You are on page 1of 22

Flower Extracts and Their Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobial Agents for Food Uses and Pharmaceutical Applications

Han Ching Voon, Rajeev Bhat, and Gulam Rusul Abstract: Plants with potential therapeutic value have been used from time immemorial to cure various ailments and infectious diseases. Secondary metabolites or the bioactive compounds (phytochemicals) present in plants have been reported to be accountable for various observed biological activities. Consumer awareness of the possible side effects of using chemical-based antimicrobial agents has forced researchers to identify and explore natural plant-based antimicrobial agents (or preservatives) that are toxicologically safe, especially when used in food applications. Of late, scientic evidence has been provided on the potential antimicrobial activities exhibited by certain traditionally used ower extracts or their essential oils (edible and wild). This review focuses on providing and updating available information on the antimicrobial activities exhibited by owers, which are envisaged to nd potential applications as natural preservatives for foods or applications in the pharmaceutical industries to develop new and economical herbal-based products for treating various diseases.

Introduction

Infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses can cause severe health effects and can even lead to death among the residing population, especially in the developing regions of the world. The continual emergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has prompted researchers world over to search for new antimicrobial agents that are more effective against the resistant microbial pathogens (Nascimento and others 2000; Thaller and others 2010). Structural modication of the antimicrobials (against which microbial resistance has been developed) is reported to improve the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents against bacteria, fungi, and viruses (De Clercq 2001; Poole 2001; Jeu and others 2003; Zhang and others 2010). However, of late, research efforts have been put forth to improve the effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs by developing novel and a new class of antimicrobial drugs that can effectively work on multitargeted sites or organisms (Esterhuizen and others 2006; Alka and others 2010). Traditionally, plants with potential therapeutic or medicinal values have been successfully utilized for preventing and treating various ailments and foodborne illnesses. Since time immemorial, various plants and their products have been used in traditional medicine to cure some of the common disorders and degenerative diseases in humans as well as in animals (such as Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicinal practices). The effectiveness of these

procedures has been attributed mainly to the presence of active phytochemicals or bioactive compounds in plants (Quarenghi and others 2000; Ye and others 2004; Zhang and Zhang 2007; Dung and others 2008; Zhao and others 2009). Given the scope of searching new antimicrobial agents, antimicrobials derived from plant materials are often regarded as natural and safe compared to industrial chemicals. Of late, plant-based medicine has become more popular due to the increasing concern of consumers with regard to the use of synthetic chemical preparations and use of articial antimicrobial preservatives, especially in modern food protection practices (Marino and others 2001; Hamedo and Abdelmigid 2009). Some of the hoped-for advantages of using natural antimicrobials include: reducing total dependence on antibiotics, reducing development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic microorganisms, controlling cross-contaminations by foodborne pathogens, improvizing food preservation technology, and strengthening immune system in humans (Abou-taleb and Kawai 2008; Fisher and Phillips 2008; Tajkarimi and others 2010). Today, growing market trends indicate a rapid increase in the number of natural plant-derived products (such as green tea, herbal decoctions, or herbal medicines) that may include aerial parts, seeds, fruits, roots, rhizomes, and owers. Among these, owers have attained high priority and found various applications. Floral extracts and their isolated essential oils are traditionally believed to be rich in phytochemicals exhibiting rich bioactivity. These compounds are MS 20110898 Submitted 7/26/2011, Accepted 9/26/2011. Authors are of interest to the local industry as well as to the general popwith Food Technology Div., School of Industrial Technology, Univ. Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia. Direct inquiries to author Bhat (E-mail: ulation and are actively being explored for various commercial applications (such as tea, bakery products, and more). Floral exrajeevbhat1304@gmail.com and rajeevbhat@usm.my). tracts and essential oils are also considered to be potential natural
34 Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety r Vol. 11, 2012
c 2011 Institute of Food Technologists doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2011.00169.x

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


antimicrobial agents. Available reports indicate their efcacy and to possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against various spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, which is attributed to their bioactive constituents (Quarenghi and others 2000; Ye and others 2004; Zhang and Zhang 2007; Dung and others 2008; Zhao and others 2009). Based on these facts, the present review focuses mainly on providing baseline information on exploring some of the common and wild (edible and nonedible) owers possessing potential antimicrobial activities. The details on these aspects are hopefully expected to be useful for the commercial exploitation of owers to develop natural preservative preparations with applicability in the food and pharmaceutical industries. at reduced pressure (temperature preferably 40 C) in a rotary evaporator to prevent degradation of heat-sensitive compounds. Solvent extractions are classied into 2 methods: continuous and noncontinuous. In continuous extraction method (such as percolation, soxhlet extraction), solvent ow through the sample continuously and the saturated solvent is constantly replaced with a less saturated solvent. In noncontinuous method (such as maceration, infusion, decoction), the extraction is stopped when a suitable equilibrium is reached between the solute concentration (inside the owers and the solvent), unless the solvent needs to be replaced with a new batch of solvent (Jones and Kinghorn 2005). Percolation. This is an efcient method wherein a percolator is used for extraction. Percolator is comprised of a wide opening (at the top) to accommodate addition or removal of a sample along with a valve at the bottom, designed to allow outow of the solvent. With the valve held at a closed position, samples in powdered form are added and packed into the percolator leaving sufcient space to allow expansion. Then the samples are covered by addition of a suitable solvent, and are allowed to soak for few hours or overnight. Further, the solvent is allowed to ow out at a controlled ow rate from the bottom of the percolator through the valve. Fresh solvent is added at the top to replace the saturated solvent ow-out from the percolator (Jones and Kinghorn 2005; Singh 2008). Soxhlet extraction. Soxhlet extraction is a common conventional method used for extracting heat-stable compounds. The Soxhlet extractor consists of a distillation ask, an extractor, and a condenser. The solvent in the distillation ask is heated and the resulting vapor is condensed in the condenser. The condensed solvent from the condenser lls into the thimble-holder containing the sample that needs to be extracted. When the solution in the extractor reaches the overow level, a siphon aspirates the solution of the thimble-holder and unloads it back into the distillation ask, carrying dissolved solute into the bulk liquid. The solute is left in the distillation ask while the solvent is evaporated, condensed, and passed back into the sample solid bed. This process is repeated 3 to 5 times or until a complete extraction is achieved (Tandon and Rane 2008). Maceration. This method is routinely employed in the labs wherein a conical ask covered with aluminum foil or paralm is used to prevent evaporation of the solvent to avoid batch to batch variations. The powdered sample is left to macerate for a known period after addition of a suitable solvent. The maceration process is considered to be rather slow, and sometimes requires occasional or continuous shaking (or stirring), as it works by molecular diffusion. Occasional shaking ensures dispersal of saturated solution around the particle surface, bringing fresh solvent to the surface of particle for further extraction. After maceration, the extract is ltered through an appropriate lter or screen. In certain instances, the solid residues are pressed and the occluded solutions are pooled with the extract before ltration (Jones and Kinghorn 2005; Singh 2008). Infusion. Infusion is a dilute solution that contains readily soluble constituents prepared by short period of maceration (steeping) of sample in cold or boiling water. Cold water is recommended to be used for extraction of heat-sensitive compounds. It is highly crucial to dispense the infusion within 12 h of its preparation as it is liable for microbial contamination (Singh 2008). Decoction. Decoction is the most widely used and popular traditional method for the preparation of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants. It is made by boiling the sample in water for a period of xed time duration (Tandon and Rane 2008).

Extraction Method
Solvent extraction Solvent extraction is one of the most widely employed methods for preparation of ower extracts. Solvent extraction (solid-liquid extraction) involves the process of leaching (simple physical solution or dissolution process). Leaching is a separation technique that involves removal of soluble solids from a solid mixture by employing a suitable solvent or solvent mixture. Various factors inuence the solvent extraction procedure, which includes: the rate of transport of solvent into the material, rate of solubilization of soluble constituents in the solvent, and the rate of transport of solution (extract) out of the insoluble matter. Solvent polarity, vapor pressure, and viscosity are also of importance for effective extraction. In case of plant materials, adequate time is required for diffusion of solvent via plant cell walls for dissolution of soluble constituents and for diffusion of the solution (extract) out to the surface of the cell wall (Houghton and Raman 1998; Singh 2008; Wijekoon and others 2011). Flower extracts can be prepared either from fresh or dried samples. Prior to extraction, ower samples are subjected to air-drying or freeze-drying, followed by grinding, milling, or homogenization to reduce sample particle size. These procedures are followed in order to enhance the efciency of extraction process and yield of the resulting extract. Various solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, hexane, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform are commonly used for extraction (either in the pure form or after dilution with distilled water) (Dai and Mumper 2010). Choice of selecting a solvent mainly depends on the solubility of the bioactive constituents, safety aspects, and potentials involved for artifact formations (Jones and Kinghorn 2005). Maintaining the stability of bioactive compounds is vital while selecting an appropriate and efcient extraction method as some of the compounds (mainly those of phenolics) tends to get oxidized and degraded at high temperature or on prolonging the extraction time (Robards 2003; Dai and Mumper 2010). Besides, an optimized value of sample-tosolvent ratio needs to be standardized, which involves equilibrium between avoidance of saturation effects, solvent wastes, and costs incurred (Pinelo and others 2006; Dai and Mumper 2010). Magnetic stirring and continuous rotary shaking are also employed in certain cases to enhance molecular interactions during extraction process. Usually, to ensure maximum extraction of bioactive compounds, the extraction process is repeated 2 or 3 times and the extracts are pooled together (Guill en and others 1996; Stalikas 2007). Followed by this, the extracts are ltered and centrifuged to remove any oating particulate matters. In order to prevent formation of artifacts and degradation or polymerization of phenolic compounds, ower extract should not be stored in the solvent at room temperature or exposed to direct sunlight for a long time duration. Once done, extracts are freeze dried or concentrated
c

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Vol. 11, 2012 r Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 35

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .

Extraction of Essential Oils


Hydrodistillation is the simplest and oldest method for obtaining essential oils from plants. In this method, samples are packed in a distillation unit with addition of water. This is brought to a boil by applying mild heat (water distillation); alternatively, live steam is injected into the sample (direct steam distillation). Essential oils are liberated from oil glands present in the plant tissues (due to effects of hot water and steam). The vapor mixture of water and oil is condensed, when it is carried over to the condenser. From the condenser, the distillate ows into a separator, where the essential oil is separated automatically from the distillate water. Laboratoryscale isolation of essential oil from owers is accomplished by hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus. In this method, water distillation is used wherein samples loaded in the apparatus are completely immersed in water, and brought to a boil (Handa 2008). However, there are also other physical methods that are used in conjunction with these methods, such as ultrasound treatments, radiation treatments (UV, Gamma, or electron beams), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and others, which have been found to be benecial for better extraction of bioactive compounds.

Floral Extracts and Their Essential Oils with Antimicrobial Activities


In Table 1, an overview is presented on some of the selected reports on edible owers exhibiting antimicrobial activities. A schematic representation on the potential uses of edible owers, their antimicrobial activities, and their applications as natural antimicrobial agents is depicted in Figure 1. Additionally, some common owers with reported antimicrobial activities are shown in Figure 2. In the text below, the potential antimicrobial activities exhibited/reported on some oral extracts (in solvents) and their essential oil is discussed.

Methods for determining antimicrobial activity of oral extracts and essential oils Various conventional methods are routinely employed for determining the antimicrobial activity of oral extracts and essential oils. Generally, in vitro assays are employed. The agar diffusion method (paper disc or well) and dilution method (agar or broth) are the 2 most common techniques used. Agar diffusion method. The agar diffusion method is one of the most widely employed techniques for evaluating antimicrobial activity. In this technique, agar plates are inoculated with test microorganisms (usually pathogenic microbes). Floral extracts or essential oils are applied directly onto paper discs, which are then placed on the agar medium or into wells made in the agar. The agar plates are incubated to allow the components of oral extracts or essential oils to diffuse into the agar medium. The diameter of growth inhibition zones around the discs or wells is then considered to be an indication of the effectiveness of the material being tested (Kalemba and Kunicka 2003; Holley and Patel 2005). Dilution method. In this method, agar broth cultures (in Petri dishes or test tubes) and liquid broth cultures (in conical asks or test tubes or by microtiter plate-broth microdilution method) are used for determining antimicrobial activities. The inhibitory effect of the extracts or essential oils are measured based on turbidimetry or the plate count method. The obtained result is expressed as growth inhibition index (percentage growth inhibition compared to the control cultures without extract or essential oil) or minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC (lowest concentrations of extract or essential oil that can inhibit the growth of microorganisms). In some of the reports (Dung and others 2008; Abdoul-Latif and others 2010) minimum lethality concentration (MLC, the lowest concentration of extract or essential oil that kills or totally inhibits a microorganism), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) is computed. The microorganisms from agar broth or liquid broth where no growth occurs are observed and are transferred into a new medium and incubated for a certain xed period of time. In some instances, MLC is considered to be a concentration that leads to >99.9% reduction in the number of microorganisms originally inoculated (Kalemba and Kunicka 2003; Holley and Patel 2005).

Allium species Allium spp. belongs to the largest genus (Allium, Alliaceae family) that is comprised of nearly 450 species and is found distributed widely in the northern hemisphere (Lonzotti 2006). However, most of the plants belonging to the Allium genus are consumed regularly in many Asia-Pacic regions. The plants and their parts are used in cooking because of their characteristic avor, attributed due to sulfur-based compounds (Tada and others 1988). Evaluation of antimicrobial activity has been reported to support the therapeutic value of these species as anti-infective agents (Chehregani and others 2007). The effective antimicrobial activities (of the aqueous extracts) of different parts of Allium spp. (bulbs, leaves, owers, rhizomes) against pathogenic bacteria such as Shigella exinix, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli have been reported based on agar disc diffusion and serial dilution methods (Chehregani and others 2007). The reported diameter of inhibition zones for Allium atroviolaceum, Allium eriophyllum, Allium scabriscapum, Allium stamineum, Allium iranicum, and Allium shelkovnikovii ranged from 8.5 to 36.2 mm, 6.4 to 36.8 mm, 5.4 to 25.3 mm, 4.4 to 39.7 mm, 3.9 to 28.3 mm, and 0.0 to 27.8 mm. Moreover, the ower extracts of some Allium spp. (A. scabriscapum, A. iranicum, A. shelkovnokovii) exhibited much higher antibacterial activity than the bulb extracts with MIC values (ranging from 0.625 to 5.00 mg/mL, 2.50 to 12.50 mg/mL, and 2.5 to 10.00 mg/mL), indicating that the tannin accumulated in the owers to have played a role in exhibiting the antimicrobial activities. While the bulbs of Allium spp. are known for their high antibacterial activities, the results of this study indicated that the oral extracts from Allium spp. also have high potential for use as antibacterial agents. Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Swartz. (greater galangal) Alpinia galangal (family: Zingiberaceae) is a stemless perennial herb indigenous to South-East Asia and Indonesia. The plant bears large white owers with a pleasant fragrance (Yang and Eilerman 1999). Galangal plant parts have been traditionally used in China and Thailand to relieve gastrointestinal pain and to treat maladies involving fungi (Yang and Eilerman 1999; Oonmetta-aree and others 2006). The owers are either consumed raw or made into pickles in Asian cuisine (Yang and Eilerman 1999; Raina and others 2002; Tonwitowat 2008). The plants rhizome is extensively used in Thai cooking for its unique ginger-like avor accompanied with a tinge of pungent and peppery odor (Juntachote and others 2007). Furthermore, this plants rhizome is also used for medicinal purposes, which is reported to exhibit antifungal, antigardial, antiamebic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities (Juntachote and Berghofer 2005;Phongpaichit and others 2005; Oonmetta-aree and others 2006; Voravuthikunchai and others 2006; Juntachote and others 2007; Hsu and others 2010).
c

36 Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety r Vol. 11, 2012

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .

Table 1Some selected reports on antimicrobial activities of edible owers. Solvent used Water Hexane and ethanol Methanol Methanol, chloroform, hexane, and distilled water Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water 4-hydroxy benzoic acid hydrate Antibacterial and antifungal activity Antibacterial and antifungal activity Antibacterial activity Antibacterial activity Antibacterial activity Major antimicrobial component Activity Sensitive microorganism Reference

Plant

Method of extraction/ essential oil isolation

Allium spp. (Onion)

2011 Institute of Food Technologists S. exinix, K. pneumoniae, B. Chehregani and subtilis, B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli others (2007) L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, S. Hsu and others sonnei, S. boydii, S. dysenteriae (2010) Quarenghi and others (2000) Mann and others (2011) Methanol Antibacterial and antifungal activity Sangetha and others (2008) Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water rhein (1, 8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-3carboxylic acid) Antifungal activity Hydro-alcohol and chloroform Methanol Antibacterial and antifungal activity Antibacterial and antifungal activity Bhalodia and others (2011) Sangetha and others (2008) Antibacterial and antifungal activity Antibacterial and antifungal activity Antibacterial activity S. aureus, S. epidermidis, M. luteus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, P. vulgaris Methanol and hexane: S. aureus, E. coli, A. niger Chloroform: E. coli, A. niger Distilled water: S. aureus, E. coli Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, water: S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa 4- hydroxyl benzoic acid hydrate: T. mentagrophytes, and E. occosum P. mirabilis, S. aureus, B. thuringiensis, S. typhi, Micrococcus spp., E. aerogenes, B. subtilis, S. sonnei, A. lipoferum, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans, A. niger Hexane, chloro-form, methanol, water: Not tested Ethyl acetate: T. mentagrophytes, T. simii, T. rubrum, E. occosum, Scopulariopsis spp. Rhein: T. mentagrophytes, T. simii, T. rubrum, E. occosum, Scopulariopsis spp. S. aureus, S. pyogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, A. niger, A. clavatus, C. albicans P. mirabilis, S. aureus, E. coli, S. typhi, Micrococcus spp., E. aerogenes, B. subtilis, S. sonnei, A. lipoferum, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans, A. niger P. aeruginosa, E. coli, B. subtilis, S. aureus,K. pneumoniae, S. epidermidis, P. vulgaris, S. paratyphi-A serotype, C. albicans P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, S. exneri, S. epidermidis, S. saprophiticus, E. cloaceae, S. marcescens C. parapsilosis, C neoformans S. epidermidis and B. subtilis Sassi and others (2008a) Sassi and others (2008b)

Alpinia galangal (Linn.) Swartz. (Greater galangal)

Anthemis cotula (Stinking chamomile) Bombax buonopozense P Beauv. (Gold Coast bombax)

Blending at room temperature Shaking on an orbital shaker at room temperature for 24 h Solvent extraction

Maceration at room temperature (3) for 72 h

Cassia stula Linn. (Golden shower)

Sequential solvent extraction for 48 h

Duraipandiyan and Ignacimuthu (2007)

Extraction on a rotary shaker (for 96 h)

Sequential solvent extraction for 48 h

Duraipandiyan and Ignacimuthu (2010)

Soxhlet extraction

Cassia surattensis (Sunshine tree)

Extraction on a rotary shaker for 96 h

Chaerophyllum macropodum Boiss (Chervil)

Hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus for 3.5 h

Ebrahimabadi and others(2010)

Chrysanthemumtrifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab.

Maceration for 48 h (3) Petroleum ether, ethyl for organic extraction; acetate, methanol, and hot boiling for 1 h for water water extraction Hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus for 5 h

Vol. 11, 2012 r Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 37

continued

Table 1Continued. Solvent used 80% methanol Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol Antibacterial activity Antibacterial activity Antibacterial activity B. cereus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli, S. anatum Major antimicrobial component Activity Sensitive microorganism Reference Shan and others (2007) Zhao and others (2009) Dung and others (2008)

Plant

Method of extraction/ essential oil isolation

Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat (Chrysanthemum)

Shaking in water bath at room temperature for 24 h Soxhlet extraction for 1 h (3)

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .

Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry (Water fairy ower)

Essential oil isolation: Ethanol hydrodistillation with a modied Clevenger apparatus for 4 h. Solvent extraction: ethanol extraction (3) at room temperature

Cnicus benedictus Linn. (Blessed thistle) Water and methanol Ethyl acetate, ethanol, and petroleum ether

Maceration (2) in 8 d 40% ethanol

Antibacterial activity Antibacterial activity Antibacterial and antifungal activity

Szab o and others (2009)

38 Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety r Vol. 11, 2012
Petroleum ether: S. aureus, MRSA Ethyl acetate: S. aureus Methanol: Nil Essential oil: B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa (FS); S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. aerogenes, S. Typhimurium, S. enteritidis, E.coli, E. coli O157:H7 (FB); S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli, C. albicans (SP); MRSA; E. faecium (VRE); A. baumannii, E. coli, E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, S. aureus (MARB) Ethanol: B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa (FS); S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, (FB); S. aureus, S. epidermidis (SP); MRSA; E. faecium (VRE); A. baumannii, S. aureus (MARB) S. Typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. aureus, E. coli, S. pyogenes, P. aeruginosa, B. proteus, S. sonnei H. pylori Nakhaei and others (2008) Vahidi and others (2002) Antibacterial activity Antibacterial activity Antibacterial and antifungal activity Antibacterial activity Antibacterial activity Antifungal activity Antibacterial activity Ethanol, chloroform, and distilled water 80% methanol Chouhan and Singh (2010) Uma Devi and others (2009) Lachumy and others (2010) Stonsauvapak and others (2000) B. cereus, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, E. coli, S. anatum A. niger, A. fumigatus S. Typhimurium, S. aureus, Enterococcus spp., E. coli Shan and others (2007) Bansod and Rai (2008) Ushimaru and others (2007)
continued

Crocus sativus Linn. (Saffron)

Maceration for 3 d

Maceration for 48 h

Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn hemp) Dendrobium nobile (Dendrobium) Etlingera elatior (Torch ginger)

Soxhlet extraction for 36 h Ethanol

Extraction in a shaker for 48 h Solvent extraction for 1 wk

Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. or Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) 80% methanol 70% methanol

Solvent extraction for 48 h 95% ethanol

Ethyl acetate: S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli, M. luteus, C. albicans, Cladosporium spp., and A. niger Ethanol: Nil Petroleum ether: Cladosporium spp. E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, V. cholare E. coli, B. subtilis, Proteus, S. typhi, and S. aureus S. aureus, B. thuringiensis, E. coli, Salmonella spp., P. mirabilis, Micrococcus spp., B. subtilis, C. albicans, A. niger. E. coli O157: H7, Y. enterocolitica

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Shaking in water bath at room temperature for 24 h Hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus for 5 h Solvent extraction

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .

Table 1Continued. Solvent used Methanol Antibacterial and antifungal activity Antibacterial activity Major antimicrobial component Activity Sensitive microorganism Reference

Plant

Method of extraction/ essential oil isolation

2011 Institute of Food Technologists S. aureus, Micrococcus spp., B. Rajeh and others subtilis, B. thuringiensis, E. coli, K. (2010) pneumoniae, S. typhi, P. mirabilis B. cereus, E. faecalis, S. epidermidis, Drewes and Van S. aureus, methicillin- and Vuuren (2008) gentamycin-resistant S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, C. neoformans, C. albicans Distilled water and ethanol Methanol 2-hydroxy-4,6dibenzyloxychalcone,5,7dibenzyloxyavanone, 1-[2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-(2hydroxy-3-methyl-3-butenyl)phenyl]-1-propanone, acylphloroglucinol derivative, 3-methoxyquercetin and 4-O-glucose derivative of 2-hydroxy-6-methoxy chalcone Antibacterial activity Antibacterial activity B. cereus S. sanguinis 80% methanol Methanol Antibacterial activity Antibacterial activity B. cereus, S. aureus, S. anatum S. sanguinis Shan and others (2007) Tsai and others (2008) Antibacterial activity Rahman and Kang (2009) Antibacterial activity Antibacterial activity Rhee and others (2011) L. monocytogenes, B. subtilis, B. cereus, S. aureus, S. enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, E. aerogenes and E. coli B. fragilis, B. ovatus, C. difcile, C. perfringenes, P. acnes, Peptostreptococci S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae

Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Asthma weed)

Maceration for 14 d

Helichrysum gymnocomum DC.

Solvent extraction at room Dichloromethane temperature for 5 d

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Rosselle) Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine/ Jasmine ower)

Hamdan and others (2007) Tsai and others (2008)

Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Honeysuckle)

Soaking for 20 min and blending for 3 min Solvent extraction for 3 h (and re- extraction overnight) at room temperature Shaking in water bath at room temperature for 24 h Solvent extraction for 3 h (and re- extraction overnight) at room temperature Hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus for 3 h

Mentha longifolia (Horse mint)

Reux with distilled water n- butanol and partitioning with n-butanol Essential oil isolation: Ethanol hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus for 4 h. Solvent extraction: maceration

Pirbalouti and others (2010)

Vol. 11, 2012 r Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 39

continued

Table 1Continued. Solvent used Major antimicrobial component Activity Sensitive microorganism Reference Talreja (2010) Hassan and others (2009)

Plant

Method of extraction/ essential oil isolation

Soxhlet extraction for 24 h 80% ethanol Hot water and 80% ethanol

Moringa oleifera (Horseradish tree) Nymphaea lotus Linn. (Egyptian white water-lily)

Antibacterial and antifungal activity Antibacterial and antifungal activity

Plumeria alba Linn. (White champa) Petroleum ether, alcohol, and water Antibacterial activity Antibacterial activity

B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and C. albicans MRSA, multi-drug-resistant P. aeruginosa, enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157 EHEC, S. typhi, P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, B. subtilis, C. albicans, A. niger S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi

Zahid and others (2010)

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .

Rosa spp. (Rose ower)

Hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus for 3 to 4 h Soxhlet extraction

Rumex vesicarius L. (Bladder dock)

40 Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety r Vol. 11, 2012
Antibacterial activity Antibacterial activity Antibacterial and antifungal activity Antibacterial activity Hexane, chloroform, and methanol Petroleum ether, ether, chloroform, methanol, and ethanol Ethanol S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae Pirbalouti and others (2010) Methanol Antibacterial and antifungal activity Antibacterial activity Ksouri and others (2009) Pirbalouti and others (2010) Ethanol S. epidermidis, S. aureus, M. luteus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, C. kefyr, C. holmii, C. albicans, C. sake, C. glabrata S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae Methanol and ethyl acetate Antibacterial and antifungal activity B. cereus, B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. Abe and others epidermidis, S. faecalis, C. (2004) albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabata, Z. rouxii, S. cerevisiae, A. fumigatus, P. frequentans

Successive Soxhlet extraction

Santolina rosmarinifolia L. (Green lavender cotton)

E. coli, S. pneumoniae, S. Hirulkar and Agrawal Typhimurium, E. aerogenes, P. (2010) vulgaris, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B.subtilis, C. freundii, P. aeruginosa C. macginleyi Koday and others (2010) K. pneumoniae, S. pneumoniae, S. Mostafa and others pyogenes, S. aureus, E. coli, P. (2011) aeruginosa S. aureus, S. lutea, B. cereus, E. coli, Ioannou and others C. albicans (2007)

Satureja bachtiarica (Savory)

Tamarix gallica (French Tamarisk)

Hydrodistillation with a modied Clevenger apparatus for 3 h Essential oil isolation: hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus for 4 h. Solvent extraction: maceration Magnetic stirring for 30 min

Thymus daenensis Celak (Thyme)

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Zingiber mioga (Thunb.) Roscoe (Myoga)

Essential oil isolation: hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus for 4 h. Solvent extraction: maceration Blending

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .

Therapeutic values Edible flowers (used in treatment of gastrointestinal pain, dysentery, gout, fever, muscle aches, skin diseases, liver disorder, etc.)

Pharmaceutical values (exhibit analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antitumor, anti-hyperglycemic, astringent activities, etc.)

Solvent extracts (Aqueous, methanol, ethanol, chloroform, hexane, etc.)

Essential oils (Obtained by hydro-distillation)

Tannins, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoids, steroids, glycosides, anthraquinones, etc.

Pinene, limonene, spathulenol, myrcene, terpinene, longifolene, cadinol, etc.

Antimicrobial activities

Spoilage microorganisms (A. niger, B. subtilis, C. kefyr, C. holmii, E. aerogenes, E. faecalis, H. alvei, P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, S. cerevisiae, Z. rouxii, etc.)

Pathogenic microorganisms (C. albicans, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. epidermidis, T. mentagrophytes, T. simii, rubrum, Scopulariopsis spp., etc.) T.

- Preservatives - Development of antimicrobial packaging (biopolymer based edible films) for food applications

- Antimicrobial agents

Figure 1Schematic representation of edible owers, their antimicrobial activities, and applications as natural antimicrobial agents.

By employing the agar disc diffusion method, antimicrobial activity of galangal ower buds against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria have been tested. The effects of drying methods (oven drying and freeze-drying) and solvents (hexane and ethanol) on the antimicrobial activity have also been investigated (Hsu and others 2010). Galangal was shown to be effective against Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes and S. aureus)

but exhibited little or no effect against Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella spp., E. coli O157: H7, and Shigella spp.). Overall, antimicrobial activity of galangal was the highest for oven-dried samples extracted with ethanol (inhibition zone = 8.94 mm and MIC = 1.457 mg/mL) and the lowest for the freeze-dried samples extracted with ethanol (inhibition zone = 7.05 mm and MIC = 2.470 mg/mL). Due to its ability to inhibit the growth of

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Vol. 11, 2012 r Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 41

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .

Figure 2Examples of some owers with known antimicrobial activities belonging to the species of: a = Clitoria ternatea; b = Cassia stula; c = Dendrobium nobile; d = Hibiscus spp.; e = Nelumbo spp.; f = Chrysanthemum spp.

Gram-positive bacteria, galangal ower buds have potential to be used as food, as building materials, for extracting dye, and also as a used as natural antimicrobial agent for preservation of perishable source of clothing ber. The decoctions prepared from leaves and roots are traditionally used to treat fever, muscle aches, pains, and foodstuffs. stomach discomforts (Akuodor and others 2011). Anthemis cotula L. (Stinking chamomile) Mann and others (2011) have evaluated antimicrobial activities Anthemis cotula (family: Asteraceae), a native of Europe and a of Bombax owers against S. aureus, E. coli, and A. niger using weed that grows extensively in Argentina, is commonly known the disc diffusion method. The results obtained clearly demonas Manzanilla del campo. Traditionally, A. cotula is believed strated antimicrobial activity of methanol, chloroform, hexane, to be effective for treatment of dysentery and gout. The de- and aqueous extracts against the 3 pathogens tested. However, the coctions made from the leaves and owers are reported to chloroform extract did not exhibit any activity against S. aureus exhibit insecticidal properties (Quarenghi and others 2000). and the aqueous extract showed no activity against A. niger. The The avonoid constituents present in this ower have been results of this study were able to provide scientic evidence to supreported to contain: quercetagetin, quercetagetin 7-glucoside, port the traditional uses of B. buonopozense for curing microbial quercetin, quercetin 7-glucoside, patuletin, patuletin 7-glucoside, infections. kaempferol, kaempferol 7-glucoside, and kaempferol 3-rutinoside (Quarenghi and others 2000). Cassia stula Linn. (golden shower tree) Quarenghi and others (2000) employed the agar disc diffuCassia stula (family: Leguminosae) is an ornamental tree found sion method to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of A. cotula in various parts of China, India, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, (methanol extract) against some of the pathogenic microbes, such the West Indies, East Africa, and Brazil. Various parts of this plant as S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococ- are used in the treatment of intestinal disorders, skin diseases, cus pneumoniae, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, and such as leucoderma, liver problems, tuberculosis, hemetemesis, diSalmonella spp. Owing to the avonoid compounds present in the abetes, rheumatism, hypercholesterolemia, and diarrhea. The fruit ower, methanol extract at a concentration of 200 g/mL was pulp is used as a laxative, purgative, antipyretic, analgesic, and anfound to exhibit rich antimicrobial activities against the bacteria timicrobial agent in Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Its owers have tested (except for S. pneumoniae and Salmonella spp.) with diameters been reported to exhibit antifungal activities (to treat skin infecof inhibition zones ranging from 6.0 to 9.0 mm. tion) and are used to treat nasal infections in certain tribal sects (Perumal Samy and others 1998; Prashanth Kumar and others Bombax buonopozense P. Beauv. (Gold Coast Bombax) 2006; Duraipandiyan and Ignacimuthu 2007; Bhalodia and others Bombax buonopozense (family: Bombaceae) is a large tropical tree 2011). Also, owers have been reported to be useful in treating in Africa (found in Ghana, Uganda, and Gabon). The plant grows pruritus, burning sensation, dry cough, and bronchitis attributed up to 40-m high with large buttress roots, which are spread upto to its demulcent, lubricating, cooling, and emollient effects 6 m (Beentje and Sara 2001). This tree is also popular as Vabga (El-Saadany and others 1991; Duraipandiyan and Ignacimuthu in Ghana and Kurya in Northern Nigeria. The plant parts are 2007; Bhalodia and others 2011).
42 Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety r Vol. 11, 2012
c

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


Duraipandiyan and Ignacimuthu (2007) have reported antimicrobial activity of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts (at 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/disc) of C. stula ower against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis) and 1 Gram-negative bacterium (P. aeruginosa) with the inhibition zones ranging from 7 to 23 mm. The MIC for the sensitive microorganisms (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa) were found to be 0.039 to 2.5 mg/mL. The compound 4-Hydroxy benzoic acid hydrate, which was obtained from ethyl acetate extract, showed a MIC of 0.5 mg/mL for fungi, such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton occosum. The compound rhein (1, 8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-3carboxylic acid) isolated from the ethyl acetate extract was found to be effective against fungal pathogens, such as T. mentagrophytes, Trichophyton simii, Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton occosum, and a Scopulariopsis spp. with MIC values of 31.25, 125.00, 62.50, 31.25, and 250.00 g/mL, respectively (Duraipandiyan and Ignacimuthu 2010). Sangetha and others (2008) evaluated the antimicrobial activity of methanol extracts from different parts (leaves, owers, stems, and pods) of C. stula and Cassia surattensis against 12 bacteria and 3 fungi by using the agar disc diffusion assay. All the bacteria and fungi studied (except E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were susceptible to the extract of C. stula owers with inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 20 mm. Bhalodia and others (2011), in one of their studies, by employing the agar disc diffusion method, screened the antimicrobial activities of hydro-alcohol and chloroform extracts of C. stula (5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 ` g/mL) against S. aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, A. niger , Aspergillus clavatus, and Candida albicans. Results showed both the extracts to exhibit moderate to strong antibacterial and antifungal activities (inhibition zones of 12 to 21 mm for bacteria and 13 to 22 mm for fungi) at all the tested concentrations, except for 5 g/mL. Preliminary phytochemical screening performed in this study showed that the chemical compounds of the hydro-alcohol extract contained tannins, avonoids, saponins, triterpenoids, steroids, glycosides, anthraquinones, reducing sugars, and amino acids, while those of the chloroform extracts were found to contain high amount of glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, and anthraquinones. antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Durmaz and others 2006). The antimicrobial activity of essential oil and methanolic extracts from the ower of C. macropodum against 9 bacteria and 2 fungi was determined by Ebrahimabadi and others (2010) who employed agar disc diffusion and mico-well dilution assays. From gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the chemical composition of essential oil was found to be comprised of 49 components representing 98.3% to 99.4% of the oil with trans- -farnesene (27.5%), trans -ocimene (20.9%), -pinene (2.8%), limonene (12.0%), spathulenol (8.6%), and myrcene (1.3%) as the major constituents. The essential oil was found to be active against all the tested microorganisms (except for Shigella dysenteriae and A. niger ) with inhibition zones recorded as 8 to 26 mm and MIC recorded to be 125 to 500 g/mL. However, the methanol extract did not show any inhibitory effects on the tested microorganisms.

Cassia surattensis Burm.f. (Sunshine tree) Cassia surattensis (family: Leguminosae) is a owering plant native to South Asia, and found growing abundantly in India, Myanmar, Southern Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The plants are grown as ornamental trees in tropical and subtropical regions. The bark and leaves of C. surattensis are believed to exhibit antiblenorrhagic properties (Sangetha and others 2008). In one of the experiments conducted by Sangetha and others (2008) on different parts (leaves, owers, stems, and pods) of C. stula and C. surattensis, all the bacteria and fungi studied (except Bacillus thuringiensis and S. cerevisiae) were susceptible to the methanol extract of C. surattensis owers with inhibition zones Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. ranging from 12 to 20 mm. Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (family: Asteraceae) is an herbal plant bearing small yellow owers. This plant is widely distributed in Chaerophyllum macropodum Boiss. (Chervil) Tunisia regions and the plant parts are used for treating constipaChaerophyllum macropodum (family: Apiaceae) is a biennial shrub tion, intestinal transit problems, and postdelivery pains (Sassi and with hard pinnate leaves. In Iran and Turkey, the edible vegetable others 2008b). The antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, ethyl obtained from this plant is used as food and in the preparation acetate, methanol, and hot water extracts of Tunisian Chrysantheof cheese (Durmaz and others 2006; Coruh and others 2007; mum species against 5 Gram-positive and 9 Gram-negative bacEbrahimabadi and others 2010). The organic solvent extract from teria and 4 yeasts were evaluated by Sassi and others (2008a) the aerial parts of C. macropodum have been reported to exhibit by employing agar disc diffusion and microdilution assays. The
c

Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. (Chrysanthemum) Chrysanthemum morifolium (family: Asteraceae) is an important medicinal herb of the Asteraceae family consisting of 8 major varieties (Hangju, Boju, Gongju, Chuju, Qiju, Huaiju, Jiju, and Hang ju). C. morifolium is traditionally used in China to protect the cardiovascular system, to lower blood glucose and fat levels, to regulate blood pressure, excrete lead, and to scavenge free radicals. This plant has been reported to exhibit signicant antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inammatory, and anticancer activities. The bioactive compounds of C. morifolium consist of avonoids, sesquiterpenoids, chlorogenic acids, vitamins, and amino acids (Zhang and Zhang 2007; Zhao and others 2009). The methanolic extract of C. morifolium (inorescence) showed antimicrobial activity against B. cereus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli, and Salmonella anatum with inhibition zones in the range of 5.5 to 9.2 mm (Shan and others 2007). Besides, the antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanolic extracts of 7 species of C. morifolium owers cultivated in Kaifeng, China were tested against S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) by the disc diffusion assay (Zhao and others 2009). Petroleum ether extracts of Mailang, Chunrijianshan, and Lengyan, as well as ethyl acetate extracts of Mailang, Chunrijianshan, Lengyan, Jianliuxiangbai, Guohuawansheng, and Changhong varieties showed good antibacterial activity on S. aureus with MIC of 125, 250, 250, 250, 250, 125, 250, and 250 g/disc, respectively. The petroleum ether extracts of Mailang, Chunrijianshan, and Lengyan were active against MRSA with MIC of 250 g/disc. All the extracts of Baiyudai did not exhibit any activity against S. aureus and MRSA at the tested concentration (250 g/disc). Also, the methanol extracts of all the species of C. morifolium did not show any antimicrobial activity. The authors have concluded that better antimicrobial activity was shown by yellow owers compared to purple and white owers.

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Vol. 11, 2012 r Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 43

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


results obtained showed all the extracts to inhibit growth of the tested microorganisms (inhibition zone = 7.1 to 8.5 mm; MIC = 1.25 mg/mL) except for S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Aeromonas hydrophila, C. albicans, and Candida tropicalis. Further, the same authors have reported on the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from C. trifurcatum ower heads against 5 Gram-positive bacteria (S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus hoemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus simulans, and B. subtilis) and 3 Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, Hafnia alvei, and Proteus mirabilis) (Sassi and others 2008b). The broth microdilution method was adopted for assaying antimicrobial activities. The essential oil was found to exhibit better antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria compared to Gram-positive bacteria. At a concentration of 500 g/mL, the essential oil inhibited the growth of S. epidermidis and B. subtilis by 66% and 64% with IC50 (concentration that inhibits 50% of growth) of 62.5 and 125 g/mL, respectively. The authors reported the presence of 56 compounds representing 97.48% of the oil with limonene (20.89%), -terpinene (19.13%), 1,8-cineole (10.64%), -pinene (8.77%), -pinene (5.32%), 2-hexenal (4.85%), 4-terpenyl acetate (3.42%), -myrcene (2.31%), germacrene-B (2.01%), -spathulenol (1.62%), longifolene (1.39%), -cadinol (1.39%), -thujene (1.23%), and -bourbobene (1.06%) as the major constituents that contributed to the antibacterial activity of the essential oil. resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), the authors found essential oil at the MBC (8 and 16 L/mL) to possess potential inhibitory effects with the exposure time required for complete inhibition of cell viability to range from 10 to 40 min and 10 to 20 min, respectively. Scanning electron spectroscopy on the most sensitive methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (MRSAP249 and VREB2332) treated with essential oil at MIC (8 L/mL) showed disruption and lysis of membrane integrity. The essential oil was found to contain 55 compounds representing 93.71% of the oil with -terpinene (5.76%), cis-linalool oxide (5.21%), camphene (4.12%), trans-carveol (3.93%), -pinene (3.45%), pinene (3.07%), terpinen-4-ol (2.58%), and myrcene (2.4%) as the major monoterpenes as well as globulol (5.61%), acorenol (5.12%), -himachalol (3.84%), cyclobazzanene (3.12%), 2,3-dehydro-1,4cieol (3.01%), trans-dihydrocarvone (2.58%), presilphiperfol-1ene (2.48%), and -amorphene (2.12%) as the major sesquiterpenes. The authors, for the rst time, concluded the use of essential oil and ethanolic extract of C. operculatus to have applicability for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by foodborne and skin-infectious pathogens, especially those of antibiotic-resistant strains.

Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry (water fairy ower) Cleistocalyx operculatus (family: Myrtaceae), also known as Eugenia operculata or Syzygium nervosum, is a perennial tree, widely distributed in China, Vietnam, and other tropical countries. Traditionally, the leaves and ower buds of the plant have been reported to be used as an ingredient in preparing certain beverages (tea decoctions) for treating gastrointestinal disorders and antisepsis (Dung and others 2008). In vivo and in vitro studies have shown the potentiality of C. operculatus buds to exhibit anticancer, antitumor, antihyperglycemic, and cardiotonic properties (Anthony and others 2002; Ye and others 2005; Mai and Chuyen 2007; Dung and others 2008). Results on the phytochemicals screening of ower buds have shown the presence of sterols, avanones, chalcones, triterpene acid, - sitosterol, and ursolic acids in the buds (Ye and others 2004; Dung and others 2008). Dung and others (2008), by using agar disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility tests, have screened the effectiveness of the essential oil and ethanol extract of C. operculatus buds against 2 food spoilage bacteria (B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa), 9 foodborne pathogens (2 isolates of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, E. coli, and 2 isolates of E. coli O157:H7), 4 skin infectious pathogens (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli, and C. albicans), 3 methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 3 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and 15 multiantibiotic-resistant bacteria (2 isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii, 3 isolates of E. coli, 2 isolates of Enterobacter cloacae, 2 isolates of K. pneumoniae, 3 isolates of P. aeruginosa, 2 isolates of Serratia marcescens, and S. aureus). The essential oil of C. operculatus buds showed inhibition zones and MIC/MBC, which ranged from 8 to 16 mm and 1 to 20 L/ mL, respectively, effective against all the tested microorganisms. The ethanol extract demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all the Gram-positive bacteria and 1 food-spoilage Gram-negative bacterium (P. aeruginosa) with inhibition zones and MIC/MBC in the range of 8 to 22 mm and 0.25 to 32 mg/mL. Besides, in the cell viability assay of methicillin-

Clitoria ternatea Linn. (buttery pea, Asian pigeon wings) Clitoria ternatea (Family-Liguminoceae) is a tropical, perennial twining herb bearing blue or white colored owers (in single). This plant is extensively grown for ornamental and medicinal purpose in the Asian subcontinent (India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia). In Malaysia, aqueous extract of the ower is used as a natural coloring agent for preparing dish from glutinous rice. The plant parts have been reported to exhibit anti-inammatory, antipyretic, antihyperlipidemic, analgesic, tranquilizing, and immunomodulatory activities (Mukherjee and others 2008; Solanki and Jain 2010, 2011, 2012). Root contains avonol glycosides, which exhibit rich antibacterial activity (Yadava and Verma2003). Cliotides (biologically active peptides) (present in owers, seeds, and nodules) have been isolated from heat-stable fractions of Clitoria ternatea extract. These cliotides showed potential antimicrobial activity against E. coli and cytotoxicity against HeLa cells (Nguyen and others 2011). Uma and others (2009) have screened the ower extracts (by maceration technique: solvents used methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether, hexane, and aqueous) of Clitorea ternatea against pathogenic microorganisms, such as uropathogenic, enteropathogenic, and enterotoxigenic E. coli, S. Typhimurium, S. enteritidis, K. pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aureginosa. These microorganisms were isolated from patients with urinary tract infection and acute gastroenteritis. The method adopted for determining antimicrobial activity was disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (two-fold serial dilution method). Results of this study revealed aqueous, methanol, and chloroform extracts to exhibit antimicrobial activity against uropathogenic, enteropathogenic, and enterotoxigenic E. coli, S. Typhimurium, K. pneumoniae, and P. aureginosa. However, no antibacterial activity was recorded for petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Cnicus benedictus Linn. (blessed thistle) Cnicus benedictus (family: Asteraceae) is the single species in the genus Cnicus; it is native to the Mediterranean region. This annual plant grows up to 60-cm high, and has leathery, hairy leaves (extending up to 30-cm long and 8-cm broad), with minute spines
c

44 Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety r Vol. 11, 2012

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


on the leaf margins. The owers are yellow, which are produced in a dense ower head of 3 to 4 cm dia. The entire plant of C. benedictus possesses astringent, bitter, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, emmenagogue, galactogogue, stimulant, stomachic, and contraceptive properties. An aqueous infusion of the entire plant is reported to be used for the treatment of liver and gall bladder problems. The owers, leaves, and stem of C. benedictus are traditionally used as a health drink (tonic) or used in other preparations taken orally to improve appetite and digestion (extracts are believed to stimulate gastric juices). This plant is known to contain ample amounts of sesquiterpene lactones, alkaloids, tannins, and volatile oil. Besides this, anti-infective, anticancer, and anti-inammatory activities of C. benedictus have been reported through laboratory studies by Szab o and others (2009). In addition, the chemical constituents (such as cnicin and polyacetylene) have been reported to exhibit antibacterial activity (Szab o and others 2009). The effects of ethanol extracts of C. benedictus owers against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains (S. Typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. aureus, E. coli, S. pyogenes, P . aeruginosa, Bacillus proteus, and Shigella sonnei) and pathogens obtained from hospitalized patients (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, and E. coli) were assessed by using the agar disc diffusion assay (Szab o and others 2009). The antimicrobial activity of the C. benedictus owers against all the tested bacteria were observed with inhibition zones of approximately the same values at different concentrations of the extracts (10% and 20%, respectively). The diameters of inhibition zones shown by C. benedictus mature owers (16 to 30 mm) on ATCC bacterial strains were signicantly different from those shown by immature owers (18 to 32 mm). The test results on the microorganisms harvested from hospitalized patients treated with the extract of mature owers showed diameters of inhibition zones to range between 10 and 24 mm. Nakhaei and others (2008) screened the anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of stigmata of C. sativus against 45 clinical isolates. Based on the results obtained from the agar disc diffusion method, the aqueous and methanol extracts of saffron exhibited antibacterial activity against all the isolates with inhibition zones being in the range of 10 to 23.5 mm. Based on the agar dilution method, the MIC of the methanol extract for all the isolates was 677 g/mL. There was no signicant difference in the activity of methanol extract at 80 and 121 C, in comparison to the control, indicating that high temperature not to have any effect on the activity of the extract. The results on pH stability of the methanol extract in this study indicated that active compounds of C. sativus were stable at pH 5, 6, 7, and 8.

Crocus sativus Linn. (saffron) Crocus sativus (family: Iridaceae) has been used traditionally as a spice and as a food colorant in most of the countries over the world. Saffron, the worlds most expensive spice is obtained from the ower (mainly the stigmata) of the C. sativus plant. In folk medicine, saffron has been used as aphrodisiac, antispasmodic, and expectorant (Nakhaei and others 2008). Saffron is also used to treat atulence, colic, and abdominal pains, as well as to improve appetite and memory (Zhang and others 1994; Nakhaei and others 2008). Antitumor, radical scavenging, hyperlipemic, anticonvulsant, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anti-ulcerogenic activities have been reported for C. sativus extracts or their chemical constituents (Nair and others 1995; Hosseinzadeh and Khosravan 2001; Abdullaev and others 2003; Al- moeh and others 2006; Nakhaei and others 2008). The biological properties of C. sativus are mainly attributed to crocin and saffranal, which are isolated from stigmata, leaves, petal, and pollen. Other isolated chemical constituents include crocetin, picrotoxin, quercetin, and kaempferol (Nakhaei and others 2008). According to Vahidi and others (2002), signicant antimicrobial activity was observed against S. epidermidis, C. albicans, Cladosporium spp., and A. niger when an ethyl acetate extract of stigmata of C. sativus was used. The inhibition zones and MIC ranged from 12 to 19 mm and 6.25 to 50 mg/mL, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of stamens exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli, M. luteus, Cladosporium spp., and A. niger with inhibition zones and MIC ranging from 15 to 21 mm and 12.5 to 50 mg/mL, respectively.
c

Crotalaria juncea Linn. (sunn hemp) Crotalaria juncea (family: Leguminoceae) plant parts (owers, buds, pods, and seeds) are commonly used as medicine and for culinary purposes (Bhatt and others 2009). The plant is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, such as in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Southern Africa. In Ayurvedic medicine, C. juncea has been used as an astringent, abortifacient, blood purier, demulcent, emetic, purgative, and for curing anemia, impetigo, menorrhagia, and psoriasis (Sharma and others 2001; Chouhan and Singh 2010). The seeds of C. juncea have been reported to exhibit signicant antispermatogenic, anti-ovulatory, and contraceptive activities (Vijaykumar and others 2004; Malashetty and Patil 2007). The chemical compounds isolated from the seeds of this plant were riddelline, seneciphylline, senecionine, trichodesmine, chodesmine alkaloids, galactose-specic lectin, and cardiogenin 3-O-[r]-d-xylopyranoside (Adams and Gianturco 1956; Chouhan and Singh 2010). Chouhan and Singh (2010) have reported antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract of C. juncea owers against both Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria by employing the agar disc diffusion assay. The extracts were found to be effective against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and Vibrio cholare (inhibition zone = 13, 14, 10, 13, and 8 mm). However, the extracts did not exhibit any activity against Citrobacter freundi, E. faecalis, Shigella exneri, and S. dysenteriae. Further, the authors have reported on the presence of steroids, triterpenes, avonoids, phenolics, and glycosides in the ethanol extract. Dendrobium nobile Lindl. (dendrobium orchid) Dendrobium nobile (family: Orchidaceae) is a owering ornamental plant encompassing nearly 35000 species. The owers are very attractive and appear in various colors and forms. The opened owers mimic bees, wasps, butteries, moths, frogs, lizards, and even humans. Native inhabitants of the Eastern Himalayas (in India) believed that dendrobium owers can cure eye diseases (Uma Devi and others 2009). Gigantel and moscatilin of D. nobile have been reported to exhibit antimutagenic activity and its 2-phenanthrenes to exhibit anticancer activity (Kong and others 2003; Uma Devi and others 2009). Uma Devi and others (2009) used the strip plate method to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of different solvent (methanol, chloroform, and water) extracts of owers and stems of D. nobile against pathogenic bacteria, such as E. coli, B. subtilis, Proteus spp., S. Typhimurium, and S. aureus. The extent of inhibition of oral extracts was high in the aqueous extract than in the other 2 extracts. The authors recorded the inhibition zones as 0.6 to 1.0 mm for ethanol extract, 0.3 to 1.0 mm for chloroform extract, and 0.53 to 1.2 mm for aqueous extract. Also, in aqueous extracts, the

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Vol. 11, 2012 r Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 45

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


Bansod and Rai (2008), reporting on the antifungal (against inhibitory activity was found to be signicantly higher in owers Aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger ) assays of some Indian medicinal than that of stems. plants isolated from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis noted E. caryophyllata to exhibit antifungal activity. Based on the disc Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Smith (torch ginger) Etlingera elatior (family: Zingiberaceae) is a perennial herbal plant diffusion assay, the essential oil of E. caryophyllata was found to (height of 3.6 to 4.7 m) found growing abundantly in parts of exhibit moderate antifungal activity with inhibition zones ranging Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The ower from 8 to 15 mm. The MIC, determined by the agar dilution (bud or inorescence) is used both ornamentally and as a spice for method, was found to be 0.12% (v/v) for both of the fungi, culinary use. Rhizome and owers of this plant are extensively while the MIC/MLC (determined by the broth microdilution used as a natural ingredient in cosmetics (as an ingredient of soap, method) was found to be 0.06%/0.12% (v/v) for A. fumigatus and shampoo, perfume) and also as a therapeutic agent for treating 0.12%/0.06% (v/v) for A. niger , respectively. The authors have common ailments. Fruits of the torch ginger plant are traditionally concluded that the essential oil of E. caryophyllata might play a used to treat ear ache, while leaves nd use to clean wounds and pivotal role in treating mycotic infections. to remove body odor (Chan and others 2007). Flowers and the mature inorescence of torch ginger are used to prepare such Euphorbia hirta Linn. (asthma weed) popular dishes as asam laksa, nasi kerabu, nasi ulam (in Malaysia), Euphorbia hirta (familiy: Euphorbiaceae) is a small perennial herb arisk ikan mas (in North Sumatra, Indonesia), and sayur asam (in that is found widely spread in tropical regions of the world. The Thailand) (Lachumy and others 2010; Wijekoon and others 2011). plant is erect, bears a slender hairy stem, and grows up to 80 cm Torch ginger inorescence is reported to possess strong antioxidant in height. Occasionally, the plant is also witnessed to grow as a activities (Wijekoon and others 2011). semicreeper. The leaves are broad, elliptical, oblong, and lanceoLachumy and others (2010) evaluated the antimicrobial activity late, darker on the upper surface with slightly toothed margins. (by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution methods) of an 80% Flowers of this plant are small, numerous, and crowded together methanolic extract of torch ginger owers against 7 strains of in dense cymes (about 1 cm in diameter). bacteria, 1 strain of yeast, and 1 strain of mold. Results of this study The stems and leaves contain milky-white latex. Rajeh and othshowed methanol extract of the owers to possess high amounts of ers (2010) have reported on the traditional use of E. hirta plant avonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, and carbohydrates. Floral decoctions to treat amebic dysentery, diarrhea, peptic ulcers, heartextracts were found to be active against the tested microorganisms burn, vomiting, respiratory problems (bronchitis, coughs, colds), (inhibition zone = 12 to 23 mm; MIC = 1.563 to 50.000 mg/mL). kidney stones, and fertility-related problems (menstrual problems, Results from the brine shrimp lethality test revealed absence of sterility, and venereal disease). In certain instances, the plant parts toxicity of the ower extract (LC50 = 2.52 mg/mL against Artemia have been recommended to be used as an antidote and to relieve pain from scorpion stings or snake bites. salina), and therefore are nontoxic to humans. Methanolic extracts from different parts of E. hirta (leaves, owEugenia caryophyllata Thunb. (synonym, Syzygium aro- ers, stems, and roots) were evaluated by Rajeh and others (2010) for antimicrobial activities against 4 Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, maticum) (clove) Eugenia caryophyllata (family: Myrtaceae) is commonly found a Micrococcus spp., B. subtilis, and B. thuringiensis), 4 Gram-negative growing in warm and humid climatic conditions, such as bacteria (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and P. mirabilis) those encountered in tropical Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and 1 yeast species (C. albicans). Results of this study, which were Indonesia). The handpicked, unopened, air- or sun-dried ower based on the agar disc diffusion method, revealed all the tested buds are used as spice. Traditionally, the oral buds have been used microorganisms, except C. albicans, to be sensitive to the ower to treat tooth aches. The essential oil obtained from buds are ex- extract, with inhibition zones formed ranging from 9 to 28 mm. tensively used as an ingredient of dental formulations, toothpastes, The LC50 value (0.033 mg/mL) against Artemia salina, which was breath fresheners, mouthwashes, cosmetics, soaps, and insect re- obtained from the brine shrimp lethality test, demonstrated that pellents (Politeo and others 2010). The essential oils have been E. hirta ower extract might be toxic to humans. reported to exhibit good antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidative activities (Baratta and others 1998; Gayoso and others Helichrysum gymnocomum DC. 2005; Prashar and others 2006). Helichrysum gymnocomum (family: Asteraceae) is a perennial herb Stonsaovapak and others (2000) have reported on the inhibitory with long owering seasons commonly encountered in regions of effects of ethanolic extracts of E. caryophyllata owers against Kwazulu-Natal Drakensburg, Africa. The pleasant scented owers pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica with inhi- and leaves are burnt by the indigenous people of this region to bition zones of 17.75 and 18.00 mm. At 3.0 104 CFU/mL, fumigate sick rooms and to invoke the goodwill of ancestors. H. the MIC for E. coli O157: H7 was 1250 g/mL, while at 3.0 gymnocomum has also been traditionally used for the treatment of 106 CFU/mL, the MIC was 2500 g/mL. For Y. enterocolitica, the wounds, coughs, and colds (Drewes and Van Vuuren 2008). The antimicrobial activities of H. gymnocomum dichloromethane MIC was 625 g/ mL at 6.0 104 CFU/mL and 1250 g/mL (CH2 Cl2 /MeOH) extract and isolated compounds against 5 at 6.0 106 CFU/ mL. Shan and others (2007) have reported effectiveness of methanol Gram-positive bacteria, 3 Gram-negative bacteria, and 2 yeasts extracts of E. caryophyllata against B. cereus, L. monocytogenes, S. were evaluated by Drewes and Van Vuuren (2008) by the serial diaureus, E. coli, and S. anatum with inhibition zones being in the lution method. From the results, it was noteworthy that the crude range of 10.1 to 21.3 mm. And Ushimaru and others (2007) have extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activities with MIC ranging reported methanol extract of E. caryophyllata to effectively inhibit from 312.5 to 1000 g/mL. the growth of S. Typhimurium, S. aureus, Enterococcus spp. and E. All the isolated compounds (2 -hydroxy-4 ,6 -dibenzyloxycoli (MIC 50% = 0.41% to 1.60% v/v and 0.39 to 1.52 mg/mL; chalcone; 5,7-dibenzyloxyavanone; an acylphloroglucinol MIC 90% = 0.49% to 1.76% v/v and 0.46 to 1.67 mg/mL). derivative; 1-[2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-346 Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety r Vol. 11, 2012
c

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


butenyl)-phenyl]-1-propanone; 3-methoxyquercetin; a 4 -Oglucose derivative of 2 -hydroxy-6 -methoxy chalcone) were good inhibitors against the tested microorganisms with MIC values below 64 g/mL. The ndings of this study showed acylphloroglucinol derivative to be the most potent inhibitor for 8 of the 10 tested microorganisms (MIC = 6.3 to 45 g/mL), including S. aureus (MIC = 6.3 g/mL) and methicillinand gentamycin-resistant S. aureus (MIC = 7.8 g/mL). The results also revealed highest sensitivity of P. aeruginosa to all the compounds (except 5, 7-dibenzyloxyavanone) with MIC being in the range of 45 to 63 g/mL. According to the authors, the traditional use of H. gymnocomum in healing wound infections was supported by the notable antimicrobial activity of the plant, particularly against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (roselle) Hibiscus sabdariffa (family: Malvaceae) is a small shrub native to Africa and is cultivated in parts of Sudan and Eastern Taiwan (Lin and others 2007). The plant parts are used in the treatment of hypertention, pyrexia, and liver disorders (Wang and others 2000; Odigie and others 2003). In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated cardio-protective (Odigie and others 2003), hypo-cholesterolemic (Chen and others 2003), antioxidative, and hepatoprotective (Wang and others 2000; Liu and others 2002) properties of the anthocyanins and protocatechuic acid, which were isolated from dried owers of H. sabdariffa. The oral extract (water and ethanol) of H. sabdariffa has been reported to show high inhibitory effects against B. cereus (Hamdan and others 2007). The inhibition zones against B. cereus were 2, 6, and 16 mm and 4, 9, and 12 mm at 1, 2, and 4 mg/mL for water and ethanol extracts, respectively. The authors also noted that as the content of water and ethanol extract increased (from 0.82 to 4.12 mg/mL), a corresponding increase in the inhibition on the growth of B. cereus occurred with complete inhibition (100%) attained at a concentration of 3.45 and 4.12 mg/mL, respectively. Besides, heat treatment at 70 C for 3 min did not signicantly affect the antibacterial activity of H. sabdariffa extract against B. cereus. Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine/jasmine ower) Jasminum sambac (family: Oleaceae) originated in India and Burma and is widely grown in Ambouli (Republic of Djibouti) for producing perfume. This plant is a perennial twining shrub (attaining height of 5 to 6 feet) and bearing small, white-colored scented owers. The owers are used ornamentally as well as to decorate hair. Skin care products are also formulated by using the essential oil extracted from the owers. The essential oil of the ower is used to reduce skin inammation, tone the skin, and lift up mood (Abdoul-Latif and others 2010). Extracts of owers are also used to prepare herbal tea decoctions. The oral extract is reported to possess analgesic, anti-inammatory, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, expectorant, sedative, and tonic properties. Besides, owers and plant parts have been reported to have anticancer properties (Houghton and others 2007; Alka and others 2010). Tsai and others (2008) have reported on the inhibitory activities of methanolic extract of the owers against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis. They adopted the broth microdilution method for evaluating the antimicrobial/inhibitory activities. From their study, they reported the MIC to be 1 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. However, the MIC of the extract for S. mutan was >8 mg/mL, which is an indication of no activity against S. mutans.
c

Lonicera japonica Thunb. (honeysuckle) Lonicera japonica (family: Caprifoliaceae) is a native plant of eastern Asia and is widely seen in parts of Japan, Korea, northern and eastern China, and Taiwan. Flower buds of this plant possess anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inammatory properties (Zhang and others 2008). Results on the phytochemical screening have reported the presence of iridoid glucosides and polyphenolic compounds in the ower buds (Kakuda and others 2000). Based on the results obtained by the agar well diffusion method, methanol extracts of the ower showed inhibitory activities against B. cereus, S. aureus, and S. anatum with the diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 5.5 to 7.2 mm (Shan and others 2007). On another note, Tsai and others (2008), screening on the methanolic extract of different herbs against growth of S. mutan and S. sanguinis, found MIC of L. japonica to be 4 mg/mL for S. sanguinis, while MIC for S. mutan was >8 mg/mL (no activity). In another study reported by Rahman and Kang (2009), the essential oil of L . japonica ower demonstrated inhibitory activities against L. monocytogenes, B. subtilis, B. cereus, S. aureus, S. enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, E. aerogenes, and E. coli with inhibition zones recorded in the range of 12.1 to 20.3 mm and MIC in the range of 62.5 to 500 g/mL. The authors used the agar disc diffusion and broth dilution assays for the analysis. Their results of a GC-MS analysis showed the essential oil to contain 39 compounds wherein 92.34% of the oil was composed of trans-nerolidol (16.31%), caryophyllene oxide (11.15%), linalool (8.61%), p-cymene (7.43%), hexadecanoic acid (6.39%), eugenol (6.13%), geraniol (5.01%), trans-linalool oxide (3.75%), globulol (2.34%), pentadecanoic acid (2.25%), veridiorol (1.83%),>br/> benzyl alcohol (1.63%), and phenylethyl alcohol (1.25%) as major components. However, antimicrobial activity results on the essential oil did not reveal any effects of the oil against E. coli O157: H7 and P. aeruginosa. Recently, Rhee and Lee (2011) reported the antimicrobial activity of butanol extract from L. japonica ower against 104 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides ovatus, Clostridium difcile, C. perfringens, Propionibacterium acnes, and Peptostreptococci) (based on the agar dilution method). The butanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria with MIC ranging from 0.032 to 2.0 mg/L. Mentha longifolia L. (horse mint) Mentha longifolia (family: Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb commonly found growing in a hot and humid climate. Mint is widely distributed throughout South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. The rhizomes creep below the ground and the erect owering stems can grow up to 8-m high. The plant bears small white or pale purple owers borne in elongated clusters on the tips of the stems. The entire plant exudes a unique mint aroma. The leaves are the most widely used parts of this plant. Leaf and stem decoctions are prescribed to cure common colds, cough, bronchial ailments, headache, fever, indigestion, atulence, painful menstruation, urinary tract infections, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and bleeding problems (http://www.plantzafrica.com/medmonographs/menthlong.pdf, accessed on Jul 25, 2011). In one of the experiments conducted by Pirbalouti and others (2010) on Iranian folklore herbs, the extract and essential oil from owers of M. longifolia have been reported to exhibit strong antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria (S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and K. pneumoniae) with inhibition zones and MIC values ranging from 9 to 17 mm and 0.156 to 10.00 mg/mL,

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Vol. 11, 2012 r Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 47

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


respectively. Results of this study showed the essential oil of M. fruits are edible, the seeds possess hemostatic properties, while longifolia to exhibit stronger antibacterial activity than the ethanol the sap of the stem and leaves are often applied to heal ulcers, herpes, and scabies. The bark is bruised and applied as a plaster extract. over hard tumors, which is also used as a purgative, cardiotonic, diuretic, and hypotensive agent (Radha and others 2008; Zahid Moringa oleifera (horseradish tree) Moringa oleifera (family: Moringaceae) is a perennial timber and others 2010). The methanolic extract of the owers of P. yielding softwood tree. It is native to the sub-Himalayan tracts alba have shown antimicrobial activity against Bacillus anthracis and of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan. The plant is also P. aeruginosa (Syakira and Brenda 2010; Zahid and others 2010). found to be widely distributed in parts of Ethiopia, the Philippines, Different parts of the plant are traditionally used in the treatment Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, Florida, and the Pacic of malaria, leprosy, rheumatism, and abdominal tumors (Syakira Islands (Fahey 2005). The whole plant is edible and possesses an- and Brenda 2010). The essential oils isolated from owers of P. alba have been tispasmodic, anti-inammatory, diuretic, obortifacient, emmenagogue, and ecbolic properties. The plant parts have been reported evaluated against Gram-positive S. aureus, B. subtilis, and Gram to possess therapeutic value and are used in the treatment of hys- negative E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. typhi by the agar well diffuteria, tumors, leucoderma, and biliousness (Fahey 2005; Talreja sion method (Zahid and others 2010); Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. subtilis) were found to be more sensitive to essential 2010). The potential antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of its oils. The sensitivity has been attributed to the absence of an outer owers against B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and membrane surrounding the bacterial cell wall that restricts the difC. albicans has been reported by Talreja (2010). Results based fusion of hydrophobic components of P. alba essential oil through on the agar disc diffusion assay showed the oral extract to have the lipopolysaccharide covering. both antibacterial and antifungal activity with zones of inhibition formed in the range of 8 to 10.5 mm for bacteria and 6.5 mm for Rosa spp. (rose ower) C. albicans. Roses are indigenous to central Asia and are grown as ornamental plants. Rose owers have been traditionally used as a medicine, Lotus (Nymphaea lotus Linn., Egyptian white waterlily; and for culinary purposes, and in the preparation of perfumes (due to a Nelumbo nucifera L., Indian lotus, sacred lotus) warm, intense, rich, and rosy fragrance). Rose owers were used as Nymphaea lotus (family: Nymphaeaceae) is an aquatic plant, medicine in ancient Assyria, China, Egypt, Greece, India, Persia, widely seen in tropical Africa and in parts of Asia. It is a peren- and Rome. The ower has 5 petals (or multiples of 5) with nunial herb growing about 10- to 60-cm high. The entire plant is merous stamens. Rose petals are aromatic and have various shapes reported to possesses therapeutic value and is used as an anticancer and colors. They enclose androecium and gynoecium, which apart and antiviral agent and as an antioxidant (Saleem and others 2001; from facilitating pollination, possess antibacterial activity as a proEsimone and others 2006; Sowemimo and others 2007a, 2007b). tection system. Perfumes prepared from rose petals are economiThe antimicrobial activity of hot water and ethanolic ex- cally valuable and also have soothing effects (Hirulkar and Agrawal tracts of 6 plants, utilized in Pakistan for the treatment of liver 2010). Rose petal jam (prepared in parts of Asia from Rosa indica damage, against 7 bacterial strains (methicillin-resistant S. aureus, L.) is considered to provide a cooling effect on mind and body. Oil multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa, enterohemorrhagic E. coli 0157 obtained from rose owers has been reported to reduce blood lipid EHEC, S. typhi, P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, B. subtilis and 2 fungal levels in rats. The hydrating and anti-inammatory properties of species (C. albicans and A. niger ), was determined by agar well natural acids present in rose water are considered to be useful for diffusion and broth microdilution assays (Hassan and others 2009). skin and eye care. Rose petals are also recommended to be used Both extracts of N. lotus were active against all the microorganisms as mouthwash. The tea decoction prepared from rose petals is rectested with zones of inhibition in the range of 16 to 36 mm and ommended to heal breast pain, mastitis, menstrual difculties, and MIC/MBC in the range of 23.3/ 27.3 to 35.3/ 41.7 mg/mL. restless fetus (Hirulkar and Agrawal 2010). The antioxidant and Antimicrobial activity of N. lotus was the stronger in ethanol ex- antimicrobial properties and the chemical compounds present in tract than in water extract. This observation has been attributed rose essential oil have been extensively published (Ardo gan and to the enhanced nature of bioactive compounds in the presence others 2002; Basim and Basim 2003; Hirulkar and Agrawal 2010). of ethanol and the stronger extraction power of ethanol. The traPetal extract of Rosa canina L. is reported to enhance the effecditional use of both water and ethanol extracts of N. lotus against tiveness of several antibiotics against methicillin-resistant S. aureus liver damage was supported by the results of this study. as well as to have strong inhibitory activity against C. albicans With regard to Nelumbo nucifera, the entire plant has been re- (Rossnagel and Willich 2001; Hirulkar and Agrawal 2010). Anported to possess rich nutraceutical value (Sridhar and Bhat 2007). thocyanins and proanthocyanidins, tellimagrandin I and rugosin B, Flowers are white to pink, sweet-scented, single, and are 10 to carotenoids, plant acids, and essential oils are present in rose petals. 25 cm in diameter. Flowers are reported to be useful to treat bleed- Rose oil is reported to contain economically valuable alcohol, ing disorders and to promote conception. Additionally, owers are such as geraniol (a major constituent) and 1-citronellol (Hirulkar reported to be useful to treat diarrhea, cholera, fever, hepatopa- and Agrawal 2010). thy, and hyperdipsia. However, to our knowledge no reports are Hirulkar and Agrawal (2010) used the agar disc diffusion method available on the antmicrobial activity of this ower or its extracts. to study the antimicrobial activity of alcoholic, petroleum ether, and aqueous extracts of rose petals against various pathogenic bacPlumeria alba Linn. (white champa) teria. All the dilutions (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) of the 3 types of extracts Plumeria alba (family: Apocynaceae) is a small laticiferous tree showed inhibition against all the tested bacteria with inhibition that is a native of tropical America. The plant has also been found zone diameters ranging from 12 to 30 mm. Among the tested growing in India where it is popularly called Peru. The plant bacteria, P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive to the petroleum ether grows up to 4.5-m high bearing white and fragrant owers. The extract of rose petals with an inhibition zone of 29 mm. Results of
48 Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety r Vol. 11, 2012
c

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


this study showed higher inhibitory activity of alcoholic extracts against S. pneumoniae (30 mm), E. aerogenes (28 mm), S. epidermidis (25 mm), B. subtilis (30 mm), and P. aeruginosa ( 32 mm) as compared to other bacterial strains. Aqueous extract showed higher inhibitory activity against E.coli (21 mm), E. aerogens (25mm), and B. subtilis (28 mm) as compared to other bacterial strains. It was found that alcoholic extract showed higher average antimicrobial activity (25 mm) when compared to aqueous extract (19 mm) and petroleum ether extract (18 mm). The authors concluded by stating that rose petals can be potentially used to treat diarrhea, opportunistic infection, and skin infections caused by various pathogenic bacteria. Koday and others (2010) have reported on the bactericidal properties of methanol, chloroform, and hexane extracts of 40 different medicinal plants against Corynebacterium macginleyi using the agar well diffusion assay. From their study, the authors found methanolic extract of R. indica petal to possess better antimicrobial activity against C. macginleyi compared to chloroform and hexane extracts. ing from 8 to 23 mm. From the broth dilution assay performed on S. aureus, the MIC and MBC of 0.3 and 0.6 L/mL were recorded indicating strong action of the ower head essential oil against this particular bacterium. The chemical composition of essential oil from ower heads of S. rosmarinifolia (assessed by GCMS) was shown to be comprised of 42 components representing 92.3% to 94.0% of the oil, with -eudesmol (13.5%), 1,8cineole (12.9%), camphor (8.0%), borneol (5.1%), ar-curcumene (4.8%), terpinen- 4-ol (4.5%), and spathulenol (4.4%) as the main constituents.

Rumex vesicarius Linn. (bladder dock) Rumex vesicarius (family: Polygonaceae) is a wild edible plant that grows during spring time (Al- Quran 2009). It is native to southwest Asia and North Africa and is cultivated in India, especially in regions of Tripura, West Bengal, and Bihar (Khare 2007). The plant parts are used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases, such as tumors, hepatic diseases, indigestion, constipation, heart diseases, pains, spleen disorder, hiccough, atulence, asthma, bronchitis, dyspepsia, piles, scabies, leucoderma, toothache, nausea, and dysentery. The plant also has cooling, laxative, tonic, antibacterial, analgesic, stomachic, appertizer, diuretic, astringent, purgative, and antispasmodic properties. Besides, this plant is used to reduce biliary disorders and to control cholesterol levels (Elegami and others 2001; Atiqur Rahman and others 2004; Lakshmi and others 2009; Mostafa and others 2011). Antimicrobial activity of different plant parts of this plant against K. pneumoniae, S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa was performed using the agar disc diffusion method by Mostafa and others (2011). Results of this study demonstrated potential antibacterial activity (K. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumonia, S. pyogenes, S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa) of the owers extracted in different solvent extracts (petroleum ether, ether, chloroform, methanol, and ethanol). Chemical analysis of ower extracts revealed variations in the presence and amount of active compounds (avonoids, anthraquinones, alkaloids, tannins, sterols and/or triterpenoids, carbohydrates and/or glycosides, chlorides, sulfates, and sublimable substances).

Satureja bachtiarica Bunge. (savory) The genus Satureja (family: Lamiaceae) contains more than 200 species of herbs and shrubs that are widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. Aerial parts of Satureja species are used as avoring agents in a variety of food products as well as for herbal medicine preparations to treat gastrointestinal disorders (Sonboli and others 2004). Pirbalouti and others (2010), by employing agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays, determined the antimicrobial activities of some of the Iranian folklore herbs against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia. From the results of their screening tests, the ethanolic extract and essential oils of owers of S. bachtiarica showed strong antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria with the zone of inhibitions ranging from 12 to 23 mm. The MIC values ranged from 0.039 to 10.00 mg/mL. This study showed essential oils to exhibit stronger antibacterial activity than the ethanol extract.

Tamarix gallica L. (French tamarisk) Tamarix gallica (family: Tamaricaceae) is a halophytic tree found growing in natural habitats ranging from coastal regions up to deserts. This plant is known to tolerate a wide range of harsh environmental conditions and can resist abiotic stress, such as salt, high temperature, and dryness (Sa Idana and others 2008; Ksouri and others 2009). In certain parts of Asia, the leaves, owers, and galls of T. gallica are used as therapeutic agents, particularly as anti-inammatory, antidiarrheic, cicatrizing, and antiseptic agents. They are also used for treating leucoderma, spleen trouble, and eye diseases (Ksouri and others 2009). Besides, the plant parts are used as astringent, aperitif, stimulant of perspiration, and diuretic (Sa Idana and others 2008; Ksouri and others 2009). Based on the inhibition zone measured by the disc diffusion assay (Ksouri and others 2009), the methanolic oral extracts (2, 4, and 100 mg/mL) of this plant exhibited antibacterial activities against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, M. luteus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. The oral extracts also showed antifungal activity against Candida spp. with inhibition zones of 6 to 15 mm and 6 to 8.66 mm, respectively. The bioactive compounds present in the owers were identied Santolina rosmarinifolia Linn. (green lavender cotton) Santolina rosmarinifolia (family: Asteraceae) is a perennial shrub as phenolic acids (gallic, sinapic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, found in the Iberian peninsula and southern France (Ioannou and p-coumaric, and trans-cinnamic acids) and avonoids (catechin, others 2007). The infusions from ower heads are reported to be isoquercetin, quercetin, apigenin, amentoavone, and avone). used as an antipyretic and have been shown to posses hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, and intestinal anti-inammatory properties Thymus daenensis Celak (thyme) (Novais and others 2004). The genus Thymus (family: Lamiaceae), is a perennial herb that The antimicrobial activity of ower heads and leaves of S. has its origin in the Mediterranean region. Leaves and owers of rosmarinifolia against S. aureus, S. lutea, B. cereus, E. coli, and C. Thymus species are traditionally used in Iran as tonic and herbal albicans was determined by Ioannou and others (2007) based on tea, antitussive, antiseptic, carminative, and a treatment for the agar disc diffusion and broth dilution assays. From their study, common cold. Thymus oil and extracts (leaves and owers) are the antimicrobial activity of essential oil from ower heads of S. widely used by the pharmaceutical, perfume, cosmetic, and food rosmarinifolia at doses of 1, 5, and 10 L was found to be stronger industries (Nejad Ebrahimi and others 2008; Pirbalouti and others than those from the leaves, with inhibition zone diameters rang- 2010).
c

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Vol. 11, 2012 r Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 49

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


In one of the experiments conducted by Pirbalouti and others (2010) on Iranian folklore herbs, the extract and essential oil from owers of T. daenensis have been shown to exhibit strong antibacterial activity against all the test bacteria (S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae) with inhibition zones ranging from 8 to 22 mm. The MIC values of ower extracts ranged from 0.039 to 10.00 mg/mL. The results of this study clearly showed essential oil to have stronger antibacterial activity than the solvent (ethanol) extracts. Flavonols, avones, isoavones, avanones avan-3-ols (catechins and proanthocyanidins), and anthocyanins, are some of the subcategories of avonoids (Toda and others 1989; Cowan 1999; Grotewold 2006). Anthocyanins are responsible for the characteristic red, blue, or purple colors of owers. Flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin) are widespread avonoids found in plants, which have potential antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and antihypertensive activities. Flavanones are found in abundance in citrus fruits, which impart bitter avor to the fruit peels (Denny and Buttriss 2007; Bernhoft 2010). The major avonoid constituents reported in ower extracts includes: quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, proanthocyanidins, apigenin, and anthocyanins (Quarenghi and others 2000; Drewes and Van Vuuren 2008; Dung and others 2008; Nakhaei and others 2008; Ksouri and others 2009; Zhao and others 2009; Chouhan and Singh 2010; Hirulkar and Agrawal 2010; Lachumy and others 2010; Bhalodia and others, 2011; Mostafa and others 2011).

Zingiber mioga (Thunb.) Roscoe (Myoga) Zingiber mioga (family: Zingiberaceae), a native to eastern Asia, is widely cultivated in Japan as a perennial herb. The stalks of this plant extend up to 1 m, with slender leaves reaching 30 cm having pine-cone-like ower buds ranging up to 7 to 10 cm in length. In Japan, myogabochi, a traditional food (buns lled with sweetened bean paste) is wrapped with the leaves of this plant to be preserved for a long period. Flower buds have a unique and pungent avor, attributed to the presence of diterpene dialdehyde compound, 2-alkyl-3-methoxypyrazine and (E)-8- -(17)epoxylabd-12-ene-15, 16 dial (myogadial). Due to their pungent avor, the ower buds have been used as a spice and to prepare pickles in Japan (Sakakibara and others 1991; Abe and others 2002). Abe and others (2004) screened for the potential antimicrobial activities of the ower buds against a wide range of bacteria, yeasts, and molds by employing the agar disc diffusion assay. The results of their study revealed ethyl acetate extracts of ower buds to exhibit appreciable antimicrobial activity with an inhibition zone of 8 mm, while the methanol extract showed minimal activity with an inhibition zone of 2 mm. Additionally, MICs of the 3 diterpene dialdehydes (myogadial, galanal A, and galanal B) isolated from the ethyl acetate extract were measured using the serial dilution method. From the results, myogadial, galanal A, and galanal B were found to be effective against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast with myogadial (MIC = 25 to 125 g/mL) showing higher activity compared to galanal A and B (MIC = 200 to 500 g/mL). The reason for the antimicrobial activity has been attributed by the authors to the presence of galanal A and B that were present in the 1, 6 positions of the aldehyde groups, with the introduction of a hydroxyl group in their molecules.

Phenolic acids and quinones Phenolic compounds as phenolic acids (gallic, sinapic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and trans-cinnamic acids) are also found in ower extracts (Ksouri and others 2009). Quinones are highly reactive compounds that have aromatic rings with 2 ketone substitutions. The antimicrobial activity of quinones involve forming of complex with proteins (surfaceexposed adhesins), cell wall polypeptides, and membrane-bound enzymes, leading to inactivation of function of the proteins (Stern and others 1996; Cowan 1999). Besides, quinones are capable of rendering a substrate unavailable to microorganisms, thus inhibiting their growth. Mostafa and others (2011) described the presence of anthraquinones in various extracts of R. vesicarius owers, which served as one of the antimicrobial compounds against the tested microorganisms (K. pneumonia, S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa). In one of the experiments conducted by Bhalodia and others (2011) on hydro-alcohol and chloroform extracts of C. stula owers, anthraquinones present in the extracts was found to exhibit rich antimicrobial activities, which were found to be active against some sensitive bacteria and fungi (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, A. niger , A. clavatus, and C. albicians). Tannins Tannins are a group of polymeric phenolic compounds widespread in plants. Tannins are known to exhibit astringent properties and are synthesized by condensation of avan derivatives or polymerization of quinone units (Haslam 1996; Cowan 1999). Tannins form complex with microbial adhesins, enzymes, and cell envelope transport proteins, leading to inactivation of these proteins and inhibition of microbial growth (Haslam 1996; Stern and others 1996). Scientic evidences showed tannins to be effective against lamentous fungi, yeasts, and bacteria (Brownlee and others 1990; Scalbert 1991; Cowan 1999). Some examples of owers with presence of high tannin include: Allium spp. (Chehregani and others 2007), C. stula (Bhalodia and others 2011), E. elatior (Lachumy and others 2010) and R. vesicarius (Mostafa and others 2011). Terpenoids and essential oils Essential oils are secondary metabolites containing a mixture of compounds that are based on 5 carbon isoprene structure (terpenes) occurring as diterpenes, triterpenes, tetraterpenes (C20, C30, and C40), hemiterpenes (C5), and sesquiterpenes (C15) (Cowan 1999). The antimicrobial activity of terpenes involves
c

Major Bioactive Compounds in Flower Extracts


Bioactive compounds isolated from owers and their extracts have shown potential antimicrobial activities. The isolated compounds are classied into different groups, such as phenolics, terpenoids, essential oils, glycosides, and alkaloids. A few of these are discussed in the preceding text below.

Phenolics Among the various phenolic compounds, avonoids are found abundantly in plant-derived foods (Denny and Buttriss 2007). Flavonoids (consisting of a central 3-ring structure), are major phenolic compounds that play a pivotal role in plants, such as protection against UV, pigmentation, stimulation of nitrogen xing nodules, and disease resistance (Pierpoint 2000; Denny and Buttriss 2007). This group of compounds can occur as glycosides too. Flavonoids are known to exhibit rich antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inammatory properties. Besides, avonoids are known to possess antimicrobial activities due to their ability to form complexes with extracellular and soluble proteins and microbial cell wall (Tsuchiya and others 1996; Cowan 1999; Grotewold 2006).

50 Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety r Vol. 11, 2012

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


disruption of cell membrane by their lipophilic constituents. Preliminary phytochemical screening on essential oils extracted from the owers of C. macropodum (Ebrahimabadi and others 2010), C. trifurcatum (Sassi and others 2008b), C. operculatus (Dung and others 2008), L. japonica (Rahman and Kang 2009), and S. rosmarinifolia (Ioannou and others 2007) have shown monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and their oxygenated derivatives to be major constituents, which contribute substantially to antimicrobial activities. Terpenes (comprising of >30000 different compounds) are termed terpenoids when they contain additional elements, typically oxygen. Reports are available wherein bacteria and fungi have been shown to be sensitive to terpenoids (Tassou and others 1995; Taylor and others 1996; Cowan 1999). Terpenoids present in essential oils were effective against L. monocytogenes (Aureli and others 1992; Cowan 1999). Terpenoid contents reported in ower extracts might contribute to the observed antimicrobial activities of the ower extracts as observed for C. stula (Bhalodia and others 2011), C. morifolium (Zhao and others 2009), E. elatior (Lachumy and others 2010), and Rosa spp. (Hirulkar and Agrawal 2010). Plant sterols (also terpenoids), have the ability to reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in plasma (Denny and Buttriss 2007). Flowers of C.operculatus and R. vesicarius are reported to contain sterols (Dung and others 2008; Mostafa and others 2011). However, not much research reports are available on these aspects. ower extracts and their essential oils have been proven to possess antimicrobial activities, these can be incorporated into developing new and novel biopolymer-based edible lms, especially for preserving fresh produce. Based on the reports available from in vitro studies conducted till date, high extraction yields and strong antimicrobial activities have been demonstrated by plant materials extracted in methanol (Quarenghi and others 2000; Annegowda and others 2011; Mann and others 2011). However, methanol can be highly toxic to humans and livestock and cannot be considered as a food grade solvent. In comparison to methanol, solvents such as ethanol and water, which have also exhibited appreciable antimicrobial activities, can be considered safe and results generated by using these solvents can be benecial for food and pharmaceutical applications. Flower extracts and their essential oils have many traditional uses, such as in the preparation of foods and herbal remedies, with minimal known side-effects on human health. Being natural, they are accepted to be highly safe for consumption. Of late, edible owers are extensively being explored for commercial applications in food industries such as for development of oral teas, beverages, functional foods, and bakery products. However, to date, research works undertaken on issues pertaining toward safety and toxicity of ower extracts and their essential oils are scarce. The effectiveness of ower extracts against a wider spectrum of pathogenic microorganisms needs to be investigated before being used for food preservation or medicinal purposes. In addition, clinical effects of the oral extracts and their essential oils under in vivo conditions as well as in food systems need to be studied to evaluate in detail their potential effectiveness as antimicrobial agents as well as presence of any acute or chronic effects. The sensory qualities of a foodstuff are related to consumers acceptance. With regard to owers, sensory qualities are attributable to chemical constituents, particularly the volatile and colored compounds. The chemical compounds will affect the organoleptical attributes (desirable or undesirable with regard to appearance, colors, tastes, and odors) of food into which the ower extract or essential oil are being incorporated. The owers with intense characteristic colors or pleasant aroma may be feasible to be exploited as a food colorant or food fragrance. Based on the available literature, it is evident that still a wide gap persists in the scientic knowledge with regard to many other indigenous owers (common and wild owers) used for culinary and therapeutic purposes, which include: banana owers, coconut owers, cheddar pink, rosebay willowherb, champika, chickweed, Dutch clover, sweet snow, and others (just to name a few). This merits further investigation to search for potential antimicrobial activities and for prospective food industry applications.

Glycosides Glycosides are composed of a variety of secondary metabolites bound to a mono- or oligosaccharide or to uronic acid. The part of saccharide or uronic acid is known as glycone, and the backbone is known as aglycone. Cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, saponins, and anthraquinone glycosides, being different in their aglycone structures, are the main groups of glycosides (Bernhoft 2010). Investigations carried out on the owers of C. stula, C. Juncea, and R. vesicarius have clearly demonstrated the presence of glycosides in their extracts (Chouhan and Singh 2010; Bhalodia and others 2011; Mostafa and others 2011). Alkaloids Alkaloids are heterocyclic, nitrogen-containing compounds, with potential clinical properties. Alkaloids have bitter taste and are present in threshold level in plants (Bernhoft 2010). Flowers of C. juncea and R. vesicarius have been reported to contain alkaloids (Chouhan and Singh 2010; Mostafa and others 2011). Even though a wide range of bioactive compounds might be present in owers, still there is a lack of detailed investigations carried out on these aspects. These needs to be explored further to conrm the antimicrobial activities exhibited.

Conclusion and Outlook


Edible owers from ornamental, cultivated, as well as wild plants have high potential to be explored as natural resources of antimicrobial agents. Exploring these underutilized owers by providing adequate scientic evidence might enhance the chances of developing new conventional and natural antimicrobial agents (drugs as well as food preservatives) and be good alternatives to synthetic chemicals. Screening for the potential bioactive compounds capable of exhibiting antimicrobial activities might provide more in-depth details. Further studies are warranted to identify various mechanisms involved in the antimicrobial actions exhibited by the bioactive compounds present in owers (as to how they interact with a microorganism to cause inhibitory or lethal effects). As
c

Acknowledgments
The authors gratefully acknowledge anonymous referees and Scientic Editor (Prof. Dr. Manfred Kroger) for comments and constructive suggestions provided for improving the quality of this manuscript. First author thanks Inst. of Postgraduate Studies, Univ. Sains Malysia for the fellowship provided. Individual research fund provided as an RU grant (Nr 1001/PTEKIND/814139,USM) for the corresponding author is also gratefully acknowledged.

References Abdoul-Latif F, Edou P, Eba F, Mohamed N, Ali A, Djama S, Obame L, Bassol e I, Dicko D. 2010. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Vol. 11, 2012 r Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 51

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


essential oil and methanol extract of Jasminum sambac from Djibouti. Afr J Plant Sci 4(3):3843. Abdullaev FI, River on-Negrete L, Caballero-Ortega H, Manuel Hern andez J, P erez-L opez I, Pereda-Miranda R, Espinosa-Aguirre JJ. 2003. Use of in vitro assays to assess the potential antigenotoxic and cytotoxic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Toxicol In Vitro 17:7316. Abe M, Ozawa Y, Uda Y, Yamada Y, Morimitsu Y, Nalamura Y, Osawa T. 2002. Labdane- type diterpene dialdehydes, pungent principle of myoga, Zingiber mioga Roscoe. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66:2698700. Abe M, Ozawa Y, Uda Y, Yamada F, Morimitsu Y, Nakamura Y, Osawa T. 2004. Antimicrobial activities of diterpene dialdehydes, constituents from myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe), and their quantitative analysis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68(7):16014. Abou-taleb M, Kawai Y. 2008. Shelf-life of semi-fried tuna slices coated with essential oil compounds after treatment with anodic electrolyzed NaCl solution. J Food Prot 71(4):7704. Adams R, Gianturco M. 1956. The alkaloids of Crotalaria juncea. J Am Chem Soc 78:191921. Akuodor GC, Idris Usman M, Ibrahim JA, Chilaka KC, Akpan JL, Dzarma S, Muazzam I, Osunkwo UA. 2011. Anti-nociceptive, anti-inammatory and antipyretic effects of the methanolic extract of Bombax buonopozense leaves in rats and mice. Afr J Biotechnol 10(16):31916. Alka M, Shrivastava A, Jain SK. 2010. Screening of some plant extracts against Alternaria sp. isolated from foot infections in cancer patients. Intl J Pharm Tech Res 2(2):116570. Al-Moeh LA, Alhaider AA, Mossa JS, Al-Sohaibani MO, Qureshi S, Rafatullah S. 2006. Antigastric ulcer studies on Saffron Crocus sativus L. in rats. Pak J Biol Sci 9(6):100913. Al-Quran S. 2009. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan. J Ethnopharmacol 123:4550. Annegowda HV, Bhat R, Liong MT, Karim AA, Mansor SM. 2011. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume. J Food Sci Technol. DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0370-8. Anthony YHW, Mary MYW, Kwan HS, Melanie CYC, Chaua CF, Christopher HKC. 2002. Inhibition of ATPases by Cleistocalyx operculatus. A possible mechanism for the cardiotonic actions of the herb. Vascul Pharmacol 38:1638. Ardo gan BC, Baydar H, Kaya S, Demirci M, Ozbas ar D, Mumcu E. 2002. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some essential oils. Arch Pharmacal Res 25:8604. Atiqur Rahman M, Mossa SJ, Mansour SA, Al- Yahya MA. 2004. Medicinal plant diversity in the ora of Saudi Arabia. 1: a report on seven plant families. Fitoterapia 75:14961. Aureli P, Costantini A, Zolea S. 1992. Antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes. J Food Prot 55:3448. Bansod S, Rai M. 2008. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Indian medicinal plants against human pathogenic Aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger . World J Med Sci 3(2):818. Baratta MT, Dorman HJD, Deans SG, Figueiredo AC, Barroso JG, Ruberto G. 1998. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of some commercial essential oils. Flavour Frag J 13:23544. Basim E, Basim H. 2003. Antibacterial activity of Rosa damascena essential oil. Fitoterapia 74:3946. Beentje H, Sara S. 2001. Plant systematic and phytogeograhy for the understanding of African Biodiversity. Syst Geogr Plants 71(2):2846. Bernhoft A. 2010. A brief review on bioactive compounds in plants. In: Bernhoft A, editor. Bioactive compounds in plants- benets and risks for man and animals. Oslo: The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, p 117. Bhalodia NR, Nariya PB, Shukla VJ. 2011. Antibacterial and antifungal activity from ower extracts of Cassia stula L.: an ethnomedicinal plant. Intl J PharmTech Res 3(1):1608. Bhatt KC, Pandey A, Dhariwal, OP, Panwar NS, Bhandari DC. 2009. Tum-thang (Crotalaria tetragona Roxb. ex Andr.): a little-known wild edible species in the north-eastern hill region of India. Genet Resour Crop Ev 56:72933. Brownlee HE, McEuen AR, Hedger J, Scott IM. 1990. Antifungal effects of cocoa tannin on the witches broom pathogen Crinipellis perniciosa. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 36:3948. Chan EWC, Lim YY, Omar M. 2007. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of leaves of Etlingera species (Zingiberaceae) in peninsular Malaysia. Food Chem 104:158693. Chehregani A, Azimishad F, Hajalizade H. 2007. Study on antibacterial effect of some Allium species from Hamedan-Iran. Intl J Agric Bio 9(6): 8736. Chen CC, Hsu JD, Wang SF, Chrang HC, Yang MY, Kao ES, Ho, YO, Wang, CJ. 2003. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J Agric Food Chem 51(18): 54727. Chouhan HS, Singh SK. 2010. Antibacterial activity of seed and ower parts of Crotalaria juncea Linn. Am-Euras J Sci Res 5:2125. Coruh N, Sagdicoglu Celep AG, Ozgokce F. 2007. Antioxidant properties of Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl., Chaerophyllum macropodum Boiss. and Heracleum persicum Desf. from Apiaceae family used as food in eastern Anatolia and their inhibitory effects on glutathione-S transferase. Food Chem 100:123742. Cowan MM. 1999.Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 12:56482. Dai J, Mumper RJ. 2010. Plant phenolics: extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules 15:731352. De Clercq E. 2001. New developments in anti-HIV chemotherapy. Farmaco 56:312. Denny A, Buttriss J. 2007. Synthesis report no 4: plant foods and health: focus on plant bioactives. Norfolk: British Nutrition Foundation. Drewes SE, Van Vuuren SF. 2008. Antimicrobial acylphloroglucinols and dibenzyloxy avonoids from owers of Helichrysum gymnocomum. Phytochem 69:17459. Dung NT, Kim JM, Kang, SC. 2008. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and the ethanol extract of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry buds. Food Chem Toxicol 46:36329. Duraipandiyan V, Ignacimuthu S. 2007. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Cassia stula L.: an ethnomedicinal plant. J Ethnopharmacol 112:5904. Duraipandiyan V, Ignacimuthu S. 2010. Antifungal activity of rhein isolated from Cassia stula L. ower. Webmed Central Pharmacol 1(9):WMC00687. Durmaz H, Sagun E, Tarakci Z, Ozgokce F. 2006. Antibacterial activities of Allium vineale, Chaerophyllum macropodum and Prangos ferulacea. Afr J Biotechnol 5:17958. Ebrahimabadi AH, Djafari-Bidgoli Z, Mazoochi A, Kashi FJ, Batooli H. 2010. Essential oils composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the leaves and owers of Chaerophyllum macropodum Boiss. Food Cont 21:11738. Elegami AA, Almagboul AZ, Omer MEA, El Tohami MS. 2001. Sudanese plants used in folkloric medicine: screening for antibacterial activity. Part X. Fitoterapia 72:8107. El-Saadany SS, El-Massry RA, Labib SM, Sitohy MZ. 1991. The biochemical role and hypocholesterolaemic potential of the legume Cassia stula in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Die Nahrung 35:80715. Esimone CK, Omobuwajo RL, Sowemimo AA, Proksch P. 2006. Single-cycle vector-based antiviral screening assays for high-throughput evaluation of potential anti-HIV medicinal plants: a pilot study on some Nigerian herbs. In: Singh VK, Govil JN, Arunachalam C, editors. Recent progress in medicinal plant research. Vol. 19. Phytopharmacology and therapeutic values I. India: Studium Press. p 5060. Esterhuizen LL, Meyer R, Dubery IA. 2006. Antimicrobial compounds from Coleonema album (Rutaceae). Z Naturforsch 61:48998. Fahey JW. 2005. Moringa oleifera: a review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties. Part 1. Trees for Life J. Available from: www.TFLJournal.org/article.php/20051201124931586. Accessed May 26, 2011. Fisher K, Phillips C. 2008. Potential antimicrobial uses of essential oils in food: is citrus the answer? LWT- Food Sci Technol 19:15664. Gayoso CW, Lima, EO, Oliveira VT, Pereira FO, Souza EL, Lima IO, Navarro, DF. 2005. Sensitivity of fungi isolated from onychomycosis to Eugenia cariophyllata essential oil and eugenol. Fitoterapia 76: 2479. Grotewold E. 2006. The science of avonoids. New York: Springer Publishers, p 1280. en DA, Barroso CG, P erez-Bustamante JA. 1996. Automation of sample Guill preparation as a preliminary stage in the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of polyphenolic compounds in sherry wines. J Chromatogr A 730:3946. Hamdan M, Al-Ismail K Al-Delaim K. 2007. The antibacterial activity of selected edible plant extracts against Bacillus cereus. Jordan J Agric Sci 3(2):14855.

52 Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety r Vol. 11, 2012

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


Hamedo HA, Abdelmigid HM. 2009. Use of antimicrobial and genotoxicity potentiality for evaluation of essential oils as food preservatives. The Open Biotechnol J 3:506. Handa SS. 2008. An overview of extraction techniques for medicinal and aromatic plants. In: Handa SS, Khanuja SPS, Longo G, Rakesh DD, editors. Extraction technologies for medicinal and aromatic plants. Italy: International Centre for Science and High Technology. p 2154. Haslam E. 1996. Natural polyphenols (vegetable tannins) as drugs: possible modes of action. J Nat Prod 59:20515. Hassan A, Rahman S, Deeba F, Mahmud S. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts having hepatoprotective effects. J Med Plants Res 3(1):203. Hirulkar NB, Agrawal M. 2010. Antimicrobial activity of rose petals extract against some pathogenic bacteria. Intl J Pharm Biol Arch 1(5):47884. Holley RA, Patel, D. 2005. Improvement in shelf-life and safety of perishable foods by plant essential oils and smoke antimicrobials. Food Microbiol 22:27392. Hosseinzadeh H, Khosravan V. 2001. Anticonvulsant effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus L. stigmas in mice. Arch Iranian Med 5:447. Houghton PJ, Ramana A. 1998. Laboratory handbook for the fractionation of natural extracts. London, UK: Chapman & Hall, p 1199. Houghton P, Fang R, Techatanawat I, Steventon G, Hylands PJ, Lee CC. 2007. The sulphorhodamine (SRB) assay and other approaches to testing plant extracts and derived compounds for activities related to reputed anticancer activity. Methods 42:37787. Hsu W, Simonne M, Weissman A, Kim J. 2010. Antimicrobial activity of greater galangal [Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Swartz.] owers. Food Sci Biotechnol 19(4):87380. Ioannou E, Poiata A, Hancianu M, Tzakou O. 2007. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of ower heads and leaves of Santolina rosmarinifolia L. from Romania. Nat Prod Res 21(1):1823. Jeu L, Piacenti FJ, Lyakhovetskiy AG, Fung HB. 2003. Voriconazole. Clin Ther 25:132181. Jones WP, Kinghorn AD. 2005. Extraction of plant secondary metabolites.In: Sarker SD, Latif Z, Gray AI, editors. Natural products isolation. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Humana Press, p 32351. Juntachote T, Berghofer E. 2005. Antioxidative properties and stability of ethanolic extracts of holy basil and galangal. Food Chem 92:193202. Juntachote T, Berghofer E, Siebenhandl S, Bauer F. 2007. The effect of dried galangal powder and its ethanolic extracts on oxidative stability in cooked ground pork. LWT-Food Sci Technol 40:32430. Kakuda R, Imai M, Yaoita Y, Machida K, Kikuchi M. 2000. Secoiridoid glycosides from the ower buds of Lonicera japonica. Phytochemistry 55:87981. Kalemba D, Kunicka A. 2003. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Curr Med Chem 10:81329. Khare CP. 2007. Indian medicinal plants: an illustrated dictionary. New York: Springer. 564 p. Koday NK, Rangaiah, GS, Bobbarala V, Cherukuri S. 2010. Bactericidal activities of different medicinal plants extract against ocular pathogen viz Corynebacterium macginleyi. Drug Invention Today 2(1):57. Kong JM, Goh, NK, Chia LS, Chia T F. 2003. Recent advances in traditional plant drugs and orchids. Acta Pharmacol Sin 24(1):721. Ksouri R, Falleh H, Megdiche W, Trabelsi N, Mhamdi B, Chaieb K, Bakrouf D, Magn e C, Abdelly C. 2009. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the edible medicinal halophyte Tamarix gallica L. and related polyphenolic constituents. Food Chem Toxicol 47:208391. Lachumy SJT, Sasidharan S, Sumathy V, Zuraini Z. 2010. Pharmacological activity, phytochemical analysis and toxicity of methanol extract of Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) owers. Asian Pacic J Tropical Med 3:76974. Lakshmi CP, Chakradhar RPS, Rao JL, Gopal NO. 2009. EPR and IR spectral investigations on some leafy vegetables of Indian origin. Spectrochimica Acta Part A 74:1407. Lin H, Chen J, Kuo W, Wang C. 2007. Chemopreventive properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on human gastric carcinoma cells through apoptosis induction and JNK/p38 MAPK signaling activation. Chemico Biol Interact 165:5975. Liu C, Wang J, Chu C, Cheng M, Tseng T. 2002. In vivo protective effect of protocatechuic acid on tert butyl hydroperoxide-induced rat hepatotoxicity. Food Chem Toxicol 40:63541. Lonzotti V. 2006. The analysis of onion and garlic. J Chromatogr 112:322. Mai TT, Chuyen NV. 2007. Antihyperglycemic activity of an aqueous extract from ower buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71:6976. Malashetty VB, Patil SB. 2007. Effect of chromatographic fractions of ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea (L.) seeds on ovarian follicular kinetics and estrous cycle in albino rats. Iran J Pharma Exp Ther 6:15963. Mann A, Salawu FB, Abdulrauf I. 2011. Antimicrobial activity of Bombax buonopozense P. Beauv. (Bombacaceae) edible oral extracts. Eur J Sci Res 48:62730. Marino M, Bersani C, Comi G. 2001. Impedance measurement to study antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lamiaceae and Compositae. Intl J Food Microbiol 67:18795. Mostafa HAM, Elbakry AA, Alam EA. 2011. Evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of different plant parts of Rumex vesicarius L. (Polygonaceae). Intl J Pharm Pharm Sci 3:10918. Mukherjee PK, Kumar V, Kumar NS, Heinrich M. 2008. The ayurvedic medicine Clitoria ternatea from traditional use to scientic assessment. J Ethanopharmacol 120:291301. Nair SC, Kurumboor SK, Hasegawa JH. 1995. Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review. Cancer Biotherapy 10:25764. Nakhaei M, Khaje-Karamoddin M, Ramezami M. 2008. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori growth in vitro by saffron (Croticus sativus L.). Iran J Basic Med Sci 11:916. Nascimento GGF, Locatelli J, Freitas PC, Silva GL. 2000. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Brazilian J Microbiol 31:24756. Nejad Ebrahimi S, Hadian J, Mirjalili MH, Sonboli A, Yousefzadi M. 2008. Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Thymus caramanicus at different phenological stages. Food Chem 110:92731. Nguyen KTG, Zhang S, Nguyen NT, Nguyen PQ, Chiu MS, Hardjojo A, Tam JP. 2011. Discovery and characterization of novel cyclotides originated from chimeric precursors consisting of albumin-1 chain a and cyclotide domains in the fabaceae family. J Biol Chem 286:2427587. Novais MH, Santos I, Mendes S, Pinto-Gomes C. 2004. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Arrabida Natural Park (Portugal). J Ethnopharmacol 93:18395. Odigie IP, Ettarh RR, Adigun SA. 2003. Chronic administration of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa attenuates hypertension and reverses cardiac hypertrophy in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. J Ethnopharmacol 86:1815. Oonmetta-aree J, Suzuki T, Gasaluck P, Eumkeb G. 2006. Antimicrobial properties and action of galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.) on Staphylococcus aureus. LWT-Food Sci Technol 39:121420. Perumal Samy R, Ignacimuthu S, Sen A. 1998. Screening of 34 medicinal plants for antibacterial properties. J Ethnopharmacol 62:17382. Phongpaichit S, Subhadhirasakul S, Wattanapiromsakul C. 2005. Antifungal activities of extracts from Thai medicinal plants against opportunistic fungal pathogens associated with AIDS patients. Mycoses 48:3338. Pierpoint WS. 2000. Why do plants make medicines? Biochemist 22:3740. Pinelo M, Arnous A, Meyer AS. 2006. Upgrading of grape skins: signicance of plant cell- wall structural components and extraction techniques for phenol release. Trends Food Sci Technol 17:57990. Pirbalouti AG, Malekpoor F, Enteshari S, Youse M, Momtaz H, Hamedi B. 2010. Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants used by Bakhtiari tribal in southwest Iran. Intl J Biol 2:5563. Politeo O, Jukic M, Milos M. 2010. Comparison of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of glycosidically bound and free volatiles from clove (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb.). J Food Biochem 34:12941. Poole K. 2001. Overcoming antimicrobial resistance by targeting resistance mechanisms. J Pharm Pharm 53:28394. Prashanth Kumar V, Chauhan NS, Padh H, Rajani M. 2006. Search for antibacterial and antifungal agents from selected Indian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 107:1828. Prashar A, Locke IC, Evans CS. 2006. Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cell. Cell Prolif 39:2418. Quarenghi MV, Tereschuk ML, Baigori MD, Abdala LR. 2000. Antimicrobial activity of owers from Anthemis cotula. Fitoterapia 71: 7102. Radha R, Kavimani S, Ravichandran V. 2008. Antitumour activity of methanolic extract of Plumeria alba L. leaves against Dalton lymphoma ascites in mice. Intl J Health Res 1:7985.

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Vol. 11, 2012 r Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 53

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


Rahman A, Kang SC. 2009. In vitro control of food-borne and food spoilage bacteria by essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Food Chem 116:6705. Raina VK, Srivastava SK, Syamasunder KV. 2002. The essential oil of greater galangal [Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd.] from the lower Himalayan region of India. Flavour Frag J 17:35860. Rajeh MAB, Zuraini Z, Sasidharan S, Latha LY, Amutha S. 2010. Assessment of Euphorbia hirta L. leaf, ower, stem and root extracts for their antibacterial and antifungal activity and brine shrimp lethality. Molecules 15:600818. Rhee KH, Lee KH. 2011. Antimicrobial effects of Lonicera japonica against Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Nat Prod Sci 17: 235. Robards K. 2003. Strategies for the determination of bioactive phenols in plants, fruit and vegetables. J Chromatogr A 1000:65791. Rossnagel K, Willich SN. 2001. Value of complementary medicine exemplied by rose-hips. Gesundheitswesen 63:4126. Sa Idana D, Mahjoub MA, Boussaada O, Chria J, Ch eraif I, Daami M, Mighri Z, Helal AN. 2008. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of volatile compounds of Tamarix boveana (Tamaricaceae). Microbiol Res 163:44555. Sakakibara H, Yanai T, Yajima I, Hayashi K. 1991. Volatile avor components of myoga (Zingiber mioga). Agric Biol Chem 55: 16557. Saleem A, Ahotupa M, Pihlaja K. 2001. Total phenolics concentration and antioxidant properties of extracts of medicinal plants of Pakistan. Z Naturforsch (C) 56:9738. Sangetha SN, Zuraini Z, Sasidharan S, Suryani S. 2008. Antimicrobial activities of Cassia surattensis and Cassia stula. J Molecular Biol Biotechnol 1:14. Sassi AB, Harzallah-Skhiri F, Bourgougnon N, Aouni M. 2008a. Antimicrobial activities of four Tunisian Chrysanthemum species. Indian J Med Res 127:18392. Sassi AB, Harzallah-Skhiri F, Chraief I, Bourgougnon N, Hammami M, Aouni M. 2008b. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil of (Tunisian) Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. owerheads. C R Chim 11:32430. Scalbert A. 1991. Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry 30:387583. Shan B, Cai Y, Brooks JD, Corke H. 2007. The in vitro antibacterial activity of dietary spice and medicinal herb extracts. Intl J Food Microbiol 117:1129. Sharma HK, Chhangte L, Dolui AK. 2001. Traditional medicinal plants in Mizoram, India. Fitoterapia 72:14661. Singh J. 2008. Maceration, percolation and infusion techniques for the extraction of medicinal and aromatic plants. In: Handa SS, Khanuja SPS, Longo G, Rakesh DD, editors. Extraction technologies for medicinal and aromatic plants. Italy: International. Centre for Science and High Technology, p 6782. Solanki YB, Jain SM. 2010. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Clitoria ternatea and Vigna mungo in rats. Pharm Biol 48:91523. Solanki YB, Jain SM. 2011. Hepatoprotective effects of Clitoria ternatea and Vigna mungo against acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. J Pharmacol Toxicol 60:3048. Solanki YB, Jain SM. 2012. Wound healing activity of Clitoria ternatea L. in experimental animal models. Pharmacologia 3:1608. Sonboli A, Fakhari A, Kanani MR, Yousefzadi M. 2004. Antimicrobial activity, essential oil composition and micromorphology of trichomes of Satureja laxiora C. Koch from Iran. Z Naturforsch 59(C):77781. Sowemimo AA, Omobuwajo OR, Adesanya SA. 2007a. Constituents of Nymphaea lotus Linn. Nig J Nat Prod Med 11:12. Sowemimo AA, Fakoya FA, Awopetu I, Omobuwajo OR, Adesanya SA. 2007b. Toxicity and mutagenic activity of some selected Nigerian plants. J Ethnopharmacol 113:42732. Sridhar KR, Bhat R. 2007. Lotus a potential nutraceutical source. J Agric Technol 3:14355. Stalikas CD. 2007. Extraction, separation, and detection methods for phenolic acids and avonoids. J Sep Sci 30:326895. Stern JL, Hagerman AE, Steinberg PD, Mason PK. 1996. Phlorotannin-protein interactions. J Chem Ecol 22(10):187799. Stonsaovapak S, Chareonthamawat P, Boonyaratanakornkit M, 2000. Inhibitory effects of selected Thai spices and medicinal plants on Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica. Kasetsart J Nat Sci 34:517. Syakira MH, Brenda L. 2010. Antibacterial capacity of Plumeria alba petals. World Acad Sci Engr Technol 68:14636. Szab o I, Pallag A, Blidar C. 2009. The antimicrobial activity of the Cnicus benedictus L. extracts. Analele Universitatii din Oradea, Fascicula Biologie Tom. XVI(1):1268. Tada M, Hiroe Y, Kiyohara S, Suzuki S. 1988. Nematicidal and antimicrobial constituents from Allium grayi Regel. and Allium stolosum L. var. caespitosum. Agric Biol Chem 52:23835. Tajkarimi MM, Ibrahim SA, Cliver DO. 2010. Antimicrobial herb and spice compounds in food. Food Control 21:1199218. Talreja T. 2010. Screening of crude extract of avonoids of Moringa oleifera against bacteria and fungal pathogens. J Phytol 2:315. Tandon S, Rane S. 2008. Decoction and hot continuous extraction techniques. In: Handa SS, Khanuja SPS, Longo G, Rakesh DD, editors. Extraction technologies for medicinal and aromatic plants. Italy: International. Centre for Science and High Technology, p 93106. Tassou CC, Drosinos EH, Nychas GJE. 1995. Effects of essential oil from mint (Mentha piperita) on Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in model food systems at 4 and 10 C. J Appl Bacteriol 78:593600. Taylor RSL, Edel F, Manandhar NP, Towers GHN. 1996. Antimicrobial activities of southern Nepalese medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 50:97102. Thaller MC, Migliore L, Marquez C, Tapia W, Cede no V, Rossolini GM, Gentile G. 2010. Tracking acquired antibiotic resistance in commensal bacteria of Gal apagos land iguanas: no man, no resistance. PLoS One 5(2):14. Toda M, Okubo S, Ohnishi R, Shimamura T. 1989. Antibacterial and bactericidal activities of Japanese green tea. Jpn J Bacteriol 45: 5616. Tonwitowat R. 2008. Cultivars, agronomic characteristics, and chemical compositions of Alpinia galangal from various regions of Thailand. Acta Hort 786:23542. Tsai T, Tsai T, Chien Y, Lee C, Tsai P. 2008. In vitro antimicrobial activities against cariogenic Streptococci and their antioxidant capacities: a comparative study of green tea versus different herbs. Food Chem 110:85964. Tsuchiya H, Sato M, Miyazaki T, Fujiwara S, Tanigaki S, Ohyama M, Tanaka T, Iinuma M. 1996. Comparative study on the antibacterial activity of phytochemical avanones against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Ethnopharmacol 50:2734. Uma Devi P, Selvi S, Devipriya D, Murugan S, Suja, S. 2009. Antitumor and antimicrobial activities and inhibition of in vitro lipid peroxidation by Dendrobium nobile. Afr J Biotechnol 8:228993. Uma B, Prabhakar K, Rajendran S. 2009. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn against extended spectrum beta Lactamase producing enteric and urinary pathogens. Asian J Pharm Clinic Res 2:946. Ushimaru PI, da Silva MTN, Di Stasi LC, Barbosa L, Junior AF. 2007. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants extracts. Brazilian J Microbiol 38:7179. Vahidi H, Kamalinejad M, Sedaghati N. 2002. Antimicrobial properties of Crocus sativus L. Iranian J Pharm Res 1:335. Vijaykumar B, Sangamma I, Sharanappa A, Patil SB. 2004. Antispermatogenic and hormonal effects of Crotalaria juncea Linn. seed extracts in male mice. Asian J Androl 6:6770. Voravuthikunchai SP, Limsuwan S, Supapol O, Subhadhirasakul S. 2006. Antibacterial activity of extracts from family Zingiberaceae against foodborne pathogens. J Food Saf 26:32534. Wang CJ, Wang JM, Lin WL, Chu CY, Chou FP, Tseng TH. 2000. Protective effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins against tert butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 38:4116. Wijekoon MMJO, Bhat R, Karim AA. 2011. Effect of extraction solvents on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of bunga kantan (Etlingera elatior Jack.) inorescence. J Food Comp Anal 24:6159. Yadava RN, Verma V. 2003. Antimicrobial activity of a novel avonol glycoside. Asian J Chem 15:8426. Yang X, Eilerman RG. 1999. Pungent principal of Alpinia galangal (L.) Swartz and its applications. J Agric Food Chem 47:165762. Ye CL, Lu YH, Wei DZ. 2004. Flavonoids from Cleistocalyx operculatus. Phytochemistry 65:4457. Ye CL, Liu JW, Wei DZ, Lu YH, Qian F. 2005. In vivo antitumor activity by 2,4- dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethylchalcone in a solid human

54 Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety r Vol. 11, 2012

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Flowers as potential antimicrobial agents . . .


carcinoma xeno-graft model. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 56: 704. Zahid Z, Khan SW, Patel KA, Konale AG, Lokre SS. 2010. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of owers of Plumeria alba Linn. (Apocynaceae). Intl J Pharm Pharma Sci 2(4):1557. Zhang QH, Zhang L. 2007. Research advance in chemical composition and pharmacological action of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Food and Drug 9:602. Zhang Y, Shoyama Y, Sugiura M, Saito H. 1994. Effects of Crocus sativus on the ethanol-induced impairment of passive avoidance performance in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 17:21721. Zhang B, Yang R, Liu CZ. 2008. Microwave-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from ower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Sep Purif Technol 62:4803. Zhang B, Fan C, Dong L, Wang F, Yue J. 2010. Structural modication of a specic antimicrobial lead against Helicobacter pylori discovered from traditional Chinese medicine and a structure- activity relationship study. Eur J Med Chem 45:525864. Zhao L, Yang L, Liu Y, Li C, Kang W. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of seven species Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cultivated in Kaifeng. Modern Pharm Res 2:825.

2011 Institute of Food Technologists

Vol. 11, 2012 r Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 55