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© Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine, 2002 ISBN 973-582-393-4


Janeta LUPU


Marcela OLARU


Marilena BĂLAN

Bun de tipar: 12.12. 2001; Coli tipar: 9,25 Format: 16/61×86

Editura şi Tipografia Fundaţiei România de Mâine Splaiul Independenţei nr.313, Bucureşti, sector 6, Oficiul Poştal 78 Telefon: 410 43 80; Fax. 411 33 84 www.


Conf. univ. dr. LAVINIA NĂDRAG Asist. univ. LAURA CARAULAN





PREFACE ………………………………………………………


Unit 1. EMPLOYMENT FILE …………………………………


Unit 2. INTERVIEW STRATEGY ……………………………


Unit 3. THE SECRETARY TODAY …………………………






Unit 6. ACCOUNTING ……………………………………….…




Appendix A. FUNCTIONAL INDEX …………………………


Appendix B. ROMANIAN – ENGLISH BUSINESS GLOSSARY … 101 Appendix C. ENGLISH – ROMANIAN BUSINESS GLOSSARY…. 115 Appendix D. IDIOMS …………………………………………… 138

Appendix E. ABBREVIATIONS ………………………….…… 151

BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………



The course is intended for intermediate students who wish to gain practice in the area of BUSINESS ENGLISH. The course consists of seven units. Thematically linked to the topic of each unit are a wide variety of language activities designed to focus on business lexis, and difficult points of grammar as well as developing reading, writing, listening and speaking skills. The main emphasis of BUSINESS ENGLISH is to develop the students’ ability to communicate effectively in a wide range of business situations.

Lavinia Nădrag, Ph. D.




1. When you were a child, what did you want to be when you grew

up? Why? Did you change your mind later?

2. Have you ever had a job? How many? What kind were they? (What

kind of work did you do? How did you get the job?)

3. What are the things that you think make a good job? What sort of

things motivates people to do their job well? List all the things you can think of.

4. Name five different jobs you would like to have. Why do these jobs

seem attractive to you? What occupations do you respect the most and why?

5. If you won a great deal of money, for example in a lottery, would

you continue working? If not, do you think you would lose anything by

giving up work?

SOME USEFUL WORDS AND STRUCTURES A. Organizing Ideas We live in a time of rising unemployment. This makes the job market very competitive. Many people are now seeking the services of a new type of company to prepare them for application. The company helps in a variety of ways, from writing the resume to training the applicant in interview techniques. The fee is high but many job seekers consider it a worthwhile investment in the competitive race for a job. The stages involved in applying for a job are as follows :

reading the advertisements;

telephoning or writing for information;

writing or filling in an application form;

preparing a resume (CV);

the interview.

Almost everybody who has a job has gone through the process of

making applications. Formal job applications are the first contact with your future employer and they can pave the way to a job interview. You should be able to give the following information:

1. name, address, and telephone number of one referee

2. educational background

3. skills, interests, and hobbies

4. reason why an employer should hire you

5. name and address of the last employer

6. volunteer or community work

7. type of work done in the past

8. cities in which the person has worked

9. languages spoken in progress

B. Some useful words and structures :

I. profession = an occupation that requires advanced education and special training:

He is a lawyer by profession. A professional soldier/tennis player occupation = business, employment, trade, which occupies one’s time either permanently, or as a hobby. What is his occupation? trade = an occupation connected to manual or mechanical work and the use of machines or tools (carpenters, bricklayers, plumbers, etc. are tradesmen). He is a mason / carpenter by trade

to learn a trade

trade – mark (marca fabricii)

trade – union (sindicat)


Jobs: engineer, doctor, teacher, lawyer, architect, office manager,

secretary, bank cashier, mechanic, barber, waiter, salesman, shop assistant, housewife, clerk, disc jockey, journalist, judge, model, vet, pilot, chef, carpenter, actor, musician, economist, freelance clothes designer, fitness instructor, social worker. Wages are paid weekly. When you are paid monthly, it’s called salary. The general word for wages and salary is pay.

People work to earn a living. When there is a vacancy you can apply for the job (post). Then you

are an applicant. When they think you are the right person for the job you are appointed. So you get the appointment. appointed fired (dismissed, sacked) skilled unskilled employed jobless full – time part – time on the job off the job A job can be:













We are leaders in the application of IT for strategic advantage. We add the business perspective to technology excellence, transforming business performance through successful integration of people, process and technology. Our track record includes an impressive portfolio of clients from the financial, high technology, chemical, pharmaceutical, manufacturing and service sectors; most are world class market leaders in their own right. You could be working in multi-discipline, multi-national teams of consultants who deliver the difference, which creates world class success for our clients – different style, different process, different outcome. You will enjoy an exceptional support environment of training, tools and knowledge, which exploits our global reach. Our consultants are encouraged and empowered to make major personal contributions, to excel in their own specialist and develop themselves further. They enjoy genuine challenge and excellent career prospects. You will need a strong background in IT from a business perspective, business and process analysis, benchmarking, and benefits assessment, with a commitment to innovative thinking and change. Communication skills and the personality to work effectively with senior business managers are essential: an MBA and foreign language skills would also be advantageous. In Electronic Commerce we need business analysts with recent experience of applying emerging technologies to create new business

solutions in areas of Electronic Banking, Supply Chain and Electronic Transaction Processing. We also need technology specialists who have focused on networking, messaging and knowledge management in the same business solution areas. Internet / Intranet experience would be of particular interest. Your career resume must show at least five years of relevant experience. In our World Class IT team we need IT performance improvement specialists with experience in benchmarking the IT organization, and designing and managing programs to achieve world class standards for in – house and outsource situations. You will need IT qualifications and at least three years’ experience of performance measurement of software development / maintenance, computer operations or technical infrastructure. All the positions require a good first degree, excellent communication skills – both verbal and written – together with the energy and imagination to succeed within this fast paced environment. Equally important is a track record of achievement and the intellectual flexibility to work across business sectors and in different countries and cultures. To apply, send your CV.


1. Identify the genre the text might be said to belong to.

2. Find the words in the text which have the same meaning as the

following definitions:

a) Something that helps you to be better or more successful than others

(paragraph 1)

b) To do something very well, or much better than most people

(paragraph 2)

c) The hard work and loyalty that someone gives to an organization

(paragraph 3)

d) Someone’s education (paragraph 4)

e) A short written account of your education and your previous jobs

(paragraph 5)

f) The repairs that are necessary to keep something in good condition

(paragraph 6)

g) The ability to change or be changed easily to suit a different

situation (paragraph 7)

3. What do the following acronyms stand for: MBA, BA, MA?

VOCABULARY PRACTICE 1. Pair work Choose a company or business organization, real or imaginary. Prepare to give information on the following:

type of business organization (private, public, partnership, sole trader)

main business activity

location of head office, subsidiaries

turnover, profits, work-force

period of time you have been with the company

your responsibility within the company Be prepared to ask and answer questions.

2. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the words in brackets :

Our company is best known for its success as the (lead) Management Selection Company serving the (inform) industries. We manage search projects on a truly (globe) scale, working on some of the most (excite) senior roles within investment banking, telecomm, IT and (manage) consultancy. Our company is expanding (rapid), mirroring the pace of the high technology environment in which we work. (important) than our current success, is our future success. (meet) our business expansion plans, we require an (experience) senior researcher who (look) for a high profile management position. You will (expect) to know your industry, add value to our business development activities, and (interact) with both clients and candidates. Most (important), you will be expected to support and work with the search Directors, (identify) the most suitable candidates to match our clients’ requirements. In return we offer an open, (support) environment with commensurate rewards. 3. Complete the following sentences using suitable words from the box below:











Our company has an enviable …(1)… in management consulting for providing expert advice on business …(2)…, market positioning, strategic planning and business development particularly to clients in the newly …(3)…. energy industries. Due to rapid growth of our business activities throughout Europe, we are now seeking experienced energy trading professionals to join our …(4)….consulting team in either Paris or London. We are seeking professionals with tertiary qualifications in commerce, mathematics or a …(5)… related discipline. Ideally, you will have significant experience in ….(6)… trading, ….(7)… negotiation and financial markets in the energy industry. A ….(8)… knowledge of computer modeling for financial analysis is sought for the role. In addition, a thorough understanding of the ….(9)… and projected developments in the energy supply industry and the impact on distribution and … (10)… companies is considered essential.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE (Simple or Progressive)

1. Read through the following examples and say which form is used in each case. One sentence is incorrect. Which one?


The retailer is becoming more and more important in present-day


society. We currently develop a new distribution network.


The shopkeeper always tries to satisfy his customers.

4) Our chairman is always complaining about the quality of raw

materials. 5) According to the latest official figures, the inflation rate is beginning to increase.


The chairman of our company is trying to take over another public


company. I have been working working in this company for ten years.


Over the last ten months, the company has made a net profit of


more than $2 milion. The product workers have had a 8% rise.

10) Have you ever been to see our regional branches? 11) Tom has finished his probationary period. 12) His firm has gone bankrupt and he still hasn’t found a job as an accountant. 13) We produce a full range of domestic appliances.


Our computer network controls everything, from orders to delivery.


An industrial psychologist has carried out a number of tests.


The candidates have had lunch with the interviewing team.

2. Complete the following sentences, using suitable phrasal verbs with


a) I like this job. The money’s good and I ………… ……… days a week.

b) Leave me alone. I……… ……… with my work.

c) After every night shift, the firemen …

d) Do people realize the daily problems that one-parent families …… …. …… ?

e) The air-conditioning ………… …………… .

f) The menu looked impressive, but whatever we ordered …………… …………… .

g) We ………. ……. a new car (want)

h) These eggs must ………… ………… .They smell bad.


for two days.



1. What are some feeling people have when they are looking for jobs?

2. Name the stages involved in applying for a job.

READING You are looking for a job. Read the advertisements as fast as you can

and find the one that would most attract you if you were the following people.

1. You are outgoing, enjoy working with people, travelling, have an

entrepreneurial spirit and have a strong network of contacts within your chosen field.

2. You are 35 years old. You have some experience in sales and you

would like to join an expanding international company.

UK SALES MANAGER PACKAGE UP TO 50 000 The launch of this new Telecomm/IT product onto the UK market presents a tremendous opportunity for a committed professional with an entrepreneurial spirit. Your technical knowledge and successful sales

management career to date mean you will be confident in developing your own business strategies and taking total responsibility for this green field development role. Based in London.

ACCOUNT MANAGER 25, 000 – 30, 000 basic Bonuses, car & benefits You will currently be a proactive Account Manager with at least 5 years sales experience behind you. Of degree caliber you will now have the desire to work closely with clients to develop sponsorship and market analysis projects. Strong presentation and communication skills essential.

CONSULTANCY IN CARD PAYMENT SYSTEM The management team responsible for building the European Market Leader in this field has now established MAIN Consultants: a new consultancy practice, focusing only upon card payment systems. In order to meet aggressive expansion plans, EXPERIENCED PAYMENT CARD PROFESSIONALS are now required. FLEXIBILITY is one of your keys selling propositions and this also applies to terms of engagement, place and hours of work. Most of our assignments will be in the EU, requiring a mix of home and on–site work. If you feel that you are special enough to grasp this rare opportunity, please fax a summary CV to our Resourcing Director.

VOCABULARY PRACTICE 1. Look through your newspaper to locate the following:

a job requiring a minimum of 10 years experience

a job requiring a science degree

an employment ad for a business person

a display ad for a product that you would like to sell

a classified ad for a job that a student could apply for

a display ad for a company where you would like to work

an ad that advertises a job in another city

a news article about a woman and her job

a picture, caption or classified ad for the oddest job that you can find

2. Fill in the gaps with a suitable word from the box.



representative (rep.)



a. sole …………

b. stock………………

c. sole …………

d. insurance…………

e. car…………

f. company……………

3. Fill in the gaps with words from the box:





vocational training


closed shop





To make decent wages, we have to work…………


How much does he ………. in his job?


Mr. Johnson is no longer in the company’s………….


………… of work was the preliminary condition for the reopening

of talks.


Unemployment …………. have been extended to all categories of



How long has he been on ………… ?


With automation many workers may become………


A …………. is a firm that only hires union members.


Stronger emphasis is to be laid on …………


He only joined the firm three years ago, and is not eligible for the

job in terms of ……….

4. Read the letter of application and identify what each numbered box in the following diagram refers to.

39, Floral Street London

21st May, 2000 ATTN: The Personnel Director

Dear Sir,

With reference to your advertisement in the Sunday Times of May 20th, I should like to apply for the post of Sales Operations Director.

I am an automotive sale professional with established management

track record including dealership, selection and development. I would be grateful if you could send me further details and arrange an appointment on June 10th.

I look forward to hearing from you,

Yours faithfully,












a) Sit back to back with a partner. You are the Secretary at “Rolls –

Royce Motor Cars” and your colleague is a Job Applicant. Practice your telephone skills.

b) Ask your partner the necessary questions to complete the following

application form. Surname ………………… Forenames Mr./ Mrs./Miss …………… First name……………………… Permanent home address ……………………… Telephone……… Date of birth……………………. Place of birth………………… Nationality ……………………. Marital status ……………………… Number of children (sex and age) ……………………………… Present occupation …………………. Previous occupation ………………… Qualifications and schools attended ………………………………… Training courses of further studies ………………………………… Languages (state proficiency) ………………………… Interests and hobbies ……………………………… Names and addresses of previous employers ………………………

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT I. Look in your dictionary for each of the underlined words and choose the correct definition. Write the definition on the lines provided.

1. Let’s assume for a moment that the dollar starts losing value rapidly.

How do you think that affect markets?

2. How do you assess the present economic situation in Germany?

3. It is my feeling that the Manager will not approve of this plan.


In my view, the whole problem could have been avoided with

proper training.

5. John presumed that Tom had gone for the day since the lights were

out in the office.


You must not let members of the group sidetrack the discussion.


The group leader’s job is to keep the discussion on the track.


If the discussion goes off the track, lead it back as smoothly as you can.


Select the correct word(s) to complete the following sentences.

sidetrack off the track

on the track



One of the group leader’s jobs is to prevent


When the discussion wanders away from the subject, the group

leader is responsible for getting the group back

c. If the discussion should go

, the group leader should

lead it back to the subject.

d. As group leader, you should not let a member






a. Working on the

that Congress will not approve the tax

cut, where else can we look to save money?

b. for the moment that government approves our plan,

how are we going to get the supplies we need?

c. Adeline

lights were out in the office.

that Alice had gone for the day since the


Study Appendix A, then match the functions listed below with the

sentences that illustrate them.

a. personal opinion

b. personal experience

c. hypothetical situation

1. Let us assume that productivity increases by 10% next year.

2. When I faced a similar situation in London, this is what I did.

3. In my view, having the gate guards check everyone who enters the base will help reduce the incidents of crime caused by nonbiased personnel.

4. Put yourself in John’s place. How would you solve his problem?

5. I remember one time in World War II our government had a similar decision to make.

6. If you ask me, we should increase productivity by all means.

7. Let us presume for a moment that the temperature continues to drop below zero.

8. I recall a situation just like the one we are discussing when I worked in London.

9. It is my feeling that more training is the only answer.

10. If you had been in Mary’s place, how would you have handled the discipline problem?

IV. Respond to each of the following situations using expressions presented in Appendix A.

1. You want to be sure that everyone understands that what you will say next is your own opinion. How can you introduce your statement?

2. You want to get some possible situations to a problem that may come up soon. How would you ask the group to consider a problem that does not now exist?


Your group is discussing a problem just like one you had two years

ago. You want to tell the group how you handled the problem. How would you introduce this story?

4. As the group leader, you want to get your group’s opinions about

what they would do if they had John’s job. How would you ask for their opinions? John is having a problem in the department.

5. The Chairman of the Board wants to tell the shareholders what he

thinks about the solution that they are considering for adoption. What can be said to introduce the comment?

V. Look at the resume below and complete it with your own personal


Name…………… Street Address ……… City, State …………………… Zip/ Postal Code …………… Telephone …………… Objective ………………. Professional Experience ………………… Company Name ……………………. City, State …………………………. Position held ……………………… Details of position………………… Education ……………….

Institution Name …………

City, State ……………… Degree / Achievement ……………….

VI. Translate into English.

1. Căutăm un director de vânzări.

2. Pentru a fi acceptaţi, candidaţii trebuie să aibă vârsta cuprinsă între 25-30 de ani şi să fie, de preferinţă, absolvenţi ai unei facultăţi.

3. Salariul iniţial este în funcţie de vârsta, competenţa şi experienţa anterioară.

4. Postul solicită un simţ comercial dezvoltat.

5. Dosarele de candidaturi vor fi tratate strict confidenţial.

6. Candidaţii trebuie să fie disponibili imediat.

7. Postul presupune deplasări frecvente.

8. Doi ani de experienţă în această funcţie sau într-un post similar ar constitui un avantaj.

9. El nu îndeplineşte condiţiile necesare pentru a ocupa acest post.

10. Remuneraţia va include un salariu fix, plus prime, plus cheltuieli.

11. De câtva timp, societatea dispune de propria casă de pensii.

12. Nu avem posturi libere în prezent, dar puteţi depune cererea.

13. Aş vrea să candidez pentru postul de maistru care, în prezent, este vacant în întreprinderea dumneavoastră.

14. El a fost concediat.

15. Asigurarea împotriva accidentelor de muncă este obligatorie.

16. Dacă revendicările lor nu sunt satisfăcute cel putin parţial, greva poate fi declanşată.

17. Contractul colectiv prevede că majorările salariale vor fi acordate în funcţie de realizări şi nu în funcţie de vârstă.

18. Disponibilizările au fost anunţate într-o declaraţie emisă ieri.

19. Angajaţii cu jumătate de normă sunt asiguraţi în caz de accident de muncă.

20. Sunt de aşteptat disponibilizări masive în următoarele săptămâni.

21. Negocierile sunt în impas.

22. Am aderat la sindicat acum cinci ani.

23. Printre numeroasele avantaje oferite, menţionăm cazarea gratuită şi folosirea unui automobil de serviciu.

24. Nu am văzut încă nimic interesant la mica publicitate.




1. Have you ever been interviewed? What was the interview for? Where did it take place? Who was present? What kinds of questions were asked? How would you do things differently in a future interview?

2. What about yourself would you like the interviewer to know?

3. What do you need to know about the job?



Be neat and well groomed.


Be natural, friendly, relaxed but not sloppy or overly casual.


Be more interested in the work involved in the job than in salary and benefits.


Have definite vocational goals, know exactly what you want to do.


Be ready to articulate the goals you have in mind.


When you go to an interview, you should go alone.


If your interview is for 10:00 a.m., you should arrive 10 minutes earlier.


When you meet the interviewer, you should shake the interviewer’s hand.


If you are a smoker, during the interview you should refrain from smoking until after the interview.


During the interview, you should sit up straight in your chair.

11. If you feel nervous you should try to relax by concentrating on the questions and your answers.

12. If the interviewer asks why you want the job, you should answer “I feel I could do a good job for this company”.

13. When the interviewer asks questions, you should answer the questions as directly as you can.

14. Before the interview, you should find out about the company and the job you are applying for.

15. If the interviewer looks tired during the interview, you should say nothing and continue the interview.

16. If the interviewer answers a phone call, you should sit quietly and look at something on the wall.

17. If you are kept waiting for an interview, you should read a book or magazine while you wait.

What to bring to the interview Look through your autobiography and select those items from your background that demonstrate those characteristic employers look for. Bring extra copies of your resume (CV), the names, addresses and telephone numbers of references if you didn’t put them on your CV. Bring something to write on and something to write with.

Parts of an Interview Every interview has an opening, a body and a close. In the opening (2 to 5 minutes) the interviewers will try to set you at ease. They will open with easy questions about your major interests or by telling you about the job of the company. You have to control your wear, your posture, your handshake and what you say. The body of the interview (10 to 25 minutes) is a too brief time to highlight your qualifications. Normally the interviewer will give you an opportunity to raise questions. In the close of the interview (2 to 5 minutes) the interviewer will usually tell you what happens next.

Here are some possible interview questions


Tell me something about yourself.


Why do you want to work for us?


What two or three accomplishments have given you the greatest


satisfactions? What college subjects did you like best and least?


What have you read recently?


Show me some samples of your writing.


Where do you see yourself in 5 years?


What would you see as the ideal job for you?


What have you done to learn about the company?

10) What are your interests outside work? 11) What is your greatest strength?

12) Have you ever been fired? 13) What are your salary requirements? 14) What questions do you have?

VOCABULARY PRACTICE 1. Group Work Drawing upon your experience either as interviewer or interviewee, consider in terms of the following areas what helps or hinders interviews.

Preparation for an interview



questions prepared


put candidates at ease

outline structure of the interview

clarify purpose of the interview


obtain information



Non-verbal communication

non-linguistic gestures can have great impact on interviewee




should follow a pattern

the hardest questions should be in the middle of the interview

they should follow a chronological pattern

should be able to ask additional questions or to replace some questions


you have to wait for the answer patiently

you have to be ready to listen

it is important to listen attentively

you should take notes

be alert to cope with non-standard questions or behavior


give information (terms and conditions)

handle questions

outline what happens next

close the interview


Pair Work

Your letter of application has been accepted by the Personnel Director at the company you wrote to. Role-play the interview (First, prepare different questions that you will ask the job applicant in the job interview).

3. Make short sentences using the correct idiom from the list. They all

have to do with information, understanding and knowledge.

a) hear something on the grapevine

b) at your fingertips

c) from the horse’s mouth

d) have your ear to the ground

e) read between the lines


rule of thumb


know the ropes


put your finger on something


Look up the phrasal verbs and idiomatic expressions with PUT.

Study their meanings very carefully then use them in sentences of your own.

5. Rewrite the following sentences, replacing the words in Italics with

phrasal verbs or idiomatic expressions with PUT.


He has presented an interesting plan.


I think we’d better hold the meeting a week later.


A foreign company has provided $ 10 million to finance our project.


At such short notice, we can’t postpone our visit.


I can’t understand what the problem is.


I won’t accept any inefficiency from my staff.


Respond to each of the following situations using expressions

presented in Appendix A.

a) During a group discussion, Mr. Hoffman doesn’t understand a

point that Mr. Williams raises. What can Mr. Hoffman say? Mr. Hoffman:

b) Mrs. Trays notices that her colleagues do not understand what she

is trying to say. She wants to rephrase her message. Which words can be used to do it? Mrs. Trays:

c) Mr. Allen is not clear about the amount of support the department

is expected to provide in the suggested solution. What can he ask? Mr. Allen:

d) In a seminar examining the strengths and weaknesses of various

Asian economies, the group leader asks Professor Johnson to express his opinion on the chances for increased East – West trade. Professor Johnson will respond that chances are great. Group leader:

Prof. Johnson:

e) Mr. Black offers a plan to reduce costs, which will involve Mr. Jones’ department. Mr. Jones is unclear about his part in Mr. Black’s plan and asks for clarification. Mr. Jones:

7. Look in your dictionary for each of the underlined words and choose

the correct definition. Write the definition on the lines provided.

a) What is your rationale for choosing that model?

b) Let me elaborate on what I have said.

c) The members of the group had assembled to study the significance

of the latest world developments for their established Southeast Asia strategy.

d) What conclusion can we draw from the facts and figures that Mr.

Johnson has presented?

e) Seminar participants have the responsibility of avoiding biased


f) The details of the plan are spelled out in the papers on the table in

front of you.


1. Use the Infinitive or the Gerund of the verbs in brackets.

Our society is made up of all kinds of organizations. They are essential to our existence, (help) to create our standard of (live). In all these organizations, there are people (carry out) the work of a manager althrough they do not have that title. They have a responsibility (use) the resources of their organization effectively (achieve) its objectives. Henry Fayol said that to manage is (forecast) and (plan), (organize), (command), (coordinate) and

(control). Managers spend a great deal of time (communicate), (coordinate) and (make) decisions affecting the daily operation of their organization.

2. Match the sentences (1-20) with their appropriate translations (A-T).

1) He can send it (the letter) 2) He could send it. 3) He was able to send it. 4) He could have sent it. 5) He will be able to send it.

6) He must send it. F) Nu i s-a permis să o trimită.

7) He will have to send it.

8) He had to send it. H) Ar fi putut să o trimită. 9) He must have sent it. I) Dacă ar trimite-o 10) He should send it. S-ar putea să o fi trimis.

A) Se poate să o trimită. B) El va trebui să o trimită. C) S-ar putea să o trimită. D) Ar fi trebuit să o trimită. E) Nu era nevoie să o trimită.

G) Nu a fost nevoie să o trimită.

11) He should have sent it.

12) He would have sent it. L) Trebuie să o trimită. 13) He may send it. M) A putut să o trimită. 14) He might send it. N) Se poate să o fi trimis.

15) He may have sent it. O) Probabil că a trimis-o. 16) He might have sent it. P) A trebuit să o trimită.

17) He didn’t need to send it.

18) He needn’t have sent it. R) Ar fi trimis-o.

K) Ar trebui să o trimită.

Q) Poate să o trimită.

19) He wasn’t allowed to send it. 20) If he should write it

S) Va putea să o trimită.

T) Ar putea să o trimită.

3. Put the suitable verb in each gap to form a complex with the

adverbial particle OUT. Model: When war broke out my father’s factory was closed down.


We’ll be …………

out tomorrow. Could you have our bill


ready, please? The tablet had …………… him out for three hours.


The firm ……… out one thousand cars a year.


Some employees ………out a lot of information.


We hope to …………. out our problems soon.


We are interested in …………. out what the facts are.


Visitors ……… us out more than the children do.


Would you know what to do if a fire ………… out in your work

place? 9) The drug produces side effects, tending to ………… out the

benefits. 10) The firm doesn’t make a profit, so the owners will ……… out.

11) I think I ………

among all the candidates because my


qualifications for the job were so good.

12) Please, …………… out the advantages of this strategy. 13) You can ………… out a market survey to find out if potential customers will buy the product. 14) He said that I was not ……… out for a career in banking.

15) An argument ……… 16) This firm has ………

out about the wisdom of the decision. out a new product.

17) I think they’re trying to ……… out of their obligations under the

agreement. 18) We were rapidly ……… out of money. 19) Would you ………… out the check to John Smith, please? 20) I got my letters and papers together and …………. out for the address he gave me. 21) This report ………. out yesterday. 22) We’ve had to ……… out a lot of research lately. 23) They had a guard dog to ……… out intruders. 24) I t might be difficult to transfer your money, so ………. it out with the manager. 25) A couple of possible candidates have already been ……… 26) You haven’t got time to rewrite it, just ………. out clearly what you want to change and write it above. 27) Regularly ………. out food cupboard. 28) You have ……. out a strategy which will enable you to improve your performance in the market.

29) Can you read Mary’s writing? I can’t ……

out what she has put

on this report. 30) He tried to ………. out of political and economic decision – making. 31) Shops almost immediately ……… out of the advertised goods.

32) Tom wants to ………… out the training sessions he runs on Sundays. He is too busy to hold them. 33) We’ve invested too much money and manpower to ……… out now. 34) When reviewing my performance, Mr. Black ……… out several weaknesses. 35) How did you ……… out in the interview, Paul?

Written Assignment

A.Answer the following questions:

1. Do men and women have equal job opportunities in Romania?

2. How would you feel working for a female manager?

3. Are there many unemployed people in our country? Who? Young?

Old? People in the north or south (east or west)? How can they find jobs?

4. Very often in our country children do not agree with their parents’

ideas of success. Do you and your parents (or children) agree about what

kinds of success are important?

B. Translate into English:

Directorul pentru dezvoltarea afacerilor (Business Development Director) raportează directorului general având responsabilitatea de a fi informat cu noutăţile (keep abreast of) de pe piaţa internaţională şi lucrează cu o echipă clasa I pentru stabilirea obiectivelor strategice în vederea obţinerii unei creşteri semnificative. El trebuie să fie un operator practic (down-to-earth), cu deprinderi analitice necesare identificării şi îndeplinirii unor probleme majore atât în Marea Britanie, cât şi în străinătate. Afacerea a înregistrat (to have a track record of) creşteri şi profituri consistente, punând accentul pe dezvoltare, service şi oferte de produse creative. Candidatul care va reuşi (the successful candidate), este aşteptat să contribuie activ la dezvoltarea strategică şi viitoare a filialei.



PRE – READING Group Work

1. Make a word web of as many different office skills as you can think

of for a secretary.

2. How many secretarial specialties do you know?

READING Read the text and decide what the main topic is. Which of these sentences best describes the main topic:

a) Professional development

b) What it means to be a professional secretary

c) Secretarial specialties

The secretary is a professional not only because of the knowledge and preparation necessary for the job, but also because being a professional implies competence, pride in one’s work and a dedication to excellence. The secretary, sometimes known as an administrative assistant, administrative secretary, or private secretary, is a professional with each of these qualities. Moreover, the secretary is an important member of the executive’s wishes but also for helping to maintain a well – organized and efficient office. The word secretary comes from the Latin secretarius, meaning “confidential employee”. The secretary of today is still an employee who is privy to confidential information. However, the tools of the trade have changed over the years. Office automation and computers have revolutionized the type of work that the secretary does, and changes are continuing at a rapid pace. A high school education, typing, shorthand, machine transcription, filing skills, knowledge of office procedures, computer equipment, and

software packages will enable one to advance along a career path. Although the conditions under which a secretary works are fairly standard, a choice can certainly be made about location, the size of the company, and the company’s services or products. Weekly pay and fringe benefits are as important as ever, but today’s secretary is also concerned with the possibilities for professional growth within a company. The responsibilities of the secretary are multifunctional: typing /key- boarding, processing mail, telephoning, scheduling appointments, greeting visitors, composing and editing documents, researching, coordinating meetings, conferences, and teleconferences, making travel arrangements, managing inventory and organizing time and work. One of the great benefits of a well – developed education and training program is that people on the secretarial level can move into supervisory, administrative, and managerial positions if they have the desire and the ability to do so. (Adapted from Webster’s New World. Office Professional’s Handbook. The Standard Reference for Every Office Need)


Find the words in the text, which have the same meaning as the following definitions:

1. the facts, skills and understanding that you have gained through

learning or experience

2. the ability and skill to do what is needed

3. a group of people who have been chosen to work together to do a

particular job

4. the rate or speed at which something happens

5. a fast method of writing using special signs or shorter forms to

represent letters, words and phrases

6. different from the most or accepted ways of thinking or doing things


1. Fill in the gaps with words from the box:


to spend









Excitement and …(1)…. are the fruits of secretarial work in the travel industry. Airlines, resorts and travel agencies often offer ….(2)… or reduced rates in transportation, hotel accomodations, and tours to their …(3)… . The job requires hard work. One must have a …(4)…liking for and desire to help people. You are helping them …(5)… the money for which they have often worked hard all year. A secretary in the travel industry must know geography well, be able to read different companies’ timetables, plan ….(6), and make …(7)…through computer. In …(8)…., you must know how to do everything and anything that will contribute to the ….(9)… and enjoyment of your company’s …(10)…

2. The words in capitals at the end of each of the following sentences

can be used to form a word that fits suitably in the blank space. 1) In some companies the terms administrative assistants and administrative secretary seam to be ……………. (CHANGE)


The executive secretary has top skills and keeps them ……… …


(DATE) Confidence of the executive’s staff is built …………(CARE)


………. must be made promptly. (DECIDE)


The secretary must always be aware of being a

of the


executive. (REPRESENT) If the secretary’s personal opinion is given, the subordinate may be


……… as to the executive’s actual sentiments on the matter. (LEAD) The boss may have a higher opinion of the former than of the


………. (LATE) By ……… the enthusiasm of one and giving a false sense of

confidence to the other, the company’s objectives may be impeded. (DAMP)


Read the following text and think of suitable words or phrases which

could go in the spaces. Keyboard, shorthand, filing office procedures and knowledge of word processing systems and ….(1)…. are the skills for which the secretary was …(2)…. The ability to use the languages and a ….(3)…. to professionalism will earn respect and …(4)….

Participation in professional organizations is one way a secretary can grow ….(5)…. Organizations offer the …(6)… to network with other professionals and promote personal development by providing information, contacts and …(7)… Several professional organizations ….(8)… annual conventions, ….(9)…, seminars and courses to ….(10)… secretarial performance.

4. Pair Work

The secretary who has the obligation to look after office supplies should keep a running record of what supplies are on hand. Complete the chart below with the following items:

Typing paper; envelops; keys; almanac; printer cartridges; diskettes, binders; first aid kit; telephone directory; secretarial handbook; correction fluid; dictation notebooks; staplers; letter openers; fire extinguisher; pen and pencil holders; rulers; paper clips; telex paper (in rolls); ZIP Code directory; batteries; magnifying glasses; scissors; memo pads, etc.

Papers and






Supplies (2)

Supplies (3)

neous (4)


Products (1)

Sources (5)

5. Group Work

Most secretaries are employed on a full – time basis. However, there are other types of employment situations. Which is the difference between tempo- rary work and part – time work (temporary secretary and part – time secretary)?

6. Pair Work

Practice your telephone skills. Use the following expressions when speaking on the phone. Hello, this is ……… Could I speak to ………? Can / Could I leave a message? Do you know the extension number? Sorry, I didn’t catch that, could you say that again? Sorry, wrong number. We got cut off? Would you like him / her to call you back?

Hold on a moment, please. The line is busy / engaged. Would you like to hold?

7. Look in your dictionary for each of the underlined words and choose

the correct definition. Write the definition on the lines provided.

a) The statistics convinced everyone that the new program had been


b) Do you have any evidence to support your claim to this property?

c) The speaker provided an ample number of facts to back up his


d) What was the manager’s response to the news that the funds for the

new project were being reduced by fifty percent?

8. Match the phrases on the right with the terms on the left and write

the letters in the spaces provided.


back up

a. skill or ability to do a job



b. extreme honesty and sincer



c. to support



d. having knowledge of



e. numerical facts



f. ability to take action without orders



g. that which shows the truth of something



h. something said or done in answer



i. to limit or hold back from action



j. listener’s response to a speaker’s



comments k. beyond which there is nothing more



l. to communicate information

9. Match the functions listed below with the sentences that illustrate them.

a. relevancy

b. basis for conclusion

c. reaction Do you have any statistics to back up your comment? I don’t see the connection between your statement and our discussion. Can you give us some facts to support your conclusion? Mr. Smith, what do you think about this proposal? That’s a good point but let’s wait to expand on that until we get to the question of sales to foreign countries? How do you respond to this suggestion, John? How does your question relate to our discussion? How did you arrive at that conclusion? What facts support your statement?










10. Match the following idioms with the correct definitions.


Burn the candle at both ends

a) alert


Keep you on your toes

b) thinking or acting quickly


Not up to scratch

c) to behave quietly


Pull your weight

d) to deliberately ignore someone


On the ball

e) to work too hard for too long


cut corners

f) to be not as good as someone else


can’t hold a candle to someone

g) to begin to do something that a lot


scrape the bottom of the barrel

of other people are doing


at arm’s length

h) not to be good enough for a


keep a low profile

particular standard


give someone the cold shoulder

i) to start to do something with


turn a blind eye to something

eagerness and energy


jump on the bandwagon

j) to do things too quickly and not


get your teeth into something


k) to deliberately ignore something that you know should not be happening

l) you hold it away from your body

m) to have to use something even though it is not very good

n) to do your full share of work


Complete the following sentences, using suitable phrasal verbs

with SET.

a) The strike ……… production at least two months.

b) A recession is about to ……

c) Some companies……………. certain business losses …… taxes.

d) Our competitor has … a distribution network in our area.

e) Most











f) How are we going to …… reducing our costs?

12. Complete each of the sentences below with PAY, PAY FOR,

PAY OFF, making sure that they fit grammatically into the sentence.

a) Did you ……… the bill?

b) We are …………… 5 % interest on the loan.

c) I am …………… $20,000 a year.

d) The job ……… well.

e) He ………… the car in cash.

f) We have already …………… our mortgage.

13. Fill in the gaps with the words: wages, salary or perks.

a) A ………… is paid monthly and usually by bank transfer.

b) …………… are paid weekly to manual or unskilled workers.

c) ……………., also known as fringe benefits are extra payments. In

many job advertisements the combination of salary plus ………… is called a remuneration package.

14. Complete the following sentences using suitable words from the

box below.







a) What is the …………… of this book?

b) The ………… of unemployment fell in Germany last year.

c) A lawyer is paid a contingency …………. Which is a proportion of

the damages granted by the count.

d) The bank …………… me 10 % commission.

e) Please ……………… this bill to my account.

f) Salesmen are often paid a fixed salary plus ………… on sales made.

g) Please pay the conference ……………… directly to the Registrar.

h) The ……………… of inflation is over 30 %.


1. Insert the correct plural in each space below:

1) portofolio -


11) pub -


2) garage - 3) knife -

12) embargo - 13) trout -



4) outcome - 5) passer-by - 6) intelligence - 7) killo -

14) gentlemen farmer - 15) furniture - 16) income - 17) potato -



8) herring - 9) editor-in-chief - 10)wheat -


18) merchandise - 19) progress - 20) loaf -


2. Translate into English:


două duzini de cutii


zece milioane de cărţi


mii de duzini


excursie de trei zile


conversaţie de cinci minute


pauză de zece minute


plimbare de trei mile


vacanţă de două săptămâni


ziua de lucru de opt ore

10) cântar

11) foarfece

12) informatică

13) statistică

14) economii

15) stimuli

16) analiză

17) baze

18) criză

19) criterii

20) proces-verbal

Written Assignment 1. Write a short composition with the title:

a) The Competent Secretary

Include information about: languages, professional reading, information processing, professional manner, and effective use of time,

relationship with executive.

b) The Secretary’s Day

2. Translate into English:

Cererea de secretare profesioniste va continua să crească. Secretara de astăzi şi de mâine poate intra în domeniu de la liceu, şcoală profesională sau colegiu; se poate întoarce la muncă după mulţi ani dedicaţi creşterii copilului; sau poate să facă o schimbare de carieră la mijlocul vieţii. Ceea ce au în comun toate aceste secretare este profesionalismul şi recunoaşterea importanţei muncii pe care o fac. Secretara profesionistă îşi alege o cale în carieră cu multă atenţie. Secretara profesionistă care îşi va asuma un loc important în afaceri şi în societate va fi nevoie să fie capabilă să răspundă la conceptul şi tehnologia de procesare a informaţiilor, care să posede abilitatea de a lua decizii şi deprinderi în privinţa relaţiilor interumane, să fie adaptabilă la însuşirea unor noi deprinderi într-un mediu aflat într-o rapidă shimbare.




Fill the word web below with as many words related communications as you can think
communications as you can think of.


READING COMPREHENSION PRACTICE 1. Read the following letters then complete the table below.
















October, 20,2001 Media Research, Inc

Attention Communications Division 20 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10001 – 3572

Dear Media Research, Inc


[Inside Address]

[Attention Line]

[Inside Address]:

Gentlemen [Salutation]

Enclosed find Survey Form that you have requested from us. We have studied the results of your letter survey and are considering using this style for business letters. Let us go over each element.

This letter is typed in “block style”. All lines begin at the left margin. The salutation and complimentary close are used.

The style is flexible. Some executives prefer to use the conventional marks of punctuation. More often, the colon after the salutation and the comma after the complimentary close are omitted. This punctuation style is known as “open punctuation”.

You will see that the company name is given before the signature of the writer of the letter. It is typed in all capital letters. The typed signature follows the space for the written signature. Below or following the typed signature is the title of the writer.

Sincerely yours [Complementary Close]

Communications Company [Company]

John Smith [Writer’s Name] Public Relations Director [Title]


October 25, 2001


Mr. John Brown

[Inside Address]

Vice President United Books International 10 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10001 – 2863

Dear Mr. Brown:


Subject: The Modified Block Style Letter

[Subject Line Centered]

[Body of letter] This letter is typed in modified block style with blocked paragraphs. Mixed punctuation is used in the opening and closing lines. This punctuation style calls for a colon after the salutation and a comma after the complimentary close.

In contrast to the block style letter, the date, complimentary close, typed signature line, and title line have been moved to the center point. All other lines begin at the left margin. These modifications of the block style letter give this letter its name - modified block.

If a subject line is used, it begins at the left margin or is centered over the body of the letter a double space below the salutation, or it may begin at the left margin.


Michael D. Johnson


[Complimentary Close]

[Writer’s Name]



October 28, 2001


Ms. Joan Smith

[Inside Address]

101 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10001 – 3852

Simplified Style Letter

[Subject Line]

[Body of Letter] This letter is typed in the simplified style that is recommended by the Administrative Management Society (AMS). It is typed in block form with all lines beginning at the left margin. Note that there is no salutation and no complimentary close. This feature saves the typist time not only in typing, but also sometimes in trying to determine what title is proper for a salutation.

A subject line is typed in ALL CAPS a triple space below the inside address; the first line of the body is typed a triple space below the subject line. Note the word “subject” is omitted.

The writer’s name and title are typed in ALL CAPS four lines below the last line of the body of the letter.

The reference initials of the typist are typed a double space below the writer’s name.

David Gaines

Assistant Manager


[Writer’s Name] [Title]

[Typist’s initials]

2. Read the following text. Match the headlines with the paragraphs:



2. Inside Address


Business Letter Punctuation

4. Letterhead

a) There are two punctuation styles for business letters. In mixed punctuation style, a colon is placed after the salutation and a comma is placed after the complimentary close. In open punctuation style, no punctuation is used after the salutation or the complimentary close. b) Most business letters are typed on printed letterhead. The format of the letterhead differs with each firm, but the contents of the letterhead are fairly standard: the company name, the street address, the name of the city and state, and the ZIP code. Other elements that may appear in the letterhead are the telephone number with area code of the firm and the names and titles of the corporate officers. c) The dateline begins on about the third line below the company letterhead or on line 14. The dateline consists of the month, the day, and the year. The month is always spelled in full. The date and the year are given as numerals, and a comma follows the date, e.g. December 10, 1999. In the block style letter and the simplified style letter the date is typed at the left margin. In the modified block style, the date begins at the center. d) A complete inside address is very important to ensure not only that the letter is directed to the correct person but also those accurate files may be established. The inside address may be typed anywhere from three to twelve lines below the date line, depending on the length of the letter. It is typed at the left margin for all letter styles. The inside address should include the following elements: person’s name, person’s title, name of company or organization, street address, city name, state name, and ZIP Code. If you are unable to determine a specific person’s name, then you may use an attention line with a business title. In this way, the letter will be directed to the proper person. The attention line is the second line of the inside address.

VOCABULARY PRACTICE 1. Complete the following sentences using suitable words from the box below.









If the address includes an apartment number or room number, type these elements on the same line as the …(1)…… State names should be

abbreviated in the address according to the two-letter state …(2)…. Type names as they appear in the ….(3)…. House numbers, with the exception of one, are typed in ….(4)…. When street names are numbers, write out names below ten and use figures for names above ten. When figures are used in street …(5)…, it is not necessary to use endings such as st., nd., or rd. after the numbered street name. Type the city name, state name, and …(6)… Code on the same line. Type the city name in full, followed by a ….(7)… , and then the two-letter state abbreviation. There is no …(8)… after the state abbreviation.

2. Complete the following table, providing guidelines for salutations

when a letter is addressed to a firm or an individual. Use one word only in

each space.




a. Firm’s name b. Firm’s name and an attention line

a. Gentlemen

c. Married

woman, a

widow, or a



divorced woman who uses the title




d. Dear Miss Smith Dear Ms. Smith


e. married or single f. Group composed of men and women








g. Married couple



Smith h. Man and a woman h. Dear Mr. Smith and Mrs. Brown

3. Pair Work



Complete the following table with the following complimentary closings. Respectfully yours, Yours truly, Sincerely yours, Cordially yours, Very truly yours, Yours very truly, Very respectfully yours, Yours very respectfully, Yours respectfully, Sincerely, Cordially, Yours sincerely.


Less formal and more personal tone (a)

Formal tone (b)


More formal tone (c)



1. Yours truly


Respectfully yours


2. 2.



3. 3.




GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1. Transform the following sentences into the passive.


We are considering two candidates for the position.

2) The Managing Director and a team of senior executives have interviewed the two men.


During the interview it came out that they had expelled him from


two schools for indiscipline. They buy shares on the stock exchange.


They use a warehouse for storing goods.


We check all our products before shipping them to dealers.


The chartered accountant drew up the balance sheet.


The auditors have checked the accounts.


The firm gave a divident to the shareholders.

10) They often write memos on paper specially printed for that purpose. 11) We can use these forms for inter-office memos or for writing down phone messages. 12) They can import the goods into France.

2. Put the suitable verb in each gap to form a complex with the adverbial particle OVER.

a) She ……… over the samples.

b) Neither of us got the job. We were both …… over in mysterious


c) I’ll …… it over with John tonight.

d) To ……

e) Your report is full of mistakes, you’d better ……. it over.

f) ……… it over for a while, and give me a call next week.

over a company means to gain control of it.


g) He gave a short welcoming speech and …… over to his assistant.

h) We began to ……

over a sizeable number of members to our

i) If a vehicle …… over someone, it hits them or drives over them

causing injury or damage.

j) We’ve just …… over our computer system to IBM.

k) Let’s try and … this meeting over with as quickly as possible.

l) If you …… over a problem or difficulty, you talk about it in a way

that makes it seem less serious and easier to deal with.

m) I’m … the shop over to my son when I retire.

n) After her husband’s death, she ……. herself over to work.

o) His speech …… over well.

p) He …… over the whole estate to his son.

q) The policeman signalled to him to …… over.

r) We were ………. over $ 1 000 a week when business was good.

PRE – READING Answer the following question. How many types of reports do you know? Read the text and check your answer.

A business report is a lengthy in – depth communication, with facts and ideas. Reports may be catalogical, analytical, or compartmentalized. There are several types of business reports, including corporate report executive summaries, and abstracts. Corporate Report This category includes memorandum reports, letter reports, and megareports (very lengthy, complex reports containing hundreds of pages). A corporate report might introduce and analyze a specific problem, discuss it, and provide impetus for its resolution. Executive Summary An executive summary is a brief description and summation of a report’s contents. Significant data are summarized. A summary of this type is used for problem solving and covers the problem, how it should be solved, and what the benefits are.

Abstract An abstract, like an executive summary is a brief description or overview of the contents of a report. There are two types of abstracts:

informative and descriptive. An informative abstract is a summary, an internal discussion. A descriptive abstract lists the elements covered in a complete report without stating the supporting data; it is an external discussion or framework.


1. Match the parts of business report given in list A with definitions or

explanations in B.


title page


lists in order the members and titles of the chapters in the report and the pages on which they begin






the list of tables precedes the list of figures


table of contents


will contain the name or title of the report, the name and title of the organization for whom it was written and the date it was submitted







d. is a supplementary section



5. body of the report


e. is also called the foreword

6. bibliography


f. a listing of subjects

7. appendix


g. is arranged alphabetically by names of authors

8. index



the main, central part

2. Role-play an organizational meeting. Read the following interoffice

memo (memorandum) first.


DAVID JOHNSON, Executive Director


JULIA SMITH, Chairperson, Board of Directors


May 10, 2000


Organizational Meeting

A Board of Directors meeting has been scheduled for Wednesday, May 10,2000, in Conference Room A, East Building.

The agenda will include:

Approval of Minutes

Report for the Chairperson

Discussion of Goals

New Business

Since this is the first meeting, your attendance is necessary. Please bring business report No.10, located in the central database file.

3. Group Work

a) What types of business letters do you know?

b) Give the general guidelines for organizing /initiating/writing/answe-

ring a business letter.

4. Pair Work

a) Imagine that you are the Chief Executive of the Johnson Group.

Write a letter to the President of Backer Brothers, suggesting that Johnson

and Backer Brothers should merge and form one group. Explain why you

think the merger is desirable. Finally, invite Backer Brothers’ President to meet you to discuss your proposal.

b) Plan an advertisement for the product you are responsible for. Draft

the written text and if possible provide some rough artwork. When you have finished, present your advertisement to the rest of the class.

5. What abbreviations would you use if you want to shorten: for the

attention of, please, confirm, with reference to, as soon as possible, limited,

Incorporated, gross domestic product, I owe you, a thousand, company, account, bill of exchange, not applicable, namely (see Appendix E)?


Explain the meaning of the following idioms.


The family expenses are on his shoulders. That’s why he is on pins

and needles.


I’m breaking my neck at two jobs so I don’t fall behind in my bills.


I can’t believe I’m down and out. I’m living hand to mouth and

pinching pennies.


I am trying to find a way to keep my head above water.


The money you want to give me is just a drop in the bucket. I need

too much to get back on my feet.

Written Assignment

1. Write a letter of inquiry or request. See the sample below

a) Give background to explain why the letter is being written.

b) Ask question or make request.

c) Tell when information or material is needed.

d) Close with expression of appreciation or good will.


November 10, 2000

Mr. Thomas Jones Marketing Manager Consumers Corporation 109 Green Street N.Y. 10 000 – 3 856

Dear Mr. Jones:

Our company is planning its annual sales meeting, to be held in New York Over 300 salespersons will attend.

We would appreciate having copies of your booklet to pass out to those attending our conference.

Could you please have them sent directly to the Imperial Hotel, addressed to me, by November 25?

Your cooperation would be greatly appreciated.

2. Write a collection letter

Sincerely yours,

David Smith Consumer Affairs Specialist

a. State the problem, i.e. the amount due, dates of letters or orders, and mention of specific merchandise where necessary.

b. Present the argument for payment (two paragraphs).

c. Motivate action in the closing paragraph.

3. Translate into English.


Confirm primirea scrisorii dumneavoastră din ziua de 15 a lunii


curente. Ar fi trebuit să efectuaţi comanda mai devreme.


Suntem de acord să vă acordăm un rabat de 5%.


Mi s-a cerut să depun un avans de 25% odată cu comanda.


Lada avea marcajul “fragil”.


Bunurile nu sunt în conformitate cu mostra.


V-am sfătuit să anulaţi comanda.


Anexăm o copie a facturii.


Vom fi fericiţi să executăm comanda dumneavoastră.

10) Ambalajele goale nu sunt returnabile. 11) Toate cumpărăturile trebuie plătite în numerar. 12) Va trebui să prezentaţi recipisa. 13) Aţi înregistrat comanda mea? 14) Termenele de livrare nu au fost respectate. 15) Ei tocmai au deschis filiala în provincie. 16) Producătorii caută noi pieţe de desfacere. 17) Vânzătorii cu amănuntul independenţi sunt liberi să-şi aleagă furnizorii. 18) În unele cazuri, angrosistul are grija de sortare şi ambalare. 19) Cifra de afaceri a acestei case de comenzi prin corespondenţă s-a dublat în doi ani. 20) Noi cumpărăm în vrac şi pe credit. 21) Există un loc de parcare în apropierea centrului comercial. 22) Rezultatele sondajului sunt dezamăgitoare: 50% dintre persoanele chestionate nu auziseră niciodată de produsul nostru. 23) Plata va trebui efectuată în două săptămâni de la primirea facturii. 24) Sunaţi la numărul nostru gratuit. 25) Reducerile de iarnă ne-au permis să ne lichidăm stocurile. 26) Vânzarile la domiciliu sunt înca înfloritoare. 27) Am modificat configuraţia magazinului: casele se află acum unde era înainte raionul de fructe şi legume. 28) Magazinul acordă un rabat de 20% pentru orice cumpărare care depăşeşte 100 de dolari şi o reducere suplimentară de 5% pentru plata în numerar. 29) Anexez ultima noastră listă de preţuri incluzând toate taxele. 30) Este mai usor să-ţi păstrezi clienţii decât să-ţi pierzi timpul încercând să găseşti alţii.



PRE-READING What types of business organization do you know?

READING ONE-MAN BUSINESS is the simplest form of business organization. In this type of business, one person is solely responsible for providing the capital, managerial skill and for bearing the risks of the enterprise. He is the owner, and the only one to take a profit or stand a loss. It is often referred to as “SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP” or “SOLE TRADER”. A sole trader has no longer the obligation to make his accounts publicly available; and he is responsible for the day-to-day management of the business. Examples of sole traders are small shopkeepers, plumbers and hairdressers.

PARTNERSHIP These are unincorporated associations. They are associations of persons. The number of partners must not exceed 20. The partners provide the finance for the organization, and the profits and losses will normally be shared in an agreed proportion. The partners agree on the day-to-day running of the business and they have unlimited liability. Each partner is jointly liable with the other partners for any debts. Well-known examples of partnership occur in the professions, such as solicitors, accountants and estate agents. PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANIES has the letters LTD after their name and consists of a number of at least two members (shareholders). Membership of the company is restricted to private individuals. Members of the general public cannot buy shares in a private limited company. The profits are distributed to the members as dividends on their shareholding. Losses are borne by the company. The day-to-day management of the company is carried out by a board of directors. Private limited companies are often local family businesses and are common in the building, retailing and clothing industries.

PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANIES have the letters PLC added to their name. They are corporations and obtain their share capital from members of the public. Profits are distributed as dividends to shareholders and the liability of members is restricted to their shareholdings. Management of the company is conducted by a board of directors who are responsible to the shareholders. Most industries include public limited companies.


1. Read the text again and list information under the following headings:

a) type of organization

b) ownership

c) profit and loss responsibility

d) day-to-day management-of-business responsibility

e) examples

2. Translate into English: societate în nume colectiv (asociaţie); S.R.L.; S.A.; întreprindere individuală (cu un singur asociat).


to go up to rise to increase to move to inch up to skyrocket to peak

to go down to fall to drop to decrease to slump to collapse

to recover to look up to turn up to improve

Group work:

a) Choose some companies or organizations that you know well. Then,

in each case, discuss:

what the objectives of each business are;

what strategies the management are using to achieve their objectives Is all the businesses using the right strategies? If not, what changes should they make?

b) Give a short oral presentation of any organization you are familiar

with. Try to point out its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

Talk about its objectives and strategies, and say what you think its future prospects are.


1. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the words in italics.

a) Our (produce) increased by 10% last year.

b) We have recently put on the market two new (produce).

c) (Produce) per worker will increase soon.

d) Our main (compete) is Company Z.

e) We try to stay (compete) by investing heavily in advertising.

f) The meeting did not go as (plan).

g) Some projects take years of (plan).

h) The (manage) has worked out a new strategy.

i) This machine is more (economy).

j) Our standard of (live) is much higher than it used to be.

2. Fill in prepositions where required.



to be. 2. Fill in prepositions where required. REMEMBER AT our expense a profit/loss your risk

our expense

a profit/loss

your risk

BEYOND our control




your name

good conditions



due course




name good conditions debt demand due course force stock BY mistake monthly installments law a check

mistake monthly installments law

a check FOR $ 100


business delivery display request a regular basis loan sale

order OUT stock WHITIN


the hour

a fortnight

order OUT stock WHITIN UNDER the hour a fortnight orders separate covers The partnership differs …


separate covers

The partnership differs … theory … the business corporation in that the latter is viewed as a legal person, separate and apart from its shareholders. The partnership is generally regarded as merely an aggregation … persons doing business … a common name. The corporation is liable … creditors. Partners also could achieve limited liability … contract. Partnerships may be dissolved … any time … withdrawal of a partner, and … operation of law they are dissolved … the death of a partner.

3. Match the words in list A with definitions in B:




back up

a) admit that you are wrong




b) make effective from an earlier date


back out

c) support someone



d) be in a difficult situation


break the back of

e) withdraw


have your back against the wall

f) finish the most difficult part of a job/task


put your back into it

g) very hard, tiring physical work



h) work very hard

4. Answer the following questions using suitable verbs and phrases from the list above.

a) If you are not happy when negotiating a contract, what’s the best

thing to do?

b) Some workers have to spend all day lifting heavy cases. How would

you describe that sort of work?

c) How does the owner of a firm feel when he/she is faced with a

desperate situation?

5. Translate into Romanian.

a) I have so much money today. I’m loaded.

b) I don’t have any money. I’m broke.

c) You pay for your meal, I’ll pay for mine. We’ll go Dutch.

d) I don’t like to throw my money down the drain.

e) We are always running out of food.

f) It is difficult to make ends meet.

g) We have to cut corners.

h) The casino took him to the cleaners.

i) How can I tighten my belt?

j) This car is in A-1 condition, but it cost an arm and a leg.

k) I would like to find a way to keep my head above water.

l) Out of the blue, he opened up a business on a shoestring.

m) My bank account has been in the red for two months.

n) The job was a piece of cake.

o) We are meeting again next week to tie up loose ends.

6. Read the following sentences and determine the meaning of each

underlined word or expression. Write what you think the word or expression means on the line provided.

a) This is not to say that committee action is any bed of roses. As a

matter of fact, there are some very real difficulties in committees.

b) If you need any help or advice, go and speak to Mr. Martin. He’s an

old pro and knows the ropes.

c) Some committee members do not offer suggestions because they do

not want to run the risk of ridicule from other group members.

d) There are some of us who become impatient and willing to accept

almost any solution in order to get on with the show. How many times have you heard the expression, “Let’s go ahead and get this show on the road.”?

e) One of the things I think that are seriously needed in teaching people

how to solve problems is committee training. This may come as something of a shock to some of you to think that a committee needs to be trained. After all, many of us have been on committees since we were very young.

f) It is possible to develop an atmosphere in which everybody’s ideas

are welcome without putting the silent member on the spot by saying, “Well, George, we haven’t heard from you. What do you have to say”? George may not be ready to say anything and it isn’t good to force him to speak before he is ready.

Written Assignment

1. Supposing

















communications problems? 2. Choose a famous leader, either living or dead, then answer the

following questions:

What did the leader achieve? What qualities have the leader? Are leaders born or made?

3. Identify the main characteristics of the leadership, styles of effective company chairmen and chief executives. 4. Translate into English.



Situaţia economică nu a fost încurajatoare în ultimele luni.


Ne îndreptăm spre o criză.


Perspectivele imediate sunt sumbre.


Situaţia este agravată prin inflaţie şi mişcări sociale.


Şomajul a crescut încet în tot cursul anului.


Guvernul are în vedere o îngheţare a salariilor.


Conform previziunilor experţilor, consumul casnic ar trebui să crească în anul urmă