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Proposed Mandatory Building Energy Codes Do they Go Far Enough?

Best Practice ASHRAE 90.1

Philip C.H. YU PhD RPE CEng


Trane Environmental & Applications Engg Chair, TWG Energy, ASHRAE HK Chapter

Acknowledgement
ENERGY ASHRAE Hong Kong Chapter TWG-Energy
Philip Yu (Chair) Vincent Chu TW Fung Jacob Yiu David Fan JH Wang

References
ASHRAE Standard 90.1 GB 50189

Standard Rating Conditions


Lack of equipment rating standard, e.g. ARI 550/590 for chiller performance Water-side Fouling Factor:
0.0001 hft2F/Btu or 0.000018m2C/W for the evaporator 0.00025 hft2F/Btu or 0.000044 m2C/W for water-cooled condenser

Standard Rating Conditions


To catch up with current technology:
change chilled water temp - IN to chilled water flow rate, e.g. 2.4 gpm/ton or 0.043 L/s per kW change condenser water temp OUT to condenser water flow rate, e.g. 3.0 gpm/ton or 0.054 L/s per kW Ref. Standard: ARI 550/590, GB/T 18430.1
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Minimum Energy Efficiency


Compressor technology: recip being phased out by scroll for small equipment, by screw for large equipment - air-cooled centrifugal is no longer existing due to the efficiency improvement of screw - Open-type compressor: extra energy for motor cooling shall be estimated and included in calculating the equipment COP
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Minimum Energy Efficiency


Compressor Type Water-cooled scroll Air-cooled Cooling Capacity (kW) 527 5271163 1163 50 50 527 Water-cooled screw Air-cooled 5271163 1163 50 50 527 centrifugal Water-cooled 5271163 1163 PRC 3.80 4.00 4.20 2.40 2.60 4.10 4.30 4.60 2.60 2.80 4.40 4.70 5.10 USA 4.20 4.20 4.20 2.80 2.80 4.45 4.90 5.50 2.80 2.80 5.00 5.55 6.10 HK 4.00 4.50 5.20 2.70 2.70 4.60 4.60 5.50 2.90 2.90 4.00 4.50
6 5.70

Variable-Speed Technology
VSD for VAV fan control, motor size >15 HP 3 N2 Variable flow pump system P2 = P 1 N power >10 HP 1 VSD-chiller not energy-saving unless
cooling load varies significantly with long operating hours at low-load; or cooling water temperature reduces significantly at part-load (<19C) Source: ASHRAE 90.1-2004
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Variable-Speed Technology
VSD chiller application is NOT the same
Historical reason: for using with singlestage centrifugal chiller to reduce the working pressure and avoid chiller surging at low load conditions

Part-Load Performance
VSD-chiller improves IPLV but not part-load performance, ARI-550/590: 1 IPLV = .01 + .42 + .45 + .12 A B C D
A= kW/Ton @ 100% Load, 85F (29.4C) ECWT B= kW/Ton @ 75% Load, 75F (23.9C) ECWT C= kW/Ton @ 50% Load, 65F (18.3C) ECWT D= kW/Ton @ 25% Load, 65F (18.3C) ECWT

more

Valid only for single-chiller system


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Part-Load Performance
Over 80% chillers are installed in multi-chiller plant with staging controls; that is, turned on/off one by one. Therefore, under normal operation, most chillers should be loaded heavily or close to full-load.
System load 100% 90% 80%

Unit chillers load Chiller A-30% 100% 100% 88.8% Chiller B-30% 100% 100% 88.8% Chiller C-30% 100% 100% 88.8% Chiller D-10% 100% 0%

e l p m a Ex
70% 60%

50% 40% 30%

20% 10%

100% 100% 83.3% 0% 100% 0% 0% 0% 100% 83.3% 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% 0% 0% 100% 0% 66.6% 0% 100% 0% 0% 100% 0% 0% 100%

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Part-Load Performance
More chillers more different system load profile is from single chiller Part-load performance is determined by also cooling tower, pump and other accessories ARI recommend energy simulation software to better evaluate part-load performance

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Advanced System Controls


Optimum start for large air systems
[e.g. 5 m3/s]

Fresh air intake control in high occupancy spaces


[e.g. design occupancy > 100 people per 1000 ft or fresh air intake > 3,000 cfm] Shut-off when when unoccupied Occupancy sensor CO2 demand control
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Advanced System Controls


Chiller-tower energy optimization Variable-primary-flow (re: ARTI 2004)
Total annual plant energy 3~8% First cost 4~8% Life cycle cost 3~5%
more

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Lighting Power Density


Interior LPD, W/m Space type Library Hotel Office Retail School PRC 9 13 9 10 9 USA 13 10 10 15 12 HK 17 17 17 20 17

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Lighting Power Density


Tradable exterior surface Parking lots and drives Building m ain entries Canopies Outdoor sales open areas Maxim um LPD 0.15 W /ft 30 W /lin ft of door w idth 1.25 W /ft 0.5 W /ft

Source: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004


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BEC vs. Green Building


Building Market
0.12

Proportion of Market Attaining

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

Typical Practice The Majority 75%


Certified

Green Buildings 25%


Silver Gold Platinum

Law Breakers
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0.02

Innovators/ Risk-takers

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Green Standards

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Go far enough?

30% 90.1 AEDG

50% AEDG

Net Zero Energy Building

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Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do. THANK YOU

Dr. Philip Yu, yupc@trane.com, 2594-9741

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Variable Frequency Drive


Centrifugal Chiller IPLV comparison
0.55 Lowest-std Highest-std Highest-VFD 0.5 Lowest-VFD

Energy Efficiency, kW/ton

0.45

Standard Chillers
0.4

0.35

Chillers w/VFD
0.3 0 500 1000 Nominal Cooling, tons 1500 2000 2500

VFD=Efficiency?
0.8 0.7
Standard Unit

kW/ton

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Std. Unit with VFD

Load

Performance at ARI conditions

VFD=Efficiency?
1.100 0.900 kW/ton 0.700 0.500 0.300
15% 25% 35% 45% 55% 65% 75% 85% 95%

- Std. Eff. Unit w/VFD - Std. Eff Unit

% Load

Performance at Constant water temperature

Performance vs ECWT
85F (29.4C) ECWT
350 300 250
- High Eff. Unit - Std. Eff. Unit w/VFD

kW

200 150 100 50 0

20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Load

ECWT = Entering Condenser Water Temperature

350 300 250

80F (26.7C) ECWT


- High Eff. Unit - Std. Eff. Unit w/VFD

kW

200 150 100 50 0

20 %

40 %

50 %

70 %

30 %

60 %

80 %

90 %

Load

ECWT = Entering Condenser Water Temperature

10 0%

70F (21.1C) ECWT


300 250 200 - High Eff. Unit - Std. Eff. Unit w/VFD

kW

150 100 50 0

20 %

30 %

80 %

40 %

50 %

60 %

70 %

90 %

Load
ECWT = Entering Condenser Water Temperature

10 0%

60F (15.5C) ECWT


250 200 - High Efficiency Unit - Std. Eff. Unit w/VFD

kW

150 100 50 0

80 %

50 %

60 %

Load

ECWT = Entering Condenser Water Temperature

10 0%

40 %

20 %

30 %

70 %

90 %

Chiller-Tower Optimization
Optimum Temp. Total Chiller only

Cooling Tower only

How do chiller reacts to variable flow?


1 30 1 ,500 .00 1 20

C a p a c ity C o n tro l w /o W a te r F lo w C o m p e n s a tio n

1 ,300 .00

1 10

1 ,100 .00

1 00
E va po ra tor W ate r F lo w

9 00.0 0

Water Temp [degF]

80

70

Change Too Fast can be a problem


E va p E nte ring W a te r T e m p

5 00.0 0

3 00.0 0

60

1 00.0 0

50

-1 00.0 0

40
C hille r o n
E va p L e avin g W a ter T em p

-3 00.0 0
C h iller off C hille r off

30 0 :00:00

0:10 :00

0:2 0:00

0:3 0:00

0:4 0:00

-5 00.0 0 0 :50:0 0

T im e (h o u r:m in :s e c )

Water Flow [gpm]

90

7 00.0 0

Newer Technology Can Eliminate all Concerns


130 1,500.00 120

C apacity C ontrol w ith W ater Flow C om pensation

1,300.00

110

1,100.00

100 Water Temp [degF]

900.00

90

E vaporator W ater F low

700.00

80

70

No Problem!
E vap E ntering W ater T em p

500.00

300.00

60

100.00

50

-100.00

40
E vap Leaving W ater T em p

-300.00

30 0:00:00

0:10:00

0:20:00 0:30:00 Tim e (h o u r:m in :sec)

0:40:00

-500.00 0:50:00

Water Flow [gpm]