fault relay , master trip , distance relays. auxiliary relay and transformer relays like OLTC out of step, winding temperature alarm, oil temperature alarm. The trip indicators included are CB SF6 gas density low, CB Air pressure low, VT fuse fail alarm, CB pole disc trip, carrier signal received, back up protection, auto reclose lock out, control

DC supply fails, distance protection , carrier out of service, distance protection trip etc.

A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the "secondary" winding. This effect is called mutual induction.

If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (VS) is in proportion to the primary voltage (VP), and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (NS) to the number of turns in the primary (NP) as follows:

A generating transformer is a single phase power transformer(3 single phase units shall form a bank) . Generating Transformer stepsup the generated voltage of 24 KV by alternator to a higher voltage of 400 KV (hence, working as a step-up Transformer).This voltage of 400 KV is then transmitted to switchyard.

o Type Of Cooling o Vector Group o HV Nominal Voltage o LV Nominal Voltage

OFAF YNd11 after 3 phase 420/sqrt(3) KV 24 KV 260 MVA 1072.22 A 10833.33 A 50 Hz single phase * 1425 kVp(HV) 170 kVp(LV) 95 kVp(HVn) 40 kA star (HV) delta (LV) solidly grounded(HVn)

Rated Power

o HV Nominal Current o LV Nominal Current o Frequency o Phases o Lightning impulse withstand voltage

o System fault level o Winding connection

o Tap range

5% in steps of 2.5% on HV neutral side 60430 Kg 250930Kg

o Oil weight

Total weight


An ICT is a 3-phase auto transformer used to interconnect 400 KV switchyard and 132 KV switchyard.

SPECIFICATIONS o Standard o Type of cooling o Type o Vector group o Rated power IS:2026 ONAN/ONAF/OFAF Auto Transformer YNa0d11 200 MVA(HV) 200 MVA(MV) 67 MVA(LV)Reactive 5 MVA Active 40% /60%/100% (A) 40% /60%/100% (MVA) Three 50 Hz

o Current rating of different cooling o Power rating of different cooling o Phase o Frequency

o Winding connection

star(HV) star(MV) delta(LV) solidlygrounded(HVn) 115600 Kgs 81880 Kgs 92000 litre 1180 KV(HV)

o Core and winding mass o Oil mass o Total oil quantity o Switching impulse

Station Transformer is used only for initializing the start-up of the station (Main Plant).It is very beneficial during emergency situations such as tripping of Units, shut-down etc. Station transformers is used to start Station auxiliaries a which are required for generating services such as coal and ash handling system, lighting system, water purifying system etc. It gets the supply in its primary from 132 KV switchyard, stepsdown it to 11.5 KV which is used for starting various equipments & devices used in the Main Power Plant. SPCIFICATIONS o Standard o Type o Rated output IS:2026/77-81 Three Winding 90/45/45 MVA

o Cooling

ONAN/ONAF 132 KV (HV) 11.5 KV(LV1 & LV2) 236.19 / 393.65(HV) 1353.52/2259.20(LV1) 1353.52/2259.20(LV2) 50c (OIL) 55c (WDG) 650/275 (HV) 75/28 (LV1&LV2) 170 /70 (HVn) YNyn0yn0 60500 Kg 33700 Litre 121500 Kg

Rated voltage

o Rated load current

o GTD. Temp rise @ 50c Ambient


Basic insulation level(IMP/P.F)

o Vector group o Core & coil mass o Oil quantity o Total mass

Unit transformer is directly coupled to the unit itself so when that unit is in running condition it supplies power to which are coupled to auxiliaries directly or through unit auxiliary transformer depending upon load. Unit auxiliaries are those which are directly associated with the generating unit such as ID and FD fans, Boiler feed pumps, coal mills, fans, circulating water pumps etc.


o Rated output o Cooling o Type o Voltage ratio o Frequency o Phases o ONAN rating o ONAF rating o Vector group o Lightning impulse withstand voltage o One minute power frequency withstand voltage

35 MVA ONAN/ONAF two(2) winding 24 / 11.5 KV 50 Hz Three min 80% of rated MVA rated MVA Dyn1 170 KVp (HV) 75 KVp (LV) 75 KVp (LVN) 70 KV (HV) 28 KV (LV) 27 KV (LVN)


Miscellaneous service transformer are used to supply miscellaneous loads of plant. It is a two winding transformer connected to 132 KV switchyard.

SPECIFICATIONS o Standard o Rated output o Full load rated current o Cooling o Type o Voltage ratio o Frequency o Phase o Vector group

IS:2026/77-81 16 MVA 69.98 A 803.27 A ONAN Two winding 132 / 11.5 KV 50 Hz Three YNyn0 650 KVp (HV) 75 KVp (LV) 275 KV (HV) 25 KV (LV) 50c (OIL) 55c (Wdg) 17650 Kg 10400 litre 37600 kg

Lightning impulse withstand voltage

o One minute power frequency withstand voltage o GTD. Temp rise at @50c ambient o Core & coil mass o Oil quantity o Total mass


Successful study of a EHV switchyard and its equipments including testings .