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ESTIMATING

4.1. Estimating fundamentals An estimate is an appraisal, an opinion, or an approximation as to the quantity of work and the correspondent cost of a project prior to its actual construction. This estimate can be prepared at many points during the life of a project. From the owners perspective, an early estimate serves to answer important questions such as following: Is the project affordable? How large a project can be constructed for the money available? What level of quality can be included in a project? Which project options make the most sense?

TYPES OF ESTIMATES An estimate can be prepared at any point throughout the life of a project. Depending on the information available (degree of design documents, etc) and the time spent to prepare the estimate, the accuracy it provides will vary. 1 CONCEPTUAL/EARLY PHASE Usually this stage is known as pre-feasibility stage. This estimate will be prepared with very little information, relying mostly on historic data and whatever descriptions and information are available. This type of estimate is called a conceptual or rough order of magnitude estimate. Conceptual estimates are typically developed by establishing a cost per usable unit from past projects and multiplying this cost by the number of units being proposed. An example of these costs might be cost per bed for a hospital, cost per apartment, cost per pupil for a school, or cost per km for a highway. (or cost per square meter) SCHEMATIC PHASE(S) As the project moves on the designer and possibly the construction/project manager has the possibility to prepare a more accurate estimate, based on more information provided by the project, such as:

Drawings: elevations, sections, details; General specifications; General drawings for mechanical, electrical etc systems. Some/Most of the major project items are quantifiable, and most of the unit prices should be known at this point. PROCUREMENT PHASE/DETAILED ESTIMATES

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An estimate is prepared by all the contractors who are biding the work, as well as by the project team. The contractors prepare the estimate to identify a price to bid, and the owner team prepares an estimate to be in the position to negotiate a fair price and to verify the accuracy of the contractors prices. This estimate is prepared based on a complete set of contract documents. Depending on the size of the project, a bid estimate can take a few weeks to prepare

Detailed estimating

The detailed estimate is also called unit price estimate. When such an estimate is prepared by a contractor who is bidding the project the estimate is called bid estimate and, when accepted by the owner, form the contract price for the project. Detailed estimating means performing two main steps:

quantity take off (making the bill of quantities); pricing. 4.2.1. Preparing the Bill of Quantities/Quantity take off The purpose of a quantity takeoff is to determine accurately the quantities of works that need to be performed on the project. Every work item needs to be measured and quantified using the same units. The Bill of Quantities is a list of items of work (together with quantities) drawn up by the Engineer (usually) who must reflect in the bill how the work will be carried out and under what conditions. When doing this he needs the following: drawings specifications collections of construction items of work

In the process of preparing the Bill of Quantities the person who makes the bill should insert every work that will contribute to the completion of the construction facility described by the drawings and specifications, in a standard manner. In UK there are two widely standard Methods of Measurement:

Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement: CESMM3 Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works: SMM7

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In Romania there is only one Method of Measurement and preparing the Bill of Quantities (Antemasuratoare) based on a Collection of Construction Items of Work (Indicatoare de norme de deviz/Norme de consum orientative pe articole de deviz pentru lucrari de construcii). The construction items of work are grouped in separate books (34 books for new works and 7 books for repairing and mainte-nance works) according to the feature of the works. This feature will be represented by a relevant letter marked on the front page of the book, representing the work classification. Example:

Norme de consum orientative pe articole de deviz pentru lucrri de constructii = C = Norme de consum orientative pe articole de deviz pentru lucrri de izolaii la construcii si izolaii = Iz = Idem pentru Terasamente = Ts = Idem pentru Sanitare = S = Idem pentru Drumuri = D = Idem pentru Poduri = P=

Norme de consum orientative pe articole de deviz pentru lucrri de reparaii la construcii = RpC = Each book comprising construction items of work is subdivided into several chapters, designated by letters, each chapter representing separate classes of work according to the dominant technology, material and construction method. For example, the C collection (Building Works) is subdivided into 17 chapters: A = Concrete works B = Formworks C = Reinforcement works, etc. Furthermore, each chapter is subdivided into many items of work, according to more specific levels of detail. Each item has its own code which indicates the nature of the work, the chapter of work, technology and method. For example code CA02A1 identifies the item as being: work classification: C = Building works (buildings, process plants, agricultural constructions) chapter A: Concrete works 02 : the second item of the chapter: Reinforced concrete into pad foundations A1: The technological method of execution of the work: the volume of the foundation is less than 2, 00 cubic meters. Hence the complete designation of the item will be: CA02A1. In situ reinforced concrete, class C... into pad foundations having volume less than 2,00 m3 . Unit of measure: "cubic meter
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Therefore, the complete description of any item of work in a Bill of Quantities should comprise:

Code; Description of the work;

Unit of measure; Quantity (with detailed calculation). Beside the code, description and unit of measure, each item in a Collection of Construction Works has attached three more indications, namely the usage rates of resources for the item (for materials, labor and equipment). A resource (usage) rate is the quantity of resource consumed to construct a unit of measure of the specified item of work. quantity of resource x/one unit of measure of the construction item of work For example, for concrete CA02A1, the resource usage rates are: The materials usage rates:

Ready mix concrete class C = 1,008 m3; Water = 0,10 m3 The labor usage rates is: 0,68 + 0,68 + 0,16 + 2,24 + 0,16 = 3,92 men x hour/ m3 The equipment usage rate is: vibrator = 0, 75 hours/m3 CONCLUSION: The main functions of Bill of Quantities are: To itemize and quantify the elements of work to be completed within the contract. To facilitate preparation of The bill of resources; To facilitate preparation of price estimates (Intocmirea de Devize pe categorii de lucrari/ Devize pe obiect de lucrari/Deviz general) comparison of tender price. Each Contractor accumulates his tender price in an identical document and basis his price on the same quantity of work. The resources usage rates allow computing lists of resources required to construct the contract (Extrase de resurse). The list of the required materials is therefore of great help for the purchasing department etc. The Bills of Quantities are grouped according to the most relevant classes of works:

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Structure works: Earth works; Infrastructure; Structure.

Finishing works

Sanitary works etc. 4.2.2. Quantity takeoff - specific aspects Each type of construction work has its specific features in terms of how to be measured and quantified in a bill of quantities, so that everyone to develop the bill of quantities in a similar shape. These specific features are presented in each chapter of the books comprising the description of the construction works (Indicatoare de norme de deviz). Some of the main specifications for the most common building works are presented bellow. 4.2.2.1. Earth works (from Ts) Earth works usually include the following works: site preparation: such as remove topsoil, general leveling, etc. excavation: trench excavation / large excavation; earthwork support; disposal of water; filling; surface treatments. The Ts collection contains descriptions of earth works for construction projects. The resource usage rates for each item of work are calculated as average data for materials, labor and equipment. The usage rates are given assuming average work conditions, such as:

the construction works are performed on daylight or proper artificial light; the temperature are greater then +50 C; the necessary materials, equipment and plant are provided in the proximity of the work place The material usage rates allow for some waste, due to technological requirements. For those materials which are used for a number of times (ex. inventory struts) the usage rates are calculated considering the average number of uses. The labor usage rates refers to the actual operative time needed to execute a unit of measure of a given work item and also some extra time (15%-20 %) needed for cleaning the equipment and the work place, time for rest and solving some basic human needs. The labor usage rates doesnt contain the working time of the plant operator, the cost of that being included in the plant operating unitary cost.

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The equipment usage rates allow only the effective working time of the plant needed to execute a unit of a given construction work. The other necessary time to fuel the plant, small maintenance works, inherent interruptions of the work due to technological conditions are not comprised into the plant usage rate, being included in the plant operating unitary cost.

All the usage rates are given assuming that the construction works are provided provisions of time to accomplish the safety regulations. 4.2.2.1.a. Manual digging works (chapter A in the Ts collection) Technical conditions The resources usage rates are established according to the particular job conditions specific to each work item. The main aspect that makes the difference among the resources usage rates of the work items is given by the difficulty to dig. According to this, soil to be manually dig may be classified into four categories:

Light: using a shovel or a spade; Medium: using a spade and partially a pick; Hard: using a pick and partially a spade; Very hard: a pick and eventually a sledge hammer.

According to the dimensions of the work place, the manual digging works are classified in:

digging works in large spaces: when the worker can move easily and can throw the earth into an soil deposit or into a transport device; digging works in narrow spaces: when the worker should firstly throw the soil vertically and then can throw the earth into an soil deposit or into a transport device;

digging works inside closed caisson. Labor safety rules included in these norms provides maximum digging depths with vertical slopes as follows : Granular soils (gravel, sand) = 0.75 m Medium cohesive soils (common earth) = 1.25m High cohesive soils (some clays, shale) = 2.00m

Any other depths for excavation should be performed with inclined slopes or strutting. The soil excavated should not be deposited in the proximity of the excavation edge. The labor rates for manual digging does nor involve the time for disposal of roots, concrete blocks, water, etc., these operations being considered as separate work items.
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Measurement conditions

Manual digging works are measured in cubic meters. The actual quantities are calculated on the basis of drawings reflecting the dimensions of the large space pit or of the foot to be executed in the soil.

The depth of the excavation is reported up to the upper level of the trench/pit. 4.2.2.1. b. Plant excavation works (chapter C in the Ts collection) Technical conditions The resources usage rates are established according to plant performances and the particular job conditions specific to each work item. The main aspect that makes the difference among the resources usage rates of the work items is given by the difficulty to dig. According to this and to the type of plant (bulldozer, hoe, dragline, etc) soil to be excavated using plant equipment may be classified into five categories (from I to V). The plant rates for excavation works are established considering the working place being cleaned up by the grass, roots, bushes etc. Any other differences from the average work conditions stipulated in the book will be over timed (+ 5% to 10%), and added to the plant rates, according to the specifications presented at the beginning of Chapter C, from Ts collection. Measurement conditions Plant excavation works are measured in 100 cubic meters. The actual quantities are calculated on the basis of drawings reflecting the dimensions of the large space pit or of the foot/trench to be executed in the soil. The depth of the excavation is reported up to the upper level of the trench/pit. The edge of the excavated pit/trench must be finished by manual digging. The quantity of manual excavation to be considered in order to adjust the excavation shape vary, considering the thickness of soil to be manually dig between 30 cm to 80 cm, according to the type of plant used.

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4.2.2.1. c. Filling works (chapter D in the Ts collection) Filling works refers to:

spreading earth in uniform layers; leveling and moistening the earth to be compacted;

compaction, etc. Technical conditions

Manual spreading of earth is considered to be appropriate in narrow spaces, providing uniform layers of 10 cm to 30 cm to be sequentially compacted. Spreading earth with bulldozers is considered to be appropriate in large spaces, providing uniform layers to be sequentially compacted, and also for leveling earth in deposits. Manually and plant compaction works are executed having the optimum moisture of the earth, for each layer, by a determined number of passes on the same layer, until the necessary compaction grade is obtained.

The material usage rate refers to the water needed to provide the optimum humidity for the earth to be compacted. The average necessary rate considered is 0,10 mc of water for 1,0 mc of manually compacted earth. In case of plant compaction works, the necessary water should be estimated as a separate work item, based on laboratory determinations. The labor and plant performance rates depend on each work item. In case of plant compaction works, the labor rate provided by the Ts collection refers to the worker responsible with guiding the plant, removing stones/wood pieces etc, and not to the operator of the plant. Measurement conditions Manual spreading earth works are measured in cubic meters, measured in situ (as it would be dug). Plant spreading earth works are measured in 100 cubic meters, measured in situ (as it would be dug). Compaction works are measured in cubic meters for manually work, and in 100 cubic meters for plant works. The volume is considered after compaction. The actual quantities of works are calculated on the basis of drawings reflecting the dimensions of the space to be filled.

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The edge of the excavated pit that must be filled and compacted using equipment/plant must be compacted by manual compaction. The quantity of manual compaction to be considered results by considering a 50 cm strip (at the bottom edge of the slope).

4.2.2.2. Building and process plant works (from C) The C collection of building works items includes the following works: Concrete works; Formwork and scaffolding works; Steel bars reinforcement works; Masonry works; Tilling works; Plastering works; Stairs; Roof framing works; Roof covering works; Painting works; Carpentry works, etc. The resource usage rates for each item of work are calculated as average data for materials, labor and equipment. The usage rates are given assuming average work conditions, such as:

the construction works are performed on daylight or proper artificial light; the temperature are greater then +50 C; the necessary materials, equipment and plant are provided in the proximity of the work place; For other particular work conditions, corrections should be made. The material usage rates allow for some waste, due to technological requirements. For those materials which are used for a number of times (ex. Formworks) the usage rates are calculated considering the average number of uses. The labor usage rates refers to the actual operative time needed to execute a unit of measure of a given work item and also some extra time (15%-20 %) needed for cleaning the equipment and the work place, time for rest and solving some basic human needs. The labor usage rates doesnt contain the working time of the plant operator, the cost of that being included in the plant operating unitary cost. The equipment usage rates allow only the effective working time of the plant needed to execute a unit of a given construction work. The other necessary time to fuel the plant, small maintenance works, inherent interruptions of the work due to technological
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conditions are not comprised into the plant usage rate, being included in the plant operating unitary cost. All the usage rates are given assuming that the construction works are provided provisions of time to accomplish the safety regulations.

4.2.2.2.a. Concrete works (chapter A in the C collection) The resources usage rates are established according to the particular job conditions specific to each work item. Concrete is considered in two possible cases: ready mix concrete and prepared with small mixers in the site. When considering the ready mix concrete, the material usage rate to be selected is only for the concrete and water needed to moisture the formwork and concrete after placing it. The constituents of concrete (gravel, sand, cement and water) will be considered only when the concrete is prepared on the site. The labor and plant performance rates depend on each work item. In case of plant concreting works, the labor rate provided by the C collection refers to the workers responsible with placing concrete and not to the operators of the plant (ready mix truck driver, pump mechanic). Measurement conditions

Concreting works are measured in cubic meters, measured after compaction. The volume of concrete is measured from the drawings, showing the designed shapes of the structure elements. From the nominal volume, the volume of holes having area greater than 400 square cm is deducted. 4.2.2.2. b. Formwork and scaffolding works (chapter B in the C collection)

Technical conditions The resources usage rates are established according to the particular job conditions specific to each formwork or scaffolding item. The chapter does not include forms for molds, mobile forms or prefabricated units. Because forms are being used for a number of times the usage rates are calculated considering the average number of uses, such as:

timber forms: 2 4 times; formwork panels made of timber or plywood: 4 9 times; metal forms: 200 times. The usage rates for the rest of materials (nails, wire, auxiliary timber, etc), labor and plant are given for specific work conditions, depending on the construction method involved.
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The labor rate involves both fixing and dismantling (striking) of forms. Measurement conditions

Formwork works are measured in square meters, measured on the actual dimensions of the future construction element made of (reinforced) concrete. Forms for frames included in the wall formwork are measured according to the hole dimensions. Scaffolding is measured in square meters, according to the dimensions of the horizontal surface to be concreted, excepting props, which are measured piece by piece.

4.2.2.2. c. Reinforcement works (chapter C in the C collection) Reinforcement works refer to cutting and bending reinforcement, fix reinforcement into forms (steel bars, welded meshes, pre-stressed reinforcement) and also welding works for connecting re-bars. Technical conditions The resources usage rates are established according to the particular job conditions specific to each work item. Each work item allows for material (re bars) wastage of 3%. (This could highly inefficient in case of reinforcement for columns or beams). Apart from the main material (re-bars or welded meshes), auxiliary materials are considered in each item (connecting wire, spacers, etc). Measurement conditions Reinforcement works are measured in kilograms (excepting some particular works: welded joints, rabitz meshes, etc), according to the drawings specifications (including overlapping, injection with cement paste, etc 4.2.2.2.d. Masonry works and light walls (chapter D in the C collection) The D chapter contains work items describing masonry works (stone, bricks, hollow blocks, light concrete blocs) and other construction works related to execution of light walls (metal sheets, etc). Technical conditions The resources usage rates are established according to the particular job conditions specific to each work item. The vertical joints between bricks/blocks are 10 mm width, and the horizontal joints between the brick/blocks layers are 12 mm width. The works included in this chapter does not include allowances for scaffolding works. These works should be itemized separately. Mortar is considered ready mixed. The material usage rate is given both for its constituents and as a ready mixed mortar.

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For mixing the mortar, the time allowance for labor is only for a technologic re mix of the mortar on site. The labor rates involves processes performed at a certain work level (no allowances for vertical transports for these works, separate work items should be considered).

Measurement conditions Masonry works are measured in cubic meters (volume of the wall), measured on the actual dimensions of the future construction element, deducting holes having surface bigger then 0,04 mp. 4.2.2.2.e. Plastering works (chapter F in the C collection) The F chapter contains work items describing plastering works. A classic plastering work involves three coats, namely:

first coat (primmer); ground coat;

facing coat. Technical conditions

The works included in this chapter does not include allowances for scaffolding works. These works should be itemized separately. Mortar is considered ready mixed for the ground coat. The first and the third coat are considered to be prepared on site. The material usage rate is given both for its constituents and as a ready mixed mortar. For mixing the mortar, the time allowance for labor is only for a technologic re mix of the ground coat mortar on site. The labor rates involves processes performed at a certain work level (no allowances for vertical transports).

The work content of the plastering works involves: clean the surface to be plastered; horizontal transport of materials within the work place; re-mixing of mortar (for the ground coat); mixing of materials for the first and facing coats; proper plastering works; clean the working place. Measurement conditions Plastering works are measured in square meters (area of the wall, ceiling, beams, columns, etc). The gaps for doors, windows, etc. are subtracted, but the lateral area of the gap frame is added.
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4.3. Pricing 4.3.1. Contract costs A major use of the Bill of Quantities is that it is the basis for evaluation of price of the contract (or interim evaluation). Basically, the contract price results as the sum between cost and profit/ benefit P=C+B The cost involved in the construction of a project can be broken down into two major categories direct and indirect costs. C = CD + Ci DIRECT COSTS Direct costs are the costs associated with the purchase of building materials and the labor/plant associated with the physical installation of these materials. The cost of roofing material, Direct costs essentially occur in the field and once work is stopped on a project, the incurring of the direct costs stops. Usually, the direct costs vary with the volume of production. The larger the project, the greater its complexity, and the higher the quality, the greater the direct costs.

INDIRECT COSTS Overall corporate expenses are generally incurred at the home office and are called home office overhead. Examples of these costs are executive salaries, legal and accounting fees, office rental, vehicle expenses etc. These costs are incurred even if there are no projects under construction at the time. There are also indirect costs that occur in the field. These costs, called general conditions or field office overhead, are necessary to supervise and support the job site. Examples of these costs are the rental of the job site trailer, the superintendents salary and the cost of security fencing, a guard, or signage. Indirect cost are mostly fixed costs (such as staff salaries, rent and rates, office equipment, small tools etc.) as they remain constant irrespective of the volume of the work done. Indirect costs are more a factor of the projects duration and the degree of supervision required. As a projects duration is increased or if the project requires a high level of coordination, the indirect costs of a project correspondingly increase

4.3.2. The Pricing Process (Development of Bill of Prices) UNIT PRICES

MATERIAL COSTS: The most reliable source is the supplier. When receiving a price quote or when looking up a material unit price it is important to consider the following questions:

Is the material quoted the actual item specified? Is the quoted price valid until the scheduled time of delivery? Does the price include delivery to the job site? Are adequate warranties and guarantees being provided?
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What is the lead time to delivery? Does the supplier maintain adequate stock? What are the payment terms? Are there discount or credit options? How reputable is the supplier? The purchase price (with no VAT) of the product and the delivery (some times) is included in the material unit price. The material unit price for a work item is entered in the column headed Material Unit Price. It is then multiplied by the quantity to get the total material price (per each work item). Unit prices can be obtained in several ways:

From historical data maintained by the estimator. Data may come from cost reports of previous jobs or from recent estimates.

From cost analysis for each work item. LABOR COSTS: The labor direct unit price includes the crew cost involved in the installation of the material or performing the works at the job site. The wage rate is figured by the trades involved in the rates paid.

Labor costs are expressed as lei per unit of the quantity being priced (ex. lei/mp of formwork)

To determine the cost of labor three basic elements that make up the cost of labor should be considered: Wages; Fringe benefits (health and welfare, pension etc); and Payroll taxes (social security, unemployment insurance). Other elements that may be part of the cost are travel and overtime. Of the basic elements some are negotiable (based on the minimum wage enforced by the government) and some are mandated by the government. Wages are paid based on hours worked with straight time being the first 8 hours worked per day up to 40 hours per week. Overtime comes generally in multiples. All time over the base wage rate is classified as premium time. EQUIPMENT COSTS: The equipment unit price covers the cost of the equipment necessary to install the material. These costs are of two general types: the equipment itself and the cost of operating it:

Under the equipment category is the cost of ownership, lease or rental. This cost covers interest, storage, insurance, taxes, and license. The second cost is that of operating the equipment for as long as it is needed. This includes the cost of gasoline, oil, periodic maintenance, transportation.
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Equipment costs can be figured on an item - by item basis or covered on a project basis. (ex. A crane would probably be rented on a monthly/hourly basis being used by all trades, for various items of work)

CASE STUDY

An example of direct price analysis for a masonry work item, on an individual house project, is presented bellow. The work description: Walls are made of hollow ceramic blocks 290mm x 240mm x 138mm, using M 50 Z ready mix mortar. Calculation steps Step (i): Choose the appropriate work item from Construction works items collections: Building work: C collection; Masonry work: D chapter; Hollow clay blocks of 290x240x138 mm: C technological method Hence: CD 05XC, for which the C collection provides the following resource rates: Step (ii): Collect the resources rates: Materials: - G.V.P. 290X240X138 mm = 92 pieces/mc; - Timber = 0,005 mc/mc; - Mortar M 50 Z = 0,14 mc/mc Labor: 7, 90 hours/mc; Plant: - Mixer = 0, 10 hours/mc; - Tower crane = 0, 25 hours/mc. Assuming a ground floor project, hence no tower crane is required. Thus, the actual rate for tower crane is 0 (zero). Step (iii): Collect (from suppliers and based on in house information) the cost of the required resources:

Materials: No V.A.T. included. The prices are provided by local suppliers, with no transport included. This means that a separate work item (providing transport) should be included in the bill of quantities/bill of prices. - G.V.P. 290X240X138 mm = 2,50 lei/piece; - Timber = 350 lei/mc - Mortar M 50 Z = 240 lei/mc Labor (average): 8, 00 lei/hour;

Plant: - Mixer = 5, 00 lei/hour; Step (iv): Perform the price analysis for the work item: Materials:
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- G.V.P. 290X240X138 mm = 92 pieces/mc x 2,50 lei/piece = 230,00 lei/mc; - Timber = 0,005 mc/mc x 350 lei/mc = 1,75 lei/mc; - Mortar M 50 Z = 0,14 mc/mc x 240 lei/mc = 33,60 lei/mc -------------------------------------------------------------------------Total material direct unit price = 265, 35 lei/mc;

Labor (average): 7, 90 hours/mc x 8,00 lei/hour = 63,20 lei/mc;

Plant: - Mixer = 0, 10 hours/mc x 5,00 lei/hour = 0,50 lei/mc. B. Overhead - the cost of accepting the material, storing it at the job site, and protecting the work until the project is accepted. - overall corporate overhead includes the costs of preparing the estimate, marketing the company, and providing technical and administrative support to the project. - additional costs associated with the management of the home office of the business. Examples of such costs: office rent or real estates costs, vehicles, engineering support, clerical staff, top management salaries, marketing, legal and accounting fees. This cost may be calculated as a percentage of the total direct costs prior to addition of the profit, for example, 5% - 15%. C. Profit No contractors are going to invest their time and energy, and absorb the risk inherent in a construction project for free. Profit is added at the point in the project when contractor has quantified the work involved in the project and has priced the labor and equipment involved. Project overhead (general conditions) has covered the costs associated with managing the job in the field, and home office overhead covers the costs of supporting the project and the business, at the home office. If no profit was added, the business might stay afloat, but it would not grow. The company would also have no financial tolerance for mistakes or unforeseen conditions.

Good companies should and need to add a profit margin into each project. The amount of profit that is added is a factor of the type of project, its size, the amount of competition anticipated, the desire to get the job, and the extent of risk associated with the project.

The profit can usually range from 0 to 15 per cent. If the company needs work, is faced with a lot of competition, or has a strong desire to move into a relationship with a new client, the profit charged may be small. 4.4. Practical application of estimating techniques Assuming a small construction project (Foundation works for a small building), presented in the drawings bellow, should be solved:

Bill of quantities;
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Bill of prices; Bill of resources;

Calculation of labor performance rate for a construction crew. 4.4.1. Bill of quantities INVESTMENT: Small building case study COSTRUCTION STAGE: Foundation works

TsC03E1 Mechanical excavation with hoe of 0,40 m3 0,70 m3, discharge into trucks, soil category I. Top soil from -0,10 m to -0,30 m

18,30 x 17,80 x 0,20 = 65,148 m3 = 0,65 hm3 ROUND = 0,65 hm3 02. TsC03F1 Mechanical excavation with hoe of 0,40 m3 0,70 m3, discharge into trucks, soil category II. Large space excavation from -0,30 m to 2,70 m 1/3 x (2,70 0,30) x ( 18,30 x 17,80 + 15,90 x 15,40 + (18,30 x 17,80) x (15,90 x 15,40)) = 682,42 m3 Assume: - 15% manual digging (see item no. 03a.); - 85% hoe excavation = 0,85 x 682,42 m3 = 597,70 m3 = 5,977 hm3 ROUND = 5,80 hm3 03. TsA01F1 Hand excavation, large spaces, earth thrown into wheel barrow, medium soil a) pit polish: 0,15 x 682,42 m3 = 102,36 m3; b) 12 cm thick (between 2,70 m to 2,82 m) = 4,60 x 5,05 x 0,12 x 2 = 5,575 m3 TOTAL = 107,94 m3 ROUND = 108,00 m3 04. TRB01C12 Earth transport by wheel barrow, 20 m distance According item 03: 107,935 m3 x 1,80 t/ m3 = 194,28 t ROUND = 194,00 t 05. TsA01A1 Hand excavation, large spaces, light soil. Remove earth unto excavators bucket. According item 03: 107,935 m3 ROUND = 108,00 m3 06. TRA01A10P Transport earth with trucks, 10 km distance. a) item 1: 65,148 x 1,70 = 110,75 t; b) item 2: 579,70 x 1,80 = 1043,46 t;
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c) item 3: 107,94 x 1,80 = 194,29 t TOTAL = 1348,50 t ROUND = 1350,00 t 07. CA01B1 Place concrete into pad foundation Concrete C 8/10 Axe 1 and 3: 0,90 x 0,50 x 4,60 x 2 = 4,14 m3 Axe 2: 1,00 x 0,50 x 4,60 = 2,30 m3 Raw A and B: 0,90 x 0,50 x 12,90 x 2 = 11,61 m3 TOTAL = 18,05 m3 ROUND = 18,10 m3 08. ****** Concrete C8/10 procurement According item 07: 18,05 x 1,008 = 18,19 m3 ROUND = 18,20 m3 09. CA07D1 Place concrete, using pump, in foundation Concrete C 12/15 a) Axe 1,2 and 3: 0,50 x 0,40 x 5,00 x 3 = 3,00 m3; b) Raw A and B: 0,50 x 0,40 x 12,50 x 2 = 5,00 m3 TOTAL = 8,00 m3 ROUND = 8,00 m3 10. ****** Concrete C12/15 procurement According item 09: 8,00 x 1,008 = 8,064 m3 ROUND = 8,06 m3 11. CG32C1 Gravel fill to basement According item 03 b) = 5,575 m3 ROUND = 5,58 m3 12. CB10B1 Formworks to foundation, plywood panels. a) Axe 1,2 and 3: 2 x 0,40 x 5,00 x 3 = 12,00 m2; b) Raw A and B: 2 x 0,40 x 12,50 x 2 = 20,00 m2 TOTAL = 32,00 m2 ROUND = 32,00 m2 13. CC01XD Prepare and fix reinforcement (D >8 mm) According to specification = 500 kg ROUND = 500,00 m2 14. CA01D1 Place concrete, using pump, into basement slab Concrete C 8/10 5,50 x 5,00 x 0,10 x 2 = 5,50 m3 ROUND = 5,50 m3
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15. ****** Concrete C8/10 procurement According item 14: 5,50 x 1,008 = 5,544 m3 ROUND = 5,54 m3 16. TRA06A10 Transport concrete with ready mix trucks, 10 km distance. a) item 8 = 18,19 m3; b) item 10 = 8,06 m3; c) item 15 = 5,54 m3 TOTAL = 31,79 m3 x 2,40 = 76,30 t ROUND = 76,30 t 17. TRA06A10 Transport materials by trucks, 10 km distance. Reinforcement, formwork panels, etc ROUND = 2,50 t 4.4.2. Bill of prices Calculation of bill of prices is based on the price analysis such as presented in Chapter 4.3.2. An usual format for a Bill of prices is given in Table The Bill of prices calculation may also be performed using professional software. Of example of such calculation is given in Fig. .. The following assumptions were considered: the average labor price is 10,00 lei/hour including taxes paid by the employee (fringe benefits and payroll taxes); indirect costs = 12%; profit = 5%. 4.4.3. Bill of resources This type of calculation is issued automatically using professional software (see Annexes ). An example of a manual calculation (for materials) is presented in Table .. To complete such a calculation, the estimator needs the work items and there quantities, given by the Bill of Quantities, and the resources rates, collected from C/Ts etc. Collections. 4.4.4. Calculation of labor performance rate (work load) for a construction crew Consider a gang (crew) of 5 men worked . hours in February 2010 (according to Time table given in Table.), performing the construction works presented in Table .,

Determine the labor performance rate of this crew and according to it the workers wage.

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