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# ENGM048/5pp/Spring 2008 (2 handouts)

UNIVERSITY OF SURREY
Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences Postgraduate Programmes in Civil Engineering Level M Examination

## Module ENGM048; 15 Credits

SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION

Spring 2008

## Attempt THREE questions only

Each question carries equal marks; where appropriate the mark carried by an individual part of a question is indicated in brackets [ ]. If a candidate attempts extra questions, all questions will be marked and the weaker solutions discarded so as to maximize the aggregate mark

Additional documents supplied to candidates: Beam on elastic foundation data sheets Laterally-loaded pile data sheets Reference documents candidates may use: None Please avoid the use of red and green inks Calculator restrictions: None

## [SEE NEXT PAGE

ENGM048/5pp/Spring 2008 2

1.

(a)

Sketch the deflected shape of a flexible plate on (i) loose sand and (ii) stiff clay, if the plate is subject to a loading of uniform intensity on its upper surface. Explain the principal features of your sketches. [4] Timoshenko and Goodier (1970) obtained a solution for the average settlement of a square flexible footing of area h h carrying a vertical load, which can be used to obtain an expression for Winklers constant: k= E 0.95h(1 2 )

(b)

Discuss the implications of this expression for (i) the adequacy of the Winkler model for beam on elastic foundation analysis, and for (ii) the selection of input parameters for such an analysis. [3] (c) Using the rigid method (in which ground is assumed to be extremely stiff), determine (i) the contact pressure distribution along the underside, and (ii) the bending moment at point A, for the beam loaded as shown in Figure 1. The beam is 800mm wide, 300mm deep, and has a self-weight of 5.8 kN per m length. [6] 250 kN/m 330 kN.m/m A \\///\\ | x = 0m | 2m Figure 1 (d) The finite difference method is to be used to analyse the beam shown in Figure 1, using an interval size of 0.5m, and a Winkler spring constant k of 5000 kN/m3 for the soil. Youngs modulus for the beam is 20 GN/m2. Write the central finite difference approximation to the governing differential equation at x = 5m (grid point 13). [2] Selected displacements computed using the finite difference analysis described in part (d) are as follows: x (m) v (mm) 5.50 8.25 6.00 10.09 6.50 11.3 7.00 12.16 7.50 12.86 | 6m | 8m

(e)

Use finite differences to estimate the bending moment (M) and shear force (S) at x = 6.50m. [3] (f) Hetenyis analytical solution for an infinite beam could be used to check the finite difference results obtained in (d). Explain briefly whether or not you would expect the agreement to be good. [2]

ENGM048/5pp/Spring 2008 3

2.

A warehouse development is to be constructed over a 200m length of railway line in a cutting, using a buried arch structure as shown in Figure 2. The cutting is formed in stiff, overconsolidated clay and has been in existence for over a century. The arch comprises pre-cast concrete segments that are recessed into parallel strip footings and butted together at the crown, forming a three-pinned arch. Finite element (FE) analysis is to be used to investigate the effects of this proposed construction on the existing railway; settlement and tilting of the track bed being of principal concern.
final backfill level railway cutting

__ __
Not to scale

Figure 2 (a) What types of finite element would be best suited to represent (i) the existing soil, (ii) the arch, and (iii) the backfill? [3] Describe two different ways in which the present-day in-situ stresses in the side slopes and base of the cutting could be set up, prior to modelling the arch placement and backfilling. Comment briefly on their relative merits. [4] The construction sequence involves casting the concrete footings, installing the arch segments, placing and compacting the backfill in layers, and then erecting the warehouse buildings. Describe with the use of sketches how this sequence would be most appropriately modelled in the FE analysis. [4] It is considered important to model (with reasonable accuracy) any variation in properties that the sand backfill may experience during construction. Identify the sources of these variations and outline the principal features of a suitable constitutive model. [4] What output from the FE analysis would be particularly helpful in assessing the likely risk to the railway? [2] The FE analysis was originally designed to model the construction phase only, assuming undrained conditions. In order to extend the analysis to consider postconstruction behaviour (due to long-term dissipation of excess pore water pressures in the underlying clay), what changes will need to be made to the FE model, and what additional data will be required? [3]

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

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ENGM048/5pp/Spring 2008 4

3.

A deep excavation in weakly cemented sand is to be retained by a contiguous bored pile wall, supported by three levels of propping. Two computer programs are available to analyse this retaining structure; one using a beam-on-spring (discrete) idealisation and the other a finite element (continuum) formulation. The beam-on-spring program is essentially a modification of one written to analyse a laterally loaded pile. (a)

Explain which program you would use if your requirement is for: wall bending moments and prop forces ONLY, or movements of both the wall and the adjacent ground.

[4]

(b)

The accuracy of the beam-on-spring analysis may be improved by using a p-y curve. With the aid of sketches, explain what such a curve is. [2] The finite element analysis may require the use of a constitutive model which can model plastic yielding and deformation of the soil mass. Such a model will generally be defined by a yield function, a flow rule, and a hardening law. Using sketches to illustrate your answer, explain the meaning of each of these terms. [6] Before excavation commences, two of the bored piles forming the wall in part (a) are subject to a lateral load test by jacking them apart at ground level. The test pile is 14m long, 600mm in diameter, and has a Youngs modulus of 25 GPa; the sand has a horizontal subgrade coefficient Nh = 8100 kN/m3. (i) (ii) Estimate the lateral pile deflection and rotation at ground level if the horizontal load applied at ground level is 480 kN. [4] Which would be the most effective way to reduce the lateral deflection calculated above a 10% increase in the pile diameter the Youngs modulus, or the horizontal subgrade coefficient? Justify your answer with a brief argument not with a repetition of the calculations. [1]

(c)

(d)

(e)

The calculation in part (d) makes use of the critical length to fixity, Lc. Explain the physical significance of this term and its relationship to the concepts of short and long as applied to piles under lateral load. [3]

ENGM048/5pp/Spring 2008 5

4.

(a)

In many soil-structure interaction problems the ground is, in reality, an unbounded continuum, and decisions must be taken as to how much of it should be included in the domain to be modelled. In the context of a finite element analysis, identify the criteria that should be adopted when deciding on the location of domain boundaries, and discuss how you would check that they have been located appropriately. [4] In-situ stresses are an important part of the input data to finite element analyses of soil-structure interaction problems. With the use of sketches, explain why the horizontal effective stress (h) in a heavily overconsolidated stratum can be a lot higher than the vertical effective stress (v). [4] Describe the basis of the so-called effective stress method in geotechnical finite element analysis, which permits convenient modelling of both drained and undrained loading conditions. Explain how it is used in practice, what material properties are needed, and what quantities are computed. (NB: derivation of equations is not required.) How could undrained conditions be modelled with an FE program formulated in terms of total stress? [5] What are the two distinct sources of nonlinearity in a soil-structure interaction problem? Describe briefly which parts of the finite element stiffness formulation they affect, and outline the two different solution strategies that can be used in a finite element code for nonlinear problems. [4] Inspection of the FE output from a soil-structure interaction analysis sometimes shows discontinuous computed stresses across many of the element boundaries, although nodal forces appear to be in equilibrium. What is the normal reason for such discontinuities, and what could be done to reduce them? [3]

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

## Internal Examiner: External Examiner:

R I WOODS J CROLL