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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 23, NO.

3, JUNE 2013

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Synergistic Control of SMES and Battery Energy Storage for Enabling Dispatchability of Renewable Energy Sources
Jae Woong Shim, Youngho Cho, Seog-Joo Kim, Member, IEEE, Sang Won Min, Member, IEEE, and Kyeon Hur, Senior Member, IEEE
AbstractThe use of renewable energy source can reduce greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel pollution. Compared with fossil fuel energy, renewable energy is not stable and cannot supply rm electrical output (i.e., it is nondispatchable). Fluctuating power from renewables may result in grid power oscillation. To reduce grid swing, energy storage is necessary to smooth output from renewable energy. Energy storage with high energy density and fast response time or high power capacity is desired for compensation of uctuating output. Generally, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) has higher power capacity than battery energy storage, while battery provides higher energy density. Thus, this research proposes a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) composed of an SMES and battery. Novel and practical synergistic control is presented for rming power uctuation by exploiting the strong power and energy capabilities of the SMES and the battery while within the efcient operating range of (i.e., state of charges of) HESS. Comprehensive case studies demonstrate the efcacy of the proposed HESS topology and control algorithm using PSCAD/EMTDC. Index TermsBattery, hybrid energy storage, state of charge (SOC) control, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES).

Fig. 1. Charge-discharge characteristics of variable storages.

I. I NTRODUCTION YBRID energy storage system (HESS) has been featured and investigated in research because it combines the functional advantages of two different types of existing energy storage devices and thus provides excellent power and energy capabilities, enabling the desired performance of energy storage system [1], [2]. The research has been particularly focused on applications of HESS for electric vehicles to smooth power uctuation and enhance controllability of battery-powered electric vehicles [3]. However, few research of the HESS for electric power system including applications for the pulsed load has been presented [2]. Only a conceptual discussion without providing detailed case studies is found for variable

Manuscript received October 9, 2012; revised December 21, 2012; accepted January 10, 2013. Date of publication January 21, 2013; date of current version February 20, 2013. This work was supported in part by Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute and in part by the Human Resources Development program (20124030200040) of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy. J. W. Shim, Y. Cho, and K. Hur are with Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea (e-mail: khur@yonsei.ac.kr). S.-J. Kim and S. W. Min are with Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Uiwang 437-808, Korea (e-mail: sjkim@keri.re.kr). Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TASC.2013.2241385

generation, e.g., wind. Increasing penetration of wind energy resource raises many grid operational concerns because wind turbines lack in control capability necessary to provide regulation in compensating generation-load imbalance. Inherent variability on every time scale, in fact requires a need for more sophisticated regulation because existing load-following spinning reserves may be too slow or limited in responding to the imbalance [4]. One feasible solution for enhancing regulation capability is the use of HESS as presented in this paper. In this research, the HESS is designed in combination of the SMES and Li-Ion battery and compensates the wind generation variability. Note that the SMES and Li-Ion battery can be positioned in terms of energy and power density as illustrated in Fig. 1 [5], [6], [7] and they may become a perfect combination for the HESS, synergizing high power density of SMES battery and high energy density of Li-ion battery. The SMES deals with instantaneous power changes, while Li-Ion battery handles longer-term variations. This paper further proposes a new control strategy for keeping the SOC levels of two different storage devices in control and demonstrates its practicality and efcacy through practical case studies. II. M ODELING AND S IMULATION As shown in Fig. 2, SMES and battery are connected to the common dc link. Voltage Source Converter (VSC) type inverter controls dc link voltage by controlling the energy ow from the SMES and battery [8]. To conduct long-term simulation studies computationally efciently, equivalent circuits are developed for SMES and the compatibility has been validated through detailed electromagnetic transient models and studies.

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5701205

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 23, NO. 3, JUNE 2013

Fig. 2. Hybrid ESS and system topology. TABLE I S YSTEM PARAMETERS Fig. 4. Applied equivalent battery model.

of SMES and battery. SOC equation can be derived from the energy density originated from watt hour in SOC% = 100 Lcoil icoil2 2hWSMES (2)

where WSMES = available hourly energy. B. Li-Ion Battery Modeling The research develops detailed and equivalent Li-ion battery models to characterize effective charge and discharge hysteresis property as shown in Fig. 4 [12], [13]. This battery is connected to the grid connected inverter through a bidirectional DC-DC converter [14], [15]. The State of Charge (SOC) level, reecting available capacity of the battery, is calculated by current data [12] SOC% = SOC0 + 1 Qn h
t

Fig. 3. SMES topology.

To reinforce the practicality, the inverter power loss is assumed to be about 3%. Models for SMES and battery are detailed with practical charging and discharging characteristics. Power ows from the wind farm to the grid without energy storage is the baseline and benecial functionalities of HESS for streamlining power delivery or rming the intermittent power delivery are demonstrated [9]: See Table I for system parameters. Note that grid side is considered to be an innite bus in this research but it can be easily expanded or detailed based on the practical grid information. A. SMES Modeling Fig. 3 represents SMES topology and its charging and discharging operations [10], [11]. To charge SMES as can be seen in (a), both S1 and S2 have to be turned on, and coil current increases in a meantime. When S2 is on, current circulates and it is called stored state as can be seen in (b). When both S1 and S2 are turned off, SMES current ows to DC side, which is discharging state as shown in (c). Note that SMES current equation can be derived as in icoil = 1 Lcoil
t

i(t)dt.
t0

(3)

In (3), Qn and SOC0 indicate the nominal capacities of the battery and the initial SOC. For the convenience of calculation of voltage and SOC yet with reasonable accuracy, the following is assumed: the constant internal impedance in charge/discharge states, effects from temperature, no self-discharge, and no memory effect. III. H ESS O PERATING S TRATEGY C ONSIDERING THE SOC L EVEL Short term power uctuation, represented as high frequency components, includes instantaneous change, ramp-up and down of wind generation on the order of seconds to minutes, while long-term uctuation may even be on the order of hour. The cut-off frequency between these two components can be predetermined or re-set when the wind prole changes. It can also be controlled adaptively in real-time for optimal performance by monitoring the operating states of each energy storage components and grid operating conditions as discussed in this research. The proposed HESS has been designed such that SMES is in charge of high frequency components and a battery is in charge of low frequency [10]. To systematically and adaptively determine their functional roles, two lters are designed with frequency bands for optimal battery and SMES performance in consideration, as will further be discussed. In Fig. 5, wind

Vcoil dt + i0
t0

(1)

where Vcoil = Vdc (charge state), Vcoil = 0 (stored state, no change from the previous state), Vcoil = Vdc (discharge state). For calculating SOC level from stored current in superconductor coil, we change coil voltage to Vdc , 0, and Vdc with 2 kHz switching. In this paper, for controlling the State of Charge (SOC), The current of SMES coil is calculated for optimal operation

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TABLE II S TATE C LASSIFICATION

Fig. 5.

Role sharing operation between battery and SMES.

Fig. 6.

Role sharing control block diagram for the moving average.

Fig. 7. Grid power time constant calculated by battery SOC.

power is assumed to have step change. To smooth wind output, output of the low pass lters, marked as grid power in Fig. 5, commands the grid power. As can be seen in Fig. 5, power amount of SMES is the area between wind output and role border line graph and power of battery is that between role border and grid power graph. In summary, HESS power, i.e., sum of battery and SMES power, compensates the raw wind output and thus let the desired grid power get delivered to the grid. Moving average concept has been applied in determining the desired reference of grid power and implemented with a rst-order lter. Fig. 6 shows a block diagram of role sharing control for moving average [2]. Another low pass lter is controlled by dividing role by cut-off frequency to determine roles of SMES and battery, as named role border line as presented in Figs. 5 and 6. Cut-off frequency for role sharing determines the power quantity of SMES and battery, respectively. SMES takes charge of unexpected sudden variation and battery is in charge of relatively slow variation. Therefore, the lower amount of power uctuation corresponding to frequency band below the cut-off frequency, the more power compensation from the SMES since the SMES is in charge of high frequency area. Thus, the higher cut-off frequency, the more power assigned to the battery to deliver the desired grid power. We systematically classify the SOC state for the efcient HESS management into three cases as summarized in Table II. For example, when SMES has higher SOC level, frequency changes to higher value to assign more quantity to battery. As shown in Fig. 5, HESS compensates the power between wind output and grid reference, and thus both storage devices play an important role in supporting grid power and have to run properly. Grid power is controlled by a time constant denoted as T of LPF, which determines how much the power of HESS has to take charge of. Equation (4)

represents the transfer function of Grid LPF for the Grid Power as presented in Fig. 6. H (s ) = 1 . 1 + sT (4)

The time constant (T ) in the equation above is controlled to vary with battery SOC level between 10% and 90% and thus keeps it to be constant 250 s in the alarm case as illustrated in Fig. 7. In alarm case, T varies by monitoring time rate of change of wind power for the optimal battery SOC management because it is critical to recognize whether wind power is increasing or decreasing. For example, in case battery charges almost fully and wind power starts decreasing, then time constant, T , increases to discharge power. In case where battery charges almost fully and wind power is increasing, time constant, T , becomes smaller to charge the minimum power. This is detailed in the alarm case. The reason why battery SOC is considered for T is that the battery dominates the total HESS capacity. A. Normal Case Fig. (8a) illustrates the slowly varying grid power with the incoming wind power. The HESS again compensate the power between grid power and wind power. It is important to note that T affects the overall HESS SOC level because difference wind output and grid power demands power from the HESS. Note that the frequency does not change fast during the normal case and thus battery and SMES SOC level vary smoothly, which does not signicantly affect the SOC levels of SMES and battery as can be seen in Fig. (8b). The Fig. (8c) indicates the cut-off frequency for determing the role of each storage device.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 23, NO. 3, JUNE 2013

Fig. 10. Grid reference during the alarm case in considerably charged situation.

Fig. 8. Adaptive cut-off frequency control for SMES and battery SOC.

Fig. 11.

One day operation combined with adaptive frequency and T control.

the warning case. In this alarm case, HESS can be considered in danger, so HESS has to recover SOC level as soon as it can be. The T is returned to the peak value as depicted in Fig. 7 labeled as opposite direction ow. Fig. 10 shows the operation of alarm case with almost fully charged SOC level. When wind power rises, grid power ramps up fast with T = 250 s. Fast grid power following can reduce the variability. When wind decreases, HESS discharges the power to reduce the SOC level to escape from the alarm case. For this operation, the T changes to 1200 s. In summary, alarm case aims to control total power of SMES and battery.
Fig. 9. SOC regulation through role sharing control.

B. Warning Case As wind decreases as illustrated in the Fig. (9a), the cutoff frequency is increased to give more storage portion to the battery and the battery discharges more than the SMES as a result of SOC control as shown in Fig. (9c). In the Fig. (9b), as battery SOC level goes over 80%, frequency control performs immediately. No other grid power control algorithm is adopted for the discharging with high SOC level and charging with low SOC level other than moving T as presented in Fig. 7. The point of warning case control is to move the cut-off frequency to the higher or lower appropriately. C. Alarm Case Alarm case performs when one of the following two situations is met. Firstly, over 90% or under 10% is the SOC of one energy storage and secondly, both SMES and battery entere into

D. Hess Operation for a Day It is important to note that wind generation cannot be exactly predicted, and it is thus quite challenging to keep the state of the energy storage in control. However, harmonious operation of SMES and Battery with the proposed control strategy helps relieve these concerns. Fig. 11 shows one day operation and demonstrates persistent performance of the HESS. IV. C ONCLUSION In this paper, we have developed synergistic control and operations of battery and SMES by observing grid conditions and the SOC levels of battery and SMES. Three operating states are dened to be normal, warning, and nally alarm cases to systematically manage the HESS operation. The effectiveness of the proposed operating states has been demonstrated for realistic cases. For optimal storage sizing, HESS operation

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strategy is very important because it is related to the signicant capital investment let alone the desired performance. SOC variation is related with size of the battery and SMES. For example, the SOC of small energy storage changes a lot as well as frequently. With minimal sizing, it is essential to manage the SOC level properly. Reduced life span or unexpected failures of SMES and battery can be initiated from the improper SOC management. This could be worse for smaller size energy storage. The designed HESS operation strategy should help minimize the size (reduce the investment in the planning) and sustain or even prolong the designed life span of the energy storage system as well. R EFERENCES
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